# Transformer Protection Tutorial

Application 2
Consider the autotransformer given below. The power transformer data has been
given: 175/175/30 MVA Autotransformer, YNyn0d1, 230/115/13.8 kV. The
current transformer ratios are as follows: HV CT ratio - 800/5, LV CT ratio 1200/5 and TV CT ratio 2000/5.

1. Calculate the ratio correction factors.
2. Verify that the differential protection does not operate due to errors
introduced by the on load tap changer. Consider a dual slope relay as
follows:
Iop = Is1, (Ibias ≤ Is1/K1)
Iop = K1× Ibias, (Is1/K1 ≤ Ibias ≤ Is2)
Iop = K1 × Is2 + K2 × (Ibias - Is2), (Ibias ≥ Is2)

K2 = 80%.) .2pu. Draw (a) the bias characteristic. K1 = 30%. (b) the CT and on load tap changer errors (assume 20% total error). (c) differential and bias currents considering on load tap changer errors and the characteristic knees (There are 2 knees as it is a dual slope characteristic.Idiff (pu) Is-HS2 Is-HS1 Restraint region K2 Operating region K1 Is1 Is1/K1 Is2 Ibias (pu) Is1 = 0. Is2 = 1pu 3.

37 A primary 418.273 3 × 13. HVCT = I nom.TVCT = 800 175 × 10 6 2000 175 × 10 6 = 0.5 × 10 3 I nom.5kV 100 100 + Mid tap position = K amp .8 × 10 3 2. To check that the differential protection does not misoperate due to errors introduced by the on load tap changer.T 3CT = S ref 3Vnom .T 1CT = S ref 3Vnom.366 3 × 115 × 10 3 I nom . the mid tap voltage is 218.TV = 1. LVCT = 1200 175 × 10 6 = 1.T 5CT = S ref 3Vnom . HV full load current on tap 1 (5%) = HV full load current on tap 1 (5%) = 175 × 10 6 3 × 241500 = 418.37 = 2. HV K amp .5kV. Transformer nominal rating • Calculate HV full load current at both tap extremities and LV and TV full load current.615 A secondary 160 . LV K amp . According to the nameplate data. the user may perform the following calculations. The mid tap voltage can also be calculated as follows: (5 − 15 ) 2 × 230 = 218. the nominal voltage of the HV winding must be set to the mid tap voltage level. Errors introduced by the on load tap changer.730 3 × 218. Ratio correction factors Since the transformer has an on load tap changer on the HV side.Solution – Application 2 1.

524 HV full load current on tap 19 (-15%) = HV full load current on tap 19 (-15%) = 175 × 10 6 3 × 195.143 + 0.9524 pu 2 5 5. LV corrected current = 1.230 = 5.143 TV corrected current = 0.294 A = = 1.730 × 2.963 = 3.059 pu 2 5 Ibias at tap 1 = .033 = 4.HV corrected current on tap 1 = 1.143 − 0.810 A primary 516.138 = 0.109 A primary 1255.8 × 10 3 = 1255.118 pu 5 Determine Ibias at both tap extremities (with mid tap correction).615 = 4.857 Idiff at tap 1 = 4.033 A secondary 240 30 × 10 6 3 × 13.524 − 4.857 = 0.366 × 3.588 LV full load current = LV full load current = TV full load current = TV full load current = • 145 × 10 6 3 × 115 × 10 3 = 727.273 × 3.143 + 0.588 = 0. 4. The currents used in the Ibias calculation are the currents after ratio and vector correction.510 3 = 516.857 4.762 = 4.588 − 4.524 + 4.294 Ibias at tap 19 = = 5.109 = 3.143 − 0.476 = 0.476 A = 0.762 A = = 0.963 A primary 727.138 A secondary 400 Determine Idiff at both tap extremities (with mid tap correction).588 A = • 0.588 + 4.857 5.095 pu 5 Idiff at tap 19 = 5.810 = 3.857 = 0.730 × 3.230 A secondary 160 HV corrected current on tap 19 = 1.

