# % impedance of power transformer

from the electrical engineering department...

% impedance of power transformer
Posted by ramesh on 5 August, 2008 - 1:12 am

Please elaborate on % impedance of power transformer.

1 out of 1 members thought this post was helpful...
Posted by Ananymous on 6 August, 2008 - 11:28 pm

"The percentage impedance of a transformer is the volt drop on full load due to the winding resistance and leakage reactance expressed as a percentage of the rated
voltage."
"It is also the percentage of the normal terminal voltage at on side required to circulate full-load current under short circuit conditions on other side."
The impedance of a transformer has a major effect on system fault levels. It determines the maximum value of current that will flow under fault conditions.
It is easy to calculate the maximum current that a transformer can deliver under symmetrical fault conditions. By way of example, consider a 2 MVA transformer with an
impedance of 5%. The maximum fault level available on the secondary side is:
2 MVA x 100/5 = 40 MVA
and from this figure the equivalent primary and secondary fault currents can be calculated.
A transformer with a lower impedance will lead to a higher fault level (and vice versa).
The figure calculated above is a maximum. In practice, the actual fault level will be reduced by the source impedance, the impedance of cables and overhead lines between
the transformer and the fault, and the fault impedance itself.

Posted by N.S. Narayanan on 3 November, 2008 - 1:52 am

My client has stipulated that the PERCENTAGE IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE for the 60MVA - 132/66KV Power Transformer shall be MORE THAN 20%.
My questions are as follows:

1 of 21

22-04-2014 PM 10:36

% impedance of power transformer

[1] If the Percentage Impedance is more, the FAULT LEVEL CURRENT will less. Thus it will be useful.
[2] But are there any ADVERSE EFFECTS if the PERCENTAGE IMPEDANCE is more?
[3] Is there any ceiling for the PERCENTAGE IMPEDANCE VALUE? If yes, how much it should be?

2 out of 3 members thought this post was helpful...
Posted by Phil Corso

on 5 November, 2008 - 3:09 pm

Responding to Points [2] & [3] in Narayanan's 03-Nov-08 (01:52) query:
Typically a transformer's impedance is sufficient to withstand maximum fault exposure. Also, for most manufacturers, 20% is considered an upper limit. However,
voltage-regulation will suffer and non-normal or additional taps may be be required as compensation. Beyond 20%, physical constraints can result in a model far
removed from good engineering practice.
In my opinion, it is far more prudent to install an impedance in the transformer's primary supply circuit than choose a one-of-a-kind transformer design.
Regards, Phil Corso (cepsicon@aol.com)

Posted by Dilip on 28 June, 2011 - 3:27 pm

@Phil,
i am purchasing a transformer for Submerged Arc Furnace. Rating 45 MVA,33KV Primary, 170-300 v secondary ,, cooling OFWF. On Load tao changer on 33 KV
side with 32 tap positions. Bidders are quoting impedance in range 6%-8%.
What should be my requirement to ask for more impedance on less? pl elaborate with calculations. You may send mail on mel_em-at-rediffmail.com

1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful...
Posted by Phil Corso

on 28 June, 2011 - 6:46 pm

2 of 21

22-04-2014 PM 10:36

I like to know why you never responded to Control. Posted by Randhir Shinmarh on 12 November. Phil Corso 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful. Also.. 2008 . > In my opinion. > Regards.com/thread/1257876382 "Parallel Operation of Transformers" Phil Corso Posted by Sdhir B.control.1:09 pm > Responding to Points [2] & [3] in Narayanan's 03-Nov-08 (01:52) query: > Typically a transformer's impedance is sufficient to withstand maximum fault exposure.. However. 2011 .control. > 20% is considered an upper limit. physical constraints can result in a model far removed from good engineering practice. further to my earlier reply. for most manufacturers.com/thread/1026248874 cepsicon[at]AOL[dot]com Regards..6:57 pm Dilip.Com Thread #: http://www. 3 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 .% impedance of power transformer http://www. Posted by Phil Corso on 28 June. voltage-regulation will suffer and non-normal or additional taps may be > be required as compensation. Pednekar on 1 April.com) Phil's answer is totally right answer.8:30 pm Hello dear.. Phil Corso (cepsicon@aol. 2012 . Beyond 20%. it is far more prudent to install an impedance in the transformer's primary supply circuit > than choose a one-of-a-kind transformer design.

