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W. . /<wrtl) Cbitton.C.. 706 1884.E. ON THE ASSYRIAN SACRED "GROVE. WITH TWO HUNDBED ILLUSTRATIONS. M.ANCIENT PAGAN MODERN CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM THOMAS INMAN.D.S. ETC. OTHOR OF "ANCIENT FAITHS EMBODIED IN ANCIENT NAMI REVISED AND ENLARGED.. : BEOADWAY. BOUTON. NEW YORK J. M. WITH AN ESSAY ON BAAL WORSHIP. BY JOHN NEWTON.R." AND OTHER ALLIED SYMBOLS.

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1869. The one As the to demonstrate the existence of a unknown to the British public. It has been suggested to me by many. it the eyes. THE woodcuts in the present large work. 2038731 true. that a collection of these Figures. is. the other use their vision. are more likely to voluminous book. an essay. July. entitled Ancient Faiths embodied in Ancient Names. so it is necessary to furnish overwhelming proof that the allegations and accusations made against certain nations of antiquity. and their explanation. greater than is . teaches to read.PKEFACE TO FIEST EDITION. gives be generally examined than a very The one means for practice. and some doctrines of Christianity. an alphabet. the number of witnesses is absolutely necessary to prove the point. LIVERPOOL. 12. are substantially Consequently. RODNEY STREET. in volume originally appeared in a two thick volumes. them opportunities to larger work endeavours were. the other affords state of things almost as The one opens the other.

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except in so far as they are by the use of certain conventional signs. great many who peruse a book like this for the time. THE demand which the Author to But made volume whose When ness. with is religion. ideas of the a thoughtful reader will a matter of the highest aim to most intensely earthly kind. the Author the explanation of ancient and typified A is obliged to confine himself to symbols.PEEFACE TO SECOND EDITION. perfect without being expanded it would be incompatible with cheap- every Figure would supply a text for a long discourse. In this work. Such a notion that there is is a possessed of a hobby that he is strengthened by finding scarcely any subject treated of except the one which associates man. might naturally consider that the Author mere visionary one who rides to death. But essay on By no . and cannot launch out into modern faiths. readily discern that an Symbolism must be confined to visible emblems. more complete than it could not be it into a has sprung up for this work has induced make size was originally. a close attention required lest a description is should be developed into a dissertation. and find how strange were the ideas which for first some thousands of years permeated the religious opinions of the civilised world.

so often referred that he must refer the curious. BRISTOL. and fully discussed in the to in this. the Author will be content. The following pages are simply a chapter taken from a book. style. complete perhaps in itself. and Jesus visible Nor can one.means can an author who makes the fair crucifix his text introduce the subject of the Confessional. has been beam in . CLIFTON. but only as a brick may be perfect. manner. If house from which readers will regard a building. August. or architecture of the taken. or Extreme Unction. the Eucharist. without giving to an individual any idea of the size. 8. bring into an interpretation of emblems a comparison between the preaching of two such distinguished In men. the Author like is obliged to pass over the difference between Judaism. Christianity as propounded by the son of Mary. 1874. who knows that Buddha which was unmarked by alike inaugurated a faith symbolism. and that which passes current Christianity in Rome and most All these points. have been somewhat Author's larger work. it these pages as a VYVYAN TERRACE. and to for countries of Europe. many more.

for one was driven away into the wilderness. and is By the same style of metaside-posts (Exod. see in Judaic ordinances a reference to Jesus of was only another word from the said to be. and shadowed forth by them. xii. the other to be tempted by the devil we infer that there is nothing repugnant to the minds of the ! pious in an examination respecting the use of symbols. have. be taken for granted. What has Judaism may be attempted for other forms of into that which is been done religion.INTRODUCTION. has earnest Christians. Many a special signification. which seemed on the proposed hypothesis to demonstrate that when a sinner was as black as hell he was the equal of a the paschal lamb whom saint. was typified by the "scape-goat. heard a pious staggered in this belief a person's whole body for when was etc. If it be supposed that a religion is built upon the foundation Almighty. rite. without a definite purpose. 13). or has ever been. IT may. 22. indeed.. but he was greatly I pointed out to affected I assert that "leprosy" him that if he was no longer unclean (Lev. there is a full belief man " sin " Nazareth. adopted into the service of Religion. for example. and consequently all his blood sprinkles are blocks of wood. xiii. we think. and the other voluntarily went there one to Hence be destroyed. as the Hebrew that every emblem. that nothing is. . Jesus and the proof is clear. According to such an interpreter. 23). dress. is of a distinct revelation ceremony. for . symbol. a type of Jesus." phorical reasoning. lintels.

professed in countries widely apart to many forms of both as regards time and space. 30. viz. Baptists.. which indicate that the writer believed that the adoption of heathen gods would follow inquiry respecting them.to As the Hebrews and be God-given. Unitarians. for there rigidly to the precept " addressed to the followers of Moses. regard their own believe Christians other nations. with that unreasoning prejudice and blind bigotry which are to the Briton and the Spaniard. even this freedom has. Take heed that How did these " The intention nations serve their gods ? (Deut." . xii. common and Carlists in the peninsula. or Buddhists if we study Dhammapada Papists. the in Deuteronomy regard precept shackles once riveted around may Seeing that the same symbolism is common religion. and pre-eminently so to the mass of Irish and Scotchmen amongst ourselves. peculiar tenets. he thinks that the danger of inquiry into 1 " even so will I do likewise. of we cannot doubt that the Paganism have a meaning. in another light. some other who fear that an may make their followers but there are priests . so theology. 1 following words. saying.) of the prohibition thus enunciated is well marked in the thou enquire not after their gods. of the present day. been denied are a few amongst us who adhere as it is . Yet. The dislike of inquiry ever attends those which is believed or The philosopher known who profess a religion to be weak. and that it is lawful to scrutinise the mysteries which they enfold as to upon the Urim and speculate Thummim of the Jews. being freed from the him by a dominant hierarchy.. symbols. inquiry into ecclesiastical matters religion Wesleyans. by some. disbelieve a heathen to the pretension to a divine revelation. etc. It is Mahometans the if not now-a-days feared that we may become we read the Koran. or which the Presbytery object to. Protestants. their religion having a different Though we may.

Two sportsmen. of present on the ancient banks and the modern shores of the Mediterranean. the of the probable connections of mankind with Heaven. we are constrained to admit that they have something comof the Ganges. experience tells us that similarity in thought involves similarity in action. seeing a hare run off from between them. there may have done so formerly. all They may be the in their source. Again. mon or may they presumption that others is a men alike all are essentially result of celestial emanate As men invent new forms ingenuity. whilst an equally pious Mahometan may hope happy the sign of his faith is as ancient as regards the Crescent as the passport to the realms of bliss.. will fire at it so simultaneously that each is unaware that the other shot. We search into that with which emblems with an intention we inquire different into ordinary language. Many a viz. that they Brahmin has uttered . As so we may believe that their human. and amongst those nations which it was the Prophet's mission to convert or to destroy.faiths is not the adoption of foreign. misunderstood. So a resemblance in religious belief will eventuate in the selection of analogous symbolism. same ideas promulgated as divine truth. and words mark the ordinary current of man's thought. without a thought that the symbol was in use long before the Prophet of Allah was born. inventions will be characterised by the virtues and the failings of humanity. and was used by the Phoenicians probably before the Jews had any existence as a people. may be But all have this in common. but the relinquishment When we see the methods of religious belief. from The us of the relationship of nations upon Earth. revelation. from human of religion now. last tells first The devout Christian believes that all for a who venerate the Cross eternity. without ever dreaming that Homeric Troy. whilst religious symbols show the nature of his Letters aspirations.

the observer gladly allows that much may be wrong . three distinctly system of exposition is different interpretations . figures which he can frame no meaning . In giving his judgment. we have as yet had few attempts in England to classify and explain ancient and modern symbols." " Om and "Ave Maria purissima" the same category. as a . we find that a language said of symbols. Perhaps. as a dread of results of inquiry. all of which have been incorrect. Again. and have heard as many opposite explanations of a particular figure.and many prayers in a language to him unintelligible a Christian uses words in his devotions of which he never . when he has sufficient means. given to one Assyrian inscription. and more patience than those who have leisure are generally disposed to give. but this does not prevent him believing that some may be right. designs of which none can give him a rational explanation. the amount of materials at his disposal. whilst the ordinary antiquary finds in for church-goer also sees. The labour requires more satisfactorily time than ordinary working folk can command. he will examine as closely as he can into the system adopted by each inquirer. know the meaning. generally. Lycian coins. in his place of worship. for example. Unquestionably. and in Aztec ruins." fairly signification Om manee pani. the most important ingredient is care in But a scholar can only collate collation and comparison. in an investigation such as we describe. and. Investigators. whose wholly wrong and the same may be I have seen. be placed in of an emblem may the " "Amen" The may be unknown. In like manner. has been so much a It is perhaps not strictly true that there laxity in the research. the acumen which has been brought to the task. of making public the which we here speak. In the interpretation of unknown languages and symbols. seeks to manee padme houm. and these demand much time and research. may find professed interpreters.

The various devices contained herein seem to me to support the views which I have been led to form from other sources. if not in all. The "If truth of such is disagreeable. and dislike make known to others a knowledge which has brought pain to their own minds." much following attempts to explain of ancient and modern symbolism can only be regarded as tentative. to they will destroy a fine microscope rather than permit their co-religionists to know that they drink living creatures in The motto their water.have a respect for their own prejudices. and The the examination of ancient faiths. I must explain the meaning of the last word italicised. for they are simply exoteric. that are there are arcana. and. by a careful inquiry into the signification of ancient names. In most. familiar which patients have no idea. has been an after-thought. or eat mites in their fruit. of to all parents . there are tenets not generally imparted and only given to a select few under the seal to the vulgar. In the following pages I have simply reprinted the figures. for in common life. cling to error. or his parent. when a lad innocently asks the family surgeon.. wide of the mark. and there are explanations of symbols current to which I make are no reference. and the idea of collecting them. of secrecy. etc. commonly known to doctors. where the last new baby came from. For the benefit of many of my readers. I make no attempt to exhaust the subject. For example. which appear in Ancient Faiths embodied in Ancient Names (second edition). example. When I . rule. making them speak for themselves. as it were. A similar reticence exists There are secrets kept from children. ginally figures were ori- intended as corroborative of evidence drawn from numerous ancient and modern writings. There hundreds of emblems which find herein no place . yet sufficient for him. Like the Brahmin of the story. people is. forms of religion. he is put off with a reply.

Another then took up the word.put such a question to the maids in the kitchen. and said it was the carrot bed which the baby came from. and we can point to the original and correct pronunciation of the word nim. or stateof an emblem. or o. few. as in Jehoshaphat Ehoh. As a roar of laughter felt that I was being cheated. v. that which In was known to my elders was the esoteric meaning. the name of a king of Israel Yahu as it is read on Assyrian inscriptions JeJio. . finding the bed came back and reproached my hearing this. analogous to . the one signification and known only to the few. what is called We tion. . but as the first letter may represent i. which I could then comprehend was exoteric. . it became lost when these died without imparting it yet what is considered to be the incorrect method of pro. "religion" there has been a similar distinc- see this. to which first answer was that the place for a time I was relegated." " the true. or e. illustration. whilst the second and fourth are the soft A. into the garden. They had followed this remark. that a time may come when As an the first may be lost. but amongst the Jews. the other and known to the many. Then I could not. not only in the "mysteries" of Greece and Rome. I to the The only one servants two distinct significations. and. nouncing the word survives until to-day. the last alone remain. When ments. ja. .* * It is supposed by some that Jahveh is the proper pronunciation of this word. I went had been unmoved. ya. it is clear exoteric/' incorrect. analogous to the Ju in Jupiter Jehu. ing as a (2 Esdras xv. now I can. Known only to a select commonly pronounced Jehovah. the On baby came from the parsley bed. informant for falsehood. Esdras stating the followcommand from God. there exist about "esoteric. 26). two distinct explanations. arid the third u. and asked no more questions. " Some things shalt thou pub" and some things shalt thou show secretly to the wise lish. one may read the word Jhuh. understand the esoteric sense of the sayings.

analogous to the J. whose power was so miraculous that those who only looked at it were cured of the evils inflicted by thanatoid snakes. It is curious Euoe associated with Bacchus and Jdho. A. and had tried to search into the mystery contained therein (1 Sam. But the question is not how the word may be pronounced. Yet we find. vi. ordered Moses to frame a brazen serpent. or box. 19). 6. But when one alone is known to exist. and no fewer than 50. but how it was expressed in sound when used in religion by the Hebrew and other Semitic nations. was worshipped. in Numbers xxi." etc. and who God who is reported also said to have declared is He would dwell in the house that Solomon made Him. If. and over it Cherubim were seen. or that is in the earth beneath. 7). of the Gnostics. 4). or that is in the water under the earth . not lightly " taken in vain. in the temple of the to have thus spoken. The Greek "Fathers" give the word as if equivalent to yave. and iao. Then again. they are not identical.070 people were done to death at Bethshemesh because somebody had ven- tured to look inside the box." to be . that Jehovah (Exod. people why seek to To show the hidden meaning ? what has always struck The second commandment declares to its bearing of this subject. monly received is not the correct one. believing them upon enlighten it common true. exist. an ark. that for and the first was worshipped. yaoh.. These were likenesses of something. it becomes a question whether another should be sought. let us notice me as remarkable. the Evoe or vi. O. it may be asked. amongst whom it was a sacred secret. the are contented with a fable. or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above. yeho. or ineffable name. We find it described as being so sacred that death once followed a profane touching of it (2 Sam. "Thou the Jews. shalt not make unto thee any graven image.xiii We may assume fairly when two such meanings and that the one most com- that. . thou shalt not bow down thyself to them. xx.

