# INTRODUCTION AND

BASIC CONCEPTS
CDB 2023: PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER
Jan Semester 2015

DR. YEONG YIN FONG
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Outline
Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic
Concepts
Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
Application of Heat Transfer in Process
Industries
Heat Transfer Mechanisms
Units and Dimensions

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Lesson Outcomes:
At the end of this session:
1) Understand how thermodynamics and heat transfer
are related to each other.
2) Understand the basic mechanisms of heat transfer,
which are conduction, convection, and radiation, and
Fourier's law of heat conduction, Newton's law of
cooling, and the Stefan–Boltzmann law of radiation.
3) Identify the mechanisms of heat transfer that occur
simultaneously in practice.

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J. McGraw Hill. P. D. F.. A. P. Lavine. S. A. 10th Ed.Reference Books: Cengel. J. and Ghajar. 5th Ed. 2007. Bergman. McGraw Hill 2015. Incropera. 2009. 6th Ed. P. Wiley. Dewitt.. Heat Transfer. L. Holman. Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. T. A. 4 . Y.

Outline Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Application of Hear Transfer in Process Industries Heat Transfer Mechanisms Units and Dimensions 5 .

Heat transfer deals with the determination of the rates of such energy transfers as well as variation of temperature. 6 . Thermodynamics is concerned with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another.Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Heat: The form of energy that can be transferred from one system to another as a result of temperature difference.

the higher the rate of heat transfer. ii) convection. Heat transfer stops when the two mediums reach the same temperature. Heat can be transferred in three different modes: i) conduction. The larger the temperature gradient/difference.The transfer of energy as heat is always from the higher-temperature medium to the lower-temperature one (temperature difference). and iii)radiation 7 .

Second law: The heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature. it can only change forms). 8 .Thermodynamic Laws First law: The rate of energy transfer into a system is equal to the rate of increase of the energy of that system (also known as the conservation of energy principle: energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

Basics of Heat Transfer The rate of energy transfer into a system is equal to the rate of increase of the energy of that system (First law). The heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature (Second law). which cannot be determined from a thermodynamic analysis alone. We are normally interested in how long it takes for the hot coffee in a the cup to cool to a certain temperature. 9 .

the law of thermodynamics lay the framework for the science of heat transfer.The science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another. we are often interested in the rate of heat transfer. Where as in engineering. and makes no reference to how long the process will take. However. 10 .

Outline Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Application of Heat Transfer in Process Industries Heat Transfer Mechanisms Units and Dimensions 11 .

. The human body is constantly rejecting heat to its surroundings. Heat transfer plays a major role in the design of many devices ie. solar collectors. water heater. car radiators.Applications of Heat Transfer Heat transfer is commonly encountered in engineering systems and other aspects of life. refrigerator or freezer. TV. The heating and air-conditioning system. Exchange of heat between two fluids is a widely used unit operation in chemical process industries. 12 . various components of chemical plants. iron and even the computer.

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Outline Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Application of Heat Transfer in Process Industries Heat Transfer Mechanisms Units and Dimensions 14 .

15 . flowing from high temperature to low temperature. Heat is thermal energy in transit due to a spatial temperature difference. heat flows from the object at the higher temperature to that at the lower temperature.Heat Transfer Mechanism When two objects at different temperatures are brought into contact. Convection. The mechanisms (modes) by which the heat may flow are three: Conduction. and Radiation.

liquids. or gases. 16 .Conduction Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interactions between the particles. Conduction can take place in solids.

Fourier’s law of heat conduction: Heat
flux is proportional to the temperature

.

Q cond

T 1−T2
∆T
= kA
= − kA
∆x
∆x

(W)

Eq (1.21)

k is the thermal conductivity of the
material, which measure of the ability
of a material to conduct heat.
In heat conduction analysis, A
represents the area normal to the
direction of heat transfer.
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Heat conduction
through a large plane
wall of thickness ∆x
and area A.

The rate of heat conduction
through a solid is directly
proportional to its thermal
conductivity.
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In metals, thermal conduction is by the motion of free
electrons.
In poor conducting solids, thermal conduction is by
the momentum transfer between vibrating molecules
or atoms.
In liquid and gases, conduction occurs by random
motion of molecules, so called thermal collision and
diffusion.

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The mechanisms of heat conduction in different phases of a substance. 20 .