33/0.3:59 am >[3] Is there any ceiling for the >PERCENTAGE IMPEDANCE VALUE? If yes. 3) I agree % Z is a trade off between economics and performance. 2008 . For this. how can i incorporate the transformer data(resistance and reactance) with the transmission line between two buses? bishnu (getbishnu100 [at] yahoo.com) Posted by bishnu on 20 October. Z% is a trade off between economics and performance. but aren't most designs? Regards. then losses will increase and efficiency will decrease. how 4 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 .. 1) While a higher impedance will result in an increase in percent regulation. 2) 10% is usually the preferred maximum limit. Posted by Phil Corso on 13 November. Next. If percentage impedance of transformer increase.12:52 pm Randhir.. but manufacturers can go higher.com/thread/1026248874 1.control.com) Posted by pinaki chatterjee on 28 September.% impedance of power transformer http://www. The rating of a transformer could be higher as well. 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful. 2010 . I would like to include the transformer tap (real value) in the load flow and optimisation. Your 20% figure is abnormal to me. 2. it doesn't necessarily increase losses.4 kV). 2012 . i need the realistic data of resistance and reactance of a transformer (5 MVA. Phil Corso (cepsicon@aol.6:42 am Hello.

and confused.% impedance of power transformer http://www. harmonics due to saturation. Posted by Phil Corso on 26 December. what will be impedance at 5hz. as you deduced. and winding-to-core capacitances. 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful.alden. 2012 . As R is not affected due to frequency change only L will be changed. the %Z formula. is: %Z = SQRT [ (%R)^2 + (%X x f/50)^2 ] Please note the formula is for typical power transformers! It ignores frequency-sensitive elements found in low-impedance transformer designs...r for 5hz divide by 10 and 10hz divide by 5 and so on. Phil Corso Posted by Jeffrey Alden Olson on 10 January. 10 hz will it be linear i. or even for isolation (As you can see. interwinding capacitancs.. I am still VERY lost. high-efficiency transformers. j. Step-Down. non-linear core-effects. the impedance formula is: %Z = SQRT[ (%R)^2 + (%X)^2 ] at 50Hz. for any frequency. Please any help will do.7:31 pm AJ.com/thread/1026248874 >much it should be? the value should be as per ISS 20 % Posted by aj on 26 December.1:57 am this % impedance is calculated at 50 hz .. i know very little of what the internet has provided me with) ** I am also quite young. only the X term is affected by frequency. f. If i have a voltometer and I would like to measure whether the salvaged transformers I have are Step-Up. Regards. 2011 . 2011 .olson [at] gmail [dot] com 5 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 . is the voltage AC or DC? and does that matter when i am Trying to figure Impedance? To tell you the truth. And..7:31 am when recording audio.control. Thus.

let me know! Regards. Posted by Phil Corso on 7 August.control. 6kV/400V. For the following ratings.. the effective transformer impedance is the vector addition of its effective resistance and reactance.3:34 am Hello.com/thread/1026248874 Posted by shiv on 30 March. Its given like 6. For example.. Phil Corso (cepsicon@aol. Where to find its R & X values? In general. following is a simplified discussion: A transformer's impedance (also referred to as impedance-voltage) is equal to the voltage. 2008 . It means that when 240V is applied to the primary-winding.IS TOL. Finally. I need R & X values 1) 1000kva 2) 6300KVA 3) 1600KVA 4)630KVA 5) 400KVA For Transmission line. and 4.. In transformer being used here at my workplace. To elaborate.0% impedance. will flow in the shorted secondary. Load Loss is also provided. What does it mean? How can I derive R & X values from this. consider a transformer rated 500kVA..25% +/. For that. If additional information is required. then the rated current.% impedance of power transformer http://www.com) 6 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 . XLPE cable is used. 720A. what are the values for it? 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful. the effective transformer reactance is the sum of the primary and secondary leakage reactances. I am a trainee. in % of its rated-voltage.12:45 am Responding to Ramesh's 5-Aug-08 (00:12) request. %impedence volt is provided. 2012 . consider a two-winding transformer having an equal number of turns in its primary and secondary windings. Similarly. I need R and X specifications of transformer and transmission line. The effective transformer resistance is the sum of the primary and secondary resistances. that when applied to the primary-winding of a transformer will cause rated-current to flow in its shorted secondary-winding. I need to simulate the power system in a software called power world simulator.