" find a similar ark existing feel sure. What is a bugbear to the a contemptible reptile to the few. 17. As when.xiv that the Philistines. or a rusty old nail is by the Roman Catholics. and could by no chance know what ries passed in the Hebrew temple. (see 1 the box to put were not vi. no one would endeavour to demonstrate the reality of ghosts by referring to the many scores of men . and priests only invent stories. a crucifix. They were "profane". and used in " the myste- " of Egypt and Greece. that which has been the former rejoice mistaken by hundreds for a spectre has been demonstrated to be a crafty man. When become dissatisfied with evidently intended to be a blind. it Sam. which is some individuals naturally behind the curtain. which are applicable to the arcana which they use in worship. 21. The ark much of the covenant was indeed regarded by the Jews as a saint's toe-nail. many is often Yet there are a great number who would rather run from a phantom night after it once. So flagrant an apparent breach of the second commandment was covered for the common Hebrews by the assertion that the mysterious box was a token of God's covenant with His was " we people . even when the cheat is exposed. amongst people who probably never heard of Jews. but that this statement when we exoteric. a bit of wood. endeavour to ascertain what is a statement. by some courageous hand. In this they resemble the brave boy. an image of the Virgin. vi. 14. and would dissuade others with than grapple night from being bold enough to encounter it. 16. 8). which has imposed upon his companions and passed for a ghost. Nevertheless. to blind the eyes of and give a holy horror to the people whom they govern. How David worshipped the ark as being the representative of God we see in 2 Sam. who must have touched their strange offerings beside particularly bothered. who rushes upon a sheet and turnip lantern.

devil. tive dress. in every age and nation. the Heathenism. but the learned know perfectly well the devil. if If it interval. but are in reality perfect shams. it . believe that a similar occurrence has taken Heathendom place in religion. and then in trembles at that its men made power. a melancholy thing to It contemplate the manner which mankind have. If it yet. after a brief repose in Some imagined that the one who had been the tomb. by which I mean the morals and rites prevalent in pagan times or victims were not pitied. exoteric story is exhibited. countries. and then have felt fear at them. when the falsehood of an all detected .of ranks who had been duped by the apparition thus so. was the tated being identical Others believed that some body. . yet its clothing wore broadcloth. once bore rule through- . made for themselves bugbears. it is no argument in that the vulgar in thousands and many a wise favour its man have Speaking metaphorically. in like manner. just as a negro dreads Mumbo Jumbo. it was in a seduc- was that of a ravened. But. them describe by comparing is me to to the apocryphal vampires. quitted We it. died. that some dead having the same guise as when they folk returned to earth. whom the pious fear. after a brief unlike the vampire. Such we may believed it. like a resuscitated vampire. the statement remained unchallenged. sheep . not recognised. who manufactures a Fetish. there were accounts of individuals who died and were buried. which pass for powerful giants. manners. and moved through Christendom were a a wolf. had appropriated the apparent vitality. Whatever the fiction it evil spirit was. In the fictitious narratives which passed for truth in the dark ages of Christianity. We deride the African. and restored to resusci- interred. rose again. It it its and was buried garb was changed. rose again from its tomb. we have many such ghosts amongst ourselves phantoms. and who.

the resuscitated being takes the form of a dearly beloved maiden. In like manner. or the In most parts it still reigns supreme. I do not attack real Few would accuse a workman of malignancy who religion. In a vampire story. which does so . he In like manner. I should probably win assent from every true Scotch Presbyterian. after transfixed. expose the imposture. in which term is included all those parts where Christian baptism is used by all the people. voice in against by the many. they were. being Still denounced by the few. Yet I should be opposed by every and every Independent. as a general proposition. If I were to assert. vast majority. stake being driven through the body have such tenacity of .out Christendom. When vampires were discovered by the acumen of any observer. I raise is my Paganism which exists so extensively and will do my utmost to the ecclesiastical cherished Amongst Christianity. Such a scavenger is much wanted. told in Thalaba. whilst strikes the has assumed the garb of Christianity. it not because their ecclesiastics have adopted symbolism into . There cleanses from filth the surface of a noble statue. and by most Anglican Churchmen. notwithstanding renewed impalement. has risen again and again. the regenerated Heathendom. He form of the loved one. life but experience showed that they rose again. and the hero is obliged to kill her with his he own hand. ignominiously killed. by Southey. they will rejoice when some one else removes yet even the dirt. every Wesleyan. and again. But why ? Is Papist. but. feels sure that he slays only a demon. that religion does not require any symbolism. may be some who are too nice to touch a nasty subject. we them to by a are told. and were not ultimately laid to rest till wholly burnt. which dominates over the followers of Jesus of Nazareth. it other accusers. when I endeavour to destroy the current Heathenism.

said to be given upon Sinai. An intoxicating drink. was With regarded as an emanation from the Supreme. form of belief men lived as they had done ere in their relations with each other it this existed. itself with the belief that there was a POWER. were the sun. In the speculations of thoughtful minds a necessity is recognised for the existence of a Being who made all things who is at times beneficent. wrong in their practice or gross in their imagery. just as do the bisons.and into their their churches second commandment ritual ? of Jehovah. famine. Men can live peaceably together without religion. began to investigate the nature of His ministers. wind. After the crude idea has taken possession of the thoughts. the sky. They have broken the and refuse to see anything But they adopt Jehovah rather than Elohim. From the earliest known times there seems to have been in every civilised nation the idea of an unseen power. amongst the Aryans. In every country this great ONE has been supposed to inhabit the heaven above us. and an examination into the works of Nature has been made with the view to ascertain the will and designs of the Supreme. etc. mind soon contenting got weary of contemplating about an essence. sending rain and warmth. night. The reader of the following pages will probably feel interest therein if he has some more clue whereby he may guide himself through their labyrinth. form of The assumption and even wolves. and break the commandments. These. may be compared to and such high class animals as elephants. storm. the day. and consequently all But the celestial phenomena have been noticed carefully. faith is absolutely a necessity for b that man is some only . fire. antelopes. too. there has been a desire to know something more of this Creator. and who at others sends storm. and. plague. buffaloes. in good company. and war.

p.* little is variety in the workings of the human mind. The Revelation not being a reality. and derived from the Revelation which it seeks to maintain. but whose Laws of wondrous comprehensiveness and perfection we ever perceive in operation around us. government of the universe . hut reported to be by one of the most esteemed theologians who ever sat upon an episcopal bench. that which he has lost was but an illusion. It is entitled Supernatural Religion. London Longmans. 1874. the details of which must at one time or another have shocked the mind of every intelligent man. hidden from our finite minds. Whilst we retain pure and unimpaired the treasure of Christian : Morality. and that which is left is the Truth. he will recognise that the reality before him is full of great " If we know less than we have supposed of man's destiny. The only thing absolutely necessary for man is Truth and to that. nothing is left but a blank. we may equally believe in the wisdom and goodness of what is not revealed. If he be wildest delusion. " The argument so often employed by Theologians that Divine Revelation is necessary for man. published anonymously.. We are no longer disturbed by visions of fitful interference with the order of Nature. there appeared a work. in the impenetrable glory of Divinity. is purely imaginary. and that certain views contained in that Revelation are required by our moral consciousness. and moral sense. if he be a lover only of truth. instead of a blank. vol. regarding that which is beyond the limits of thought. but that little is of a character which reason declares to be the human Let no man whose belief in the reality of a Divine Revelation destroyed by such an inquiry complain that he has lost a precious possesand that sion. relinquish nothing but the debasing elements added to it by human are no longer bound to believe a theology which outrages reason We are freed from base anthropomorphic views of God and His we We superstition. he will speedily be consoled . Here enters the true and noble Faith which is the child of reason. so there were differences in the way wherein the Some regarded the sun and religious idea was carried out." . The mere act of communication all that that to us is nothing: Faith in the perfect ordering of all things is independent of Revelation. ii.founded on the fancies of some religious fanatics who know of the world. But as there * Whilst these sheets were passing through the press. we may at least The rejoice that we are no longer compelled to believe that which is unworthy. From it we quote the following. must our moral consciousness adapt itself. however incredible. and that alone. and from Jewish Mythology we rise to higher con- ceptions of an infinitely wise and beneficent Being. it is true. If we have believed a system. but we recognise that the Being shadow of turning. limits of thought once attained. we may well be unmoved in the assurance that we do know of the regulation of the universe being so perfect and wise. who regulates the universe is without variableness or how little there is in the supposed Revelation of It is singular alleged information. may be content with illusions. 489: " We gain infinitely more than we lose in abandoning belief in the reality of Divine Revelation. all we do not know must be equally so. and believed it simply because it was supposed to be revealed.

whom he and other Shemitic cognomens. main source it was natural that the and heat should be regarded as a male. and a spouse impregnated. as ministers of the unseen ONE. Greeks. and to the masculine emblem. as represented by Babylonians. ideas of the Creator were held only by a few. Assyrians. there are also sun and earth. the moon and name of her votary contained a reference to the the beauties or functions of The higher women. caused things on earth to grow. rent. I found that they consisted of a divine name and some attribute of the deity. In this manner the sun became a chief god and the moon his partner. and. and that the last was generally referrible equally to THE SUPREME. as a god. they were only beneficent when the earth was moist with rain. Romans. If the deity was a female. the constellations and the planets. In examining ancient Jewish. represented in and into modern the peninsula of faiths still cur- India. As the rain from heaven. shows that ideas of sex have been . In the sky there are a sun and moon : . in the Lebanon. feminine emblems. An inquiry into antiquity. and who thereby became fertile. to the Sun. reasoning from what was known to what " was unknown. the sun was supposed to of light have the emblems of virility. and the earth as a female. Phoenicians. argued thus Throughout nature there seems to be a dualism. and elsewhere. Phoenician. Egyptians. earth and sea. then. In every set of An inquiry into the animals there are males and females. and as others. Hebrews. the many adopted a lower and more debased view. As a male.xix moon. both became associated with the ideas which all have of Consequently the solar deity was associated in symbolism with masculine and the moon with terrestrial animals." influence of the sun brought out the facts that by themselves its beams were destructive . and the former being supposed to be male and the latter female. Etruscans.

one sect of Christians adoring chiefly the Trinity. have amongst themselves a form of worship which to our ideas is incompatible with real religion. indeed. Yet these same Hindoos. than eat bread or rice which may have been touched by profane hands. he is supposed to be man. . to uncleanness. and respect their ceremonial law even more deeply. sexual sections are as well marked as those in ancient Jeru- of . another reve- rencing the Virgin. salem. Mary worshipping her infant and to the former is given " the mother of the Creator. As man differs very means from woman in certain peculiarities. . and allow their children to perish too. Rival sects have been ranged in ancient times under the symbol of the "]" and the O> as in later times they are under the cross The worship that of God of God and the crescent. or woman. or as both united. the Father has repeatedly clashed with the Mother. or. these of distinction have been incorporated into the worship of god and goddess.God has very generally associated with that of creation. we have seen that individuals would rather die of absolute hunger. There is a well-known picture. and the votaries of each respectively have worn badges characteristic of the sex of their An illustration of this is to be seen amongst ourselves deity. and a depth of piety which prefers starvation to impurity. . The idea of sexuality in religion is quite compatible with a ritual and practice of an elaborate character. as the Bible has it. the very particular sect of the Brahmins. which swore by Jehovah and Ashtoreth respectively. than did . To eat "with the blood" was amongst the Hebrews a crime worthy of death to eat with unwashed hands was a dreadful offence in the eyes of the Pharisees of Jerusalem and in the recent famine in Bengal. or both." Our the title Mater Creatoris. As monarch. The folks referred to adore the Creator. or drink milk that had been expressed by British milkmaids from cows' udders. been described as a king. or as a queen.

