Margarine Processing
Plants and Equipment
Klaus A. Alexandersen

When designing margarine processing plants and choosing the equipment to be
installed, a wide range of considerations have to be made with regard to issues
like actual processing, hygiene, sanitation, and efficiency.
In margarine production, oils and fats usually are considered to be the most
important raw materials used, as oils and fats are significant in relation to
the characteristics of the finished margarine. The type of oils or fats used
has considerable influence on the crystallization characteristics during margarine processing, which has to be considered when choosing the equipment
involved in the margarine processing line. The criteria involved in choosing
this equipment are to a certain extent based on knowledge about product
characteristics, polymorphism, and crystal structure of margarine and related
In this chapter, crystallization of oil and fat products, margarine processing
equipment and packaging methods, processing methods, and specific process flows
are discussed. Various oil types exhibiting interesting crystallization habits are
reviewed along with certain specialized margarine or fat products. Storage of
finished products as well as production quality control and hygiene will also be

Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Sixth Edition, Six Volume Set.
Edited by Fereidoon Shahidi. Copyright # 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.




1.1. Product Characteristics
The rheological characteristics of finished margarines are expressed in terms such
as consistency, texture, plasticity, hardness, structure, and spreadability (1).
These characteristics are related to a number of variable factors. These are
temperature, concentration of the disperse phase or solid fat content, crystal size,
crystal size distribution, crystal shape, interparticle forces of van der Waals’ type
and mechanical treatment (2).
The two dominating factors are the amount of solid triglycerides (or solid fat
index) and the processing conditions during production (3). Formulation or choice
of oil blend allows control of the solid content, which, for identical processing
conditions, is directly related to the consistency and type of crystalline structure
formed (3–5). Processing conditions (rate and degree of cooling, mechanical
working, final product temperature, etc.) regulate the type of crystals formed and
the morphology and extent of intertwining of the solid structure that holds the
liquid oil (6).
The term morphology is used to denote the general relation of the physical
behavior and performance of fats and oils to their crystal structure and the molecular configuration of their triglyceride components (7).
The curve describing the relationship between the solid fat content of a fat and
its hardness is not a straight line. Hardness decreases sharply when solid fat content
goes below a certain value at which the material loses some of the characteristic
plastic properties (2). Haighton (3, 8) has reported the hardness of margarine in
terms of yield value to have a strong correlation to the solid content under constant
processing conditions, as shown in Figure 1.

1.2. Polymorphism and Crystal Structure
It has been reported extensively that fats solidify in more than one crystalline type
(2–23). Triglycerides exhibit three main crystal types—a; b0 , and b—with increasing degrees of stability and melting point. The molecular conformations and
packings in the crystal of each polymorph have been reported. In the a form, the
fatty acid chain axes of the triglyceride are randomly oriented and the a form
reveals a freedom of molecular motion with the most loosely packed hexagonal
subcell structure.
The b0 form and the b form are of an extended chain conformation with orthorhombic and triclinic subcell structures, respectively. In the b0 form alternating fatty
acid chain axes are oppositely oriented, whereas in the b form all fatty acid chain
axes are oriented in one way (9, 10).
Crystals of the a form are fragile, transparent platelets approximately 5 mm in
size. They are extremely transitory and require quite low temperatures to exist.
b0 crystals are tiny needles seldom more than 1 mm in length. b crystals are large



Figure 1. Hardness of margarine vs. percentage solid in fat (3). Courtesy of J. Amer. Oil Chem.

and coarse, approximately 25–50 mm in length and can grow to over 100 mm during
extended periods of product storage. The b form is responsible for product quality
failure in ‘‘sandy’’ and ‘‘grainy’’ margarines (7). In severe cases this can lead to
separation of the oil usually described by the term oiling out. Storage temperature
that is too high, inadequate oil blend formulation, or process conditions promote
this product failure.
In the manufacture of margarine, the emulsion is processed in a scraped-surface
heat exchanger that must supercool the melted fat quickly in order to form as many
crystal nuclei as possible (11).
The fat is believed to first crystallize in the a form, which is transformed more or
less rapidly to the b0 form depending on the crystal habit of the fat, rate of cooling,
and the amount of mechanical work applied (5, 7, 12, 13).
b0 is the crystal form desired in margarines as it promotes plasticity (4, 5, 13).
The b0 crystal form tends to structure as a fine three-dimensional network capable

the fat crystals have formed a threedimensional network consisting of primary and secondary bonds. They may also show a tendency to agglomerate. palm oil. The addition of sorbitan esters stabilizes the intermediate b0 form and helps prevent the formation of the b form (15. and peanut oils show a b tendency. 18). The effects of such formulation practice and processing conditions have been studied extensively by Rivarola et al. tallow. Secondary bonds are weak and readily reestablished when broken by application of mechanical work. Sorbitan tristearate is effective as a crystal inhibitor in margarines. the tendency to crystallize in the b0 form increased. amount. Incorporation of a higher melting b0 tending oil to a basestock can induce the crystallization of the entire fat into a stable b0 form (5). small quantities of the b form are formed. Large b crystals do not tend to give a three-dimensional structure. such as sunflower seed oil and canola oil. forming a strong network (primary bonds). 16). sunflower seed. The suitability of a fat or oil for margarine formulation is very much dependent on the crystal size present. Due to this. Oil blend formulation has a significant influence on the crystal form attained by a margarine or shortening. 6). Cottonseed oil. and butter oil have a b0 tendency.1 to 20 mm or more (3.462 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT of immobilizing a large amount of liquid oil (6). with very strong b tendency. As an example. and habit of these crystals (13). For blends of hydrogenated sunflower seed oil and strong b0 tending hydrogenated cottonseed oil it was concluded that even at quick cooling rates. As a result of this and depending on the resulting crystal form obtained. Both Wiedermann (4) and Thomas (5) have grouped various oils and fats according to their crystal habits. it is advantageous to crystallize . The crystals may vary in shape and appearance in the form of small needles or platelets with lengths ranging from less then 0. coconut. It is assumed that sorbitan tristearate can be accommodated by the b0 crystal network of the triglycerides and by stearic hindrance prevent the formation of the more densely packed b crystal form (17. forming tiny porous crystal clusters with considerable fewer contact points (secondary bonds) (3). The primary bonds are strong and are not readily reestablished when broken by mechanical work. These chains are responsible for forming the three-dimensional network. For strong b tending hydrogenated sunflower seed oil. (6) for blends of hydrogenated sunflower seed oil and cottonseed oil. It is generally accepted that a larger amount of primary bonds are established if margarine is allowed to crystallize without sufficient degree of mechanical work. They do not behave as individual particles and can grow together. processing conditions involving fast cooling rates and application of a certain amount of mechanical work tend to produce margarines with a better stability and consistency. In margarine with a good consistency. In certain margarines formulated mainly on hydrogenated oils. soybean. Addition of crystal-modifying agents or crystal inhibitors to such margarines can retard the development of sandiness by delaying the transformation from the unstable a form to the stable b form. branched and intertwining long chains are formed (6). the problem of sandiness can be pronounced. As mentioned earlier. corn. it was found that with increasing cooling rate. This results in a product exhibiting excessive posthardening and a hard and brittle texture (19).

are formed before or early in the worker unit (B unit) (see Section 2. Crystallization is then coarser and intercrystal bonds are only slightly damaged. as shown in Figure 2. In palm oil the a-polymorph transformation to the b0 (i. when a low flow rate is used in a scraped-surface heat exchanger. crystals appear late in the worker unit and partially during packaging. The problem of posthardening in product formulated with high palm oil contents can be influenced by choice of proper processing conditions and storage time (21–23). Refrigerant temperatures remained constant for both flow rates. 28 kg/h and 55 kg/h. 25). which is apparently due to the high level of diglycerides present (approximately 6%) (20. 26–34). Different flow rates result in different retention times for products A and B in the coolers and the worker unit. Palm Oil Crystallization and processing of palm oil with satisfactory results in a scrapedsurface heat exchanger line for margarine and shortening requires some attention due to the slow crystallization phenomena observed in palm oil. Product A was found to have sufficient time to be more uniformly stabilized before leaving the process line. Lefebvre (35) hypothesized that crystals. formulation. Crystal growth in product A was not substantial during 10 days storage at 20 C (68 F). 1. Palm oil from the same batch was processed with flow rates A and B of. 21). Product outlet temperatures from cooler II of. the a lifetime) is unusually long. 19–20 C (66– 68 F) and 20–21 C (68–70 F). Hydrogenated palm oil . Different compositions of palm oil and palm oil fractions give rise to different crystallization behaviors. It was concluded that better processing conditions may overcome the problem of slow crystallization of palm oil and also avoid the effect of posthardening during storage. It has been shown that the ratedetermining step in the crystal growth mechanism of triglycerides is the orientation of molecules at the crystal faces (20). whereas the crystal growth for product B was significant under the same storage conditions. respectively. The important slow processing of the product leads to a fine crystallization and the destruction of the intercrystal bonds of the primary type.e.. all of which is less favorable.3. respectively. With a higher flow rate. The slow crystallization of palm oil and the subsequent posthardening phenomenon and product graininess is a drawback in products formulated with high palm oil contents and could be a limiting factor to its use (24. This hypothesis relates very well with the observations made by Oh et al. and processing of palm oil has been commented upon and studied extensively (20–25. crystallization. 12 C and 14 C (54 F and 57 F) were observed. in general.3).CRYSTALLIZATION OF OIL AND FAT PRODUCTS 463 the product as much as possible in the scraped-surface heat exchanger to achieve the desired spreadability or consistency. Product B was found to have attained insufficient time to be uniformly stabilized and resulted in a finished product in the quasi-equilibrium state. The polymorphism. respectively. (22) during pilot-plant-scale crystallization and processing of palm oil in a scrapedsurface heat exchanger line for margarine and shortening. The outlet temperature from the worker unit were.

for oil blends based on palm oil. for example. have a capacity of approximately 1800 kg/h. . This tempering procedure tends to generate lower solid fat content at temperatures below 26.7 C (80 F) was designed especially for hydrogenated oils. palm-kernel oil. In connection with crystallization of palm-oil-based products it should be noted that the tempering practice for industrial margarines and shortening at 26. It is generally unsuitable for palm oil.7 C (80 F). and coconut oil (21). the recommended flow rate for palm-oil-based industrial margarines is approximately 60% of the nominal capacity of a scraped-surface heat exchanger process line for industrial margarine (27). has the highest stability in the b0 crystal form followed by palm oil and then palm stearin.7 C (80 F) and raise it above 26. The preceding observations relate well with observations in industrial-scale scraped-surface heat exchanger processing lines.464 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Figure 2. Generally. In industrial-scale processing lines. it has been found to be advantageous to process palm-oil-based industrial margarines with an additional worker unit installed between the cooling cylinders as shown in Figure 3 (26). Courtesy of The Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. a scraped-surface heat exchanger with a nominal capacity of 3000 kg/h for oil blends based on oils such as soybean oil or cottonseed oil will. This increases the product’s retention time in the processing line and allows a slight increase in the flow rate without compromising the product quality. Schematic diagram of pilot plant (22).

List et al. 15% coconut oil. (40) found that interesterification of oil blends made from fully hydrogenated soybean oil and soybean oil affects the polymorphic transition from the undesirable b form to the desirable b0 form thus avoiding graininess in finished margarine products. and 25% hydrogenated sunflower seed oil [melting point 70. Interesterification of blends of palm oil fractions is also a possibility in margarine formulation producing margarines with very low or ‘‘zero trans’’ fatty acid contents . Interesterification of a blend consisting of 60% sunflower seed oil.CRYSTALLIZATION OF OIL AND FAT PRODUCTS 465 Figure 3. It should be noted for the formulation and crystallization of margarines based on sunflower seed oil blend that interesterification of oil blends is a possible route to minimize posthardening.5 can achieve this.4. Schematic diagram of industrial source plant. It is possible to produce table margarine with good consistency and a linoleic acid content of 36% as well as a trans-isomeric fatty acid content of less then 2% based on an oil blend prepared by interesterification. 1. Canola Oil and Sunflower Seed Oil We have noted earlier that the crystallization of strongly b tending sunflower seed oil blends can be influenced favorably toward the b0 polymorph form by addition of a high melting hardstock of the hydrogenated cottonseed oil (6) as well as by addition of sorbitan tristearate (17. 18). Interesterification has been reported to change the crystallization tendencies of oil blends in such a way that the crystal size in certain interesterified oil blends is smaller than in the similar noninteresterified oil blends (36–39).7 C (159 F)] and an iodine value (IV) of 8.

47). . or at a level of 10%. the triglyceride composition of some fully hydrogenated oils are indicated in Table 1. Canola oil constitutes approximately 42% of all vegetable oils consumed in the margarine production in Canada (44). it is advantageous to manufacture margarine from canola oil by incorporating palm oil at a level of at least 15%. mentioned by Wiedermann (4). after hydrogenation of canola oil. The stabilizing effect of palmitic acid. which promotes b0 crystalline stability (43). the more diverse the triglyceride structure of the highest melting portion of the fat.466 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT (41. approximately 44%. Palm oil contains high levels of palmitic acid. Canola oil contains 5% palmitic acid compared to 11% for soybean oil. Crystallization of b tending canola oil blends (low-eururic-acid rapeseed oil) can be influenced by addition of an oil with b0 tending crystallization of different origin. 42). The diglyceride content in canola oil blends is only raised slightly by addition of palm oil in the above levels (46). which are usually used for soft margarines with high linoleic acid contents. With today’s health conscious discussions in the media and the use of transisomeric fatty acid content in margarines as a marketing parameter. This greatly delays the polymorphic transition from the b0 to the b form (43. the interesterification of oil blends may possibly gain some momentum in the future. the homogeneity of the fatty acid chain length is reduced. and it has been found that the addition of palm oil to canola-oil-based oil blends for margarine production has a beneficial effect on their polymorphic stability (30). increased triglyceride diversity (43. A new type of canola oil containing high levels of palmitic acid possesses better b0 stability in the hydrogenated form (30. The high content of diglycerides (about 6%) in palm oil and the b0 stabilizing effect of diglycerides probably do not have any significant influence on the polymorphic behavior of canola oil blends with palm oil levels as above. This is attributed to the increased range of fatty acid chain lengths. It has been found that the b0 stabilizing effect increased with the level of added palm oil and that this stabilizing effect is most likely due to the decrease in fatty acid homogeneity and. the lower the b forming tendency (48). which is increased by addition of palm oil or when the palm oil is partially hydrogenated (46). To illustrate this. The amount and point of addition can affect the transition to the b polymorph as hydrogenation changes the physical properties of an oil blend (46). Based on the solid fat content found in stick margarine in North America. thus. 46). When palm oil is mixed with canola oil. whereas soybean oil constitutes the majority of all oils supplied for the production of margarine in the United States (45). 46). before hydrogenation of canola oil. the industry follows a different formulation principle than for sunflower seed oil blends. which in turn increases the irregularity in the crystal network. It is well documented that hydrogenated canola oil has a tendency to crystallize in the b polymorphic form due to its triglyceride homogeneity (it has about 95% of 18-carbon fatty acids) (43). is related to its level in the solid fat fraction. Increased irregularity in the crystal network increases the polymorphic stability (46). 46. In general. When processing canola-oil-blend-based margarines for tub or stick packaging.