71A primary .7%.667 × 175 × 10 6 3 × 195.9Iop = 0.05 A primary 279. Iop is calculated as follows: Iop = 0.7% is the interception between Is1 and K1.Is2).510 3 = 344. It is determined as Is1/K1 × 100% = (0.8 × (1.286pu Ibias at tap 19 is greater than 1pu. (Is1/K1 ≤ Ibias ≤ Is2) Iop = K1 × Is2 + K2 × (Ibias .2pu.7% of the nominal MVA rating.7% of transformer nominal rating • Calculate HV.347 = 0.730 × 1.095pu and 0.257pu.9 x 0. Tap 1: Since Idiff = 0.1) = 0.3 × 0. Is1 = 0.8pu.05 = 1. the error introduced by the on load tap changer causes no mal operation considering K1 = 30%. Iop = Is1. K2 = 80% and Is2 = 0. Iop is calculated as follows: Iop = 0.3) × 100 = 66.9Iop = 0.3 × 1 + 0. (Ibias ≤ Is1/K1) Iop = K1× Ibias.017 HV full load current on tap 19 (-15%) = 0.744 = 3. since Is2 is set to 1pu.118pu and 0.347pu • Check Idiff < Iop by a 10% margin for each tap extremity and adjust Is1 and/or K1 as necessary. Tap 19: Since Idiff = 0. 66.744 A secondary 160 HV corrected current on tap 1 = 1.• Determine relay differential current. since Is2 is set to 1pu.2/0.2pu.667 pu.9 x 0.9524 = 0. (Ibias ≥ Is2) Ibias at tap 1 is less than 1 pu and greater than 0. LV and TV load current at 66. HV full load current on tap 1 (5%) = 0.312pu. the error introduced by the on load tap changer causes no mal operation considering K1 = 30% and Is1 = 0.059 .667 × HV full load current on tap 1 (5%) = 175 × 10 6 3 × 241500 = 279. The 66.286 = 0.

023 = 2.635 pu 2 5 Ibias at tap 19 = • 0.154 = 3.093 A secondary 400 Determine Idiff at both tap extremities (with mid tap correction).730 × 2.551 = 2.727 − 2.571 3.727 LV full load current = 0.063 pu 5 Idiff at tap 19 = 3. LV corrected current = 1.763 TV corrected current = 0.763 + 0.763 − 0.0786 pu 5 3.HV full load current on tap 19 (-15%) = 344.763 + 0.763 − 0. (Ibias ≥ Is2) . The currents used in Ibias calculation are the currents after ratio and vector correction.667 × 145 × 10 6 3 × 115 × 10 3 = 485.017 + 2.571 = 0.531A = = 0.176 A = = 0.393 = 0.531 = 3.706 pu 2 5 Determine relay differential current.317 = 0.093 = 0.176 = 3.154 A secondary 160 HV corrected current on tap 19 = 1. Ibias at tap 1 = 3. Iop = Is1.273 × 2.571 3. (Is1/K1 ≤ Ibias) Iop = K1× Ibias.8 × 10 3 LV full load current = TV full load current = • 837. (Is1/K1 ≤ Ibias ≤ Is2) Iop = K1 × Is2 + K2 × (Ibias .71 = 2.017 − 2.393 A = • Determine Ibias at both tap extremities (with mid tap correction).158 = 2.158 A primary 3 × 13.Is2).366 × 2.023 A secondary 240 30 × 10 6 TV full load current = 0.317 A = 0.571 Idiff at tap 1 = 3.727 + 2.571 = 0.667 × = 837.551A primary 485.

Iop is calculated as follows: Iop = 0.9 x 0.2 = 0. and the bias. since Is2 is 1pu.706 = 0.Ibias at tap 1 is less than 0.9Iop = 0.667pu.9 x 0. It can also be seen that it is necessary to check the safety margin at the two knee-points of the bias characteristic.7% of full load current.2 pu.2pu Ibias at tap 19 is less than 1 pu and greater than 0. the CT and tap changer errors (assumed as 20%).2 pu.0786pu and 0.212 = 0. then there is sufficient safety margin with K1 = 30% and Is1 = 0. then there is sufficient safety margin with K1 = 30% and Is1 = 0.3 × 0. .19pu. differential coordinates corresponding to full load current and 66. then Iop = 0.212pu • Check Idiff < Iop by a 10% margin for each tap extremity and adjust Is1 and/or K1 as necessary: Tap 1: Since Idiff = 0.18pu.063 pu and 0.9Iop = 0. Tap 19: Since Idiff = 0. The following graph shows the bias characteristic.667 pu.