8vo. when the parts are to be purified prior to proceeding to extremities. Everything is done. as Ritualists would say. and I withdraw London information on the of conducting the worship referred to. and in Memoirs of the Anthropological method "rubric" for the it advisable to The first Brahminic leave the "Sakti Sodhana. 1 and 2. who were at one time the instruments of vice. but "I desire your " company in the name of Jesus. in the agitation which follows.the Hebrews after the time of the Babylonish captivity . Their practice was to instruct their victims that whatever was said or done must at another the Thus. and she had a chance. cannot be worse than the penance ordained by some "confessors" to those faithful orgie. some of my readers may have seen a work written by an Italian lady of high birth. sanctified . guides to penitence. named author thinks to of Society much (Triibner and Co. and a pious by prayers. vols. London). "I love you was a profane expression. The curious will find in Essays on the Religion of the Hindus. who was in early as soon as us how the life forced into a nunnery. the Hindus have prayers prescribed for their use. but and in the most matter-of- they have a secret cult in which fact they pay a very practical way to homage one or other of the parts which is thought by the worshipper to be a mundane emblem of the Creator.. and when the ceremony is completed. women who In her account she left it tells in the monastery were seduced by reve- rend Fathers. H. decently and in order .). translated by Shea and Troyer (Allen and Co. in the Dabistan." were orthodox. dearly" Holy Virgin." for the most part under the veil of the original Sanscrit. by H. In like manner.. 3 vols. But Christians are not pure . am not disposed wholly it." and I embrace in you the be accompanied by a pious sentence. when they are introduced to each other. Wilson..

for it is cause. indeed. tree was a and round . now equivalent. however. because its leaves ivy was sacred from a similar type. Everything in creation that resembled in any way the presumed Creator. Dea Syria. erect. love. but of the female. its A leaf a close . Juno. because representation of the vesica piscis. desire. then. of this idea. became symbolic of the one or the other deity. was supposed to represent the religious emblem. or rather union of the conceptions to which have referred. and creation is effected . understood . to represent the organs it was considered the most correct plan by some conventional form. long. 35). in "religion" a strong sensual element. is woman were symbolised . and that they become assimilated to the Blessed Virgin when they are over- shadowed by the power of the Highest (Luke i. an a fig-tree. and gods were called by the names of power. which in any way resembles the charac- organs of man and woman. Everything. as churches. a Proteus in form is Jupiter a swan. in character.) Generally. or her sometimes a woman. revenge.damsels whose minds are plastic enough to believe that a priest is an embodiment of the Holy Ghost. anger. ingenuity has been exercised to a wonderful extent in the contrivance of designs. now a bull. and were depicted au naturel. Hence a palm deity. etc. nearly or remotely significant we now a man. we now became the mundane and two huge phalli were seen see towers or spires before our minarets before mosques. Sometimes. Jehovah or Astarte. occasionally a lioness. the parts in question the means by which emblem of the Almighty before a temple. the Father or the Virgin. now an androgyne. There being. but very teristic rarely. The myrtle was also a is is it hard and firm resemble the male triad. whether in name. fortune. because oak. or in shape. (Lucian. . and All conceivable attributes of man and at times a cow. Jupiter or Juno.

A / sword. They only symbolised the Creator when they were adopted belief. that a person of the male. symbolised the mother. for of a senseless fashion. became symbolic of the father. of the Father. But me. and the Greeks represent one Venus as resting upon a tortoise and another on a goat. and somewhat who can see in a tortoise an in a horse-shoe must be quite too attention. heroism. and the other one " ! I ^P3 male and female. became emblematic different. nekebah. a triangle. oval. and when one knows logy . and the other tripliform. battering male . Whatever was longer than broad. a target. e.. anything indeed which The Hebrew names to be entered. as to other inquirers. a field. arranged so that one should stand above the two. was sufficiently indicate the plan upon which the sexes were distinguished . Yet to when the former creature occupies a large space in mytho- when the Hindoo places it as the being upon which the world stands. whilst an unit symbolised the Mother. arrow. Again. these things are simply what they appear to be when they are seen in common life. spade.by the but not by the unlearned. i. Consequently. and circular. an effigy of emblem the female fantastical to deserve notice. These symbols were not necessarily those of religious They might indicate war. still farther refinement . prowess. a that in days gone by. a perforator or digger. cavernous. etc. . command. a hole or trench. or be nothing more than they really were. in which people were less refined. there was a into religion. the [ . royalty. a shield. that one symbol was one of one shape. the " is a 13T zachar. whilst that which was hollow. a hole. anything indeed intended to pierce into something else was emblematic of the dart. sheath. organ. initiated. ship's prow. These some last three sentences deserve close individuals have. ram. whilst the female was symbolised as a door. and advantage was taken of the fact. spear. the other single . or three things. in objected. or upright.

Two serpents. being at one time soft. the French. Haller." El. and a faith expressed like the one held in mother of creation modern Rome. one Indian. were emblematic. are of incredible that any individual. are able to up erect. large. Baal. who. as in certain Tyrian coins. in the writings of our lively neighbours." every remarked. that the co-equal with the father.was displayed where the horse-shoe some curiously mysterious part in question we cannot . Asher. and each in its respective country the great Creator. living thing comes from an egg . or set of find. Adonai. . Ab. and at another hard. and pendent. avoids talking upon the subject is which forms the basis may seem religion. euphemisms Yet the wonder ceases when we rarely named. When to this was added a half moon. etc. and the other Egyptian. it writers. and to raise them therefore. To the Englishman. so more ancient biologists ologist. inasmuch as what we may call the most prominent organ was naturally changeable in character. a host of words intended to describe the parts referred to. small. and that attributes were assigned to the refuse to see the thing signified in the sign. another portion of the triad was regarded as similar in shape and size to the common hen's egg. circumlocutory natural. " Omne vivum ex ovo. In like manner. Jahu. is now. Melech. Hence an egg and a serpent became a characteristic of " the Father. recognised that the dual part of the tripliform organ was as essential to the creation of a new being as the central pillar. both of which distend their heads and necks. those animals that resempart of the bled it tripliform in these respects became symbolical. Ach. the trinity and unity were symbolised. could have exercised many an ancient their ingenuity in finding for though things which. Again. As the celebrated physitypified the father. the one seduces by her charms. as a rule. and the other makes them fructify. and upright.

. par Paris. is not often to be found in the market. Eecherches sur les Mysteres de Paganisme. encou- raged the formation of a school of theology which has no solid foundation. by St. would be almost He equivalent to giving a catalogue of part of his library. The ancient Jews formed no exception to the general law of reverence for the male emblem of the Creator. gladly find them exempt from what we consider to be impurities. As English making any in ancient pictorial emblems adopted writers have. from their pretensions to be the chosen people of God. As each indi- becomes a question with be imparted to others. whose infirm temper seems to have been on a par with his weakness for deserves. To give a list of the foreign works which the author has consulted. more respect was given to the symbol than we. systematically avoided distinct reference to the sexual ideas embodied Paganism. and though we would. So rarely has the determination to accuse the vampire been taken. living in modern times. J. Dulaure. viz. even in the worship of Jehovah. Croix. except a very animal one. small 8vo. We do not know one such that is Payne Knight's work. having been privately printed. easily accessible . 1825. is equally valuable. think that it In their Scriptures we read of Noah. prior to and during the composition of his book on Ancient Faiths. . but it is very difficult to procure a copy. 2 Though out is Histoire abregee des vols. so they have. Di/erens Cultes. however. as a rule. Another work. It. of print.. indicate the name of one work which unusually valuable for reference. A.. we are constrained to believe that. copies can generally be procured through second-hand booksellers. and the addition thereto. by their silence.which correspond wholly with the by the Greeks and others. him how it far the information shall to refer our readers. may. that we can point to very few English books to which vidual finds out this for himself.

were the masters of those Hebrews. quite as particular. as making circumcision a sign of his covenant with the seed of Abraham . Elohim God We supposed to have looked at as the Scripture has find. cursing one of his three sons because. whose V/. ix. one of the names of the Creator amongst the Hebrews. that it of Jehovah was and examined a male quite as when Moses and Zipporah were on closely as their way from Midian to Egypt. Ham had no reverence symbol of the Creator. he had negligently exposed his person. v. indeed. or the foreskin. had . and subsequently in Carthaginian Spain. Again. in old times. Assyria. iv. xvii. 2. lay in impotent scoldings. One of the best proofs of the strong sexual element which existed in the religion of the Jews is the fact that Elohim. such as Shakespeare puts into the mouth of Caliban. and the young man had thought the sight an amusing one. and would have done so unless the mother had mutilated the organ according to the sacred pattern. we find in Josh. in the lands of Canaan. that Jehovah insisted upon all the Hebrew males having their virile member in the covenant We cannot condition ere they went to attack the Canaanites. Gen. Exod. 21-27). and Babylonia. we rejoice to know that the causeless curse never fell. and that Ham. dwell so much as almost every scribe could that any suppose scriptural writer does upon the subject of circumcision. and in order to ascertain whether a man was to be regarded as being in the covenant. whilst drunk. and in the following verses. 10-14. and covered it with a veil as respectfully as if it had been the for the ineffable framer of the world (Gen. 24.wine. and having found it as perfect as when the lad was born. is represented. As our feel- ings of propriety induce us to think that the father was a far greater sinner than the son. sought to slay him. but Shem and Japhet had.t' 3 main force. Jehovah having looked at the "trinity" of Moses' son. the state of the the hill of virile : for is organ.

iii. The two were co-existent in Palestine . to in and who imagined that he. could conquer a giant. then. 26. See Gen. 4). obscenely as we should say. We next find that Abraham. monarch who thought 14). it be abused. : Genesis . whilst he takes an to do his bidding. is Psalms with which their souls. an ark the before who purchased creator emblem the of female his wife from her royal father by mutilating a hundred Philistines. 2 Sam." I in xlvii. that sexual others full of holy aspirations. his oath . of a xviii. " under for the words. was supposed to think so that his courtiers sought a lovely damsel as a comfort for his dying bed. 27. not generally " upon the symbol point to two or three other passages (translated in the authorised version may which the thigh is used periphrastically loins) that the expression.not the masculine emblem been held in religious veneration amongst the Jewish nation. . known euphemism of the Creator. and a number of It is clear. they are equally so in Bengal. and presenting the foreskins " to the king which he had cut off therefrom " in full tale (1 Sam. (1 who was once the captain shame beyond endurance by men whose persons were a xxxi. As my it is thigh. ideas on religion are not incompatible with a desire to be holy. xlvi. and is a 29.xxxv. or slain a natural condition Sam. makes man of God. his servant lay hand upon the master's member. is believed to have been the author of the noble nineteenth Psalm. precisely like a more modern Palestinian might do and Jacob does the same with Joseph. 2. tortured. although a stripling. But the David who leaped and danced." 3. xxiv. even much of as the author of women minds and comfort in his old age. because member the one had a sanctified and the other a natural the man whom we know Christians refresh their still The king who. the cherished the honoured patriarch of the Jews.

8. and compare Jerem. in our Christian times. if his masculinity had been in any way impaired (Lev. and report says that. as such. and swore upon his trinity that he was guiltless. and gradually influence Christianity. that Jewish the Moreover. to in the time of the early have been as proper as early Christian It is true that. that what we call impurity in religious tenets does not necessarily involve indecency in The ancient Romans. 12. If. 11. See Ginsburg. i. Popes have to be privately perfect finds see also Deut. Jehovah . that an Arab. kings. xxv. if he were a Hercules amongst the daughters Nothing can indicate the licentiousness of the inhabitants of Jerusalem more clearly than the writings of is described as of Thespius. staff. seem maidens. although I failed to make a note of it. s.Exod. 348. in Hebrew law and practice. 1. 20) . xxiii. 5. p. that any unsanctified mutilation of this part positively entailed expulsion from the congregation of the Lord. Again we learn. . Even a priest of the house of Aaron could not minister. but when he saw himself still dishe uncovered himself before the whole military trusted. v. v. in the declining days of the 2 See Ezekiel xxii. the inquirer Scriptures teem with promises of abundant offspring to those who were the favourites of and Solomon. then. We must next notice the fact. not only vehemently denied it. 2 Ezekiel. in Kitto's Biblical Cyclopaedia. when accused by General Kleber of treachery. during the Franco-Egyptian war. we find such a strong infusion of the sexual element. 7. the most glorious of their monarchs. practice. OATH. once in each year. every female considers it her duty to salute with her lips the reverenced organ of the Old Sheik. we cannot be surprised if it should be found elsewhere. xxi. I have on two occasions read. vol. In the Lebanon. 1-30. 3. empire . from Deut.

who endeavours to remove every possible source None can doubt the value of the order. civilised. The life. but the national which evidences a people's worth. drunkenness is general. who followed him. as when she has abandoned the her religion.city. and perhaps unconsciously . as when she hugs them as "free-thinking" Prussia. saints." of to If all unite small differences of opinion may at once How worthless are many of the dogmas that fight about. and we cannot pride ourselves upon universal honesty and It chastity. never used anything as a sacred emblem nor did Jesus. called respectively " cannot boast of with " infidel France and practice. be sunk. they were not told to carry out any form of ark or crucifix. the following pages will show. people now In our larger work we have endeavoured to show that there may be a deep sense of religion. is not the national belief. a feeling of personal responsibility. and not one of them had any parti- . Attachment to the good parts of religion is wholly distinct from a close embrace and we believe he deserves best of his of the bad ones . or Buddha. and honesty were not virtues. Spain and Ire" Catholic " and " the land of land. chastity was a vice. and as upright. In Spartan . "Do others as you would wish others to do to you. days." equality England will be as earnest. country discord. propagated the Indian's doctrine. heathen elements in if necessary to her spiritual welfare. exhibitions that of the fathers of the similar occurrences in called forth the denunciations fierce Church took place but we find very modern Christian capitals. with- earnest Sakya Muni. but drunkenness In Christian England. To them the doctrine of the Trinity was unknown. so keen as to influence every act of out there being a single symbol used. to carry this out. When the Apostles were sent out to teach and preach.