0 23.9 13. with permission. compared to no palm oil addition (43).6 0.6 66.5 0. 49.3).2 1.2). In general.8 15.6 43.2 3. can be produced in a scraped-surface heat exchanger line for margarine.5 1.8 0.5 21.4 — — — — 0. Percent (%) Triglyceride Composition and Mono. based on a given flow rate and heat exchange area (50). should have a relative volume of approximately one third of the volume of the intermediate worker unit indicated in Figure 3.9 24.5 — — — 0.3 — — — — 0.1 2.6 0.0 — — — 1. In Table 1.7 0.4 3.3 5. 35 C (95 F).CRYSTALLIZATION OF OIL AND FAT PRODUCTS 467 TABLE 1. based on a canola oil blend with palm oil addition. Reprinted from Ref. specific heat increases slightly with molecular weight but decreases slightly with less unsaturation.5 3. the most b0 stable fat is palm oil hard fat. Stick margarine of good quality and melting point. In accordance with the above.8 — 0.4 — — — — 0. according to the flow outline in Figure 4.3 6.5.3 27. .0 41.7 0. the specific heat of oils and fats shows little change as molecular weight varies.5 6. It should also be noted that the intermediate worker unit (B unit) (see Section 2. compared to the nominal capacity of the scrapedsurface heat exchanger (A unit) (see Section 2.6 28.5 40. with variablespeed drive inserted between the cooling cylinders.7 1. Specific Heat and Heat of Fusion In the solid state.8 0.4 8. it has been found that slightly hydrogenated palm oil delayed polymorphic transition from b0 to b considerably.9 0. 1.9 10. there is little variation among natural oils and fats (21). A reduced flow rate of approximately 85%.7 Rapeseed Blend — 0.5 4.4 7.3 31.2 a Glycerides contain odd-numbered and branched fatty acids.2 25.9 8. An increase in specific heat can be observed with increased unsaturation. In the liquid state.4 Cottonseed Palm — — 0.7 6.2 7. is recommended.9 6.4 40.0 44.8 12.6 11.2 9. This may be explained by its unique composition. Hard Fats Carbon Number 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 Monto Di Soybean Beef Fata Rapeseed — — 0. and its balanced C48–C54 triglyceride content with an equally balanced C50–C52 content (49).1 3.and Diglyceride Content of Fully Hydrogenated Oils (%).

The heat of fusion normally increases with bigger chain lengths and decreasing unsaturation in the triglycerides. 29. Schematic diagram stick (table) margarine plant. 31. 26.252 kcal/kg). Blends of triglycerides have less latent heat of crystallization than the similar nonblended triglycerides (19). Cp ðkcal=kgÞ ¼ 0:47 þ 0:00073  T.6 kcal/kg for refined. may be taken as (21).0 kcal/kg for RBD coconut oil. Calvelo (19) has reported the total heat of crystallization (Jc ) for a specific retail margarine with 82% fat content to be 33. and coconut oil. palm kernel oil.2 kcal/kg for fully hardened coconut oil. The specific heats of liquid oils and fats. 24–31 kcal/kg for fully hardened milkfat. where T is temperature in  C (1 Btu/lb ¼ 0. It is difficult to determine the latent crystallization heat in oil blends for margarine production due to their complexity. including palm oil.3 kcal/kg for milkfat.7–22. A specific heat of 0.6 kcal/kg for fully hardened palm kernel oil. The heat of fusion is an empirical physical property dependent on the thermal history or tempering of the oil.7 kcal/kg for RBD palm kernel oil. 26–29 kcal/kg for cocoa butter in the b0 polymorph.4 kcal/kg.607 kcal/kg/ C for the same margarine has been reported (19).468 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Figure 4.514 kcal/kg/ C for the fat phase of a retail margarine with 82% fat content and 0. 22. bleached. and deodorized (RBD) palm oil. and 31. . Timms (21) has heat of fusion to 17.

pumps with two or three plungers or pistons are standard in order to minimize discharge pressure pulsations in the process line. Besides the necessary emulsion preparation equipment (see Sections 4. Slow rotational speed of the pump’s crankshaft also helps to minimize pressure pulsation. 51). The high-pressure pumps are normally supplied with a pressure relief valve and associated product piping to protect the scraped-surface heat exchanger equipment downstream and the pump itself. PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE AND RELATED FAT PRODUCTS Choice of equipment for the processing line is very important for the production of margarines. the essential equipment for production of margarines is discussed in the following sections. or 120 bars (about 1800 psi) are normally installed in the process line. Gear pumps for this application normally can deliver a maximum discharge pressure of 26–33 bars (about 390–500 psi). For each piece of equipment in the production line. 2. A filter is normally installed in the suction line to the high-pressure pump to protect the pump and the hard chromium-plated scraped-surface heat exchanger cylinder from any foreign matter in the margarine emulsion. A high-pressure piston pump for margarine production is illustrated in Figure 5. The drawback for the application of gear pumps in margarine processing is that this type of pump tends to slip at higher discharge pressures (52). Pumps with ceramic pistons are available for special applications. the pumps can be installed together with a pulsation dampener mounted at the discharge. special design features have to be considered for various margarine types to ensure that the complete processing line has all the necessary capabilities. high-pressure positive-displacement pumps with maximum discharge pressures of 40 bars (about 600 psi). 70 bars (about 1030 psi). for example.PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 469 2. should a blockage of the production line occur.1.1–4.3) such as process tanks. plate heat exchangers. High-Pressure Feed Pumps The margarine emulsion is usually fed from a holding tank to the scraped-surface heat exchanger (A unit) by a high-pressure positive-displacement pump of the plunger or piston type with product contact parts in 316 stainless steel. and centrifugal pumps. Depending on the designed maximum product pressure of the downstream scraped-surface heat exchanger and the various types of margarine produced. Pulsation dampeners are air pressurized or spring loaded to ensure a smoother product flow in the process line. puff pastry margarine. Gear pumps are normally installed as an alternative to high-pressure positivedisplacement pumps in the production of industrial margarine or shortening for semiliquid filling (26. Normally. . To further minimize possible pressure pulsation. Production of industrial margarine for semiliquid filling does not normally generate product line pressures as high as.

is available from Cherry-Burrell Votator Division of Louisville.2. under the respective trademarks Votator. . The scraped-surface heat exchanger (A unit) is the centerpiece of equipment of the margarine processing line. and Schroeder & Co. (Tetra-Laval owned) of Luebeck. Crown Chemtech Ltd. Germany. specifically designed for margarine production.. supercooling. of Reading. Courtesy of Schroeder & Co. Gerstenberg & Agger A/S of Copenhagen. 53). Denmark. where initial cooling. and Kombinator. 53).470 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Figure 5.K.. Perfector. U. Germany. Chemetator. Luebeck. High-pressure piston pump for margarine production. 2. Kentucky. and subsequent induced nucleation and crystallization take place (3. The A unit has to have a high degree of flexibility with regard to variation of process conditions for different product types and formulations (51. United States. High-Pressure Scraped-Surface Heat Exchanger Scraped-surface heat exchanger equipment.

At a certain point during this process. four. Beyond this speed. 51–54). facilitates the restart of the A unit. and partial crystallization of the product during the passage through the A unit involve an overall energy balance including specific and latent heat of the product as well as other energy source inside the equipment. 55). The warm water is normally pumped into the shaft at a point near the thrust/axial bearing assembly and exits close to the water inlet point based on the inside construction of the shaft (52). or six rows of blades (53). The blades are fixed to the shafts by specially designed pins and are movable at their fixing points. no additional mixing is obtained. and a homogeneous cooling of the margarine emulsion under precise temperature control of the product being crystallized (53–55). The power input through the blade shaft is transferred to the product and the cylinder wall as heat (Qm ). The annular gap in this situation varies from 9 to 17 mm. crystal nucleation. thus. Figure 6 illustrates the design and operation of a scrapedsurface heat exchanger based on a longitudinal view of the A unit and a crosssectional view of the cooling assembly. the viscosity of the product increases accordingly with the temperature drop. In order to prevent buildup of crystallizing product on the shaft. ensuring high heat transfer coefficients. Also. as the warm water helps to melt solidified product and. there is a rapid increase in the solid content during the passage through the cooling cylinder. further emulsification of the product. The cooling cylinder is surrounded by an insulated outer jacket containing refrigerant (normally ammonia or Freon 22). a critical shaft speed is reached. The annular gap between the cylinder wall and the shaft has been reported to be in ranges from 3 to 22 mm (52). The blades are thrust against the cylinder wall mainly by the centrifugal force resulting from the high rotational speed of the shaft. The inside hard chromiumplated surface of the cooling cylinder is continuously scraped clean during operation by a rotating shaft mounted with free-floating blades. Energy Balance. When margarine emulsion passes through the space between the shaft and cylinder wall. A small amount of . In the crystallizing product. This causes rapid crystal nucleation. a thin crystallized product film is constantly and very rapidly scraped off the cylinder wall and remixed with warmer product because of the scraping action of the blades and the shaft’s high rotation speed. The shaft is mounted with four rows of blades in a staggered configuration. The rotational speeds of shafts normally range from 300 to 700 rpm (51–53) and shafts are normally mounted with two. very high overall heat transfer coefficients. and the power input required to rotate the shaft at a higher speed will more than offset any heat transfer benefits resulting from more frequent scraping of the cylinder wall (54. but a more typical range is 5–17 mm (3. The water circulation facility is also beneficial after a temporary production stoppage. The cooling cylinder of a cylinder assembly is usually made from commercially pure nickel or steel.PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 471 The scraped-surface heat exchanger normally consists of one or more horizontal heat transfer cylinder assemblies. warm water is normally circulated through the shaft to ensure a clean shaft surface at all times (51–54). The above-mentioned temperature drop.

Scraped-surface heat exchanger.S. Minneapolis.A. Minnesota. a division of Crown Iron Works Co.472 Figure 6.. .. Courtesy of Crown Chemtech U.

the heat Qt will presumably be transferred through the cylinder wall at an ammonia evaporation temperature of Tf . the emulsion temperature T1 . the degree of supercooling will be reduced with time. the energy in form of heat in the A unit can be expressed as follows (19): Qt ¼ FCp ðT1  T2 Þ þ FJc W2 Y þ Qm þ Qw . as the crystallization continues until a certain temperature Ta has been reached. W2 . Cp the product’s specific heat. which makes it possible to define the heat transfer coefficient U as Qt ¼ UAT ln. ð2Þ where A is the heat transfer area and T ln is a logarithmic value defined as T ln ¼ T1  lnðT1 =T2 ÞT2 .PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 473 heat is also added to the process through the warm water circulation inside the shaft (Qw ). ð1Þ where F is the flow rate. can be calculated as follows: W2 ¼ Wa  Cp T . Based on sufficient time to achieve a stable situation. In a stationary condition. Formulas (1). As the crystallization of a fat product demands both a rapid temperature drop and time for crystal nucleation and crystal growth. According to this. Jc Y ð5Þ where T ¼ ðTa  T2 Þ. sufficient retention . (2). ð3Þ where T1 ¼ ðT1  Tf Þ and T2 ¼ ðT2  Tf Þ. T1 the emulsion’s inlet temperature. and Y the fat content of the margarine emulsion. T2 the product exit temperature. From formula (4) the solid fat content at the exit of the A unit. Wa can be determined from the solid fat curve in the product at temperature Ta . Jc the latent heat of crystallization in the fat. If the product at the exit from the A unit has a solid fat content of W2 at temperature T2 and is left to crystallize under stationary conditions. ð4Þ where Wa is the solid fat content at temperature Ta . Based on this we have Cp ðTa  T2 Þ ¼ Jc YðWa  W2 Þ. and (5) make it possible to relate process variables such as the flow rate F. and the ammonia evaporation temperature Tf with parameters contributing to the consistency of the margarine such as the solid fat content at the exit of the A unit W2 . W2 the solid fat content at the exit from the A unit.

The A units can be grouped according to whether they are mounted with eccentric shafts. Kentucky. and are claimed to provide more intensive cooling for high-melting bakery margarine as well as a certain amount of working and compression action similar to that given by the Complector of the older. sectioned shafts. shaft rotation speed. Several shaft or cylinder designs are available today in A units for margarine processing. Ky. The high viscosity margarine products exhibit during processing in the A unit increases the significance of factors such as flow rate. oval shafts. The retention time can be calculated from Tr ¼ V=F. ð6Þ where F is the product flow rate and V is the product volume in the A unit. openchill drum system (52) (see Section 5. Votator scraped-surface heat exchanger unit. Shaft Design. . Eccentric shafts have been in wide use in the past and were developed by the Votator Division of Louisville. Courtesy of Cherry-Burrell Votator Division. increased effect of mechanical work.2). and obtained mixing and heat transfer. blade configuration. turbulent flow conditions in relation to shaft design.474 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT time for the product in the A unit is required. created turbulence. Figure 7. Louisville. or oval tubes. and annular gap between the shaft and cylinder wall (51). This is due to the viscosity’s influence on flow properties.

Figure 8 indicates the important action of the scraper blade. Hall Taylor outlining the important physical phenomena occurring under different circumstances in the A units is given in the following discussion. all stainless steel Votator A unit complete with highpressure feed pump and worker unit for production of industrial margarines and shortenings. Second. 54). Two things then happen. United Kingdom. Figure 9 illustrates the growth of these layers adjacent to the wall as seen from a coordinate system traveling with the blade..PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 475 Figure 7 shows a new. The material outside this viscous layer continues to travel at the rotational velocity V. In Figure 9. In the literature. A summary by N. Hall Taylor. This is a transient fluid flow and heat transfer problem. The thickness at any position relative to the blade is given approximately as dn ¼ 2 nx1=2 V . the annular space can be represented on the basis of a two-dimensional flow model. which shows the progressive development of the linear velocity profile. A review of some of the fluid mechanics and heat transfer aspects of scrapedsurface heat exchangers currently available for margarine processing has been given by N. specific heat. where n is the kinematic viscosity. retention time. Crown Chemtech Ltd. the material adjacent to the surface is slowed down to develop a velocity profile. Hall Taylor (56). Reading. First. and overall heat transfer conditions. Courtesy of N. . the material starts to transfer heat into the wall. one can find theoretical and practical studies relating to heat transfer conditions in scraped-surface heat exchangers (19. which cover factors such as specific weight. This is illustrated in Figure 8. the upper line represents the viscous layer. Figure 8. Removal of material at the front allows fresh warm material to flow down the back of the blade to be brought into contact with the cold surface. Heat Transfer and Viscous Dissipation for Newtonian Fluids. latent heat of crystallization. Fluid movement in the proximity of the blade (56). dry matter content. Because the gap width is small relative to the shaft radius.

e. dT ¼ 2 V where a is the thermal diffusivity. It can be shown that within the viscous layer: p¼ rV 2 . 4t or in coordinates relative to the blade: p¼ rV 3 : 4x . y0  yw ). Within the viscous layer.e. all the viscous dissipation is taking place. Velocity profile behind the blade (56). Thus the ratio of the thickness of the two layers at any position is solely related to the Prandtl number of the material: dn n1=2 ¼ ¼ Pr1=2 : a dT For foodstuffs under low shear conditions. i..476 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Figure 9. United Kingdom.. Courtesy of N. Hall Taylor. The thickness of the thermal layers (dT ) is given by ax1=2 . the viscous layer is much thicker than the thermal layer. dy where du=dy is the velocity gradient. Reading. the Prandtl number is large. The inner line in Figure 9 represents the corresponding thermal layer and shows the development of the thermal gradient. The scale of viscous heat generation/unit volume (p) at any point is given by  2 du p¼m . Again the material outside this layer remains at a constant temperature above the wall temperatures (i. Crown Chemtech Ltd..

This can either be due to the next blade (so that L is the distance between the blades) or because of some turbulent motion in the liquid. The cause of such turbulent action will be discussed in detail later. at the same time the heat that has to be removed from viscous dissipation is increasing (proportional to V 5=2 ). dn < H. increasing the rotational velocity will improve the rate of heat transfer (proportional to V 1=2 ).PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 477 This result is only true provided the thickness of the viscous layer is less than the gap width (H). one can derive an equivalent heat flow that has to be removed in addition to any cooling that takes place. In a margarine process the most critical section is in the final scraped-surface heat exchanger (SSHE) and then toward the exit end. LV where L is the distance behind the blade at which the viscous boundary layer is destroyed. This will occur if V 2 > Cp y Pr1=2 or  k V > Cp y Cp m 2 1=2 : The velocity at which this takes place will decrease as the viscosity increases. This gives  V qT ¼ ky aL 1=2 : Thus. The heat transferred from the thermal layer to the wall can also be estimated and averaged over the mixing length.. This is given by qn ¼ rV 3  n 1=2 . The net cooling flux is qc ¼ qT  qV : This indicates that for a given material there will be an optimum velocity at which the greatest cooling is achieved. It also suggests that under certain conditions qT ¼ qV and no net cooling is achieved. . i. Here there is the greatest viscosity (highest Pr) and also the smallest temperature difference between the wall and the material (y). In most cases this critical velocity is well above the maximum operating velocity of the SSHE.e. By integrating the viscous dissipation terms over the volume of the viscous layer. However.

the shear will be very high (since dn is very small).06 0. which shows the derived thickness (dn ) as a function of dn0 for a velocity V of 2 m/s. The influence of shear on viscosity has a very significant influence upon the rate of development of the viscous boundary layer.41 . n0 is a reference viscosity at the reference shear rate g0 ¼ s1 .02 0. equivalent to 300 rpm: dn0 1 2 4 8 16 dn 0.6–0. yR where nR is a reference viscosity at temperature yR and n is a constant in the range 2–3. This means that the effective viscosity varies with the shear applied to the material. essentially equal to the velocity gradient.50 1. It should also be remembered that viscosity is generally strongly dependent on temperature. A simplified equation for the thickness of the viscous layer for non-Newtonian fluid is   dn g k=2k dn ¼ dn 0 0 0 .478 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Non-Newtonian Fluids. and k is a constant typically in the range 0. The shear in the viscous layer is given by g¼ V : dn Thus. A useful representation of this behavior is as follows:  K g n ¼ n0 0 . just behind the blade. V where dn 0 ¼ 2 n x1=2 0 : V The influence of the shear factor can be seen from the following table.18 0. This can typically be represented by  n y n ¼ nR . the layer will move away from the wall more gradually than in the Newtonian fluid case. g where g is the shear rate. and this means that the effective viscosity will be low. Most foodstuffs and margarines are non-Newtonian fluids.7. Consequently.

