Universitas Bangka Belitung

Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

Geofisika Pertambangan
(Sifat Fisik Bumi)

Oleh :
Irvani

Universitas Bangka Belitung

Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

Referensi



Milsom, J. 1989. Field Geophysics. John Wiley & Sons., London.
Gadallah, M. and Fisher, R. 2009. Exploration Geophysics : An Introduction.
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg., Berlin.
Lowrie, W. 2007. Fundamentals of Geophysics. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge.
DLL.

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Materi/Pokok Bahasan
I Pendahuluan (P.1)

VII Metode Seismik (P.8-10)

II Sifat Fisika Bumi (P.2)

VIII Well Logg (P.11)

III Survey Geofisika (P.3)

IX Georadar (P.12)

IV Metode Gravitasi (P.4)
X Aplikasi Metode Geofisika pada
Penambangan (P.13)
V Metode Geomagnet (P.5)
VI Metode Geolistrik (P.6-7) XI Aplikasi Metode Geofisika pada
Bencana Alam (P.14)

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Lowrie (2007)

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Lowrie (2007)

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Lowrie (2007)

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Simplified layered structure of the Earth’s interior

Lowrie (2007)

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Overview of Geophysical Techniques
Rocks and minerals in the earth vary in several ways.
These include:
• Density – mass per unit volume.
• Magnetic susceptibility – the amount of magnetization in a
substance exposed t o a magnetic field.
• Propagation velocity – the rate at which sound or seismic
waves are transmitted in the earth.
• Resistivity and induced polarization – Resitivity is a
measure of the ability to conduct electricity and induced
polarization is frequency-dependent variation in resistivity.
• Self-potential - ability to generate an electrical voltage.
• Electromagnetic wave reflectivity and transmissivity –
reflection and transmission of electromagnetic radiation.
Gadallah & Fisher (2009)

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Periodic table of the elements

Lutgens, et al. (2012)

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Komposisi Bumi

Reichard (2011)

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Komposisi Kerak Bumi

Reichard (2011)

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The Silicates
Every silicate mineral contains the two most abundant
elements of Earth’s crust, oxygen and silicon.

Lutgens, et al. (2012)

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Lutgens, et al. (2012)

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Important
Nonsilicate
Minerals

Lutgens, et al. (2012)

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Lutgens, et al. (2012)

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THE ROCK CYCLE

Carlson, et al. 2011

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Igneous Minerals
Mineral

Properties

Olivine

Green to yellow-green; vitreous; fractures;
small, equidimensional grains
Usually white or gray;
2 cleavages at 90°;
elongate grains; striations sometimes visible
Greenish black or brownish black;
rather dull luster;
blocky grains
Black with shiny, splintery appearance;
two cleavages at 60° and 120°;
elongate grains
Shiny, black sheets;
one perfect cleavage
Usually white or pink;
2 cleavages at 90°;
equidimensional grains
Shiny, silvery sheets;
one perfect cleavage
Colorless to gray;
vitreous with conchoidal fracture;
irregular grains in intrusive rocks;
equidimensional phenocrysts in extrusive rocks

Plagioclase

Pyroxene

Amphibole

Biotite
Orthoclase

Muscovite
Quartz

Setijadji (2011) - Slide

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Composition of Igneous Rocks

Monroe & Wicander, 2009

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Sedimentary rock

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Types of Igneous Rocks
Gabbro

Intermediate
Diorite

Granodiorite

Felsic
Granite

Fine

Coarse

Mafic

Basalt

Andesite

Dacite

Rhyolite

Setijadji (2011) - Slide

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Geofisika Struktur Bumi

The P-wave shadow zone, caused
by refraction of P waves within the
Earth’s core.

The S-wave shadow zone. Because
no S waves pass through the core, the
core is apparently a liquid (or acts like
a liquid).

Carlson et al. (2011)

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The velocity of seismic P and S waves generally increases with depth
except in the low-velocity zone. The plastic asthenosphere slows down
seismic waves. Velocity increases at 400 and 670 kilometers may be
caused by mineral collapse.
Carlson et al. (2011)

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Symmetric striped pattern of magnetic anomalies
on the Reykjanes segment of the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge southwest of Iceland

Lowrie (2007)

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Upper: observed and computed marine magnetic
anomalies, in nanotesla (nT), across the Pacific–
Antarctica ridge

Lowrie (2007)

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Computation of half-rates of sea-floor spreading at
different spreading centers by measuring the
distances to anomalies with known radiometric ages

Lowrie (2007)

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Comparison of the magnitudes of torques acting on
the 12 major lithospheric plates

Lowrie (2007)

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Average Densities of Common Rocks and
Sediments looked at in AS Geology

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The Magnetic
Properties of
Some Common
Rock Types:

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Struktur Tubuh Bumi

Earth’s interior based on physical properties—the
lithosphere, asthenosphere, lower mantle, outer core,
and inner core.
Lutgens, Tarbuck and Tasa (2012)

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The rigid lithosphere includes the crust and uppermost mantle; it
forms the plates. The ductile asthenosphere acts as a lubricating
layer beneath the lithosphere. Oceanic lithosphere averages 70
kilometers thick; continental lithosphere varies from 125 to 250
kilometers thick.

Carlson et al. (2011)

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Estimated (A) temperature and
(B) pressure with depth into Earth

Carlson et al. (2011)

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Characteristics of Oceanic Crust
Crust

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and Continental

Carlson et al. (2011)

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Pangaea breakup and continental drift

Carlson et all. (2009)

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The major plates of the world.

Carlson et al. (2009)

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The major and minor lithospheric plates

Lowrie (2007)

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The present plate configurations and plate motions on Earth;

Frisch et all. (2011)

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Schematic model illustrating the three types of
plate margin

Lowrie (2007)

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Hot Spots

Frisch et all. (2011)

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Model for the evolution of a mantle plume based on
experiments with glucose syrup (Griffi ths and Campbell, 1990).
Frisch et all. (2011)

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Carlson et al. (2009)

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Earthquakes

Lutgens et al. (2012)

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Locations of some of Earth’s major volcanoes

Monroe & Wicander (2009)

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Lutgens et al. (2012).

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Mid-ocean ridges

Map showing distribution of ages of oceanic crust. The oldest oceanic crust is of Jurassic age and is located in
the NW Pacifi c (ca. 185 Ma) and near the edges of the Central Atlantic (ca. 175 Ma). Small fragments of older
oceanic crust are captured between continental blocks in the Mediterranean Sea..
Frisch et all. (2011)

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Terima Kasih

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