21 .Thermal Conductivity The rate of heat transfer through a unit thickness of the material per unit area per unit temperature difference.

The range of thermal conductivity of various materials at room temperature 22 .

The variation of the thermal conductivity of various solids. 23 . liquids. and gases with temperature.

for a period of 10 hours. The temperature of the inner and the outer surfaces of the roof one night are measured to be 15°C and 4 °C. respectively. and b) The cost of that heat loss to the home owner if the cost of the electricity is \$0. 8m wide. and 0. Determine: a) The rate of heat loss through the roof that night.08/kWh. and is made of a flat layer of concrete whose thermal conductivity is k = 0. 24 .8 W/m.Example 1.K.5: The Cost of Heat Loss through a Roof The roof of an electrically heated home is 6m long.25m thick.

Q cond . T1 = 15oC and T2 = 4oC.K 0.25 m 25 .21) 0 T 1−T2 W ( 15 − 4 ) C = kA = 0 .K.8 W/m. Determine: a) The rate of heat transfer The steady rate of heat transfer through the roof is: . Q cond T 1−T2 = kA ∆x (W) Eq (1.Solution Given: k = 0.8 × 48 m 2 × = 1690W ∆x m. A = 6 m x 8 m = 48 m2.

35 26 .9kWh Cost = amount of energy x unit cost of energy = 16. Q = Qcond ∆t = 1.69kW ×10h = 16.9 kWh x \$ 0.08/kWh = \$1.b) The cost of that heat loss For 10 hours period. the amount of heat lost and it cost: .

Convection Convection refers to the flow of heat associated with the movement of a fluid. Examples: hot air from a furnace enters a room. 27 . The faster the fluid motion. the greater the convection heat transfer. transfer of heat from a hot surface to a flowing fluid.

K).24) where Q = heat flow rate. 28 . referred as Newton’s law of cooling. T ∞ = temperature of the fluid Heat transfer from a hot surface to air by convection. . h = heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.The convective flux is proportional to the difference between the surface temperature and the fluid temperature. Qconv = hAs (Ts −T∞ ) (W) Eq (1. As = surface area of heat transfer. Ts = surface temperature.

Typical values of convection heat transfer coefficient 29 .

Natural and Forced Convection Forced convection: If the fluid is forced to flow over the surface by external means such as a fan. 30 . Natural (or free) convection: If the fluid motion is caused by buoyancy forces that are induced by density differences due to the variation of temperature in the fluid. pump. or the wind.

31 .The cooling of a boiled egg by forced and natural convection.

Heat is generated in the wire as a result of resistance heating. Also.8 : Measuring Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient A 2m long. respectively. 0.3cm diameter electrical wire extends across a room at 15 oC. 32 . and the surface temperature of the wire is measured to be 152 oC in steady operation.5 A. the voltage drop and the electric current through the wire are measured to be 60 V and 1. Disregarding any heat transfer by radiation.Example 1. determine the convection heat transfer coefficient for heat transfer between the outer surface of the wire and the air in the room.

voltage drop = 60V.Solution Given: wire = 2m long. surface temperature of wire =152 oC. Determine h. When steady operating conditions are reached.5 A. That is . 1.5 A = 90 W 33 . .3cm diameter. 0. the rate of heat loss from the wire equals the rate of heat generation in the wire as a result of resistance heating. room temperature = 15 oC. Q = E generated = VI = 60 V × 1.

01885m )(152 −15) C m ⋅K 34 .003m)(2m) = 0.9 2 2 o As (Ts − T∞ ) (0. Qconv 90 W W h= = = 34. the convection heat transfer coefficient is determined to be: .The surface area of the wire is: As = πDL = π (0. Qconv = hAs (Ts − T∞ ) (W) Eq (1.01885 m 2 Newton’s law at cooling for convection heat transfer is express as .24.24) Rearrange Eq 1.

Does not require the presence of an intervening medium. 35 .Radiation Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic waves (or photons) as a result of the changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or molecules. Example: energy of the sun reaches the earth.

As is the surface area σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant [σ = 5.25) where Ts is absolute temperature in kelvins. 36 . Q emit . The idealised surface that emits radiation at this maximum rate is called blackbody.The maximum radiation flux emitted by a body at temperature T is given by Stefan-Boltzmann law .6697 x 10-8 W/(m2 . max = σ AsTs 4 (W) Eq (1. K4)].