This analysis indicates that. This is a region of high shear. Thus this type of disturbance will occur when Re ¼ Vx > 1000: n On the basis of the earlier discussion. Thus. . Figure 10. Instability behind the blade. L will be about 5 m. there is likely to be a very thin layer close to the cooling surface in which a linear profile is developed. For clarity. which effectively lowers the viscosity within this region. L ¼ 5 mm. and these can delay the onset of the mass rotation condition. these instabilities will be discussed in terms of Newtonian fluids. however. the thickness of the thermal layer becomes closer to that of the viscous layer. Instability is predicted to start at Reynolds numbers greater than 580. this implies a mixing length (L) of L¼ 1000n : V For water n ¼ 105 and so if V ¼ 2 m/s. although similar. Crown Chemtech Ltd. say 1000.. Instability behind the blade (56). Reading. The flow situation is equivalent to the analysis of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow along a plate parallel to the direction of flow and is shown in Figure 10. for high-melting-point margarines. There is. Outside this layer the material is moving uniformly with the rotating shaft.PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 479 This illustrates that the viscous layer is an order of magnitude smaller for the nonNewtonian material when compared to a corresponding Newtonian material. This condition is often referred to as mass rotation. The thermal diffusion process. For an oil of 1000 cP. in which case this instability will not be observed since the distance to the next blade is only 0. Courtesy of N. more complicated behavior will occur with non-Newtonian fluids. however. 1. Flow Instabilities. a number of instabilities that induce vortices. although observable disturbances need a higher value. The next section will discuss the cause of these instabilities. is not affected by the shear and so the same equations as before apply. United Kingdom.2 m. Hall Taylor.

This implies that the outer dimension of the vortex is equal to the gap width H and that the mixing length L lies somewhere between H and 2H.01 bar. it is still capable of inducing a circulation pattern. 2 R  1=2 u 2H ¼ : V R Hence for the standard SSHE. u ¼ 1:37 m/s. Vortices behind the blade (56). Thus. For our standard SSHE. Although the pressure difference seems small compared to the local operating pressure of say 50–70 bars. This pressure gradient is given by dp rV 2 ¼ : dr r Ignoring the velocity gradients. Hall Taylor. . Courtesy of N. Figure 11.. United Kingdom. this implies a pressure difference across the gap of p ¼ rV 2 H . The significance of this centrifugal effect is that if can cause a series of fairly stable vortices to be set up between and travel with the blades. the higher pressure being at the wall. The rotation of the fluid in the annular space means that a centrifugal pressure gradient exists across the gap. Instability within the annular space.480 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT 2. Crown Chemtech Ltd. with the pressure at the cylinder wall being slightly higher than at the shaft surface. Because this is about a tenth of the distance between the blades. Reading. R where R is the shaft radius. this pressure difference can accelerate the liquid (ignoring viscous effects) to a velocity u given by 1 2 rV 2 H ru ¼ p ¼ . by Bernoulli’s equation. the heat transfer should be increased by a factor of 2–3. H ¼ 16 mm and R ¼ 61 mm so that at 300 rpm p is 0. Figure 11 shows this effect.

United Kingdom. There are different methods used to overcome this with varying degrees of success: Oval tubes Oval shafts Eccentric shafts Sectioned shafts The first three are clear from their description. Enhancement of annular gap instabilities. Crown Chemtech Ltd. Hall Taylor. and they will be most persistent if the ratio of the distance between the blade (pR) to the gap width (H) is close to an integer. so that the gap widths vary between 9 and 17 mm. The instability of the previous section will be suppressed by higher viscosities.. The sectioned shaft equipped with staggered blades has large flats to accommodate the blades on opposite sides. The effect of the staggered blades is that the position of the flat is rotated through 90 with each successive blade set. . Figure 12 shows a diagram of such a shaft. The last three design concepts listed have the common feature that the gap width at a point on the cooling cylinder will vary as the shaft rotates. For the standard SSHE the ratio is about 13.PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 481 The vortices need some time to establish. 3. Figure 12. This arrangement has other advantages and will be explained later. again reverting to mass rotation. In the case of the oval tube the gap width varies when seen from a point rotating with the shaft. Courtesy of N. Sectioned shaft (56). Reading.

Crown Chemtech Ltd. 4. the advantage of the sectored shaft is that it has pulses of much greater velocity than the oval shaft followed by periods in which the turbulence is allowed to develop. Reading. As Figure 14 illustrates. Influence of shaft type on rate of change gap width (56). Figure 13 illustrates this variation in gap width for the case of the oval shaft and the sectored shaft. Influence of shaft type on gap width (56). Courtesy of N. The axial velocity of the material through the annular gap is at a much lower velocity than the rotational velocity. It can.482 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Figure 13.. Hall Taylor. however. This is because. it encounters variations in gap width as illustrated in Figure 15. United Kingdom. Hall Taylor.. Figure 14. At each of the changes in cross-sectional areas there is the possibility to induce turbulence. This also has the ability to generate vortices within the gap. as the material progresses through the cylinder. Reading. . Courtesy of N. United Kingdom. still contribute to the creation of instabilities when the staggered blade configuration is used. Crown Chemtech Ltd. Axial flow. The key feature of these designs is that the change in gap width creates a radial velocity equal to dH=dt at the shaft surface. An eccentric shaft would also have a sine-type function but with only one maximum per revolution.

all stop valves around the A-unit are open. The surge drum is part of the refrigeration system of each cylinder. From Figure 16. as mentioned. Advantage is taken of the high rate of heat transfer due to surface boiling of the refrigerant (54). Change of gap with axial flow (56). United Kingdom. Reading. Courtesy of N. United Kingdom.. The liquid refrigerant inlet solenoid valve (A) is open. Refrigeration System and Scraped-Surface Units. Chemetator SSHE for margarine processing. During normal operation. Scraped-surface heat exchangers for margarine production are.PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 483 Figure 15. allowing liquid to pass through the level control valve (B) and into the bottom of the refrigerant jacket surrounding the Figure 16. A-units with individual refrigeration systems per cooling cylinder assembly are available from most suppliers. . Hall Taylor. an A-unit with four cooling cylinders with individual refrigeration systems can be seen. Courtesy of Crown Chemtech Ltd. Reading. Crown Chemtech Ltd. designed for direct expansion refrigerants such as ammonia and Freon 22.. Figure 17 shows how the refrigeration system of an A-unit cooling cylinder assembly operates. Each cooling cylinder is mounted with a surge drum above the cylinder.

Minnesota. Schematic diagram of refrigeration system. Courtesy of Crown Chemtech U. a division of Crown Iron Works Co.. .A.S.484 Figure 17. Minneapolis..

Although the A-unit shaft has stopped rotating. the residual hot gas in the condenser and pipework will cause an immediate rise in the pressure in the refrigerant jacket of the A unit. such as failure of the high-pressure feed pump. On automatic systems. however. The system will then be ready for restart when the original problem has been corrected. Due to this. Once the liquid is ejected. this is adjusted by hand to give the desired temperature indication on the pressure gauge. 57). The pressure in the jacket and surge drum rises and forces all the liquid out via valve D and the suction line into the suction trap of the refrigeration plant. and assuming that the A-unit shaft is still rotating. power cuts can occur frequently and cause problems in the operation of A units for margarine production. product feed failure. it is possible that the A unit will be frozen solid. this is linked via controller to the liquid temperature measuring device (G) (57). Gas leaves the surge drum via a pressure regulating valve (C) and the suction to the suction trap of the fridge plant. valves D and E will automatically open and valves A and C will close. To ensure flooded conditions at all times in the jacket.PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 485 cylinder. a warning signal is given to the operator of a potential freeze-up. In certain parts of the world. A units are usually mounted with various features in the refrigerant system to minimize the downtime related to power cuts. The hot-gas option is one feature. At the moment of the power cut. If the problem is identified. the hot-gas system can be switched off manually or automatically through an electrical time delay relay. Although the fridge compressor will also stop running. Gas and entrained liquid are discharged from the top of the jacket into the surge drum. On manual systems. for the specific product being processed. or any other abnormal conditions. The system is controlled by the pilot valve mounted on the control valve (C). It is. the hot-gas system can be operated. The system is then reset manually. Following a power cut. as described. together with the warm water circulation through the . it is possible to prevent a certain freeze-up by operating a hot-gas system either manually or automatically. a liquid level is maintained in the surge drum by a sensor linked via a capillary tube to the control valve (B). Normally. This immediately allows hot gas from the high-pressure discharge side of the compressor to be introduced directly into the refrigerant jacket of the A unit. A current measuring device on the drive motor to the A-unit detects a rise greater than a predetermined level above the normal running current. Selecting the hot-gas option opens valves E and D. important that this should nevertheless be checked manually after all necessary safety precautions have been taken by isolating the drive motor locally or at the electrical control panel (57). typically 10%. This automatically closes the liquid inlet valve (A) and the pressure regulating valve (C) while keeping the A-unit’s shaft rotating (54. Rapid heat transfer through the cooling cylinder wall from the warm product inside the cylinder causes a considerable proportion of the liquid refrigerant to vaporize upon contact with the outside wall of the cooling cylinder. this should allow it to rotate freely when power is restored. which may be prevented if the problem can be identified and corrected. In this situation. This system is lined electrically. so that it will only operate if valves A and C are closed.

A unit or after the A unit (3. From the A unit. 55. 2.3. The intermediate worker unit normally has a lesser product volume than final worker units used in production of soft table margarine for tub filling. 4. operate by a drop tank principle.486 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT A-unit shaft to ensure rapid melting of the solidified margarine inside the cooling cylinder. or B units. This is advantageous in preventing product buildup on the cylinder wall and allows better product temperature control during the passage through the worker unit. where the refrigerant is removed from the refrigerant jacket with the aid of increased refrigerant pressure in the system without installation and activation of a hot-gas system. During production of table margarine for stick wrapping. it is . The design of a worker unit is illustrated in Figure 18. 51. the product enters the resting tube connected directly to the packaging machine (3). Product temperature increases of 2 C or more due to release of latent heat of crystallization and mechanical work can be observed in the worker unit (3). 54. Resting Tubes When producing margarine for stick or block wrapping. a resting tube is normally connected directly to a packaging machine to allow the product sufficient time to attain a hardness that is suitable for wrapping (3. Worker units have the benefit of giving the margarine emulsion time to crystallize under agitation by the pins of the rotating rotor (see Section 1). The pins fixed to the concentric rotor are mounted in a helical arrangement that intermesh with the stationary pins of the cylinder wall (55). 2. the product will commonly pass through the cooling cylinders of the A unit and a possible intermediate worker unit (B unit) inserted between the cooling cylinders. Each worker cylinder usually has its own individual drive with fixed or variable speed for maximum flexibility during processing of margarine. Second. Worker units can be installed either between cooling cylinders of a multicylinder. 4. as described above. The worker unit is normally mounted with a heating jacket for tempered water on the cylinder and often also equipped with its own built-in water heater and circulation pump for the tempered water. These are cylinders with larger diameters mounted with pins on the inside of the cylinder walls (stationary pins) and on the rotors (rotating pins) (3. This time is provided in crystallizers normally called worker units. 54. 55). Other systems used in A units to help prevent freeze-up situations. B units with up to three worker cylinders mounted on the same support frame are available on the market. Worker unit cylinders usually have product volumes ranging from 35 L up to approximately 105 L per cylinder. The purpose of limiting the amount of work given to the product is first to produce a product that is not too soft to be handled in the automatic stick wrapping machine. 55).4. Worker Units Fats require time to crystallize. 54. 58).

PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 487 Figure 18. to prevent the aqueous phase of the margarine from being dispersed in an extremely fine state of subdivision (54). which would result in a poor presentation of the product to the consumer. Courtesy of Crown Chemtech U.. The margarine is forced through the resting tube by the pressure of the highpressure feed pump.A. Finally. Figure 4 illustrates the process flow for production of table margarine for stick wrapping. Worker unit (B unit) with one cylinder. too intensive working of a table margarine.. . greasy consistency (59). Resting tubes are normally fitted with screens or perforated plates (55) to allow a minimal degree of work to be given to the product to ensure optimal crystallization and plasticity. could cause the product to attain an unpleasant.S. with its higher solid fat content compared to a soft margarine. which could have a negative effect on the flavor release. a division of Crown Iron Works Co. Minneapolis. Minnesota. Too greasy a consistency could also cause the wrapping material to stick to the product.

) to approximately 900 mm (35 in.5. . flanged sections. the resting tube could also be mounted with an outlet extrusion nozzle. in case the product is fed to the packaging machine through the older. consumer retail margarines and related products.) (54. and consumer preferences. The flanged section in these resting tubes has a length of up to approximately 1000 mm (39 in. Resting tubes for production of puff pastry margarine usually have diameters ranging from approximately 300 to 400 mm (12 to 16 in. 60). The volume of resting tubes for puff pastry margarine is normally considerably larger than for other products to allow sufficient time for development of the special consistency required in puff pastry margarine (see Section 5. product consistency. Packaging Equipment Margarine products are packed in several ways depending on margarine type. Figure 19 shows resting tubes of varied sizes for puff pastry margarine. 60). The product in the first resting tube remains static until the second resting tube has been filled. including butter blends.488 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Resting tubes for table margarine and similar products are made up of flanged sections with lengths varying from approximately 450 mm (17. Resting tubes for table margarine production commonly have diameters ranging from approximately 150 to 180 mm (6 to 7 in. cover a variety of products packaged in different ways (61). market.2). parallel resting tubes. The construction of a resting tube usually involves the required inlet adaptor. screens or perforated plates. Some equipment suppliers recommend using one single resting tube for feeding table margarine to the packaging machine. In the U.5 in. and an outlet connection flange for direct linkup to the packaging machine.S. These can be grouped as follows: Margarine in quarter-pound sticks Margarine in one-pound solids Margarine patties Soft margarine in tubs Spreads in quarter-pound sticks or one-pound solids Soft spreads in tubs Diet products in sticks or tubs Liquid margarine in squeeze bottles.) (54. open hopper system. a motor-actuated rotary valve automatically switches the flow of product to the second resting tube.). When one of the two resting tubes has been filled with product. This allows the product volume of the resting tube to be varied in accordance with the physical characteristics of the solidifying margarine (54). Resting tubes are normally jacketed for warm water circulation to minimize the friction between the margarine and the stainless steel wall of each section.). whereas others recommend the use of two connecting. This helps prevent channeling of the product and reduces the overall discharge pressure required at the high-pressure feed pump. Alternatively. 2.