We. call when Jesus was when she bore born. the masculine and feminine are spoken of as zachar and nekebah. and in a are known . and acts which occur habitually in the world. In the following pages the author has felt himself obliged make use of words which are probably only known " scholars. and although this has been softened down by subsequent redactors. where we simply indicate the sex. 2. by putting a mutilated part of their body into full view. was cer- Paul and Peter.for whom we virgo intacta ' the Virgin Mary. and that which occurred throughout creation. our hands and was as drinking much feet. but which. i. everything which was common was spoken of without shame. to prove that they were in covenant with God. though said to be the fathers of the Koman Church. and was seen by every one. never used or recommended the faithful to procure for themselves tainly different " a cross " as an aid to his brothers." He has to treat those who are more or less to to of human body. like the Jews. much which is in our modern judgment improper still remains. For example. with the Society of Friends. 10. and never had. in the period ment was when written. The memory." borers describing men is to be found in 1 Kings xiv. which in modern times are never referred to in parts of the polite society. But . were spoken of as freely as the Old Testa- we now talk of In those days. and v. host of other places. the subject now. which is best translated as " ' Another equally vulgar way of and " bored. is of conversation The Hebrew as eating and writers were extremely coarse in their diction.cular reverence if ' she was her . the Jewish historians used the word which was given to the symbol by which male and female for example. prefer primitive to modern Christianity. who. early Christians recognised each other by their deeds. 27. in Gen.

where the words are. we have evidence. xxviii. 21. Sanscrit. and in Heb. following pages. whilst Isis. and In the use veiled language to express certain matters. did that and consequently Again.. and 2 Kings xviii. and Asher replace the parts referred to in Deut. would be objectionable to ears polite. in the "the water of their feet. represent the Hebrew zachar . language is used to express something which. refer to has long been known English ones.. but for a long period they have systematically refrained from speaking plainly. Sacti. but the lan- guage is less refined. and the like. Now-a-days our ears are not attuned to we have to the rough music which pleased our ancestors. 1. Linga. 29. It is certain that the feet are never hairy. 10. as in the last three verses quoted. or Egyptian. etc. can never be shaved. and " the hair of the feet " ? ask what is meant by the phrase. Shemitic. 1 Osiris. Parvati. Greek. Genesis xxiv. 27. Siva. if put into the vernacular. for an illustration let us take Isaiah vii. xi." and compare this with Deut. when we find in Gen.these observations would not serve us we not know much in symbolism they were associated with certain when one thing is said another is which euphemisms by intended . Phallus. xlix. to scholars that the euphemisms In Deut. Hea. the androgyne deity. Asher." it is clear that symbolic original. . Ishtar. 2 and known xlvii. 57. Anu. Elohim. or mystic four. the trinity and unity. to xxiii. replace the Jewish nekebah. Mahadeva. Priapus. "the sceptre shall not depart from Judah. the arba. Of these a few are learned . and have written in such a I will only add.. xxiii. Again. in it is well " word " thigh and " staff" are express 'that part which represents the male. The junction of these parts is spoken of as Ashtoreth. Baalim. 20. that what I to almost every scholar except . etc. nor a lawgiver from between his feet. the words which I select are drawn from the Latin. Astarte. of the sanctity of the part referred to. Yoni.

and to educate them so highly as to be attractive. exist in India.. of in the Such women similar c.) prostituted themselves before their idols. who could introduce into religion such matters as those of which we have treated. book mous number worshippers xiii. In that I have shown. (Oratio Contr. . for in this many my clause of the volume there are things omitted which I have referred to at length in work. 36 women were occurrence at Comana. The word ^1P> Kadesh. offering their bodies to their gods in the place of first fruits. which signifies "pure. I can only say that I have nothing extenuated. to be holy. Gent. first assertion requires modification. and set down nought But the in malice. Athanasius tells us something of this as regards the Phoenicians. I can imagine a person many saying with astonishment. young. and made her propitious to them." is also the root from which are formed the words Kadeshah and Kadeshim. or are. for he says. 17. being persuaded that they pleased the goddess by that means. it is certain that Phoenician women i. After reading thus far. but that existed also in Palestine. part "Formerly. p. 24.. ''Are these things so?" and following up his thoughts by wondering what style of persons they were. bright. p. iii." authorised version See Deut.. and are translated in our "whore" and "sodomite. not only that larger religious fornication existed there is in ancient reason to believe that it Babylon. and the priests of certain temples do everything in their power to select the loveliest of the sex. in and notices that an enorconsecrated to the use of temple of Venus at Corinth. which are used in the Hebrew writings. In reply. or to be consecrated." Strabo mentions a Pontus. xxiii.xxxii manner as to be guilty not only of suppressio veri but of suggestio falsi.

7. From everything that I can learn known and I have repeatedly conversed with those who have the Turks and Hindoos familiarly position in My life readers as morally good as must not now partisan or a special pleader consider that I I am making common these are in every Christians are." and were associated with women whose business was " to make hangings for the What these tissues were and what use was made grove. . and in 2 Kings xxiii. either a they must man by man. of his temple. 12. 24. and of the general run of the inhabitants of Hindostan. as missionaries do. let us inquire into the conduct of the sensual Turks." were located of them will be seen in Ezekiel xvi. as we find in 1 Kings xiv. Jerusalem in in are still and the Psalmist as a man But without going the time of spoken of as God's chosen after God's own heart. The grossest form of worship is compatible with general . and We have seen how Abraadded pomegranate ornaments. xv. Even David. that Kadeshim were common in Judea. and assert that there is as large a per centage of good folks in India and Turkey as there is in Spain and France..The customs which seem existed in other places to have been known in Jerusalem. compare the best Ottoman and Indian with Christian criminals but I take the whole in a nor do I. Yet the Jews people. and called them Jachin and Boaz. assert that when am I I say this the comparison as . we discover that these "consecrated ones" "by the temple. so far back. 1 6. ham and the Jacob ordered their inferiors to swear by putting and we have read of the hand upon " the thigh " atrocities which occurred Ezekiel. England or America. . when dancing before the ark. mass. do not. compare the most vicious the most exemplary Christian Mahomedan and Brahmin with . shamelessly Solomon erected two pillars in the porch exposed himself. on the other hand.

man does to other men as he would that they should do to him. tells us of that were more powerful. In prowess and learning. who seduced Bathsheba. and allows no one to interfere between him and his Maker. and New York. I know of no nation of old that was priest-ridden which did not fall under who did not care for hierarchs. the Babylonians. so long as the latter do not bow their necks to a priesthood. and killed her woman. .The purity of morals. " God's people. but a form of faith which prevents manly inquiry. Nor does the most 'sensual form of religion stunt the prosperity of a people. with their " chosen people." religious prostitution. was not execrated by driven from his throne as Tarquin was by the consequently to Romans. or in those of the French Napoleon and the German William. There are probably no three cities in ancient or modern times which contain so muny vicious individuals as London. Ancient History tells us abundance. whilst those of Hebrews. all will go well with the world. Paris. story of Lucretia is told of a Pagan Er and Onan. were superior to the Of the wealth and enterprise of the Phoenicians. The greatest danger is to be feared from those ecclesiastics who wink at vice. Tamar and Judah relate David. Yet there are none which history No Babylonian army numbers the army of the Northern might equalled Nineveh never wielded armies equal to United States." nor was he husband. and encourage it as a means whereby the swords of those So long as every they can gain power over their votaries. The existence of personal vice does not ruin a nation in its collective capacity. The greatest curse to a nation is not a bad religion. and Rome never had an empire equal to that which is headed by London.

" " should be upon the grove followed by a dissertation upon other relics of antiquity but circumstances notably upon that known as Stonehenge have prevented this design being carried into execution. Plate iv. Etruria. it seemed to me only to give him the facility of enunciating Mr. but the subject of symbolism. but I assent to his other opinions. who has not only assisted me in a who has taken a great deal of interest in variety of ways. to be not only a tolerance of disagreement. Where two individuals are am not equally ready to working earnestly elucidation of truth. Fig. and.. As I should not feel satisfied to allow any other person to express fair to my opinions in his words. friend's observations It was intended. Greece. gave me to understand that there were some matters in which he differed very strongly from me One in opinion. Jerusalem. as well as in countries called uncivilised. there ought. in Ancient Egypt. which prompted the use in tation of the so-called Assyrian religion of those organs of reproduction which have. of these was as to the correct interpre- grove. as far as we can learn. When two individuals who have much in common go . Babylonia. Newton his views in his that my own language. Assyria. Tyre. but an honest effort to submit the subject to a jury of thoughtful readers. I feel quite disposed to acquiesce in the opinions which my old friend has formed respecting the Assyrian grove. in my for the opinion. Sidon.WHILST my the following sheets were going through the press. friend Mr. been venerated in Hindostan. 3 . another was the signification of one of Lajard's gems. from time immemorial. Newton. Carthage. and the most conspicuous of o'ur divergencies was respecting the fundamental. and Eome. or basic idea. originally.

by educating the mind of the multitude to think. In Great Britain we find three and to each other. and of God which the laws that it enforces. Newton's manuscript.same ground. over the it is that they should dwell natural. I hope to be The bulk of the pardoned for allowing them to stand. although possibly in differing relationship. from the most remote antiquity to the present time. As my own part of the following remarks were printed long before I saw Mr. Bible. tokens. volume will not be increased to the extent of a If I were to be asked the reason Newton full page. No matter what the creed. is to gain over the This has never yet been done. set of men have banded and endeavour together to elect a god on to coerce their fellow-mortals to believe . of the if he should engage in an honest study of the it presents for our worship. as far as the law of the logic . indeed almost necessary.Romanist we have convert. land permits. A young . A bishop of the Church of England some of by the puny and spiteful efforts of his nominal equals if he ventures to treat Jewish writings as other is visited critics study the tomes of Livy or of Herodotus. and probably never will be attempted. as recently seen. the main object of its exponents and supporters minds of the populace. exalted idea about the adoption of certain in his emblems bodily organs as types. observations why my made upon of an unseen and answer would be drawn from the every known order of priesthood. upon identical topics. Hence it will be found that there are points which are referred to by us both. prohibit independent inquiry. whether Ancient or Modern. sets of hierarchs opposed by every means in their power. or an inscrutable Creator. all equally. One earth. I differ from Mr. is discouraged from persevering in the study of history and a Presbyterian is persecuted.

tation a of kakodoemon and Christianity if. some with no less than three pairs Hindoo gods have four heads and six. The Babylonian Apollyon. thought. and enquiry. Mr. by whatever name he went. if possible. Another small point of difference between my friend and whether there has been at any time a figured represen- me is. The Egyptians winged seem to have assigned wings only to the favourable divinities. who profess to eschew the idea of Pope. and quell. who differ large. for . except since the beginning of by way of stretching a point. hierarchs scientific from them " on points which still set their faces against an advance in knowledge. The Jews had in their mythology a set of fiery flying we must notice that their cherubim and serawinged. but phim were much as number of all arms. Newton assumes that the dragon mentioned in Rev. we are not far wrong when we assert. as being opposed to the Agathodcemon." when with all our modern learning. was but so were all the good gods. assume that they possess the quality themselves. that he had no pinions. xii." Another set of men.make the one that a selection by a few old cardinals can whom they choose to honour "infallible. wings were given lesser deities as our artists assign them to modern to the angels. we call Satan or the Devil by this name. if indeed in any sense of the word. was a winged creature. in the higher and highest senses. every endeavour to search after truth. whether we are justified in providing As far as I can judge from this evil genius with wings. and endeavour to blot out from the communion infallibility in a of the faithful those God hath left at Surely. that the first priests of barbarism had no exalted views of such an abstract subject as life. or any other serpents. Typhon Chaldean and Assyrian sculptures. but it is clear from the context. especially from verses 14 and 15.

but that Cupid. in Fig. desire it is flutterings of the heart. . and and Scott add used Liddell. The dragon. A searcher amongst Etruscan vases will see not only that the angel of death or by whatever other is name " winged. gnostic with changeful hues. I cannot entertain the proposition that the winged creatures in the very remarkable gem already referred to are evil genii. when Such a subordinate many sexual emblems koakd&mon would be a to represent the lovers meet or even deity would be as Plate iv. in ch. a mediaeval only spoken of in the Bible in the book of Revelation. frequently hovers over the bridal or otherwise voluptuous couch. and extend the net of observation over as wide a sea as a scholar does when endeavouring to decipher some language written in long- . and the author of that strange production drew his inspiration on this point from the Iliad. 3 " spoil sport. shot having three heads. a pair of wings. " or love goes.he was unable to follow the woman to whom two aerial oars had been given. xx. I believe. and o$<r indifferently of Rev. So does the author for a serpent. coiled like a snake. of blood-red colour. Holding these views. produced think of each other. I have been unable to discover any gem with anything modem like a dragon on it. creation as we know such a creature is. intended. but when one is studying the signification of symbolical lan- guage. 2. Eros. where a dragon is is described as of huge size. whilst a fancied. In a question of this kind the mind is perhaps unconby comparing one antiquarian idea with sciously biassed another." and would make the erected serpents drop rather than remain in their glory. Spoixoov Homer. place amongst so contains. These matters are apparently of small importance. it. he has to pay as close an attention. and The Greeks also gave to Eros attends beauty at her toilet.

and some divergence of opinion between independent observers sharpens the intellect more than it tries the temper.forgotten characters. .