Qemit = εσAsTs 4 (W) Eq (1.The radiation emitted by all real surfaces is less than the radiation emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature and is expressed as: .26) where ε. emissivity lies between 0 and 1 37 .

4 Q rad = εσ As (Ts .28) 38 . the net rate of radiation heat transfer between these two surfaces is: .When a surface of emissivity ε and surface area As at a temperature Ts is completely enclosed by a much larger surface at temperature Tsurr.T 4 surr ) (W) Eq (1.

and the ceiling of the house are observed to be at an average temperature of 10oC in winter and 25oC in summer. The inner surface of the walls floors.4 m2 and 30oC. Determine the rate of radiation heat transfer between this person and the surrounding surfaces if the exposed surface area and the average outer surface temperature of the person are 1. 39 .Example 1-9: Radiation Effect on Thermal Comfort Consider a person standing in a room maintained at 22oC at all times. respectively.

and floor in winter and summer are: (from equation 1.28) .95)(5.T 4 surr ) -8 2 4 2 = (0.4 m2 ε = 0. ceiling.winter = 10oC.6697 x 10-8 W/m2 . As = 1. K4 The net rates of radiation heat transfer form the body to the surrounding walls.6 7 × 10 W/m ⋅ K )(1 . winter = εσ As (Ts . Ts = 30oC. Tsurr.4 m ) × [(30 + 273) 4 − (10 + 273 ) 4 ]K 4 = 152 W 40 .Solution Given: Tsurr.95 (Table 1-6). σ = 5.summer = 25oC. 4 Q rad.

4 Q rad..4 m ) × [(30 + 273) 4 − ( 25 + 273 ) 4 ]K 4 = 40.T 4 surr ) -8 2 4 2 = (0.9 W 41 . summer = εσ As (Ts .95)(5.6 7 × 10 W/m ⋅ K )(1 .

but by conduction and radiation in semitransparent solids a solid may involve conduction and radiation but not convection. 42 . A solid may involve heat transfer by convection and/or radiation on its surfaces exposed to fluid or other surfaces. For examples: the outer surface of a cold piece of rock will warm up in a warmer environment as a result of i) heat gain by convection (from the air) ii) radiation (from the sun or the warmer surrounding surface) But the inner part of the rock will warm up as this heat transferred to the inner region of the rock by conduction.Simultaneous Heat Transfer Mechanism Heat transfer is only by conduction in opaque (dense) solids.

When deal with the heat transfer through a fluid. but not both. 43 . we have either conduction or convection. a medium may involve only two of them simultaneously.Heat transfer is by conduction and possibly by radiation in a still fluid (no bulk fluid motion) and by convection and radiation in a flowing fluid. Heat transfer through a vacuum is by radiation only since conduction or convection requires the presence of material medium. Although there are three mechanisms of heat transfer.

K 44 . Determine the total rate of heat transfer from this person if the exposed surface area and the average outer surface temperature of the person are 1. and the convection heat transfer coefficient is 6 W/m2.6 m2 and 29 oC.Example 1-10: Heat Loss From a Person Consider a person standing in a breezy room at 20 oC. respectively.

6 m2 . 45 .24) and radiation.K Determine: The total rate of heat transfer from a person by both convection. Qrad. Qconv. convection heat transfer coefficient = 6 W/m2. surface area = 1.Solution Given: Room temperature (surrounding) = 20 oC. (Eq 1. (Eq 1.28) to the surrounding air and surfaces at specified temperatures. surface temperature of the person = 29 oC.

of heat transfer through radiation (Eq 1.24): .6 m ) × [(29 + 273) 4 − ( 20 + 273 ) 4 ]K 4 = 81.20)o C = 86.95)(5.6m2 )(29.T 4 surr ) -8 2 4 2 = (0.The rate of heat transfer through convection (Eq 1. Qconv = hAs (Ts − T∞ ) = (6 W/m2 ⋅ K)(1.4 +81.28): 4 Q rad = εσ As (Ts .7 = 168 W 46 .4 W The rate.7 W The total heat transfer from the body = 86.6 7 × 10 W/m ⋅ K )(1 .

Example 1-11: Heat Transfer between Two Isothermal Plates Consider steady heat transfer between two large parallel plates at constant temperature of T1 = 300 K and T2 = 200 K that are L =1 cm apart. determine the rate of heat transfer between the plates per unit surface area assuming the gap between the plates is (a) filled with atmospheric air (b) evacuated (c) filled with urethane insulation (d) filled with superinsulation that has an apparent thermal conductivity of 0. Assuming the surfaces to be black (emissivity =1).00002 W/m.K 47 .