. a division of Crown Iron Works Co. Resting tubes for puff pastry margarine.. Minnesota.489 Figure 19.A. Minneapolis. . Courtesy of Crown Chemtech U.S.

filling. Neuss. then positions the bags exactly into the cells located in the intermittently running rotary table in the center of the machine (64). The concept shown in Figure 20 involves a machine with drive elements running in an oil bath. and folding. This type of feeding arrangement is normally used when wrapping miniportions at low hourly capacity.490 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Margarines for food service or industrial use are normally filled into 50-lb plastic bag lined cartons. the product from the resting tube is filled directly into a cell that is prelined with a preformed wrapper bag. Germany. On the second type of machine. margarine industry. The molded print is removed from the chamber and then wrapped and cartoned. and today a wide range of machines for stick or solid wrapping based on this concept exist (63). This type of packaging machine was originally developed by Benz & Hilgers GmbH of Neuss. The first of these forms is a molded print that forces product into a measuring and molding chamber. Forming of the wrapper bag. The second type of machinery is the more widely used type in the U. Two basic types of stick or solid packaging machinery are used in the United States (62). or supplied in bulk. Germany. wrapped in blocks of 5 lb or bigger. The principle operation of the second type of machine is shown in Figure 20. In Figure 20. The product can be fed to the machine either by a trough with feed worms or by direct linkup to a resting tube. .S. The positioned bags are transported by the rotary table to the dosing station. Stick/Solid Retail Margarine. A plunger guides the wrapper through folding channels to form the bags. The wrapping is then folded and ejected from the cell. Machines of this type can also be fed by a vertical funnel with a special scraper/agitator mounted. Courtesy of Benz & Hilgers GmbH. the cells are lifted Figure 20. the wrapping material is fed continuously from a changeable reel and is cut crosswise by a knife system before arriving at the bag forming station. At the dosing station.

product pressure control. margarine industry. photoelectric wrapper registration. For packaging of margarines. Computer-aided machine diagnostic systems can also be installed in packaging machinery. Furthermore. which facilitates the folding and closing operation during wrapping of softer product (64). plastic-coated material.PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 491 Figure 21. involving electric and electronic monitoring systems to control the functional sequences of the machinery. and automatic control of dosing volume by integrated check weigher (63). packaging lines as shown in Figure 21 used in the margarine industry are becoming quite sophisticated. Monitoring systems cover registration of production data. identification of end of wrapping material roll. This involves a programmable logic controller (PLC) monitoring system. Neuss. Such lines include fully automatic cartoning machines for inserting four . laminated aluminum foil. saving wrapping material. The two folding principles are shown in Figure 22. Courtesy of Benz & Hilgers GmbH. Figure 21 shows an example of a packaging line including the stick wrapping machine and an attached cartoning machine. to identify reasons for failure. and to control production data. which helps to avoid faults in the packaging operation. with the wrapper inside to ensure air-free filling of the product. or plastic foil (63).S. A more economical length-side fold principle can also be used in the packaging operation. sharp-edged sticks or solids are transported out of the packaging machine to the cartoning machine. Product is filled into the preformed wrapper bags by the dosing station utilizing a dosing cylinder with a piston. the first two wrapping materials are commonly used. Example of a packaging line. The wrapping materials used in the wrapping operation shown in Figure 20 may be parchment. Germany. This packaging operation is more suitable for softer products than the system where the product is molded before wrapping (62). Generally. fully automatic packaging lines for stick wrapping of margarine with speeds up to 240 sticks per minute are widely used in the U. the described system normally operates with a bottom fold principle. High-speed. After subsequent folding and calibrating station.



Figure 22. Packets with bottom and length-side fold. Courtesy of Benz & Hilgers GmbH, Neuss,

quarter-pound sticks into one carton, for example. The cartons can then be packed
into cases in semiautomatic case packers or fully automatic wrap-around case
packers. Finally, the packaging lines can also include automatic palletizing
machines. Figure 23 shows a fully automatic, high-speed stick wrapping machine
complete with cartoning machine.
Soft Tub Margarine. In the North American market, soft margarine and spreads
are usually filled into tubs made from either polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene
(PE). Polypropylene allows for a thinner wall of the tubs and is more rigid then
PE. Due to the more rigid structure of PP, tubs made from PP can crack. Tubs
made from PE have a smaller tendency to crack, as PE is more flexible. Due to
this, lids are normally made from PE. Polyethylene gives a better weight control
during the manufacture of tubs, whereas PP in larger quantities is cheaper than
PE. Polypropylene and PE have equal properties in permeability of ultraviolet light
and air (oxidation) (65).
Tub filling machines for margarines and spreads are available from several
U.S. equipment manufacturers such as Rutherford of Rockford, Illinois, Phoenix
Engineering of Wisconsin, and Osgood of Clearwater, Florida.
In tub filling operations, it is normally required for hygienic and easy cleaning
procedures that the filling machine have a clear separation of the mechanical drive
and the product conveyor. Furthermore, it is advantageous to have filling machines
that prevent product or cleaning agents from entering the mechanical drive (66).
Cleaning of tub filling machines is normally limited to those parts in the conveyor



Figure 23. Stick wrapping machine with cartoner. Courtesy of Benz & Hilgers GmbH, Neuss,

area that are in contact with the product. The dosing module and the entire area in
contact with the product can be automatically CIP (clean-in-place) cleaned in more
sophisticated machines.
Most tub filling machines are in-line machines with up to four tracks depending
on the requirements of filling volume and capacity.
Tub filling machines can be fitted with a variety of functions depending on
whether the margarine is packaged in tubs with a heat-sealed membrane or coverleaf under the lid, for example. The main functions of a tub filling machine for
margarine normally are (67):
Tub feeding station with magazine
Direct product feed with pneumatically operated compensating piston
Dosing device with filling nozzles
Feeding of snap-on lids
Press-on station for lids
Date coding device
Control panel
Optional functions usually include:
Tub cleaning or sterilization device
Automatic CIP cleaning system
Coverleaf station with magazine
Sealing membrane station with magazine
Other functions



Figure 24. Fully automatic tub filling and closing machine. Courtesy of Benz & Hilgers GmbH,
Neuss, Germany.

In margarine production, the packaging line for tubs can be completed with
wraparound case packers and palletizers (67). A fully automatic tub filling machine
is shown in Figure 24. A device for the simultaneous quantitative regulated filling
of liquid or soft plasticized substances, such as butter, margarine, pastes, or the like,
by means of nozzles into adjacently arranged containers with the assistance of at
least one control element interchangeably switchable from filling to discharging
and at least one dosing piston has been described (68).
Industrial Margarines. These products are usually filled into plastic-bag-lined
cartons of various sizes. Special bakery margarines, such as puff pastry margarines,
are normally wrapped in blocks of approximately 1–25 kg. Alternatively, puff
pastry margarine can be packed in plates or sheets of 1–5 kg (68, 69). Edmunds
and Budlong (69) have given a detailed description of a continuous sheeting and
packaging machine for puff pastry margarine and related products.
Block and plate wrapping machines for margarines are available today from
C. Bock & Sohn Maschinenfabrik of Norderstedt, Germany, and Gerstenberg &
Agger A/S of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Block packing machines are today quite sophisticated, and it is possible to wrap
different block sizes in one machine. Block packing machines can be delivered with
special slicing equipment for slicing the block during extrusion but before the final
wrapping as illustrated in Figure 25. Block packing machines can, if required, be
installed for automatic CIP cleaning, which is important especially in connection
with butter production (70).
Figure 25 shows a fully automatic block production line where the product to be
wrapped is fed from the SSHE plant into a dosing station. With the help of product

Bock & Sohn Maschinenfabrik.495 Figure 25. Norderstedt. Courtesy of C. Germany. Fully automatic block wrapping machine. .

The layout of an ammonia compressor plant servicing an SSHE for margarine production can be seen in Figure 17 (see Section 2. The extrusion nozzle of the block packing machine is equipped with a special cutoff device that cuts the product vertically from top to bottom after finished dosing. The system is skid-mounted from the factory for easy installation. it will liquify at a temperature of 25.6. The product block arrives onto the wrapper. it is passed on through two laterally placed cylinders via the resting tube toward the mouthpiece of the block packing machine. A no-wrapper/no-dosing device is mounted in the machine.2). cut. Plans for phasing out a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) such as Freon 22 (R-22) are currently being made or in some countries are already in place (52. The wrapped and folded block leaves the machine on a transport belt (69). When ammonia is under a pressure of 150 psi (10 bar). Exact weight control is achieved by the piston stroke of the coupled dosing pistons mounted in the two cylinders. Each wrapper will be controlled in its final position before dosing takes place. Refrigeration Plants Refrigeration is a key operation in the margarine production plant. In the margarine industry. In a horizontal position the plate is pushed out on a conveyor belt and transported through a permanent folding device for end folding below the wrapped plate (70). 2. the liquid ammonia flows to the receiver. the wrapper is positioned and follows the product into the plate turner. The wrapper is fed from the reel. 71).496 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT and compensator pressure. New regulations phasing out the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are in place in many countries for environmental reasons (see Section 3). Condensers can be of the air-cooled or water-cooled type covering also evaporative condensers (72). Modern sheet wrapping production lines function after the same principles except that the product is extruded as a sheet or plate from the mouthpiece vertically into a plate turner. Ammonia compressor systems used in margarine plants are usually equipped with highly efficient superseparators for removal of lubrication oil from the . Ammonia systems consist of a compressor designed to compress the lowpressure ammonia gas from the SSHE. Freon 22 and ammonia were widely used as refrigerants. The plate turner is driven by a four-step gear drive rotating the plate turner 90 while the cross-folding takes place between each dosing/extrusion cycle. The gas is then discharged from the compressor into the condenser. and positioned automatically under the extrusion nozzle or mouthpiece. Figure 26 shows a packaged ammonia compressor system designed for servicing an SSHE in margarine production. Only the condenser of the system is supplied loose. Here the prefolded block will be transported by a chain conveyor to the various folding stations. The receiver in which the high-pressure ammonia liquid is stored maintains a constant supply of refrigerant to the SSHE. which is supported by a transport plate. Vacuum will hold the wrapper correctly on the transport plate while the block moves toward the folding level. From the condenser. Before the extrusion.6 C (78 F) (71).

Lubrication oil carried over into the ammonia will eventually reduce the heat transfer efficiency of the SSHE. bronchial spasm and edema. which lead to obstructed breathing. Packaged ammonia compressor system.PROCESSING EQUIPMENT FOR MARGARINE 497 Figure 26. Compressors of the reciprocating piston type or screw compressors are normally installed depending on compressor cost at various capacities or individual preferences (71). ammonia (71). reduce the amount of oil in the system considerably (70). which provides additional savings. . as the oil will be deposited as a thin film on the outside wall of the cooling cylinder. detection. Ammonia’s flammability range in air is 16–25% by volume. It is usually characterized as hard to ignite (71). The quantity of refrigerant needed to charge an ammonia system is substantially less than for other systems. with their highly efficient coalescing separators. The use of ammonia as a refrigerant in margarine plants offers certain advantages as well as disadvantages. Details on mechanical requirements of refrigeration systems can be found in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15. The screw compressors. Piping requirements should comply with ANSI B31. efficiency. Ammonia is the most efficient of the commonly used refrigerants. Refrigeration Piping (70). Detectors should sound an alarm at the lowest practical level. and environment (70). Many local and national codes must also be complied with in many states. Due to the disadvantages of ammonia. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). not to exceed 1000 ppm. Easy detectability of ammonia leaks is an advantage compared to R-22. This can reduce the heat transfer considerably. The disadvantage are toxicity and flammability. Mexico. Ammonia has a corrosive effect on tissues and can cause laryngeal. taking into consideration the latest enforcement laws by the U. a number of regulations and standards provide safe practice procedures for the use of ammonia as a refrigerant. Courtesy of Cremeria Americana SA. The advantages are cost. ammonia is biodegradable and has no impact on the ozone layer (71). A suitable ammonia detection system with alarm should be installed and well maintained.S. Finally. Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration.5.

498 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT 3. HCFCs. however. As a result of the Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol and subsequent amendments and ratification by individual countries.e. 74). restricted by the U. nonfluorocarbon alternatives in emissive or potentially emissive applications. consumption. there are current and proposed regulations limiting the production. which is a component of R-502 (73). R-22 is an HCFC refrigerant considered to have an ozone depleting effect only 5% of that of a CFC refrigerant such as R-12 (52). New alternative refrigerants may exhibit different heat transfer characteristics and may quite importantly require different discharge pressures than R-22 under similar temperature conditions (73). and production of these products is not being eliminated by the Montreal Protocol. New refrigerants to replace R-502 and R-22 are discussed in detail in the literature (73. AREP’s purpose is to identify the most promising non-ozone-depleting refrigerants (73). and it is considering restrictions in the use of HFCs in compliance with Kyoto Protocol goals to limit the emissions of global warming gases. the European Union has been significantly more aggressive in its production reduction to date and scheduled reduction of HCFC production. This is due to the early deadlines for ending production of ozone-depleting CFC refrigerants such as R-115. and trade of CFCs. Over the past two decades.S. Fluorocarbon products that do not contain chlorine and/or bromine (i. Considerable information on R-22 and R-502 replacement refrigerants has been developed by the Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP). fully fluorinated and hydrofluorinated [HFC] products) are not stratospheric ozonedepleters. They are. Replacements for R-502 are being announced earlier than replacements for R-22 by refrigerant manufacturers. 74). 74). The industry should already consider the effects of the new environmental policies on its possible need for new refrigeration equipment or for modification of existing equipment (71. the global fluorocarbons market has undergone a number of major transitions toward a greater use of non-ozonedepleting HFCs and non-global-warming. . Well-known biodegradable but toxic ammonia currently is emerging as the leading replacement refrigerant (71). and all safety procedure and regulations as well as pressure vessel codes should be followed closely when modifying existing refrigeration plants (72). Studies of the CFC refrigerant’s ozone depletion and its effect on the ozone layer and global warming have reached such serious conclusions that both national and international accords are in place to protect the environment (52. International accords such as the Montreal Protocol on CFC production and other accords concerning pollution and gas emissions to the atmosphere in particular prompt a review of the refrigerants used in the margarine industry (52. This should be considered very carefully. Clean Air Act and must be recovered rather than released to the atmosphere. REFRIGERANTS FOR THE FUTURE A number of new refrigerants have been proposed during the last several years as candidates to replace R-22 and R-502 in industrial refrigeration systems (73). 71. and HFCs.. 74). Compared with the United States.

allow the optimizing of formulation cost or least-cost formulation.22 5.79 44. Here formula cost is optimized against constraints.61 12. actual production costs account for 20%.65 8. 4.8 F) Soybean oil Emulsifier Lecithin Color (carotene) Aroma Water Salt Milkpowder Potassium sorbate Citric acid % in Recipe U. with permission.00 0. Microcomputers. 34/36 C (93. These constraints are based on finished product characteristics in relation to raw material characteristics.S. Ingredient Soybean oil.00 23.00 190.98 1.PLANT LAYOUT AND PROCESS FLOWSHEET 499 HFCs. One method is to select from the formula file according to fluctuations in raw materials prices. Production constraints relate to raw material properties. FCs.04 213.53 100.50 0.8 F) Soybean oil.91 23. Minneapolis.40 2. It is essential to compare formulas and processes in order to optimize productivity by minimizing metering or weighing errors during emulsion TABLE 2.2/114. and other costs are 30% of the total (35).2/96. The high number of formulas required can make this task quite difficult unless computers are used to sort out the least-cost formula. Another method is to create new formulations by minimization. and other fluoro-based compounds are some of the alternatives to HCFCs and CFCs (75). Well-managed formulation and efficient. hydr.58 From Crown Wurster & Sanger.30 4. hydr. $/Ton Margarine 32.14 3. raw materials account for about 50% of the margarine cost. Table 2 can be used to illustrate the significance of the cost of the various ingredients in a specific recipe for production of 1 ton of margarine. Minnesota.05 0.00 8. 44/46 C (111. 76–78). accurate metering/weighing systems for the various raw materials in the emulsion preparation plant are essential factors for cost-efficient margarine production (35.935 2.00 0. PLANT LAYOUT AND PROCESS FLOWSHEET In margarine production. Ingredient Cost (79). Production schedules and previous purchases of raw materials will also have to be considered (35).10 0.20 0.005 0. existing and new processes as well as productivity in the plant.02 16.20 0. .0 493.