.

PAGAN AND CHEISTIAN SYMBOLISM.
PLATE
This

I.

taken from a photograph of a small bronze image
in the Mayer collection of the Free Museum, in Liverpool.

The
Isis,

is

figure

stands about nine inches high, and represents
fish.
It is an apt illustration of an

Horus, and the

ancient custom,

still prevalent amongst certain Christians,
of reverencing a woman, said to be a virgin, giving suck to
her child, and of the association of Isis, Venus, and Mary

with the

both

"

Friday, for example, is, with the Romanists,
and " dies Veneris." Fish are known to

fish.

fish day,"

be extraordinarily

prolific.

There was a belief that animals,

noted for any peculiarity, imparted their virtues to those who
ate them ; consequently, tigers' flesh was supposed to give
The use of fish
courage, and snails to give sexual power.
in connubial feasts is still common.
Those who consider it

pious or proper to eat fish on Venus' day, or Friday, proclaim themselves, unconsciously, adherents to those heathen
ideas which deified parts about which no one now likes to
talk.

The

fish

Since the
gested to

me

has in one respect

affinity

with the mandrake.

publication of this work, a friend has suganother reason, besides its fertility, for the fish
first

From his extensive experience as
a surgeon, and especially among the lower order of courtesans,
he has repeatedly noticed during the hot months of the year
that the parts which he had to examine have a very strong
being emblematic of woman.

odour of
lead

me

that in

fish.

My

own

to endorse

warm

observations in the

same department

Consequently, I think
climates, where the utmost cleanliness can
his assertion.

2
scarcely keep a female

from odour, scent, as well as

free

other attributes, has had to do with the selection of the fish
as an emblem of woman.
Still

further, I have

been informed by another friend

that in Yorkshire, and I understand in other counties of

England, the double entente connected with the

marked that

it is

somewhat

difficult to

render

it

fish is so

into decent

It will suffice to say that in the county menphraseology.
tioned, Lais or Phryne would be spoken of as "a choice bit
of fish," and that a man who bore on his features the stamp
is imprinted by excessive indulgence, would be said to
" a fish diet." I do not
have indulged too much in
suppose
that in the Yorkshire Ridings the folks are unusually well
acquainted with mythology, yet it is curious to find amongst

which

their inhabitants a connection between

precisely similar to that

Venus and the Fish,

which has obtained in the most

remote ages and in far distant climes.
It is clear from all these facts that the

fish is a

symbol

not only of woman, but of the yoni.

PLATE

II.

Dagon, or some other fish
from Lajard, Sur le Culte de Venus,
" Statuette
inedite, de
pi. xxii., 1, la, and is thus described,
Elle porte par
gres houiller ou micace, d'un brun verdatre.
Is supposed to represent Cannes,

god.

It is copied

devant, sur une bande perpendiculaire, un legende en caracSyriaques tres anciens (Cabinet de M. Lambert,

teres

no clue to the signification of the
would seem paradoxical to say that there is
something in common between the bull-headed deity and
Cannes. It is so, nevertheless. One indicates, par excelThat Cannes
lence, physical, and the other sexual, power.
a Lyon)."

inscription.

I can find
It

for the Assyrians, represent a man who played a part
with them similar to that of Penn among the Indians of

may,

Pennsylvania, I do not deny

;

but,

when we find a similar
know that Crishna

fish-god in Philistia and Hindostan, and

PLATE

U

>t-U>^\

II.

/

CKJ
E$
hi

P
Jyif
1

i

111
.'

\

1

PLATE

III

3 and 5 are intended to show the prevalence of the use of spots on priestly dresses . vol. the second. 208. vi. Jesus of Nazareth should be called l%Qvs.. infra." Nineveh and its Palaces. p. indicate the desire of friends that the man will show that he vigorous. the explanation does not suffice. pp. they are copied from Hislop's Two Babylons. religious illustrations emblem amongst spotted antelope. and Wilkinson. 6. Kavenshaw. 33. and in cation. by E. Babylons. which had a peculiar signifiSometimes the forefinger is pointed instead. Fig. showing the regard for the 1 Figs. tion of spots. Amongst the . represents an Assyrian priest worshipping by presentation of the thumb.8 once appeared as a fish. figured on the houses of newly married couples amongst the Jews of Morocco. and For an explanation of the significavol. Esq. see Plate iv.. p. 114. . 341. by outsiders.. and seems to vita. and a cup in the other his robe is covered with spots The branch is emblematic of the arbor arranged in threes. of the antelope as a the Assyrians. It is curious that PLATE and 4 are III. in Journal is of Royal Asiatic Society. vol. C. PLATE IV. but this only proves that the religion of Christ has been adulterated by Paganism. and in it we see carried in one hand a triply branched lotus . xvi. 1 both cases the male illustrating a paper It is taken from a plate symbolised. or tree of symbol is. 2 illustrates Bacchus. The first is from Layard's Nineveh.. and for "the branch. with a mystic branch in one hand. pi. and its powers of sprouting. Such a life. Fig. is From Hislop's head are arranged many crosses. 353. "a or fish ". is from Bonomi's Fig. and able to have many sprouts from the tree of It will be noticed that on the fillet round the god's life. Two Figs.. iv. and Smith's Dictionary.

. shaped like a cone. the finger. The damsel then grasped the thumb by the other hand thus indicating her profession. the thumb. on a spot opposite to the centre of the male's body erect serpent. mentula arrecta . age of the gem and its origin are not Attribute. The stone is a white agate. circle represent the or Asher. that he happened. as it were. et les (Paris. fascinated. and the shank of a key. whose mystic signification may informed me. bohen. and ezba. My friend. The shape of this gem indicates its dedication to The central figures represent the androgyne deity. but the subject leads that author to believe it to be of late Babylonian workmanship. belonged to Mons. 3 is a very remarkable production. were euphemisms. while the triad above them represents the mystic trinity. and probably all the Shemitic tribes. Lajard. whilst opposite to his feet * is A friend the ha amphora. solar we find a lozenge. To his astonishment to look at a gorgeously dressed she pointed her thumh this surprised the precisely in the yonng man still manner adopted by the Assyrian priests and being.Hebrews. continued to gaze. or the bearded Venus Mylitta. who was wholly inexperienced in the ways of the world. Elohim.* The hand thus presented to the grove resembles a part of the Buddhist cross. real known. he . 2 is a Buddhist emblem the two fishes forming the mystic yoni. father.. It originally Fig. Bel. et seq. the sacti of Mahadeva. Siva. . only understood what was meant when he saw my explanation of Fig. of Royal Asiatic Society. and handsome young woman. xviii. 1837). farther. Fig. and its mundane representative. Venus. Jupiter genetrix. 1. for example. vol. p. Astaroth. On the left side of the cutting we notice an whose rayed head makes us recognise the emblem. The 1. in pages 32. whilst at Pesth. and is described by him in his second Memoire. Monumens Figures de Venus and figured in plate i. united with Anu and Hea. whose signification is described in a subsequent page. Baalim. 392. . They are so in some parts of Europe to the present day. ks Symles boles.. and the cutting is on its lower face. entitled Recherches sur le Culte. the triune . fig. symbolic of the yoni. From Journal plate ii.

PLATE IV f] .

.

is apparently. my own opinion is that they symbolise observed that attacked by what serpent we suppose in is Satan. etc. the reverse of a bronze coin of Vespasian. and another serpent. seq. Monsieur Lajard takes the dragons to indicate the bad principle in nature. Opposite to the female are the moon. that the snake which represents the male has the tail so curved as to suggest the idea of the second and third elements of the trinity. Eros. There is some difficulty in understanding the exact idea intended to be conveyed by these . the Roman symbol of the sun the wafer and cup thus being synonythe sun and moon in conjunction. The learned will De Rerum Naturd. The three stars over the head of the figure. 4 is also copied from Lajard. cup. mous with each the plate is apparently a dragon. lines 1256. associated in the it is analogous to the crescent moon. struck in the . i.. book iv. or desire. it is meant for Ouranos. in a fashion which can be more easily imagined than described in the mother tongue. In a part corresponding to life the diamond. the old serpent that tempted Eve. on the atic.. and the fourth represents Bel and Ishtar in conjunction. Ahriman. 32). plate i. 31. and church with the round wafer. On the darkness. is left side. both in the male and female. e.. fierce lust. night. which may be recognised by physiologists as symbolic of tensio clitoridis. It brings about the arrectation which the serpents figure. by pouring from himself into her. It is Fig. viz. of the sun. Cupid. which. find the position assumed in Lucretius. At the female's emblem- feet is placed a intended to represent the passive element in As such creation. which is a six-rayed wheel. gem the four sides are ornamented pyramidal portion of the three represent animals remarkable for their by figures salacity. fig. is not to be passed by without notice. equivalent to mythological four.readily be recognised . representations of the the Egyptian symbol of (figs. or the earth. It will be . or the Sun fructifying Terra. and the inverted triangle on its are head. 10..

6 and represents the conical stone. It will be recognised that each hand separately indicates the trinity. resemisland of Cyprus. ii. when the Creator doubles himself into male and female. or altars with flame. One of my informants told me that. and. Newton. suggests that the is to Venus in question was androgyne that the cone is a male emblem. . the two and the two candelabra. 3. probability of my views than anything else. idea. Fig. It is clear that when a meteoric stone falls.. gateway. is the position assumed by the hand and fingers. " " cohen or priest. i. I remarked the expression did more to convince him of the central aperture. of which " the statue bears no Tacitus Hist. It is certain that the serpents. e. within a door. when Roman and Anglican bishops or other hierarchs give benediction to their people. thus resembling . under whose form Venus was worshipped at Paphos.. of this is not ascertained. he had often administered the being a blessing. placed his joined tus" and hands so that his nose entered the " On bene nasahis doing so. c. so as to be in a position to originate new beings. blance to the human form. Whilst the right hand in Plate VII. but is round. but the stone was an aerolite. or delta. Fig. remarks." It is remarkable that a male emblem should be said to represent Venus. broad at one end and gradually tapering at the other. A similar disposition is to be met with in Indian mythology. modified in one form or another. like a The reason goal. 5 represents the position of the hands assumed by Jewish priests when they give the benediction to their flock. My very ingenious friend. the Assyrian grove. whilst the junction of the two indicates the unit. is symbolic of the the four. 6. symbolises the male. mystic Arba The whole the trinity and unity. whilst showing to me this method of benediction. and was said to represent Diana. like that which fell at Ephesus. favour his stars. Mr. the chief priests of the district can say that it be taken as a representative of their divinity.

.

PLATE V. .

in India. but the god became covered with marks that yoni. we recognise the triformed the grapes. Babylonia. In the framework around the group. either womankind. the emblem of A story of Indra. He is usually represented as bearing a robe but the legend runs that. I'abricot fendu. and the circle the male lodged therein androgyne creator. there is a similar figure. the wheat ears. Phoenicia. were changed by the recalled his latter into eyes. leaf.. for they were pictures of the These. by the strong intercession of Brahma with the Rishi. he became enamoured of the wife of another man.e. It represents the Virgin and Child be represented in Egypt. Is a copy of a mediaeval Virgin and Child. and the pomegranate rimmon. offence to mind. typical of Dionysus . by their shape or by their name. the Hindoo god of the sky. emblematic of Asher of dress being . as painted in Delia Robbia ware in the South Kensington Museum. the accident of no mythological consequence.the left hand represents the mystic feminine circle. a copy of which was given to me by my friend. With regard to the signification of spots. confirms this. and in that another plate. symbolic of Ceres. precisely as she used to in Assyria. the mark of womankind. and Etruria . The design of Indra was both frustrated and punished. Mr. and seen by chance. woman escaped. to whose kindness I am indebted for many illustrations of ancient Christian art. we may notice that they indicated. This story enables us to recognise clearly the hidden symbolism of the Hindoo and Egyptian eye. which is the dress worn by the celestial spouse is covered with groups of spots arranged in triads and groups of four. who was very covered with eyes beautiful . In to be found in Moor's Hindu Pan- theon. which charac- . but her spouse was one whose The evil austere piety made him almost equal to Brahma. like David. the female. but draped fully. Newton. PLATE V. the oval representing the i.

123.8 teeming mother. The result elements appears in the child. OTB. Vol. moreover. where a man rests upon a rock the womb. possible VI. tolmen. labours to prove that the group commemorates the story told in the Bible respecting the flood. VP. a dolphin represents trident. The fourth creator. in consedolphin... suggestive. The two last figures represent a coin of Apamea. or door. i. vitce. Is a copy of figures given in Bryant's Ancient Mythology. and toys with a mother and child. and the ark is a symbol of The third figure. hermes. ATT. the female by the dolphin. introducing the That fish is symbolic of the female. moreover. The living group. like the vesica piscis. but there is doubt whether the story was not of Babylonian origin. The first two illusplates xiii. terises the is. the oval or the circle. K. the life-giving sprout . is equally The male is repeatedly characterised as a rock. it is PLATE as complete as is it is strong . the story of Palemon and Cetus. delta. a figure man and of whom the junction of these both parents welcome. and the coin appears to have been struck by Philip of Macedon. called Cibotus. which is symbolic of the female. of the arbor womb. ME&N. or upright stone. . or fish. are placed in an archway. and dolphin. 1807. and ship. menhir. reverse. The inscription round on the the head is ATT. This identification of Mary with the Sacti by-and-by we shall see that to be made. See Ancient Faiths. pp. EIIMA. xxviii. second edition. quence of the assonance in Greek between its name and that trate The tree symbolises the delphis and delphus. EHANAP. Bryant representing Noah and the ark.. APXI AIIAcity referred to . AA. IOVA *IAIIIIIOC. n. third edition. strong The was in Phrygia. surmounted by what appear to be whose supposed virtue we have spoken of under Plate This door snails. two emblems of the male and two of the female. and 385 392.