. and insulation. and e) others! All is not lost however. On the other hand. laminate thickness. hexagonal. terminal-end or neutral-end of a wye-winding . the effect taps have on load-flow and fault-duty studies is seldom considered it is clear tap-changers can influence accuracy of those studies. Ampacity. your question is a good one.control.e. b) 3 or 5-limb magnetic structure. d) tap-changer steps that are symmetrical about the nominal rating or skewed to either the low higher voltage. that should be considered. 2011 . how is it achieved? 2 out of 3 members thought this post was helpful. Most system planners or designers use either of two approaches to "adjusting" the reactance component of the transformer's nominal impedance: A) proportional to the step-interval.. Key factors are core material selection such as permeability..10:08 pm George. there are alternatives.. following are several design factors that must be taken into account: a) core or shell construction. or B) proportional to the square of the step-interval. To give you an idea of the variation that influences the theoretical effects. or octagonal) coil arrangement on the core-limb.com/thread/1026248874 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful. shape.% impedance of power transformer http://www. Others are conductor characteristics (resistance. if you are contemplating purchase of a transformer having an off-norm impedance to compensate for power supply inadequacies. i. Posted by Phil Corao on 20 October. If you would like additional detail contact me off-forum. or to mitigate harmonic effects.) number of limbs or legs (3 or 5) limb shape (circular. if basic knowledge 7 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 . Fortunately. and others. 2011 .12:10 pm Bishnu. square. 2010 . Although. as well as restraints. Regards. and coating...2:29 pm If a lower than standard impedance voltage is required for a power transformer while designing. flux density. Phil Corso (cepsicon [at] aol [dot] com) Posted by George Mattam on 12 January. In closing. a large number of factors influence a transformer's impedance.. Posted by Phil Corso on 12 January. One such concern is the impact on short-circuit duty.. c) location of tap.) Still others are core geometry such construction-type (core or shell. there are a number of manufactures that will gladly provide cost increments based on the desired deviation from industrial standards..

or to > mitigate harmonic effects.. tap setting does affect reactance... impedance is not altered for operation at other capacities. then I was glad to help. the impedance is based on its OA (45 MVA) rating. Phil Corso (cepsicon [at] aol [dot] com) 1 out of 1 members thought this post was helpful.. Posted by Phil Level on 28 June.. there are alternatives. Phil Corso Posted by Ronnie on 8 February... Suppose I'm using an impedance of 12. The 30MVA transformer substation 110kV busbar is connected to a distribution network via 19km of 630mm² trefoil XLPE. 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful. 2011 .control. The 55MVA is connected to the same 110kV busbar via 13km of 150mm² trefoil cable.8:38 am Ronnie. Impedances are expected to be less than 10%. Furthermore. 8 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 .% impedance of power transformer http://www. Regards. > that should be considered. I need to do some calculations for this but I'm actually interested in mitigating harmonic effects and also in dealing with charging currents for such long underground HV lines.if you are contemplating purchase of a transformer having an > off-norm impedance to compensate for power supply inadequacies. as well as restraints. However. 2011 . Regards.then this impedance which corresponds to 55MVA would be different for transformer operation at 45 MVA? Please advice....com/thread/1026248874 is your goal..4:29 am I'm using 45/55 MVA ONAN/ONAF transformer. Unless shown differently on the transformer's nameplate.12:44 pm Phil Corso wrote: > . 2011 .5% for the purpose of calculation. Posted by Phil Corso on 8 February. 45 and 55 MVA. One such concern is the impact on short-circuit duty. Also advice if there's any IEC code which states sth related to this problem.. I am considering three 20/110kV step-up transformers rated at 30. The 45MVA is connected to the same 110kV busbar for a 5km remote generator.