2. a mixer. of Buffalo Grove. is continuously involved in optimizing productivity through rationalization to minimize production costs. 78) and is considered to be a very flexible installation (53). recycling losses may reach 0. the ingredient flow (i. metering.2% of the total plant production. Three general systems are normally used for metering and mixing the various ingredients into a water-in-oil emulsion. space. and product consistency as well as expected technical performances of the product are quality constraints. Illinois. and added. Thus. In a high-productivity setting.2–0.500 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT preparation and the use of unsuitable formulas. These are (80): A continuous metering pump system A batchwise scale tank system A batchwise flowmeter system 4. A metering pump consists of drive with gear reducer and a pumphead. To allow metering. and addition in one step. Raw material quality is usually the cause (35). The flow is easily adjustable in a defined way. where the gear reduces the rotary motion of the drive motor and coverts it into a reciprocating . fulfillment of these specifications. the metering pump differs from regular pumping applications by two characteristics (81): 1. Depending on the quality control efficiency. To achieve this a proper production method and production installation must be chosen allowing optimal capacity at minimal labor cost. metering or dosing can be defined as the addition of a defined ingredient flow or amount (ingredient flow is equal to the ingredient amount added over a specified time period) to a process tank.. Well-known suppliers of metering pump systems are Bran þ Luebbe Inc. and American Lewa Inc. ingredient amount) must be transported. At the same time the high product quality and productivity must be assured (81). Emulsion preparation systems play a very important role for achieving the above productivity and thus the desired profitability in margarine production.1.4% of the total production. metered. Continuous Metering Pump System The margarine industry. reworked or recycled product should constitute no more than 0. of Holliston. maintenance cost.1–0. like other food processing industries. Pressure and viscosity variations have no or only minimal influence on the flow. Product specifications. and energy requirements. Continuous emulsion preparation using a metering pump system has been successfully used during the last decades in the margarine industry to meet the above requirements (76.e. The metering pump covers the three operations of transport. or a process (81). Massachusetts. In connection with the use of continuous metering pump systems. This will help to minimize the amount of product that has to be recycled.

where the emulsion flow from the system passes directly to the SSHE of the crystallization line. has been reported (76. . For example. Due to the flexibility of the multipumphead metering system virtually any margarine formula can be processed within the range of fat content and water content for which the system is originally laid out during the design of the overall processing capabilities (76. Maintenance of a stable emulsion in the continuous metering system’s total product flow is critical for an efficient margarine production and is achieved through the use of specially designed static in-line mixers. The use of a balance tank offers some advantages in this connection. All pumpheads can be driven by one single motor with gear reducer. 78). electrically. The total capacity of the metering pump system is adjustable according to the product demand of the crystallization line and the packaging operation (76. Due to the flexibility of the metering pump. In low-pressure systems. Dosing pump suppliers guarantee accuracies better than 0:5% (82. From the balance tank. These are installed in the main pipelines downstream of the metering system as can be seen from Figure 27.PLANT LAYOUT AND PROCESS FLOWSHEET 501 plunger motion. with dosing accuracies of 0:1%. stroke length. A combined adjustment of stroke length and stroking speed will allow the proportional metering of two or more ingredient flows based on the use of multiple pumpheads (79). The balance tank is usually equipped with an agitator and high and low level switches for control of the drive of the metering pump system. A system capable of accurately metering up to 16 ingredients. In margarine production it is possible to install a multipumphead system with individual pumpheads for each ingredient or ingredient group used in the emulsion preparation (76. only two pumpheads are used for metering of the oil phase and the water phase. which is an advantage from an energy consumption point of view. Figure 27 shows a high-pressure system. the emulsion flow from the system passes the static mixers and a possible in-line plate pasteurizer before entering a balance tank. The proportional metering of each ingredient is adjustable through the stroke length in each pumphead. Plunger diameter. Figure 27 shows a multipumphead metering system that uses an individual pumphead for each ingredient. the emulsion is then pumped by a separate high-pressure piston pump to the SSHE. 81). 78). Low-pressure or high-pressure metering pump systems can be installed according to user’s preference and required plant design. margarine emulsion preparation can be fully or partly automated by the use of a metering pump system with multiple pumpheads. and stroking speed and can be adjusted manually. Suction and discharge valves work alternately according to the plunger stroke. stroke length. Failsafe devices assure that the system is stopped automatically if an ingredient fails to flow. 81). 78. or pneumatically (81–83). The capacity is determined by plunger diameter. and type of stroking speed adjustment can be chosen individually for each pumphead in the multiple pumphead metering pump system (81–83). 83).

Accumulating excess margarine from the packaging operation can be returned to the main fresh emulsion flow by a separate rework metering pump as shown in Figure 27. The described principles of a multipumphead metering system have been reported to offer several advantages in the margarine emulsion preparation (78). as well as minimizes waste. Multipumphead metering system (74). The totally enclosed system keeps the product safe from contamination and permits easy cleaning and disinfection. Improved hygiene. This helps guarantee a uniform quality in the final product (78). .502 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Figure 27. Adjustment of the multipumphead metering system according to the recipes to be produced and other required functions can be done automatically and integrated into a control system based on the use of a PLC. allowing for registration of process parameters and other statistical information used in production control (81–83). Accurate dosing of raw materials can save margarine producers significantly in the cost of ingredients. The control system can be connected to a possible main computer system in the margarine plant. Courtesy of Food Engineering. These are Dosing accuracy of 0:1%.

data logging. Consistent quality and composition of the emulsion. 82). accuracy. self-diagnostic fault finding. metering. and other parameters that provide information on the actual status of process variables Input signals from monitoring transmitters in the system that report when a given condition has been attained. and inventory control (75. opening and closing of valves. interlocking of functions and various process sections. etc.2. labor cost reduction. Scale Tank System Scale tank systems or automatic batching systems are used in the margarine industry in order to meet today’s requirements with regard to automation. Such conditions could be maximum or minimum level in a process tank. control of pumping capacities and weighing systems for formulation and blending. selection of product routes and filling valves. productivity. which means that product losses and consumption of service media and energy are kept at an absolute minimum. In an automated process the computer-based control system continuously communicates with every controlled component and transmitter. . The logic unit of the control system processes the signals for optimal process control. and controlling mounted within one unit result in minimal floor space requirement and if layout is appropriate. All elements for pumping. The automated control system has the following control tasks (84): On/off or digital control Analog control Monitoring Reporting These control tasks cover areas such as controlling start/stop of motors. preset maximum temperatures. mixing. The control system monitors and controls the process through signals received and sent covering areas such as (84): Actuation of components in the process through output (command) signals Input (feedback) signals from valves and motors informing the control system that the component in question has been actuated Input (analog) signals from transmitters covering temperature. registration of fault conditions. 4.PLANT LAYOUT AND PROCESS FLOWSHEET 503 Single system convenience. agitation start/stop. allows easy maintenance. pressure. pasteurization control. Automation in today’s margarine industry means that all actions needed to operate the process with optimal efficiency are ordered by a control system on the basis of instructions that have been fed into the control system in the form of a control program.

Oil storage tanks could be mounted with level controls capable of reporting the oil level in each storage tank to the processing computer. The automation level for a plant is decided and planned according to factors such as (84): Selected or installed process equipment and its affect on automation level Requirements with regard to level of operator interactions and labor Required degree of reporting within the plant in relation to quality control. Oils are pumped from the storage tanks to the batching system in hot-water heated jacketed pipelines to keep the oils from solidifying (77). A portion of the milk may be used for combining with salt for brine milk. quality assurance.-based plant for production of margarine and blends containing butter (77). Microingredients such as vitamin A. Milk required for the production is received in a similar manner and pasteurized before storage in a refrigerated tank until required for batching. and total plant supervision (84). The batching system consists of two larger stainless steel tanks suspended from an electronic loadcell and are used for weighing the oils and the milk ingredients. For each margarine production plant different levels of automation may be required or possible. and butter are stored in individual. vitamin D. A sanitary flowmeter registers the amount of product received and transmits this information to the processing computer for inventory control. the computer operator can enter the formulas and number of batches required for the production each day. Automation based on the use of scale tanks for automatic batching has been reported in detail for a U. Through a keyboard. maintenance in relation to equipment operational hours. In this way the computer can monitor whether the oil level in a storage tank is large enough to meet the batch requirements. Storage tanks for the received oils are normally of the stainless steel silo type. The computer can hold numerous formulas. The tanks are equipped with both heating and cooling controls for maintaining a constant oil temperature and are flooded with nitrogen to prevent oxidation of the oils. citric acid. cream.S. The possibilities for automation are quite extensive. inventory control. during the batch formulation. Minor ingredients such as sodium benzoate. emulsifier. The ingredients weighed are discharged into one . carotene.504 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT materials consumption and inventory reporting. and flavor are also stored in stainless steel tanks and enter the system through piston-type metering pumps. potassium sorbate. stainless steel tanks. A sequential weighing of each ingredient designated by the formula used is started by computer command. in a smaller stainless steel tank suspended from an electronic loadcell (77). Each of these ingredients are weighed. color. and accounting Examples of automation in margarine production have been reported (76–78). Oils required for the margarine production in the described plant may arrive by railroad tank car or road tank truck and are unloaded by connecting the vessel’s discharge system to the receiving pump of the plant. optimization of process in relation records of energy consumption.

The operator now selects the outlet valve and feed pump for the second oil type through a switch system. 4. and closes the outlet valve. ingredient tank status. and batch tank status are monitored by the control system. Flowmeter-based systems are used quite commonly in the margarine emulsion preparation (80). These are (77): Summary report of the amount of each ingredient weighed Summary of the amount of formulas run Inventory of ingredients remaining in storage in various tanks Data transfer to main computer for accounting purposes Automated batching systems using scale tanks in margarine production offer a good solution toward higher productivity. reduced labor requirement. Blend tank status. and the described sequence is repeated. Flowmeter-based systems can also be automated through computer control covering automatic start/stop of feed pumps. selects the proper feed pump. At this stage the computer control system automatically commences a new weighing cycle. The computer control system is capable of displaying the formula of the batch. stops the pump. When the desired quantity has been metered. the batch controller automatically activates the closing valve downstream of the flowmeter. etc. . and activates the batch controller. The selected outlet valve will then open automatically and the selected feed pump will start automatically. Flowmeter System A flowmeter-based system is an alternative to the metering pumps system and the scale tank system in the emulsion preparation. overweight or underweight conditions. and total weight of the entire batch. The described automated batching system offers important advantages with regard to data processing and hard-copy printing of the results of the production day. better inventory control. which will automatically alert the operator should a fault condition occur. desired weights for each ingredient being batched. accuracy in formulation. These systems are a good alternative in margarine plants where only a minimal degree of automation is desired due to the lower labor costs and local requirements. reactivates the batch controller. and a consistent product. Batch controllers for each flowmeter are mounted in the main control panel.3. The prepared batch in the blending tank is transferred to a surge tank before transfer to the balance tank feeding the SSHE lines (77). The emulsion preparation cycle begins when the operator enters the desired quantities of each oil type into the batch controller for the oil flowmeter. Figure 28 illustrates a margarine plant using flowmeters for metering the ingredients for the margarine emulsion preparation. The preselected oil quantity is metered into the emulsion preparation tank.PLANT LAYOUT AND PROCESS FLOWSHEET 505 of two blending tanks after which the microingredients are metered into the blend tank. The operator selects the proper outlet valve of one of the oil storage tanks. registration of raw materials consumption. opening/closing of valves.

.. Minnesota. Flowmeter-based emulsion preparation. . Minneapolis.A.S. a division of Crown Iron Works Co. Courtesy of Crown Chemtech U.506 Figure 28.

Batch mixing and pasteurization tank. A defined quantity of water is added to the batching tank. heating is stopped and cooling is commenced by circulating chilled water through the heating/cooling jacket of the tank. .A. The sequence is repeated. When metering of all oil types for the oil blend is completed. The water–milk phase preparation system in Figure 28 is based on the use of a batch mixing and pasteurization tank. a division of Crown Iron Works Co.. The tank is equipped with a special agitator designed to prevent burning of protein on the tank wall. the operator enters the desired quantity of emulsifier solution into a second batch controller. but this time for metering the emulsifier solution. Heating and cooling of the prepared batch takes place in the tank by steam heating of the jacket of the tank. which has been pre-prepared in designated tanks. The pasteurized batch is transferred to a holding tank for use in the emulsion preparation. When the desired temperature of 75–78 C (167–172 F) has been reached. Milk powder is added to the tank and mixed with the water during heating. Figure 29 illustrates the described batch mixing and pasteurization tank. Minnesota.PLANT LAYOUT AND PROCESS FLOWSHEET 507 Individual oil feed lines and flowmeters for each oil type can be installed for optimal accuracy. allowing sufficient mixing of the oil blend and emulsifier solution in the blending tank.S. The prepared Figure 29. Courtesy of Crown Chemtech U.. The water–milk phase can alternatively be prepared in a mixing tank and pasteurized using a modern type of multisection plate pasteurizer. Minneapolis. The same sequence is finally repeated for the prepared water–milk phase through a third batch controller and flowmeter after a proper period of time. The process of mixing and pasteurization of a batch takes less than 2 h (84).

Thorough cleaning and disinfection of the equipment are essential parts of margarine operations to ensure optimal hygienic conditions. complicating the choice of suitable cleaning agents for particular food processing operation. The degree of cleanness can be defined by the following terms (84): Physical cleanness: removal of all visible dirt from the cleaned surfaces. other bacteria. the reason is either that heat treatment has not been properly performed or that the water–milk phase has been reinfected after pasteurization (84).508 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT water–milk phase is pumped from the mixing tank to the plate pasteurizer. A wide range of detergents and disinfectants is available today. Chemical cleanness: removal of all visible dirt as well as microscopic residues. Cleaning operations must be performed strictly according to a carefully planned procedure in order to achieve the required degree . but not all. heating to 75–78 C (167–172 F). where the product undergoes successive stages of treatment such as preheating. proper cleaning procedures help to ensure optimal product shelf life. Due to this it is important to monitor the pasteurization process carefully in order to make sure that the water– milk phase is treated in the prescribed manner. some items of equipment in the margarine production can be found not to be designed for easy cleaning and draining. Pipes are found with unnecessary bends. full consideration should be given to problems of cleaning. holding at that temperature for 15–20 s. Economic pressures have speeded up the mechanization and automation of the cleaning operations. This greatly reduces the thermal energy demand (84). and unsatisfactory valves. Even today. Bacteriological cleanness: obtained by disinfection that kills all pathogenic bacteria and most. cooling. During the design and erection phase of new plants. Combined with proper processing such as pasteurization. The pasteurization kills microorganisms that cause disease. If infections occur. Pasteurization of the water–milk phase is a very important process. Tanks with flat bottoms and inadequate drainage points can be found. Extensive development has and is taking place in the area of cleaning and disinfection techniques. Figure 30 illustrates a possible layout of the equipment of the margarine processing line shown in the flow diagram in Figure 28. Sterility: destruction of all microorganisms. Proper storage conditions for the pasteurized batch before use in the emulsion preparation are also important. blank ends. and chilling in a continuous flow. The preheating and cooling stages are combined in a regenerative section where the outgoing pasteurized product gives up its heat to the incoming product. Such installations are very difficult to clean and could lead to the buildup of stagnant products. which can be detected by taste or smell but are not visible to the naked eye. Pasteurization of the complete margarine emulsion as shown in Figure 27 is often done to minimize the risk of reinfection and to ensure the best possible storage properties of the finished margarine product.

509 Figure 30. a division of Crown Iron Works Co.S.. Minneapolis. Minnesota.. Courtesy of Crown Chemtech U. Layout of a margarine processing line. .A.