PLATE VI .

) ARDANARI-ISWARA. PROFESSOR WILSON.PLATE VII. RIGHT SIDE WA (THE SAOTI) (BRAMAH VAIVARTTA PURANU. .

.

PLATE VIII. .

p. the Her triad. All are symbolic of a central figure. and two from Bryant's Mythology. 273. but this I doubt. In the original the central part i. the same is pourtrayed as third edition. and rising In one an altar and fire indicate. whilst he was in India studying its mythology. male and female.e. the symbol of androgyneity. hands bear the unopened lotus flower. or Bhavani. and one foot peculiarly placed is marked by a circle having a dot in the interior. The two bear the same signification as the the unit. dress I is am not able to define the symbolic import Moor considers that of the articles held in the lower hands. made by a learned Hindoo pundit for Wm. and the goddess sits upon another. the linga . copied from Maurice's Indian Antiquities.. mystically. " Arddha Nari. same as Parvati. Egyptian eye. The whole stands upon a is lotus. and covered with symbolic spots. Esq. of London. who in the act of creation made himself double. indicative of the relative duties of father and mother.. of the figure is occupied by the triad and the unit. The goddess represents the feminine element in the universe. the VIII. but far too grossly shown for They are reproduction here. triad and the serpent in the male hand.9 PLATE Is a copy of an original drawing VII. 203 and 409. The raised they represent scrolls of paper. whilst in the female to be seen a germinating seed.. Simpson.. Her forehead is marked by one of the symbols of the four creators. PLATE IX. pp. Consists of six figures. another. above the other two. the idea of the male triad vol. plate xxx." The technical word for this incarnation is PLATE Is Devi. The reader will notice the replaced by the crux ansata. ii. in : . It represents Brahma supreme. erect. vol. vi. It is copied from Moor's Pantheon.

I may . any idea of that which The tree of knowledge. whilst egg the left produces girls . and snake and shell. The two last seem to embody the idea " " that the right of the male germinates boys. three being male and one female. in two instances as serpents." The three formed the trinity or triad. In Assyrian theology the central the one on the right Anu. The female was named Ishtar or Astarte. so far as I can see. in other two as tree and concha. and still tempts man by his subtlety.* There are some authors who have treated of tree and serpent worship. there is a tree stump and serpent. See Ancient Faiths. figure is Bel. are so many figures of speech which the wise understand. of dral at Berne. and represented the " testis. as Madaheva always is in another. the serpent that tempted Eve. without having. Vol. He was associated with Anu." is The whole of these figures seem to point very significant. " the left stone. that on the left Hea. and devils are drawing men and women to perdition. i.10 man. The two a . by fixing hooks or pincers on the portions of the body whence their * For those who have not an opportunity of consulting the work referred to. pent. pp. the equivalent of the Hindoo Mahadeva. An angel is dividing the sheep from the goats. equivalent to Hea was lord of waters. and of the more modern Priapus. to indicate the same idea. The principal god was Asher. unmistakably to the origin of the very common belief that is triune. and preferable to the names which are in vulgar use to describe the male and female parts. life. the upright one. the female Isis. 83-85. Baal. the great holy one. the tree the two things typify. lord of solids and of the lower world. appendages of the linga are variously described. and was equivalent to the female organ." or egg on the right side. second edition. or Asher the male Creator . we see an ancient representation of the last judgment. and of its prevalence in ancient times. the yoni or vulva the KTefe of the Greeks. The male god in Egypt was Osiris.. a theory common amongst ancient The figure of the tree encircled by the serand supported by two stones resembling "tolmen. physiologists. and these names are frequently used as being euphemistic. but which to the vulgar are simply trees and In a fine old bas-relief over the door of the Cathesnakes. observe that the Assyrian godhead consisted of four persons.

PLATE IX. .

.PLATE X.

ments. nude as our risen bodies must be. the pillar is a very unusual form An ingenious friend of mine regards the yoni. as we may otherwise express and the immaculate it. 2 represents the mystic letters said to have been placed on the portal of the oracle of Delphi. singular that and Ashtaroth in second that of Astarte or Venus in the Or. is rising to take her place amongst the blest. It is not those of the sex of Eve alone that are inveigled to destruction by the serpent. is being savagely pulled to hell by the part symbolised by tree and serpent. 1 the pillar cannot be looked upon as an aperture. the plural.11 One sins sprung. 4 identifies is emblematic of and the virgin the two with the crescent. etc. Fig. Fig. 5 is copied from 15." taken to be symbolic of the triad letters are If they be. for in Fig. Fig. the Egyptian trinities. PLATE X. believe that the first indi- cate ideas like that associated with Baalim. the child. It represents one is highly symbolic. " slit. here . whilst she whom he has adored and vainly sought to disgrace. fat priest. the married virgin. and of only indicating the triad. 1 represents a symbol frequently met with in ancient It represents the male and female ele- architecture. proposed to read the two letters as signifying by others the and the unit. the pillar and the half moon. Contains pagan symbols of the trinity or linga. for the By some "he it is or she is. 3 is a Hindoo Hindu Pantheon. and mark. It is some designers should unite the moon with the and others with the virgin. We singular. not Sharpe's Egyptian Mythology. Fig." but I cannot wholly agree with upright portion as a him. It solar symbol. copied from Moor's one out of many indicating the sectarial is union of the male and female. p. with or without the unity or yoni. Fig.

rest in This figure is peculiar. remarkable sculptures copied . Osiris.. mention some very knights and others. in vol. Isis. etc. in another is seen a youth wholly unclothed. David (Paris. 1822). close examination of the plates inclined to think that nothing of the prevailed in the mind of the ancient After given by Cabrera. 9 and 10 are copied from Cabrera's account of city discovered near Palenque. a am All the males are carefully draped in appropriate girdles. 1785). as he bears the horns symbolic of the goddess Athor and the feathers of the god Ba. save by a cap and gaiters. of Antiquites Etrusques. Although they appear to have a sexual design. F. a draped female. I ling-yoni element American sculptors. differing from all the having an European rather than an American head . but its union with the female central god Osiris is himself triune. whose trunk is surrounded by a serpent. and whose fruit is shaped like the vesica piscis . copied by find. and we may add that a trinity expressed by three balls or three circles is to be met with in the remotest times and in most distant countries. such as a human or bestial head. one is a tree. a flower. For this asser- Fig. par. A. 7. etc. 8. in Guatemala. we not only have evidence in Babylonian gems. although in some a grotesque or other ornament. for Lajard. being threatened before and behind by some fierce animal. 6 is a Pantheon. who kneels before a similar tree. v. an ancient Spanish America (London. The triad in this figure is very distinct. wearing on her breast a half moon and mural crown.. yet I doubt whether the similarity is not accidental. element. plate xlv. resembling the sporran of the Highlander and the codpiece of mediaeval I may.. so as to form a lozenge" with the forefingers and thumbs. tion We example. is attached to the apron or "fall" of the girdle.. The Hindoo sectarial mark. holding her hands " over the middle spot of the body.12 and Nepthys. from Moor's Hindu The lozenge indicates the yoni. however. Figs. but in Indian and Etruscan designs.

Figs. farther. with a turned-up nose. etc. spirits and saints. or vicious demons or fairies. et les progres des Arts de la Grece. The Christian Egyptian origin. published at London." Resting at the top of the cross is a bird. it is trinity is of intercessors in heaven. the features. The male in this and the other sculptures is beardless. and were used.18 and face. Fig. The body is well formed. like figure 5. with a head not much unlike Punch. gods and demigods. 13 is. le baton et V anneau. conventional one in use amongst Everything indicates American ideas. the emblem of the yoni. but the arms and thighs are rounded off like "flippers" or "fins. of archangels. and is as surely a pagan doctrine as the belief in heaven and hell. like a game cock. 14. and a short pipe shaped like a fig in his mouth. consisting apparently of a proportioned Christians. Nepthys. i. The first represents a serpent.. from Sharpe's Egyptian Mythology. 11. the existence of a devil. p. martyrs and virgins. and there are ornaments or designs wholly unlike any that I have seen The man appears to offer to the cross a groelsewhere. and the crescent. and that women are depicted. of faith which deface the greater part of . angels. Fig. 12 accompanies the bull on certain coins. remind me of the late Mr. and other forms modern religions. and symthe sexual elements. can only be guessed at by the inferior size of some of the It would be unprofitable to carry the description figures. as the horse-shoe one of the many Mizraite triads. V esprit. man and woman like the standing before a cross. as a charm against bad luck. Indeed. Recherches sur V origine. and the cap is such as yachting sailors usually wear. 1785.. Cobden. Osiris . plates xix. ornamented by a necklace. and xxiii. coiled so as to symbolise the male triad. They bolises is now. said to be written by D'Harcanville. There is also another remarkable group. and is said to represent Isis. tesque human figure. of a remarkably interesting work. 12 are from vol.

The gem plate xvi. Git. PLATE XI. whilst the crescent symbolises the female element but in creation. by folio. fig. with a dog and a conch shell below.14 Figure 14 is a symbol frequently seen in Greek churches. 1869). With two exceptions. . represents a sacrifice to Priapus. Figs.. A nude male sacrifices a goat a draped female holds a kid . plate It resembles Figure 11. See supra. nude. 1786). indicates the yoni tail. and branches given in our plate. 2. 1 is copied from Pugin. whilst on the reverse Figure 17 this are seen a tree. i. it would simply indicate the linga and the sun . above the If the 8 like were straight. pillar. Figure 15 is from D'Harcanville.. Op. and a second woman. and indicates a There is an able essay on this subject in which almost exhausts the subject but is No. probably containing wine for a libation... vol. exhibits Christian the unity or yoni. Recherches. draped. J. and 9. i. moon introduction of the sun and to verify the deduction drawn from the arrangement of the serpent's snake's body. 4 and emblems of the trinity or linga. plate xxii. 267 of the Edinburgh Review too long for quotation here. figure. the bend in its neck. and the moon. of Recueil de M. indicated by the rock. Raponi (Home.. Plate ix. surrounded by a snake. situated between two rounded stones. In is from vol. Fig. alone or combined . etc. supra. however. plays the double pipe. bears a vessel on her . and enables us by the xxiii. the whole being copied from Pugin's Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament (London. 6. medal the triad is formed by a man and two coiled serpents on the one side of the medal. head. Figure 16 is copied from Pierres Antiques Graves.. ready for immolation a second man. Fig. plate xvii. The cross appears to be of pre-christian origin. instead of being curved coils.* we have elsewhere described as being a compound male emblem.

.

.

35 and 36. As this cross is of gold. 4 is copied in a conventional form from plate xxxv. may add here that in the two forms We of the Maltese cross. and the free end of each limb of the Etruscan. and appears by the look to have been intended for suspension. and xv. it had no doubt been made for some personage of rank. unchanged. here represented as a ring. plates xiv. 7 represents the central lozenge and one limb of In this instance the a cross.. Fig." When we have such an egg.. the triune god and the virgin united in one. " The object was It is a crux Agati di Goti. 6 are from Pugin. are at the free end of each limb. 3 is essentially the same as the preceding. : cmsata formed by four phalli. unmistakable bi-sexual cross before our eyes.. and if the artist had not mystified the free end. 4. 2 and 3. plate xiv. 4 and 7. are from Pugin. infra. with a circle of female organs round the centre . and both may be compared with Fig. near Naples It is thus described (page 147) found at St. Fig. V anneau. figured plate xiv. In figure 2. cross is but slightly modified. fig. and Plate xii. of the crux ansata. The balls in this cross are uncovered.15 double union of the trinity with the unity. 4. being essentially the same as Fig. and the egg-shaped bodies. balls at the base of each limb of the cross are two covered extremely significant. and represent the trinity with the unity. it is impossible to ignore the signification of Figs. 3. the Figs. whilst the natural end of the organ is left This form of cross is See figs. possibly an We see here very distinctly the design of the ecclesiastic. the most obtuse worshipper must have recognised the symbol. 9. Figs. 5. Fig. 2. of Pugin. It is a modified form . of Two Essays on the Worship of Priapus (London. with their cover.and sistrum-shaped bodies. the position of the lingam is reversed. Maltese cross is united with the symbol of the virgin. 1865). Figs.

is from Pugin. is associated with the central ring. weary him by wailing. and represents the arbor vitte. the ornaments style on Buddhist topes have nothing in common with those of Christian churches . 4 serves The " the cross to verify the involves. limb of an ornamental cross. represent the to reference to Fig. with which the is ring united. India. Christian art to crowd our churches with the emblems of with. each a vesica piscis. Bel and and Astarte. with divinity. or tree of life. and assign to him a virgin as a companion. whilst in the ruined temple of the sun at Marttand. 9 is hand of almost every made name that it it A Fig. Fig. technically bears is crux ansata. linga and yoni. 11 is from Pugin. the trefoil emblem of the trinity is common. as a triad. a well-known Egyptian symbol. who can cajole him by her blandishment. In this figure made by the intersection of two ovals. Fig. the branch. a mystery. plate xix." idea which It is a cross. 10 the cross is one limb female element in creation. borne in the compound trinity.16 Fig. Within each limb a symbol of the each of which trinity is seen. Grecian temples were profusely ornamented there- and so are innumerable Etruscan sculptures. but they do It has been reserved for not represent the trinity and unity. plate xxxv. an emblem of the yoni. Christianity certainly requires to be purged of its heathenisms. plate xv. would pitch upon such a the figures above which never had and that any designer of ornamentation although profoundly ignorant of the doctrine of the trinity and unityBut this assumption is not borne out by fact . or with a handle. It has been said by some referred to are mere pretensions to embody critics that architectural fancies. supreme to elevate the phallus to the position of the deity. Baalim and Ashtoreth. .. 8 is a being the finial of each Pugin. or induce him to change his mind by her intercessions.