A = 1m2.T 2 ) = (1)(5. Qrad (Eq.21) + radiation.28) From Table A-15. (a) Filled with atmospheric air. the rates of heat transfer = conduction. the average thermal conductivity for air at 250 K is 0. 1. T −T W (300 − 200 ) K Q cond = kA 1 2 = 0 . L =∆x = 1 cm. . T1 = 300 K.Solution Given.0219 × 1m 2 × = 219 W ∆x m⋅K 0 .67 × 10 -8 W/m 2 ⋅ K 4 )(1m 2 ) × [300 − 200 ] K 4 = 369 W QTotal = Qcond + Qrad = 219 +369 = 588 W 48 .K. ε = 1. 1. 4 4 Q rad = εσ A s (T1 .01m and . Qcond (Eq.T2 = 200 K.0219 W/m.

Table A-15.pg 924 -23oC 49 .

therefore. The rate of heat transfer: . Q cond T 1−T2 W (300 − 200 ) K 2 = kA = 0 . there will be no conduction or convection. and the only heat between the plates will be radiation.01m QTotal = Qcond = 260 W 50 . Thermal conductivity for urethane is 0. QTotal = Qrad = 369 W (c) The urethane blocks direct radiation heat transfer between the plates.026 × 1m × = 260 W ∆x m ⋅K 0 .(b) When the air space between the plates is evacuated.026 W/m.K (Table A-6).

pg 914 51 .Table A-6.

apparent thermal conductivity of superinsulation.(d) Given.00002 W/m.2 W m ⋅K 0 . 00002 × 1m × = 0 . . T −T Q Total = Q cond = kA 1 2 ∆x W ( 300 − 200 ) K 2 = 0 . 01 m 52 .K. Note that the layer of the superinsulation prevent any direct radiation heat transfer between the plates . k = 0.

Outline Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Application of Heat Transfer in Process Industries Heat Transfer Mechanisms Units and Dimensions 53 .

Derived dimensions – dimensions of other quantities derived from the base dimensions. a property of a physical entity. temperature (T).Units and Dimensions A dimension is a fundamental quantity. Base dimensions: length (L). mass (M). time (t). Eg. M/Lt2 54 . amount of substance (n).

Units are scales used to quantify the dimensions in a standard way. Multiple units – multiples or fractions of base units. SI. second. b) As defined equivalents of compound units (1 lbf = 32.ft/s2). a) By multiplying and dividing base or multiple units (e.. milliseconds..174 lbm. Systems of units: CGS. Derived units – units for the derived dimensions. E. hours.m/s2). 55 .g. cm2. all of which are defined in terms of the base unit of time. Base units are the units for the base dimensions.g. Derived units of this type are referred to as compound units. kg. and American Engineering System. ft/min. minutes.

CGS system : almost identical to SI. 56 . and mole (mol) for the amount of substance. The base units in SI (International System of Units) are: meter (m) for length. kilogram (kg) for mass. second (s) for time. Kelvin (K) for temperature. SI has gained widespread use in international scientific and engineering community.SI and CGS Systems of Units SI and CGS are metric systems of units. the difference being that gram (g) and centimeters (cm) are used instead of kilograms & meters as the base units of mass and length.

The derived unit of force is pound-force (lbf). second (s) for time.American/British Engineering System Base units: foot (ft) for length. pound-mass (lbm) for mass. which is defined as 1 lbf = 32. Still widely used in the United States. Derived Units of Force in Various Systems 57 .174 lbm ft/s2.

Units in Heat Transfer Q (heat flow) J/s or W q (heat flux) J/(s-m2) or W/m2 k (thermal conductivity) W/m oC or W/m K h (heat transfer coefficient) W/m2 oC or W/m2 K σ(Stefan-Boltzmann constant) W/(m2 . K4) 58 .

Summary Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Application areas of heat transfer The First Law of Thermodynamics Heat Transfer Mechanisms .Radiation Stefan–Boltzmann law Simultaneous Heat Transfer Mechanisms Unit and Dimensions 59 .Conduction Fourier’s law of heat conduction -Convection Newton’s law of cooling .

End of Chapter 60 .