The usual technique for cleaning of tanks is to spray the detergent on the upper surfaces and allow it to run down the walls. The CIP method is essentially the same as the method described above (85). or quaternary ammonium salts. The margarine pallets are usually placed individually in a rack system to allow for proper air circulation around each pallet. All blank ends and valves not suitable for CIP should be removed and washed by hand. brittleness. Postrinsing with clean. 4. or microbiological spoilage for sensitive product types (86). lack of plasticity. The cleaning cycle in a margarine operation usually comprises the following steps (84. the temperature change in the product is not uniform across the pallet load. This could lead to differences in product structure depending on whether the product is located in the outer layer or in the middle of the pallet. alternatively disinfecting with chemical agents such as chlorine and other halogen compounds. benzoic acid washing. Cleaning with alkaline detergent solution at 60–70 C (140 –158 F) for approximately 30 min to remove all traces of fat. Insufficient or improper storage conditions can lead to several product failures such as sandiness or graininess.4. the cycle is concluded with a final rinse. Tank cleaning requires large volumes of detergent that must be circulated rapidly (84). Cleaning in place (CIP) can be defined as circulation of cleaning liquids through machines and other equipment in a cleaning circuit (84). milk solids. and other residues from the interior of the production line. oiling out. This only applies to the flow in pipes. During the initial period of storage. Storage of Finished Product Storage conditions play quite an important role for the overall quality of margarine products. warm water to remove the last traces of detergent. Disinfection by means of heating with steam or hot water. heat exchangers. This method of cleaning has replaced the older practice of stripping down valves and other difficult to clean equipment in many margarine factories. The cartons or boxes on the outer layers reach storage temperatures well before those in the middle of the pallet (52).510 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT of cleanness. pumps and valves. 85): Removal of residual fat and milk solids in the plant by means of drainage and forcing product out with water or compressed air. Margarines are usually stored in palletized cartons or boxes in refrigerated storage rooms built with insulated walls and insulated ceiling for optimal energy utilization. . etc. The mechanical scouring effect is often insufficient but can to some extent be improved by the use of specially designed spray nozzles or cleaning turbines. In the latter case. The passage of the high-velocity flow of liquids over the equipment surfaces generates a mechanical scouring effect that dislodges dirt deposits. Preliminary wash with warm water about 49 C (120 F) for loosening fat and milk solids adhering to the sides of the equipment.

puff pastry margarine. and possibly aseptic filling procedures to allow closed shelf lives comparable to conventional low-fat spreads (91). and general acceptability (88). PUFF PASTRY MARGARINE. texture. Spacers can be inserted or removed in less than 1 min and do not increase the height of pallets significantly as they are only approximately 20 mm in thickness each (52). Storage conditions affect sensory properties such as color. especially in polyunsaturated table margarines and low-fat spreads. Specialty margarines such as puff pastry margarine should be stored 2–4 days at 12–16 C (54–61 F) to allow time to stabilize the special texture and plasticity desired prior to dispatch or cold storage (89) (see Section 5. Product stored at 5 C (41 F) exhibited significantly better flavor results than product stored at 10 C (50 F). PROCESSING OF LOW-FAT SPREADS. and the consumer (88).PROCESSING OF LOW-FAT SPREADS. PUFF PASTRY MARGARINE 511 Recently. For polyunsaturated retail margarine it has been found that storage at 5 C (41 F).2). and heat exchange between the product and the environment is achieved more efficiently. such as polyunsaturated margarines. alternatively 10 C (50 F). most margarines today require that the refrigeration is maintained throughout the distribution chain and in the consumer’s home (45. . With lower melting point fats now used in most margarines. thereby ensuring that temperature stabilization is carried out quickly. The spacers are designed in such a way that they enable the air to circulate as it flows. The effect of storage on the sensory properties of the product also has great importance to the manufacturer. distributor. Studies of the effect of storage conditions on quality of retail margarines. this problem has been addressed by a very simple solution. 86–88). and also because of the water present. Low-fat spreads with 40% fat content and containing protein usually have a shelf life of 8–10 weeks and water-based low-fat spreads of about 4 months based on storage at temperatures below 10 C (50 F) (90) (see Section 5. flavor. and puff pastry butter are all very interesting products from an equipment and processing point of view as they require processing techniques that are quite different from those used in the processing of conventional retail margarine. Retail margarines are usually stored at 5–10 C (40–50 F) at the point of manufacture for 1–2 days before shipment. ultra high temperature processing. 5. Very low fat spreads with fat contents below 20% and with a water continuous emulsion character require low pH. so that the crystal structure can become fully developed and stabilized. Specially designed spacers are inserted between each layer of cartons on the pallet. High-quality shelf life of polyunsaturated retail margarine is seen to be approximately 8 months when stored at a constant 5 C (41 F). did not result in significant differences in the product with regard to color and texture. AND PUFF PASTRY BUTTER Low-fat spreads. 6 months at 10 C (50 F) (88). The airflow is in this way facilitated throughout the pallet. Systems for inserting and retrieving the spacers have been developed. Sensory values for these properties decline with storage time.1). have tended to focus on the changes in physical and chemical properties that occur during storage.

TABLE 3. Low-fat spreads (40% fat) containing protein usually have a shelf life of 8–10 weeks and water-based low-fat spreads of about 4 months based on storage at temperatures below 10 C (50 F) (90). Table 3 illustrates low-fat spreads available with fat contents ranging from 60% to as little as 5%. and once this occurs the reaction is invariably irreversible. and evolving consumer lifestyles. 60 40 40 40 20–30 15 9 5 . Therefore. and the European Community (EC) markets (91–95). whereas the U. One drawback for these products is their stringent requirements for ultra high temperature processing and aseptic filling to achieve acceptable shelf lives. Low-Fat Spreads Approximate Composition (% Fat) Vegetable fat spreads Vegetable/butterfat blended spreads Butterfat spreads Very low fat spreads Water continuous spreads Adapted from Ref. since the bulk of the product comprises watersoluble ingredients. Some Low-Fat Spreads. resulting in high wastage. if the emulsion is unstable. the tendency of the emulsion will be to become oil in water. This market trend toward reduced fat consumption has led to a significant reduction in the consumption of butter both on the U. although the product may not be fully ‘‘reversed. with permission.8% (96).1. Below about 20% fat content products of a water continuous emulsion character are prevalent (91). low-fat spreads have progressed during the last decade from being food alternatives to butter and margarine to the present standing of a product in its own right. Low-fat spreads were first introduced in the market in Great Britain in 1968 and have a significant market share today of approximately 26% in Great Britain (93).’’ the texture will be open and coarse and unacceptable (90). Under the influence of official dietary recommendations.2% even though the consumption of low-fat margarine and spreads showed an increase of 49. Additionally.S. The production of low-fat spreads is traditionally complex and there are many variations on the same theme as the technology becomes more advanced.S. Lowfat spreads are inherently unstable. Margarine consumption has remained fairly steady with a slight upward trend in the EC market lately (approximately þ1% per annum) (93). oil-in-water spreads have recently been introduced and are relatively new. (91).512 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT 5. while an acceptable texture is normally only achieved with a water-in-oil emulsion. product pricing structure. market from 1991 to 1992 showed an overall reduction of 2. In the yellow spreads market. Low-Fat Spreads Introduction.

0 0. 98).1–0. From a formulation point of view. Low-Fat Spread at 40% Fat—Typical Formulation. Diacetylactis S. low-fat spreads can be grouped as follows: Without protein and without stabilizer added Without protein but with stabilizer added With low protein level and with stabilizer added With high protein level and with stabilizer added With low protein level and with stabilizer and thickener (fat replacer) added To further illustrate and summarize the complexity of low-fat spreads formulation and possible ingredients to be used.3 50–60 1–2 Trace 0.005 100–200 ppm 1–3 0. 97.513 PROCESSING OF LOW-FAT SPREADS. 92. Leuconostoc — Acid regulator Acid regulator Buffer Emulsifier Color Flavor Stabilizer Preservative Water with protein source Salt Starter culture Sodium-hydroxide Sodium-hydrogen Trisodium-citrate % 37–40 0.001–0.1–0.1 0.4 . Component Ingredients Oil blend Hydrogenated vegetable oil Vegetable oil Mono and diglycerides Lecithin Polyglycerol ester Beta carotene including vitamins A and D Annatto Butter extract Organic acids Ketones Esters Maltodextrin Gelatin Modified starch Sodium alginate Potassium sorbate Sorbic acid Buttermilk Skim milk Whey Caseinate Soy Salt S.4 0. a typical formulation of a 40% fat content low-fat spread is shown in Table 4 of functional properties of possible ingredients in TABLE 4. PUFF PASTRY MARGARINE Formulation. Several patents have been issued covering low-fat spreads formulation and processing indicating that critical process control and/or significant levels of water binding agents are required (91.25–1.1–0. Cremoris S.

Careful blend selection and processing ensures that quite butterlike textures can still be produced. Low-fat butter or dairy spreads can also be produced from an oil-in-water dairy cream or premixed cream with a fat content adjusted to the desired percentage in the low-fat dairy spread using phase inversion. can also be added.514 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT low fat spreads formulation. vegetable-oil-based and butter-oil-based low-fat spreads as well as blended low-fat spreads containing both vegetable oil and butter oil can be produced continuously. If too much crystallization occurs in the process. Emulsifiers are used to lower the surface tension between the water and oil phases. thereby stabilizing the liquid emulsion before . Constant flow rate and exact temperature control are necessary for proper phase reversion. Fill temperatures are higher than with corresponding 50% fat products because the emulsion is more viscous. High SSHE (A unit) shaft speeds as well as increased shaft speeds in the required worker unit (B unit) are preferred to achieve phase inversion. the product will build up in the tub with excessive lid contact causing crumbly product and water leakage. low-fat products are more easily prepared by use of high liquid oil content and low solid fat index (SFI) blends. In the case of low-fat butter. The flow diagram in Figure 31 shows such a process line using SSHEs for pasteurization of the prepared water-in-oil emulsion. are added in a separate vessel to minimize their storage time at elevated temperatures. the shearing forces of processing and filling may break the emulsion. color. Typically. This is necessary to prevent free water in the finished stored product. providing an emulsion of the correct phase (water–oil) and water droplet size. In general. the bulk liquid oils are transferred from the storage facility to the emulsion mixing vessel at 55–60 C (131–140 F). crystallization of the emulsion. The manufacture under high degree of agitation with minimal shear precedes the processing of the emulsion. Table 5 indicates a summary of recipes for various types of low-fat spreads. 99). crystallization. emulsifier (approximately 1% distilled monoglyceride) and stabilizer (hydrocolloids such as gelatin or sodium alginate) are added in smaller quantities to the prepared cream. For product stability reasons. Therefore. If fill temperature is too low. Oil-soluble ingredients. the production is more difficult due to higher SFI values for butter oil at lower temperatures. The process line for this purpose is normally especially designed to ensure crystallization and texturization of the product to take place under controlled conditions and within the processing equipment. Processing. This is achieved by crystallizing a batchwise or continuously prepared water-in-oil emulsion in an SSHE process line. and flavor. and reworking of the crystallized emulsion. Minor ingredients. such as flavor and color. and working of the product (90–92. The cream is prepared during controlled agitation and temperature and passed through the SSHE line at a rate of 40–50% of normal capacity. Low-fat water-in-oil emulsions with fat contents of 40% or lower have been found to be quite sensitive to line pressures and cooling rate in the SSHE line. such as emulsifier. The higher liquid oil content improves the emulsion stability by more adequately separating the increased number of aqueous-phase droplets.

5c — 1.6 10.1 3 0.5 0. Can also contain butteroil. Reprinted from Moran (91) with permission.3 — — 1.6 (IV 55) — 4 0.5 39.0 9.TABLE 5.0 — — 6.0c — 0. c Starch based.5 — — — 0.1 4 0.5 — 1.1 a Typically liquid 76 hard fraction 24 (slip point 42–44 C).7 0.3 0.1 0.5b 19.e.1 3.2 with lactic acid if required) Gelatin Thickener Skim milk powder Sodium caseinate Potassium sorbate Flavor 59.01 59.8–6.01 69.01 59.8 0. i.1 5. % Water (salt) (adjust to pH 4.5 (IV 55) — 3 0..02 39. Basic Formulations for Reduced-Fat Spreads.0 0.4 0.6 (IV 80) 0.1 5 0. palm stearin.01 51.01 1.0 0.02 2.0 — — — — — — — — 0.01 86.4 (IV 55) 0.0 — 0.5 39.4 (IV 55) 0.5 0.5 39.0 0. ppm Flavor/vitamins.5 39.6 (IV 80) 0. % Fata Emulsifier (distilled monoglycerides) Lecithin Beta carotene.1 3 0. b .01 — 0.7 — — 5 0.1 0.01 57.1 0.0 3.1 0. Product Type (Fat Content) Ingredient 60% 40% Water Only 40% Water Plus Stabilizer 40% Low Protein Level 40% Higher Protein Level 20% Based on EPO42031 5A2 10% Oil in Water Based on EPO29856 1A2 Composition.

Minneapolis.S.. a division of Crown Iron Works Co. Courtesy of Crown Chemtech U.. Schematic diagram of SSHE process line for production of low-fat spreads.516 Figure 31. .A. Minnesota.

final cooling temperature 12 C (57.6 F). The emulsion is rapidly supercooled with vigorous agitation by the scraping and blending action of the knife blades of the A unit.e. and retention time. Milk proteins and soy lecithin can also affect the water droplet size. In high-protein low-fat spreads. The prepared emulsion is fed via a balance tank to a high-pressure pump. PUFF PASTRY MARGARINE 517 crystallization takes place. a thin film of crystallized emulsion is continuously scraped off the walls of the cooling cylinders and mixed with warmer emulsion. the protein’s function is to create a three-dimensional network responsible for immobilizing the water (94). other ingredients such as stabilizers) in which the protein is present during the emulsification process (101). and texturizing of the emulsion are continuously undertaken within a series of A and B units. The influence of the viscosity and functionality of the aqueous phase on emulsion stability. Due to the presence of higher amounts of solidified fat in the product during its passage through the worker unit. oil phase temperature 60 C (140 F). addition rate. Ammonia/Freon evaporation temperatures would vary depending on throughput. When the product is filled into tubs. or water. For stick wrapping. temperature at filler 16 C (60. 100). a bulking agent is added to yield the optimum viscosity for a particular formulation. Typical process conditions (25–40% fat) would be as follows (90): aqueous phase temperature 45 C (113 F). and type and speed of mixing. the product is pasteurized and held prior to being subjected to precooling and prepared for crystallization. During the passage through the A unit. stabilizing. it is conveyed directly from the after-treatment worker cylinder to the filling machine. spreading. usually of a piston variety to a series of in-line SSHEs. water phase viscosity and functionality. emulsion temperature 52 C (125. This is necessary to ensure a homogeneous product and a fine dispersion of the aqueous phase.PROCESSING OF LOW-FAT SPREADS. resulting in a light texture and good flavor release. the produced product passes to a resting tube connected directly to the stick wrapping machine. The heated aqueous phase is added to the oil phase under controlled conditions creating a good-quality water-in-oil emulsion. The water droplet size is reduced further during this step and the reduction is dependent on emulsion viscosity. water droplets can recoalesce during this process step. Proteins and lecithin tend to increase the drop size (91. Critical parameters at this stage include the temperature of the two phases. precool temperature 40 C (104 F). and eating characteristics of the product are significant.. Finally. Cooling.6 F).8 F). The process continues until the emulsion leaves the last cylinder and enters a worker unit for final texturization. The use of emulsifiers gives greater numbers of smaller water droplets in the product. whey. Salt and various acidity regulators are added to the water phase along with an adjustment of the acidity. shaft speed. . The aqueous phase is prepared in a separate vessel and would typically comprise skimmed milk. Once in the pasteurizer heating cylinders. The functional properties for a given protein are greatly influenced by the environment (i. pasteurization temperature 85 C (185 F) for 15 s.

518 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Excess product from the packaging operation is continuously remelted in a rework SSHE in a controlled manner and returned to the system via the balance tank or a positive pump facility for adding reclaimed material. (a) Conventional processing. ( b) inversion processing. (c) method of oil in water spreads. Basic process line for low-fat spreads (91). . Figure 32. Figure 32 illustrates and summarizes the basic process lines used for the production of different types of low-fat spreads.

. Puff pastry is made from very thin layers of dough and margarine.PROCESSING OF LOW-FAT SPREADS.2. which bake to a light and flaky structure of good volume and uniform appearance. Puff pastry is quite different from other margarine types in its properties and especially its plasticity (102). Figure 33 shows an SSHE with four cooling cylinders. Puff Pastry Margarine Introduction. The function of the puff pastry margarine is to act as a barrier between the dough layers both during rolling to prevent them from fusing together and to prevent the formation of a three-dimensional structure between the gluten protein in each thin dough layer during baking (104). 103). 102. Scraped-surface heat exchanger. This laminated structure is achieved by a special dough handling procedure. The plasticity of puff pastry margarine is essential for preparation of puff pastry of high quality. 5. one pin worker. Courtesy of Schroeder & Co. Germany. and one inversion crystallizer mounted for production of low-fat spreads using the inversion technique. where the dough is folded and rolled together with the puff pastry margarine resulting in a finished puff pastry dough with alternating layers of dough and margarine (87.. PUFF PASTRY MARGARINE 519 Figure 33. Luebeck.