.

PLATE XII .

.17 PLATE XII.. 2 is from Pugin. Fig. sine Baccho et Cerere friget Venus. emblems of the womb. 3. of ideas concealing the union patent in Fig. . 17 are from Pugin. Figs. 13. 15. seem to have been very and to have been designed to indicate the junction of male and female. 7. plate xxi. made Such 4. vol. and simply represent the trinity. and is a very finial representing the trinity. 3 is from Moor's Hindu Pantheon. It is of the male and female emblems. Journal Fig. the second with first is With the one we see dolphins. ment borne by Devi. fig. triad. associated with Neptune and water. 5 is from Pugin. Plate xi. 18 and 19 are common Grecian emblems. supra. a male 52. Fig. 10. supra). Contains both pagan and Christian emblems. 6. and symbolises the union of the triad with the unit. 14. 6 is a Buddhist emblem from Birmah. plate xxxii. that the Trinity may never be absent from the minds of man or woman ! It is a combination Fig. a conventionalised eight-rayed figures. trinity and the unity.. Plate xi. supra. 1 is from Pugin. 9. xviii. Bacchus.. p. It represents the short sword. the name of the two being assonant in Greek with the other. le bracquemard. 392. like stars. 8.. and represents the ancient. supra.. See Plate xi.. is from Pugin. symbol. yet with such emblems our Christian churches abound. B . It is an ornaFig. must be coupled. 4. the saying. form of Fig. 16. plate xviii. 11. 12 are Buddhist (see Fig. of Royal Asiatic Society. common Its shape is too significant to require an explanation. Fig. Fig. plate i. plate xvii. cross 4 is made up It is a double from Pugin. Fig. plate xvii. and symbolise the Figs. The Figs.

1. and emblematic of woman. Is a copy of a small Hindoo statuette in the Mayer Collection in the Free Museum." resembling glans by physiologists . being the chief authorities. PLATE XIV. except in This was copied dress and the presence of the child. coins. Esq. figures. design is that of a cupola. is well known in modern Europe . Sellon. and her child. PLATE XV. in the centre there is a door. equiEgyptian Horus and the Christian Jesus. by the late Mr. cow. The same emblem may be found amongst Italians. and Indian gems. a tracing of his sketch me by William Simpson. resembling in all respects Figure 61. the hand Hindoo virgin.. Raponi's Recueil. the cupola. Bombay having been given to Presidency. Maffei's Gemme Antiche Figurate. or sculptures. The right makes the symbol of the yoni with the of the figure forefinger triad. lioness. the rest of the fingers typifying the the palm and on the navel is a lozenge. and thumb. In The child. supported by closely placed pillars. wherein a nude female stands. Liverpool. hand one of the many emblems of the Hnga. being emblematic of that desire which eventuates in the production of offspring. Grecian. and Moor's Hindu Pantheon. perhaps Crishna. Fig. it is equally so in Hindostan. drawn Roman. from a Buddhist Dagopa in the Jumnar Cave. and ape in the Egyptian mythology. Etruscan. " " " the each of which has a of capital.18 PLATE emblems Consists of various almost exclusively from XIII. the ancient Whilst I was staying in Malta during the carnival . plays the same part as the cat. It probably repre- sents Parvati. where it is sometimes accompanied In one such compound the pillars of a peculiar shape. of the triad and the unit. valent to bears in the its The monkey introduced into the group stands upon a lotus. London.

PLATE A WA IU H y/ (jt\ {-^.J XIII .

.

PLATE XIV. .

.PLATE XV.

.

.PLATE XVI.

and another upon a ram. p. seq. is seen the trident. Fig. there is not anything indecent In one of his hands in pictorial representations of him. . It is copied from Lajard. one of the emblems of the masculine conception at the Though he triad . a is first. and the union of the sexes. As it has been doubted by some readers. 5. Sur le Culte de Venus. In his account of Greece. most popular of all the gods. 2 represents Venus standing on a tortoise. In Rome. detected in adultery they shut her up in a narrow brothel. meats had no special selling These sweetname. chiefly by the vulgar. before the Aryans invaded that country. causing . the sun. and is stated by him to be a drawing of an Etruscan candelabrum. 74.19 time in 1872. to have been worshipped by the abori- gines of Hindostan. . I understand. taken from Moor's Hindu PanSiva is supposed to be the oldest of the theon. existing in the Royal Museum at Berlin. plate iiia. and obliged of Theodosius. bears an eye. It is thought that the Vedic religion opposed this degrading but was powerless to eradicate it. plate xiii. Pausanias mentions that he saw one figure of Venus standing on a tortoise. PLATE XVI. infra. with the carnival. 1 saw in all directions men and women cakes shaped like the yoni shown in Fig. loop. her to prostitute herself in a most disgusting manner . in the early time justified "when a woman was. but he declines to give the reason of the conjunction. whether I am in regarding the sistrum as a female emblem. Siva is venerated. append Bonn's translation. but they came in and went out 1. I here a quotation from Socrates' Ecclesiastical History. yet the whilst in another is to be seen an oval sistrum-shaped On his forehead he symbol of the feminine unit. . symbolic of the Omniscient. Indian and deities. Though he personifies the male principle. whose symbolic import will be seen by referring to Fig. Is a representation of Siva. fig.. 281.

As soon as the bells to be rung at the time emperor was apprised of this indecent usage.. emblem should mark a brothel in Rome as a male symbol did at Pompeii. . but having ordered the__Sisr^ (for so these places of penal prostitution were denominated) to be little One can as easily see why a female pulled down." &c. he would by no means tolerate it...

Arranged about the figures are. on the left are two priests. is in itself make The it symbolic of eye. The On the grove represents mystically le verger de Cypris. with wings and a tail. perhaps the sacred dove. the sun . right stands the king . thus showing the origin of modern Christian bishops' peculiar head-dress. the foremost clothed with a fish's skin. the eye. coa or coo. the head forming the mitre. covered with Egyptian hieroglyphic characters. the Shemitic. coite . and . by the second priest. found at Cairo. This Figure represents Assyrian priests offering in the or the representapresence of what is supposed to be Baal The first is typified by tive of the sun god and of the grove. has. a bird. central pupil. some resemblance to an invitation to in amorous gratification . symbol the basket. which the male triad and the female unit. Figure 2 is copied from an ancient copper vase. emblematic of the scrotum. or bag. and apparently the lotus. the oval. whose note.Figure 1. in Latin coi. with the emblematic of the same. The trinity and unity are carried of the yoni .

the bells . Dom 2. 16). Slight bells were used as a sort of ornament. The group of figures represents Isis and Horus in an unusual attitude." might be broken membrane. and when the bearer was walking their tinkling was a sort of proclamation that the lady who bore them was in the market as a virgin. This framework may be " compared to the Assyrian grove. or of the lotus. a light chain or cord was worn. par le R. Virgin Mary virginity. iii. or sale. technically by too long a stride in walking or running. that every maiden should have at her marriage. P. To prevent such a catastrophe. qui out rapport a la religion des plus anciens Figure ?. at the level of the knees or just above. for Eastern maidens wore them until marriage The origin of this custom was the desire (see Isa." and another in which the bell was of old a symbol of The stands." " the called hymen. under or over the dress. After "the flower" had been plucked. & Paris. They are enclosed in a framework of the flowers of the Egyptian bean. or by clambering over a stile or wall. 1789. Its length only permitted a short step and a mincing gait. that " the token of of in the Pentateuch as which is spoken It was supposed that this virginity.22 figured in a book entitled Explication des divers monumens singuliers.

63. an incongruous conjunction with the common emblem of the sacred Virgin. so a human offspring. pp. coins replaces Dionysus. nevertheless a In some of the coins pictured by B. just as a bull on other very one. Vol. in Worship of Priapus. Figure 3. Figure 4 full in . Knight. second edition. The solar orb between the horns. etc. They were analogous to the virgin snood worn on the head of Scotch maidens. Isis bears the horns of a cow.. was made to represent a deity. because that animal is equally noted for its propensity to seek the male and its care to preserve the As the bull with a human head.. a cow caressing her sucking calf replaces Isis and Horus. 54. The group is described in Ancient Faiths. I. being with cow's horns. indicate the union with the male .were no longer of use. P. and the serpent round the body.

or delta . Figure 7 is from Bonomi.. Nineveh and its It apparently represents the Palaces (London. 46 (London. Scotland. vol. three such male attributes as splendour. are illustrate that in the and unity. Figure 5. door. plate vi. the trinity Figures 3. It will be . are copies Figures and in Scotland. attractive manner. mystic yoni. potencies arrangement of Sometimes we see also how like parents. 1865). we may The figures represent the arbor is classified in add. and it may be regarded as an earlier form of the framework in Plate iv. 4. vita. and solidity join with beauty to form the mystic arba. page 292. to form a third..taken from Ginsburg's Kabbalah. and of valuable information which it it contains is very a philosophical. 6. 1866). from figures found in Carthage Leslie's Early Races of from Forbes This i. p. and. firmness. and " " two unite. 6. one to which the reader's attention should be directed. book is The amount large.

arcum meum et ipse vigore tetendi. Mama Ocello. whilst those who stand behind these and officers present the pine cone and bag. that the outline of the hands of the priests who are nearest to the figure Figure is 7. Juno. Rhea. Figures 8 to 14 are representations of the goddess mother. Sacti. . ilia. " Ubi primam sagittam saevi cupidinis in ima proecordia mea delapsam excepi. Yoni. The bow was an emblem amongst the Romans. and arcum tendere was equivalent to arrigere. analagous to the symbolic bow. that every detail in a sculpture relating to religion has a signification . the virgin and child. and that the winged symbol above the yoni consists of a male archer in a winged circle. and once for all let us assert our belief. Again. that the first right hand figure carries a peculiarly shaped staff. symbolic of It is to be noticed. Hea. Mylitta.25 remarked." arrow. Mary. and target. and their residence. Ishtar or Astarte. In the Golden Ass of Apuleius we find the metaphor used in his account of his dealings with amorous frolicsome Fotis. Venus. we find in Petronius Astra igitur mea mens arcum dum tendit in Ex imo ad summum viva sagitta volat. Anu. being analogous to the figure of a key its shank. a suggestive one. by those learned in symbols. Ceres.

the two being symbolic of hermaphroditism. in an essay by Sir Gardiner Wilkinson.. Fig.). 11 is an enlarged representation of Devaki. 447. from Idalium. nursed by Devaki. etc. iii. there is as given by as strong a Christ as the picture here described has to papal paintings of Mary and Jesus. whilst above is a see Vol.. i. Fig. resemblance to pp. 197. vol.. in Cyprus. wherein it is entitled.. . ii. whose signification Ancient Faiths. seat or throne. Figure remarkable for the cow's horns (for 9. 9 is from Egypt. which here replace the lunar crescent. second edition). Figure and is 8. 10 is a copy of plate 59. Moor (Op. wherein other illustrations of Fig. account of Crishna' s birth and early history. 54. p. Cit. from a highly finished picture. " Crishna Moor's Hindu Pantheon. vol. 8 is a copy of the deified woman or celestial mother. in conjunction with the sun. The two figures are copied from Rawlinson's Herodotus." In the the celestial virgin are given. Fig.26 Fig. 12 is copied from Rawlinson's Ancient Monarchies. p. et the story of seq. emblematic of royalty.