2012 .9:31 am I need help from you guys.6KV switchgear (single bus). Posted by Phil Corso on 16 February.. 10% IMPEDANCE.1:46 pm Sunil... I feel the sizing for the CT's should be changed only for out going feeders not for incoming side. location and ratios of the phase and neutral CTs used for the REF scheme is very important. but I want to know whether I am right or wrong. 2012 . Phil Corso (cepsicon[at]AOL[dot]com) 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful. Regards Sunil Kumar 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful. Posted by Phil Corso on 18 February.control. Can you provide a simple Single-Line-Diagram (SLD) or a hand-drawn sketch of system? Regards..T as per transformer fault calculation. Phil Corso 10 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 . Now my question is how does the CT sizing for the incomers matter with the B/C Open or close condition. but now new setting has been issued by considering B/C close condition (2 transformer in parallel) and the incomer CT's for REF protection are to be replaced with New setting with Knee point voltage double then before. 16KA fault amaps) feeding to 6.. please give your thoughts. is correct! Regards.% impedance of power transformer http://www. 2012 .. based on the SLD you forwarded to me..11:09 pm Sunil. We have two transformers (20MVA.com/thread/1026248874 Posted by Sunil on 16 February. your instinct that a CT change out is unwarranted. before the consultant has designed the C. Now there is an issue with CT knee point voltage..

. I am told I have to consider the effect of the internal voltage drop within the transformer (Z% effect) as a function of % loading. Can you provide a calculation illustrating your observation? (b) Reur Rc comment: Because Rc represents the winding resistance.. Z% = 5. I have to find an appropriate tap setting in 2. (a) Reur Xm comment: I don't quite understand your comment that.com/thread/1026248874 Posted by Jacky on 20 February. as well as the core loss.. why does increasing the input voltage.8kV/0. and pf = 0. 2014 .8 lagging.com 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful.5%. I have a 1000kVA Delta-Wye transformer with 13. For this. About open-circuit test for a transformer.4:36 am i'm doing my uni's project. Regards. 2. loading = 80%.5% ) steps (All tap settings = 5%. -2. 5%) on the HV winding so that the voltage at the secondary terminal is 480V +/.% impedance of power transformer http://www. 2011 .6:27 pm Hello Phil: I have a question. Xm decreases.75%. Phil Corso Posted by AT on 28 March. 0.48kV. 2011 .5%. as test voltage increases.control. 11 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 . Xm (reactance i suppose) will decrease? is there an explanation behind it? and also.5%.7:05 pm Jacky. why is Rc constant throughout the experiment? You can email me at jackyk1988 [at] hotmail.. Posted by Phil Corso on 20 February.

Thanks If I am incorrect.8 + j*1000kVA*0.480V? V_primary = 13800 Am i correct to this? V-percent_impedance = 0. Posted by Phil Corso on 29 March.8 + j*1000kVA*0.5 I_rated = (1000kVA*0.8)))) / (sqrt(3)*13800) = 33.8 + j*(1000kVA*sin(cos-1(0.(((1000kVA*0..j10.17 ..1:07 am AT. I hope you don't mind my asking the following just to be sure about your query: 1) A Xfmr's Nameplate never lists Load.control.j0.05746 and select the appropriate tap setting based on CHG.. then kindly let me know 1 out of 2 members thought this post was helpful...102 Z = V-percent_impedance / I_rated = 15. for the Load you defined as 800kVA at 0. Therefore selecting a tap of +5% change.25102 CHG = (abs(V_primary_required) ..8pf. are you looking for the mathematical procedure to determine what the Voltage-Regulation (VR) is. I am very confused and need to know that I am on the right track.0575 * 13800 = 793.% impedance of power transformer http://www. 2014 . lagging? 12 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 .6)*0.469 + j*25.145 .com/thread/1026248874 What would be the best way to calculate internal voltage drop of transformer with above information? and how would I calculate the appropriate tap setting on the primary side to make sure that the voltage on secondary is +/.abs(V_primary)) / abs(V_primary) = 0.Characteristics! 2) Thus.6 V_secondary = (V_primary . Am i correct.j11.37 sin(cos-1(0.8)/(sqrt(3)*V_primary))*Z)*480/13800 = 465.8))=0.87 .6)/(sqrt(3)*V_primary))*Z = 14593.2 V_primary_required = 480*(13800/480) + ((1000kVA*0.