Formulation. consumer (baker) preferences. Choice of type of SSHE. 105).8% to facilitate the emulsifier effect. 38 C (100. several factors such as local climatic conditions. When formulating a suitable oil blend for puff pastry margarine. Sufficient plasticity for stretching rolling in the dough preparation to ensure unbroken homogeneous thin layers of margarine in the dough. to a certain degree. shea fat. 106). lard. hydrogenated palm oil. 42 C (107. oil blend formulation. . An example of such an oil blend is as follows: hydrogenated soybean oil. temperature and methods used during dough preparation. 44 C (111.6 F). flow rate and required product retention time. This can be attributed to the fact that it is easier to produce a vegetable-oil-based puff pastry margarine with a good plasticity in an SSHE process line (105). 5%. 107). Emulsifiers influence the crystallization of the margarine both during processing and storage resulting in improved plasticity (106). the oil blend formulation plays quite an important role. hydrogenated fish oil are the most suited fats for production of plastic puff pastry margarine (87. This is necessary for the laminated structure and volume of Danish pastry. Soy lecithin is usually added at a level of 0. Low-calorie puff pastry margarine with 60% fat content has been reported (94).4 F). The absence of softness or greasiness when worked. Emulsifiers of the monoglyceride type with or without polyglycerol ester added are usually added to the oil blend of the puff pastry margarine at a level of 1% of the overall recipe of the margarine (106. and palm kernel oil are the components of the oilblend. liquid soybean oil. where palm stearin. Tallow-based puff pastry margarine produced on the open chill drum system has excellent plasticity. Tallow. Puff pastry margarine normally has a fat content of 80% and oil blends giving a flat SFI curve are sought. Soybean-oil-based puff pastry margarine has relatively poor plasticity. Hydrogenated soybean oil in combination with hydrogenated palm oil can give very good baking results as well as a margarine with an excellent texture and plasticity (51). reportedly performs better than tallow-based puff pastry margarine (103). and desired quality of the finished baked Danish pastry must be considered (51). Palm-oil-based puff pastry margarine. as well as process temperature profile along with several other factors have a significant influence on the final quality of any puff pastry margarine (51.520 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT The demands on the properties of puff pastry margarine can be summarized as follows (80): A high degree of plasticity over a wide temperature range. hydrogenated soybean oil. 40%. 20%. shaft and blade design. palm oil and. Low pH of the water phase of the puff pastry margarine will have a pronounced effect on the lift in the finished pastry. hydrogenated palm oil. They also ensure that the emulsion is heat stable during baking. To ensure the above properties of a puff pastry margarine. One hundred percent soybean-oil-based puff pastry margarine cannot be characterized as a typical puff pastry margarine oil blend (105). 35%.2 F).

A general flow diagram for a puff pastry margarine processing line can be seen in Figure 34. Due to this system’s disadvantages in space requirements. Normally. special design features have to be considered to ensure that the complete production line has all the necessary capabilities for puff pastry margarine. Copenhagen. the majority of all puff pastry margarine is produced in SSHE lines. Afterward. the margarine flakes are rested in large hoppers for crystallization to progress before separate kneading under vacuum in a complector occurs (80). and hygiene. Choice of the required SSHE equipment is very important for the production of high-quality puff pastry margarine. Schematic diagram for SSHE process line for production of puff pastry margarine. Puff pastry margarine with optimal properties has for many years been produced on the open chill drum/vacuum complector system available in the market from Gerstenberg & Agger A/S. Crystallization takes place during complete rest and during very rapid cooling. A detailed discussion of required design features in the process line can be found elsewhere in this Chapter (see Section 2. PUFF PASTRY MARGARINE 521 Processing.PROCESSING OF LOW-FAT SPREADS.2). Denmark. The desired properties of puff pastry margarine depend not only on oil blend formulation but also very much on the three-dimensional crystal structure formed during crystallization and storage (105). . This relates to the previously mentioned required properties of puff pastry margarine. and cooling of the product promote the development of the consistency and the plasticity desired. it is recommended to use a process line where the SSHE is equipped with multiple cooling cylinders (80). Today. production of puff pastry margarine in SSHE process lines has developed significantly over the past two decades. It should be noted that process lines for vegetable-oil-based puff pastry margarine differs somewhat from the process lines for animal-oil-based puff pastry margarine with regard to the equipment sizing and layout (51). Figure 34. labor demand. For each piece of equipment in the production line. This is advantageous in the production of puff pastry margarine as successive steps of cooling. Here a thin layer (less than 1 mm) is applied directly on the surface of the open chill drum. working.

When mechanical work is applied to the product during the cooling process by the blades of the A unit or by the pins of the intermediate worker unit’s (B unit) shaft. The properties desired in puff pastry butter are similar to those outlined for puff pastry margarine in Section 5. the product is supercooled and. Formulation. Normally. Puff Pastry Butter Introduction. to a certain degree. there has been a growing interest in recent years. the volume and design of the final resting tube (Figure 34) have a significant influence in relation to the oil blends used (51. blending. 80. 109). they will not reestablish easily. Oil blend formulation for puff pastry butter requires the same consideration as for puff pastry margarine with regard to usage temperature. or by changing the layout of the intermediate worker unit and cooling cylinders according to the oil blends used. Besides the influence of temperature. Due to this. 5.1. a minor product temperature increase indicating minimal postcrystallization can normally be observed before the product enters the packaging operation. The bindings in the primary structure are. Furthermore.2. the word butter is appreciated by the consumer. to use butter stearin and other butter fractions in pastries such as Danish pastries and croissants (108. two types of crystal structures will appear: a primary and a secondary. and time (capacity) on the texture and quality of the puff pastry margarine. 105). The crystallization process is normally controlled through a variation of flow rate. it is advantageous to insert an intermediate worker unit (B unit) between the cooling cylinders to allow time for the crystallization to progress further during agitation under the absence of cooling (51. A more detailed discussion of crystallization and crystal structures can be found in Section 1. During the passage through the resting tube. Please refer to Figure 34. refrigerant evaporation temperature. the retention time in the A-unit alone is not sufficient for crystallization of puff pastry margarine due to the special texture required. This leads to products with a brittle and hard texture. This is achieved by reducing the capacity of the process line to a level of only 50–60% of the capacity obtainable for regular margarine on the same A-unit. It is widely accepted in the industry that the primary structure has a tendency to be formed if insufficient mechanical work is applied. on the contrary. To reduce the postcrystallization to a minimum to ensure the development of the proper crystal structure and desired plasticity.522 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT During the product passage through the multiple cylinders of the SSHE. 104). crystallized. The bindings between the crystals of the secondary structure are weak and even though destroyed by the application of mechanical work. For this reason.3. The flavor of butter and butter fractions is very attractive to the human palate due to their content of very short chain fatty acids. solid . especially in Europe. very strong and when destroyed by mechanical work. it is necessary to prolong the cooling and working of the puff pastry margarine in the SSHE line (105). they reestablish themselves very quickly when the mechanical work is eliminated.

3. Fats and oils are obviously the raw materials of major importance in a margarine production. flow rates. drop point 24 C (75. Cleaning and disinfection procedures have been described in Section 4. QUALITY CONTROL.2. Design and layout of the SSHE line as well as the processing conditions basically follows the same pattern as outlined for puff pastry margarine in Section 5. This quality has to be maintained (35). Possible Oil Blends for Recombined Butters for Various Bakery Applications. is important (35). plasticity. and pH of the water phase. drop point 32 C (89.1. acceptable by many fats and oils suppliers. Results from these quality control methods may be compared to minimum standards available either by law or set by the marketplace (111). When a margarine plant is not integrated with a refinery. AND SANITATION 523 TABLE 6. 6. 4.PRODUCTION CONTROL. ingredient consumption. and 4. . and other production variables has been described in Sections 4. and changes in ingredient costs. The desired specifications are obtained when formulas are made for raw materials of standard quality.2. QUALITY CONTROL. drop point 40 C (104 F) Soft butter stearin.3.6 F) Butter stearin. Production control through registration of process parameters. PRODUCTION CONTROL.2 F) Butter olein. AND SANITATION The success of a margarine manufacturer depends on many factors including marketing. Some possible oil blends (110) are shown in Table 6. Quality of raw materials and finished products can be determined through instrumental techniques and ultimately by sensory evaluation. 6. increased control of raw materials and stabilization of manufacturing parameters through the creation of specifications. To ensure a constant high quality of the product.4 F) Total Bakery (%) Croissant (%) Puff Pastry (%) 20 75 0 5 15 80 5 0 5 95 0 0 100 100 100 fat contents. emulsifier dosage. Raw Materials Management of quality requires that the specifications and regularity of properties of mixture are fulfilled. drop point 18 C (64. Processing.1. The foundation for continued success is the quality of the product itself. Oil Butter oil. productivity. production and quality control as well as sanitation in the margarine plant are quite important disciplines. formulation.

6. penetrations. flavor stability. fatty acid composition. and electrical conductivity. oil exudation. The stability of the water-in-oil emulsion is quite important in low-fat spreads. peroxide value. oral melting characteristics. 114). External pressure also is an influencing factor that is particularly relevant with wrapped products stacked at a low point in a pile in storage. and water stability may be evaluated along with the spreadability (92). 92. refractive index. free fatty acid. slip melting point. Determination of crystallization rate and solid fat index can be done conveniently using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques (91). and viscosity are normally used to measure factors affecting consistency and texture (5. 91. emulsion viscosity at 35 C (95 F).2. and solid fat/temperature relationship (solid fat index) (5. The quality control in the margarine plant will essentially concentrate on the production parameters and on finished product examination (35). Oil exudation results from a reduction in the volume of the fat crystal network over time and is due to the formation of strong primary or secondary bonds. AOM stability. 91): appearance. the raw materials characteristics are generally obtained in the refinery. and electrical conductivity gives a measure of this. flavor. Empirical tests include measuring the oil exuded under controlled pressure on absorption into pre-weighed paper (91). 35. color stability. penetration. Quality control systems usually used for judging the quality of oils and fats or oil blends used in margarine production could evaluate color. spreadability. active oxygen method (AOM) stability. Color is most frequently measured by the Lovibond procedure (5).524 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT When a margarine plant is integrated with a refinery. crystallization rate. Spreadability can be evaluated by spreading the product in a consistent manner on a suitable surface such as greaseproof paper or cardboard. 112. 113). Light microscopy can give a good impression of the drop size distribution. homogeneity. In this way hardness. softness. Finished Products Testing techniques for the evaluation of physical properties and other properties of finished margarine products as well as low-fat spreads have been stated to include (4. The results may vary from smooth and homogeneous to very coarse and showing visible water drops (91). A very simple test for judgment of the droplet size distribution in margarine is the use of dyed type of absorbent paper (indicator paper) specially prepared for such purpose (91. melting points. and peroxide value provide standardized methology for those factors affecting oxidative stability (5. . Refractive index. emulsion drop size. iodine value. Electrical conductivity can be followed during production through suitably designed measuring cells mounted in the process line or be measured directly on product samples in tubs (91). Solid fat index. 112. 113). which is an important characteristic especially for indicating potential microbiological hazards in water-in-oil products (91). iodine value. 113). slump (collapse).

Microorganisms require certain basic conditions for growth. The thermal death point for bacteria falls into two classes (84. while others will grow only in strong salt solutions. resulting in the formation of two identical organisms. and flavor quality are factors that can be judged through sensory evaluation by trained panels (4. sugar. 85). Free water. Bacteria. Microbiology and Plant Sanitation Microorganisms are classified into three main groups. The thermal death point for molds and yeasts is heating to 60 C (140 F) for about 30 min (84). 85). Microorganisms usually require other conditions for growth such as protein. The composition of the water . 85). elliptical. depending on their method of reproduction (84. and may be. The first is the simple type of bacteria. Salt will destroy some types. 91). and vitamins (85). The second is the bacteria type that forms a special heat-resistant state (spores). Microorganisms in Relation to Margarine. These usually reproduce by budding. When the colonies are fully developed. Most molds reproduce by spores of various types. threadlike fungi (84). QUALITY CONTROL. The yeast cell begins to grow a small bud on the cell wall. 6. Yeasts. so one bacterium held under the optimum conditions would result in many millions of bacteria in 24 h (84). Bacteria cannot grow in the absence of moisture (82. color. 83). a mature organism starts dividing in the center. Margarine consists of oils and fats and water that is finely dispersed in the oil blend as well as other ingredients as indicated earlier. which enables the bacteria to withstand adverse conditions. They are single-cell organisms of spherical. Bacteria can only develop within certain temperature limits that vary from one species to another. others are not. microorganisms cannot grow in fat and oil. Molds. which is killed by heating to 70 C (158 F) for 30 min. however. Some are very sensitive to. This group consists of single-cell organisms that mostly reproduce by binary fission (84. which then increases in size until it is the same as the parent cell (84. The spores usually have thick walls and are relatively resistant to desiccation and heat (84). and food deterioration (84). Development of Microorganisms. The category of molds comprises a fairly heterogeneous group of multicelled. which means the microbiological rancidity only appears in the water droplets and on the surface of the margarine (115). AND SANITATION 525 Appearance. or cylindrical shape (84). 85). this fission can take place every 20 min. they become visible to the naked eye and can be described by expressions such as ‘‘hairy. oral melting characteristics. reproduction.3. These are killed by steam treatment at 120 C (248 F) for 30 min (84. even to the extent of one fourth of 1%. they will not grow in dry oils and fats or in any other form of dry material. Under ideal conditions. 85). is sufficient to permit the growth. Thus.’’ Mold colonies can occur in various colors depending on type of food product (83). Temperature is the greatest single factor affecting growth.PRODUCTION CONTROL. trace elements. That is. inhibited by acidic or alkaline conditions. It then breaks free and the process starts again. 35. Normally.

The growth of bacteria. Nearly all forms of bacteria could survive and possibly grow in low-salt margarines. withstand far higher temperatures.5%) should be combined with a high pH (pH 6) as a low pH in high-salt margarines induces a greater rate of chemical rancidity (oxidation) in the margarine (85. the initial total bacteria count should be kept low but a water dispersion that is a little coarser can be allowed. 115).5 (85). can be controlled by the combined effects of the salt concentration and the pH (or acidity) of the water phase. important that the correct amount of emulsifying agents is used and that the processing conditions are such that a tight and stable emulsion can be prepared in a controlled manner. 115). the water phase can have a slightly higher pH of about 5. The previously mentioned thermal death point of most microorganisms is about 60–70 C (140–158 F). therefore. and never touching any foodstuffs more than is absolutely necessary. care should naturally be taken to ensure that the emulsion of the margarine is not exposed to contamination (115). After pasteurization. it follows that some microorganisms can and will grow either in the emulsion preparation system or the margarine production units. the only protection against the development is the size of the water droplets (85). Based on the above. never working with a dirty or loose bandage or with an open wound. Furthermore. Due to this. when heated in a water solution will die (85). medium-salt margarines (1–2. To achieve this. The presence of fat and milk solids will protect them from the effect of heat.0–5. margarines can be divided into three groups according to their salt content. Pasteurization of the water phase or the liquid emulsion improves the microbiological keeping properties. very good cleaning procedures and an overall high plant and equipment hygiene needs to be maintained (85). For medium-salt margarines. therefore.526 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT phase. it is quite important that the water dispersion in the low-salt margarine is as fine as possible as smaller water droplets furnish less nourishment for microorganisms in contaminated water droplets (85. A reduced salt concentration requires the margarine to be more acid (lower pH) to give the same measure of protection against the growth of bacteria (85. and high-salt margarines (over 2. therefore. and they can.5% salt). The thermal death point is the temperature at which the organisms. low-salt margarines should have a pH range of 4. therefore. The regular and efficient cleaning of the plant is. paying immediate attention to cuts and other wounds. It is vitally important that people working in a margarine plant observe cleanliness and the elementary rules of hygiene such as thoroughly washing their hands before starting to work and after visiting the restrooms. but not yeast and molds. In practice.5% salt). Also. High salt levels in margarine (over 2. It is. As the growth of molds and yeast in margarine is not prevented through the combination of salt concentration and pH (acidity). 115). plays a very important part in the storage quality of the margarine (85). Finally. of the highest importance. it is important to produce a low-salt margarine with a very low initial total bacteria count.0 (85). . These are low salt margarines (0–1% salt).

The floors should be smooth and easily cleaned and made of materials that are adapted to the use of each room. should be adequately ventilated (85. Soap and disposable towels should be available at the handwashing facility (116). The production room itself should have a minimum ceiling height of 2. 6. consideration should be given to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs as defined by Title 21. AND SANITATION 527 People known to suffer from gastroenteritis should be removed from sensitive areas of the production line (85). the plant should be laid out in such a way that finished products can be transported in a hygienic manner from the storage room to distribution trucks. Margarine Production Building Facilities During the design of plants and buildings. food additives. QUALITY CONTROL. or other foodstuffs are located. The production rooms. The walls should be covered with glazed tiles or other suitable material at a minimum height of 1. The walls should be smooth. cleaning materials. additives. there should be handwashing facilities installed with cold and warm water (116). The following outlines some good manufacturing practices for facilities in order to establish hygienic margarine production. A margarine plant should be located in such surroundings and in relation to other plants that there are no environmental hazards affecting the hygienic aspects (116). or other rooms where margarine. The floors should slope appropriately toward drainage points. which could pollute the air. storage rooms. should be installed in a separate. Code Federal Regulation.7 m and the transition between the floor and wall should . and easily cleaned up to a suitable height (116). Separate canteen and locker rooms as required for the personnel should be available. with exception of the cold storage room. or compressors for refrigeration. unless the restroom area contains a special front room that separates the restroom from the production facilities. effectively ventilated room (116). On the outside of all entrances to the rooms of the plant. Part 110) for microbiological control and ease of cleaning. sufficient number of restrooms with handwashing facilities should be available and located in such a manner that there is no direct access between restroom areas and production rooms. suitable areas should be covered with asphalt. power generation. free of ledges.4. which constitute a microbiological risk. In the production room and product handling areas or in their close vicinity. For the use of the personnel. The plant should have the necessary rooms for production and storage including cold storage as well as a separate room or another suitable facility for the storage of packaging materials. Further. and detergents (116). margarine production in some cases still takes place in buildings with exposed beams. for example. or other materials that prevent the accumulation of water and allow proper cleaning of the area. concrete.PRODUCTION CONTROL. 116).5 m and the floors should be watertight and made from concrete with acid brick tiles or other suitable material. which act as dust and dirt traps. in practice. Fixed installations for heating. This would allow the ideal condition for margarine production but.

F. Amer.. 4. Amer.-Wiss. 59(4). Soc. 64(4).. 1986. Wilton and G. U. The floor should be kept fat free and washed regularly with a mild alkaline detergent (85). Production of Shortening and Cake Margarine for Packaging in Cartons. Garti et al. November. 55(11). 101 (1970). I. M. Wiedermann. 345 (1959). J. Technol. 124 (1987). J. H. Minneapolis. Oil Chem.. 830 (1978). Wiedermann. Soc. G. Thomas III. 3(6). Amer. Soc. 707 (1963). 25. 753 (1979).. Lebensm. C.. Reading. Oil Chem. Wode.528 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT be watertight and made for easy cleaning (116).. 2.. Amer. Amer. Riiner. Buenos Aires. 27. Soc. Soc. 3.. Argentina. C. 37(10).-Wiss. Heat Transfer during the Production of Margarines and Low Fat Spreads. Amer. 24. there is always a serious danger of the plant being reinfected after washing... J. 23. 26. J. Oil Chem. Amer. 408 (1985). Lebensm. Maclellan. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. Oh et al. J. pp. Oil Chem. January. K. Lutton. Amer. 20. 15. Timms. Soc. Soc. Haighton. N. Soc. Oil Chem. M. K. Lebensm. deMan et al. Haighton. 10. 14. u. A. Oil Chem. S. 12. J. 181 (1982).. Crown Chemtech Technology Memorandum No. L. E. 10. Kuroda. H. 1993. J.. N. Rivarola et al. 1 (1972). Wright. Riiner. J. H. N. Sato and T. R. Oil Chem. Amer. Technol. Garti et al. 6. W. 13. Oil Chem. 19. 1986. M. United Kingdom.. 241 (1985). Soc. Soc. L. Oil Chem. U. 62(2). 16. E. J. 54(3). Oil Chem. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. 40(12). 62(2). Oil Chem.. 64(1). A.. 76 (1971). J. 17. 1194 (1964). R.. J. 5. J. 66(1). u. 539 (1960). Amer. J. J. J. 128 (1989). Soc. Krog. U.. K. 18. Oil Chem. 175 (1971). Kawamura. PORIM Bulletin No. E. J. 823 (1978). RITA 86. 124 (1977). Technol. Soc. J. 58(12). Hoerr. J. L.. Oil Chem. REFERENCES 1. 1987. 17. Amer. Duns. Unless the building and the production room.. Crown Wurster & Sanger.. B. Soc. 11. A. 53(6). J... Internal Memorandum. 55(11). Berger and W. 21. J. 9. 1058 (1981). 15.. u. 36(8). 49(8). 64(11). Riiner. Oil Chem.-Wiss.. Oil Chem. Amer. J. Amer. Amer.. Soc. Amer. are kept clean. 368 (1983). Oil Chem. unpublished. 7. 4(6). 1993. PORIM Occasional Paper No. Oil Chem. Amer. Molinos Rio de la Plata S.. 49(1). 1537 (1987).. which negates all the precautions taken with regard to cleaning and hygienic procedures in the plant. J. 4(3).. Calvelo. 478 (1972). Soc. Oil Chem. Oil Chem. 22. 11–17. Schlichter Aronhime et al. 56(8).. Soc. Soc. 47. 397 (1976). Dairy Sci. 529 (1987). Amer. Soc. Minnesota. A. 8. 28. G. J. as well as other rooms. Soc. Amer. Day. 60(2). Amer.. L. J. A. . deMan.

Yap et al. Francaise Corps Gras. Minnesota. 2(1). 62(2). 30. pp. Yap et al. 18(7). 46. O.. 23(10). Francaise Corps Gras. 55. J.. 40. R. 31. 1993.. eds. Kun and A. 1–3. Hall Taylor. 1993. pp. H. H. Gunstone. Amer. Louis. and the American Oil Chemists’ Society. Oh and K. G. in V. Palm Oil Developments No. H. Oil Chem. Ref. Soc. Rev. 547 (1976). N. 62. and R. Amer. 42. J. Oil Chem. 1784 (1989). 34. New York. van Putte and B. Berger.. Chrysam. Crown Wurster & Sanger/Crown Chemtech Ltd. K. J. A. 45. 66(12). J. List et al. 2. N. E.. Crown Chemtech Ltd. Oil Chem. p. 66(12). Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. Becker. Seifen. 57. H.. Soc. Oil Chem. Minnesota. P. J. J. Oils and Fats in the Nineties. L. L. Joyner. Alexandersen. T. Reading. Oil Chem. 32. Technology Memorandum No. 78. J.. deMan et al.. 54. J. K.. Francaise Corps Gras. Ibrahim.. P. H. 693 (1989). 5. 1993. D. Worker Units and Resting Tubes in Relation to Capacity and Product Type. Berger. Alexandersen. L. O. 48.. Soc. Amer. C. in T. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. Brekke. 35. 38.. Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products. 174 (1990). Traitler and A. A. 417 (1985). 1993. Fette. Amer. K. C. H. P. T. 66(5). Minneapolis. 5. H. Soc. Minneapolis. 33(10). Amer. Duterte. 5th ed. Lefevre. R.. Amer. Y. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. Oil Chem. E. Rajah. INFORM. May. K. Soc.. Duterte. M. Guidelines for Selection of Required Chemetators. 254–282. J. Illinois. K. 1991. Champaign. F. ELAEIS. Oil Chem. 1. Soc. . 1040 (1959). St. April. in D. Dieffenbacher. 143 (1990). Mounts. 1792 (1989). K. 1777 (1989). United Kingdom. Soc. 18. 1138 (1987). F. 9–14. Oil Chem. M. Soc. 48. S. 57(1). 526 (1953). Handbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization. Sudin et al. 13–24. Technology Memorandum No. The Operation of Scraped Surface Heat Exchangers with Very Viscous Materials during Cooling. pp. N. G. E. pp. Rev. A.. Soc. Oil Chem. 56. Erickson. Yap et al. 60(2). Pryde. 1980. 52.. Applewhite. 61. 54(10). 587 (1972). 44. Rev. M.. ed. p.. 295 (1983). 39. Soc.. Amer. August.. Amer. 408 (1977). PORIM Technology No. Denmark. 1992. 37.. 30. September. F. McMichael. 512 (1956). G. P. 49. American Soybean Association. 64(8). Soc. K. Oil Chem.REFERENCES 529 29. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. J. 53. R. Falb. Massiello. 2. 15. 36. Wiley-Interscience. Amer. eds. 47. Jakubowski. H.. Anstrichmittel. Soc. Vegetable Puff Pastry Margarine for Extrusion. 1985. 43. Shukla and F. J. Kawamura. Amer. Bakker. 66(12). 50. Missouri. T. Palm Oil Developments No. C.. 48 (1980).. 55(2).. Crown Chemtech Ltd. 51. 1981. K. J. L. Oil Chem. PORIM Bulletin No. Oil Chem. 262 (1978). Brekke. Amer. 19(10). 1981. R. International Food Science Centre A/S. 41. Amer. J.. 33. Shen et al. J. 429 (1971). Technology Memorandum No. 1(3).

G. J. 1993. 80. Budlong. Washington D. of Crown Iron Works Co. 60. personal message.. 62. B. 63. Int’l. 1994. Food Eng. Norderstedt. Sweden.. Lund. Food Engineering AB. Food Eng. M.. McMichael. 1994. United Kingdom. Plant Hygiene and Microbiology in the Production of Margarine. ALFA-LAVAL. E. 84.830. Germany. 40(6). January 15. Internal Memorandum. . Bock & Sohn Maschinenfabrik. Benz & Hilgers GmbH. 4. p. 81. Minnesota. American Lewa Inc. July. Internal Memorandum. Denmark.. 1990. 76. R. Minnesota. Am. Metering Pumps in the Processing of Oils and Fats. V. Hickman.’’ Chemical Economics Handbook. E. Buffalo Grove. Refrigerant Hot Gas By-pass System. Fette Seifen & Anstrichm. Amer. 71. GmbH). Food Proc. 65. Neuss. Benz & Hilgers GmbH. J. 53(1). Massachusetts. A. Fischer (to Benz & Hilgers. Copparapid 8270. Neuss. 1993. A. Field Report.C. Finch. 42 (1994). Germany. Reading. Benz & Hilgers GmbH. Minnesota. 48.. Cannes. 80. Reigel and C. Technology Memorandum No. N. 70. Oil Chem. Karstedt.068 (May 16. Neuss. 1993. Dairy Rev. Miller. Milwaukee. K. Pat 4. 1994. Altrock.. D. Arnold. Soc. Holliston.. 61. R. 1. Filling and Wrapping Machines. 77. 75. ASHRAE J. K. 1993. Germany. Germany.. Margarine Statistics Report. Calif. Wurster & Sanger. SRI Consulting. 85. Crown Wurster & Sanger. Benz & Hilgers GmbH. E. Multipack 8362. L. December (1993). Crown Chemtech Ltd.. 28 (1978). 81. Internal Memorandum. 67. Edmunds and T. Langenhahn. Consulting-Specifying Engineer. Park. 30 (1976). 66.. C... 1994. Crown Chemtech Ltd. Ref. Menlo. 26 (1994). 74. 78. September (1981). Metering Pumps and Systems. 82. 1989). 86.. Presented at the World Conference on Edible Oils and Fats Processing.530 MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT 58. 38 (1981). L. 83. 1994. Grindsted Products. U. G. Vilter Manufacturing Company. K. Germany. Margarine Production. Amer. 64. 4. Mooshammer. 1985. Chr. 687 (1966).. Internal Memorandum. Reading. United Kingdom. 1994. Wisconsin. Crown Chemtech Ltd. Neuss. 79. National Association of Margarine Manufacturers. Oil Chem. 1993.. Brabrand.. Grindsted Technical Memorandum No. Minneapolis. S. Minneapolis. 2004. 69. 65 (1979). 43(12). 72. Alexandersen. 1994.S. W. Minneapolis. France. Soc. Bran þ Luebbe Inc. Crown Wurster & Sanger. 8. 1994. 87. TI 5/90. Storage Conditions for various Margarine and Shortening Products. Dairy Handbook. Alexandersen. W. Illinois. Anonymous. Elliott. TM 101-2e. 59. 73. ‘‘Fluorocarbons. Technology Memorandum No. 68. Benhil Tub Filling and Closing Machine 8270. V. Div. Smith. Minnesota. February. 1.

eds. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. Brabrand. L. Ong. January 15. Palm Oil Developments No.. 198 (1983). TM 103-2e. Postcrystallization in Puff Pastry Margarine. Technical Paper No. 1977. T. Madsen. Falb. TP 102-1e. Leysen et al. J. Grinsted. A. Moran. Amer. 17–18. C.. Pedersen. TM 103-1e. H. Denmark. Emulsifiers Used in Margarine. Amer. Shortening.. 1989.. 100. Low-Calorie Spreads and Melange Production in Europe. Madsen. J. Madsen. Technology Memorandum No. 2nd ed. 1993. Denmark. 58(10). Technical Paper No. p. 74. 101. 8–9. Grinsted. J. E. Fat Technology. Oil Chem. Technical Memorandum No. Amer. Oil Chem. Puff Pastry Margarine. A. Crown Chemtech Ltd. 727 (1986). Technol. 99. United Kingdom. 1993. Washington D. Technol. 110. Palm Oil Institute of Malaysia. L. 91. Some Fat Containing Foods. Technical Paper No. K. P. Grinsted. C. Madsen. Timms. 108. 96. in D. J. Mounts and K. PORIM Technology No. J. E. J... A.... Soc. American . Handbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization. 251–261. Technical Memorandum No. Technol. Grinsted. Cambie. Fats for the Future. pp. W. Soc. Sonderdruck aus Fett Wiss. England. R. pp. 3–7. Deffense. L. pp. 886 (1981). Brabrand. Brekke. 98. Puff Pastry Margarine.REFERENCES 531 88. Royal Veterinary & Agricultural University of Copenhagen. A. 18. 16(4). 63(6). 4. 1986. Recombined Butter Products for Bakery Applications. R. vol. Palm Oil Developments No. in R. TP 105-1e. Soc.C. J. 105. Denmark. Richardson. 104. Cante et al.. Puff Pastry Margarine. 92. A. 1987. 48. Pryde. TP 107-1e. 1994. Madsen. 56(1). J. 1993. Ellis Horwood Limited. 9. T. Reading. Lefebvre.. V. u. 109. 97. 90. J. 112. McBride and K. D. Erickson. H. 11. Multi-step Butteroil Fractionation and Spreadable Butter. 106. and R. L. 102. Warner. Alexandersen. Kifli.. T. Continuous Production of Typical Low Fat Spread at 25–40% Fat. 13. Nieuwenhuyzen. Low-calorie Spread. National Association of Margarine Manufactures. J. 295 (1983). 93. Pantzaris. S. Palm Research Institute of Malaysia. 1993. Jart. Low Fat Butter and Spreads. Minnesota. TP 101-1e. Margarine Statistics Report. Oil Chem. E. 60(2). Richards. Y.. Grinsted.-Wiss. P. Brabrand. Puff Pastry Butter. 3. J. C. pp. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. Denmark. Special Issue of Danish Dairy & Food Industry Worldwide (1988). R. Technology Memorandum No. Denmark. Brabrand. 111. 95. J. Lebensm. 89. Denmark. Special Issue of Danish Dairy & Food Industry Worldwide (1990). Bakery Compound and Filling. Denmark. Amer. H. 107. Kun and A. Minneapolis. Ref. Soc. Palm Oil Developments No. 1993. 94.-Fat Sci. ed. 103. 15. Oil Chem. Grinsted.. R. Chichester. 18. T.. 71A (1979). Technical Paper No. Pedersen. Brabrand. Brabrand. Mounts. Crown Chemtech Ltd. O.

114. 185 (1981). Denmark. 2nd ed. TM 16-1e. G. Denmark. 58(3). Technical Memorandum No.m. Directive No. May 20. and the American Oil Chemists’ Society. Missouti. 1977. Oil Chem. . Copenhagen. Brabrand. Indicator Paper for the Ascertainment of Loose Water. Bekendtgoerelse om margarinefabrikker m. Illinois. Fat Technology. 1980... Louis.532 113. 116. A. Grinsted. Denmark. Amer. MARGARINE PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Soybean Association. Fedtkemi.. vol. Royal Veterinary & Agricultural University of Copenhagen. Soc. Denmark. Basic Principles for Producing a Margarine with Good Keeping Properties. 198 Danish Ministry of Environment. Technical Memorandum No. 117. J. Grinsted. Latondress. E. 1985. TM 107-1e. 115. Champaign. I. Brabrand. St.. Jart.