I would like as much accuracy as possible from the information that I am given.6.6/100 = [Vs(o) ..1 14 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 . because the 1000 kVA transformer is 80% loaded.Vs(u)] / Vs(u) 80 percent of 5.046 = Vs(o)/Vs(u) ..6% Therefore. therefore. 2014 . But to recap.6:08 pm Hello Phil: Thank you for the speedy reply.8 + j*I(L)*0.. When I did the calculation => I(L) = 800 kVA / [ SQRT(3) * 480] = 962. Load current in complex units => I(L)*0.control.75 is 4. Posted by AT on 30 March.6 = 100* [Vs(o) .800 + j 577. %Z = 5. So.Vs(u)] / Vs(u) 0..250 A am i wrong? please tell me. I must have made a mistake somewhere. Vr = 4.. 4.75%.48. Phil 1 out of 1 members thought this post was helpful..350 Vr = 100*[Vs(o) ..com/thread/1026248874 Regards. kV (L) = 0. Now you said to find the load current and gave the answer to be 1155A.8..Vs(u)] / Vs(u) 4.6 = 769. we have determined the load kVA = 800 kVA with PF (L) = 0.% impedance of power transformer http://www.

And the voltage at which the primary current is measured is then divided by the rated voltage to generate the percent impedance value.control. %Z = Vz/Vrated and Z = Vz/Irated_primary Z = 793.046 = 458.776 + j20.046 + 1 = Vs(o)/Vs(u) 1.837 A therefore.75% = Vz / 13800 0.046 * Vs(u) = 480 Vs(u) = 480/1.5 V Irated_primary = 1000kVA / [ Sqrt(3)*13800] Irated_primary = 41.% impedance of power transformer http://www.0575 * 13800 = Vz Vz = 793. Now I am hoping that it is not a fluke.com/thread/1026248874 0.082 Amps 15 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 .046 = Vs(o)/Vs(u) Assuming Vs(o) = 480V 1. So with that in mind: %Z = Vz / Vrated 5.837 = 18.8) + j*(1000k*0.89 As far as accuracy is concerned I tried a different approach and I think that I got similar results.6 Therefore. I think that the percent impedance is calculated by shorting out the secondary of a transformer and injecting voltage into the primary until the rated current is measured in the primary or secondary.5/41.966 ohms Assuming V_primary = 13800 V cos(theta) = 0. As far as I have read.6))*0.8] / [Sqrt(3)*13800] = 26.8 sin (cos-1(theta)) = 0. after the voltage drop due to the transformer impedance => I_excit = [((1000k*0.

7792 < 35.8) + j*(1000k*0.2892 * 480/13800 = 462.9503 %R = Sqrt[(%Z*%Z) .9205 <36. Which of the two methods is more accurate in your opinion? Posted by AT on 30 March.75/100) %X = 10.6:36 pm 16 of 21 22-04-2014 PM 10:36 .17274 + j 7899.9503*10.8] / [Sqrt(3)*13800] = 26.779 <35.6) .com/thread/1026248874 V_primary_induced = (13800*0.082 Amps V_primary_induced = (13800*0.046 = 0.6))*0.control.966) .(26.86989 V_secondary = 13165.(26.966 = 10532.9503)] %R = 15.082)*18.046 1-0.6) .9503) = 10845.2892 Vsecondary = 13286.954 = 457.776 + j20.129558 = 13165.(10.(%X*%X)] %R = Sqrt[(18.% impedance of power transformer http://www.776 + j20. 2014 .92 V The above is I think what you calculated in your original reply.21593 <36.776 + j20.485 + j10.8 + j*13800*0.954 Vsec = 480 * 0.966*18.824997 = 13286.8 + j*13800*0.485 I_excit = [((1000k*0.869 the V secondary that I calculated is pretty close to: 80 percent of 0.27756 + j7675.149 Am i at all on the right track in the above two methods of calculations or is my brain out for lunch.216 <36.87 * 480/13800 = 457. Do you think that my second approach (subtracting voltage drop from primary and converting it to secondary) is appropriate? Or is my approach totally flawed and i got that answer by mere fluke? I was thinking about trying to find the exact R + jX value from percent impedance to calculate a more accurate voltage drop by calculating percent reactance by using formula: %X = [((kV)*(kV))/kVA ] * %Z/100 %X = [(13800*13800) / 1000kVA ] * (5.0575 = 0.082)*(15.