13 is a figure of the mother and child found p. the translation I take to be. or as the representation of some devout lady who has been spared during her pregnancy." It is are to regard the statue as an effigy of and child. marble statue. her parturition.SE.. plate xxvi. : : Larthias (a female) of Sicily). we the celestial mother : : " the votive offering Zancle = Messana in Zanal. figure 349. It is described as Italian Glossary. The a letters. in ancient Etruria at Volaterrae . it is depicted in Fabretti's Fignre 10. of . ( = in the sixth month. (wife) of uncertain whether Velcinius. 899. or from some disease affecting herself . may be thus rendered into the ordinary Latin characters from left to right. and read from right to left. which are Etruscan. now in the Guarnacci Museum. MI GANA L ARTHIAS Z ANL VELKINEI ME .27 Fig.

p. Figure 12. He is represented if he were a satyr. the wife of Indra or be found in Indur Subba. the south front of the Caves of Ellora. waterspout is the trunk of this elephant. p. Babylons . is equivalent to Jupiter Tonans. to point out. are copies of Diana of the Ephesians Kitto's Illustrated first is from Hislop. 393. and is represented as " the seated on an elephant . who quotes . p. and the iris is his bow. 16. 264 . the former resembling the latter in her feminine and maternal instincts. Figures 15. and it represents is to Figure 11. Moor's Pantheon. but his wife is always spoken of as personified chastity and Indranee is seated on a lioness. vol.. the . which replaces propriety." very much as the cow of Isis. 260.and child. Indranee. Indur. vi. Heaven is Analogy would lead us to infer that the Queen of Figure 14 is copied from Hislop's Two intended. Asiatic Researches. which it is not auspicious Indra Moor's Pantheon.

second edition." who one of the mothers of creation. 13. to have seen a figure similar to these in the Royal Museum Figure at Naples. or. " Night. p. p. Figure 16 indicates the ordinary tint of the feminine lanugo. 382. plate 47.. The emblems upon the .. v. second from the Higgins' I remember Anacalypsis. Vol. second edition. n. said to be Ancient Faiths. the black colour of (see . Vol.) (See is . Commentary. The tower upon the head represents virginity Ancient Faiths. the almost universal colour of the being black about the yoni as as well hair as of the Orientals on the head some mythologists imagine.29 vol. i. p. Figure 14. who quotes Montfau^on.. 144) the position of the hand forms a cross with the body: the numerous breasts indicate abundance . 250.

Nineveh. the yoni. Figure 15. delta. p. 809. copied from Bonomi's Palaces of . Figure 17 or door of is life.30 body indicate the attributes or symbols of the male and female creators. Figure a complicated sign of It is 16.

n.) (See edition. is It is the impression of . Figure 19 Ancient Faiths.31 Figure 17. thus priests clothed. in a subsequent figure. 648. Cit. symbolic of Anu.. 83. et seq.. p. priest's adoration Compare the object of the Assyrian with that adored by a Christian divine. an ancient gem. 5. and represents a man clothed with a fish. p. plate xxii. Figure 18 it signifies the same thing . i. the priests adoring present the pine cone and basket.). second and Vol. and their residence... Vol. copied from Lajard (Op. the head being the mitre . Hea. often bearing in their hand the mystic fig.

infra. In almost every instance it Figure 19. the pyramid with its apex androgyne nature of the .two such bag. are figured on Figs. of the so v Figure 20. infolded Figure 20 represents two equilateral triangles. will be recognised that the fish's head is represented as same form as the modern bishop's mitre. 63. the idea embodied being the deity. as to make a six-rayed star. 64. are common in Mesopotamian sculptures.

thus showing that the The two lines serve also to indicate the masculine triad. Whose fly.83 upwards signifying the male. having first adjusted their dress so as to prevent it interfering with their perfect . triangles are also understood as representing fire. Its holy flame for ever burneth . which flows downwards. symbolic of love. soon as granted. and water of the passive or yielding element in nature. The second represents the circular and upright stone so common in Oriental villages. To heaven returneth." &c. are other indications of the same fundamental idea. the Nahbi. 17. or the Figure 21. Figures 21. 22. and water. The first represents Nebo. which mounts upwards. characterised Figure 22. by a ring with a central mound. From heaven it came. Scott writes " It is not phantasy's hot fire wishes. Fire also typifies Eros or Cupid. and a medical friend resident in India has told me. The two indicate the male and female . that with the apex downwards The line at the central junction is not always the female. like the' "grove" in Fig. but the shape of the three parallel bars reappears in Hindoo shaped frontlet signs in conjunction with a delta or door. seen. Hymen is always represented carrying a torch. that he has seen women mount upon the lower stone and seat themselves reverently upon the upright one.g. Southey writes " But love It is also is indestructible.. navel." And again. Fire again is an emblem of the sun. e.

Whilst upon this subject. page 31. Fig. as in Plate iii. benefaction by placing their many Hindoo females seek a own yoni upon the consecrated linga. With the Hindoo custom compare that which was done by Liber on the grave of Prosumnus (Arnobius adversus Oentes. T. seemed flitting over the worshippers' lips. pp. aureoles. the sun's rays . there were some religious women who sought good with. 24. the emblem. will know that Christianity does not always go hand in hand with propriety.. are discs. "cord of St. see first sentence of paraThe whole book will well repay graph 39. and pay for In Egypt. 252. Figures 23. 253). Occasionally. which is far too gross to be described here . it is right to call attention to the fact that animate as well as inorganic representatives of the Creator have been used by women with the same contact with the a short prayer The dominant idea is that contact with mundane representative of the deity. of itself definite purpose. We luck by uniting themselves thereBritish professors of religion have heard of endeavouring to persuade their penitents to procure purity by And the what others would call defilement and disgrace. ibid. perusal. Clark.84 miniature obelise. and in another Figure elsewhere. the goat was a sacred animal. 3. translated by Bryce and Campbell. Miss Cadiere under a saintly guise. is associated with rays. for his seduction of have read the trial ." Some" " and those who cord the rod is associated times with this of Father Gerard. Francis" replaces the stone "linga. a Just as gives a blessing. so a few regard intercourse with certain high priests of the Maharajah sect as incarnations of Vishnu. and T. to Sometimes the emblem of this luminary represent the sun. where the privilege of being spouses of the god. circles. and as regards the sanctity of a stone whose top had been anointed with oil. During the sitting. but the whole affair was soon over. Edinburgh. as in some of the ancient temples in Egypt discovered in 1854. and wheels.

its rays terminate in hands. 140). that the object he sketches is divine but a painter thinks " this too much of his art to put on any of his designs. The same plan has been adopted by the moderns. apparently. are two altars Figure 24. or child into a . Sometimes one or more of these contain objects as if they were gifts are represented amongst other objects. who have varied the symbol by representing now as writer. some holding the handled cross or She is tau. p. sent by the god . worships." or "this creature is a god". from this a wavy pyramid of flame rises. A it now a terrestrial orb. apparently human. when as a golden disc. and thus converts a very ordinary man. and apparently between herself and her husband. two female slaves elevate the sistrum . woman. The aureole was used in ancient days by Babylonian artists or sculptors. therefore adds an aureole round the head of his subject. occupied by round cakes and one crescent-shaped emblem. Behind her. can say sphere. and before it a queen.85 by lines terminating in hands. the sun is identified with the serpent .. again as a rayed describing a god as a man. In a remarkable plate in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature (second series. vol. offering what seems to be a lighted tobacco pipe. Figure 23. woman is a goddess. as a god. the crux ansata is shown conspicuously. the bowl being of the same shape as that commonly used in Turkey . when they wished to represent a being. whilst before her. i. he .

moon plate iv. The chariots of the sun are referred to in 2 Kings xxiii. Of these the wheel was symbolic. See Pugin's Architectural Glossary.. fig. are simply varieties of the solar Figure 26. the "arba. sun being likened to a charioteer. for identification of this it has repeatedly been found in Mesopotamian gems in conjunction with the moon. This probably originated in the wheel of a chariot having four spokes. Figure 27. 11 as idolatrous emblems. who used no such contrivance. 249.. the cross is contrived as five remarkable that in many papal pictures the vol. 27. emblem with the sun is The very easy. xli. the mystic triad and unit. circles. In a very remarkable one figured in Rawlinson's Ancient Monarchies." or four. in which it is marked with a cross. Figure 24 is another representation of the solar disc. p. 5. intended to represent the idea of the sun and moon. 18. xliv. selves to be far 9-19). deity to be reverenced . 7. ii. Figures 25. In Figure . It is wafer and the cup are depicted precisely as the sun and in conjunction. and the 19. 26.36 modern artists thus proving themmore skilful in depicting the Almighty than the carpenters and goldsmiths of the time of Isaiah (xl. 6. wheel.

Cit. Egypt. the mural ornament is introduced. opposite side is a male figure wholly nude. on one holding in one hand On the the crux ansata. like the goddess. . an imperfect copy of The original is too it in Rawlinson's indelicate to be Isis. but the central one fully expanded . see feminine virginity. . with the exception of her head-dress. F. is ii. That author states that he has taken it from a drawing of an Egyptian plate made by M. whilst in the other she has three lotus flowers. and in the other an upright spear. is original in British the Figure 28. the that Prisse (Monum. the ends of which are arranged lum so . stele. two being egg-shaped. the central figure. thus indicating with these. Op. and xxxvii. is wholly nude.. 36.). Figures 35. E. as to form a behind him is cross. represented fully.37 26. Herodotus. apparently. a covert His hand points reference to to a the triad. the fourfold creator. Figure 28 is copied from Lajard. that being symbolic of For explanation of Figure 27. Museum. and neck and breast In one hand she holds two blades of corn ornaments. plate xiv. save his head-dress and collar. is which symbolise the mystic triad. There vol.. evidently stands upon a lioness Isis side of her stands a clothed male figure. associated a circle emblematic of the yoni.

the crescent moon inverted. The goddess appears to be a modified form of Figure 32.whilst in front Osiris offers undisguised head-dress of th. It is not exclusively Egyptian. Figure 81.e homage to Isis. .

the figure is placed on the ground. worshipped is placed. exist . tinct. 30. 32. Figure 33 is an ancient Hindoo emblem. which have been adopted in worship. Figures 29. dis- lantra. represent the various triangles their union. 31. in which the living the triangle pointing upwards shows the male creator . whilst the figure inverted represents water. called Sri sw The circle represents the world. and Laksmi to the to be .as it has been found in conjunction with other emblems on an Assyrian obelise of Phallic form. yet united. and the triangle with the apex downwards the female . When used. which amongst the ancient and Persians was depicted as a cone. with Brahma to the east. Figure 29 is said to represent fire. which the male is These have a world within themselves. in In the central circle the image uppermost.

858. the outlines of the soles of two human feet. strong reason to believe the third. it is A it It is used in calcula- forms the basis of some game. bis a. and is depicted in Fabretti's Figure 34. and having a central cavity with the Etruscan letters SUPEN placed one between each two of the angles. signification I am unable to divine. L'alian Glossary. depicted plate xliii. in this respect . 2440 ter. It is upon the value of almost impossible to avoid speculating this fragment of archaeological evidence in support of the idea that the Greeks. coin. Ensup. and a sign of vast import in sacti worship. Aryans. would be an" appropriate word for the' pentangle.. Figure 34 is a very ancient Hindoo emblem. the Bengalli pdnch. or image of Buddha. certainly. is added. at VolaterrsB. fig. when the earth seems to receive the god into her couch. no clue to any meaning except for There seems. Pensu. It has now been adopted in Christian churches and Freemasons' lodges. and the Greek penta. Upens. be unprofitable to enter here. I Glossary would my eye notice fell triangle with the apex that whilst upon the field of searching Fabretti's figure of an equilateral upwards. bearing this figure upon it. i.40 Then a relic of any saint. e. Fabretti's Lexicon affords that pensu was the Etruscan form of the Pali panca. like a modern papal crucifix. But. and was found in the It bears a rude representation of territory of the Falisci.. although declining to enter upon this wide inquiry. indeed. The triangle is of brass. fig. be noticed that the male emblem points to the and the female triangle points to the setting sun. complete. or Nsupe. the Sanscrit pdnch. whose real It will rising sun. was found in a fictile urn. the reader will see that these letters As the coin may is be read as A search through Supen. tion A . plate xxvi. and Etruscans but into the question it would had something in common . and the shrine for worship is west. round. y five. Five.

they are supposed to indicate death. but one long as the others. In a large book of Figures 35. Figure 35. are Maltese crosses. " which probably Gavia. made of gold. KAVI : TERTINEL POSTIKNU. It is figured in plate 35 of An Essay on the Worship of the Generative Powers It is . which came casually under my notice about twenty years ago. be noticed that similar symbols have been found on ancient sculptured stones in Ireland and Scotland. one asher was three times as equal length A somewhat similar cross. and united to its fellows by the gland. I cannot now remember . In one instance. and other particulars of which. .. Figure 36. It must. but when the marks appear on Gnostic gems. was found some time ago near Naples. I found depicted two crosses.. theology. but whose name." two Hindoo symbols in ancient Italy signifies The occurrence is of very remarkable. and has apparently been used as an amulet and suspended to the neck. forming a central diamond. the wife of Tertius. 36. when I was endeavouring to master the language. emblem of the yoni. each asher being erect. e. offered it. i.41 resembling a Buddhist emblem and there is on its edge an inscription which may be rendered thus in Roman letters. of the Etruscans. Etrurian antiquities. the limbs of the cross were of in the other. the impressions left by the feet of the individual as he springs from earth to heaven. however. There may be no emblematic ideas whatever conveyed by the design . . made up of four masculine triads. etc. united with the circle.

and to make it presentable to the eyes of the faithful by Anu and Hea incomplete. The same idea Figure 27. Generally. Fig. Etruscan ones referred to above. 42. The Maltese cross. cross and circle.42 during the Middle Ages (London. it had nothing Christian about it for. the centre of the circle is may be thus described It : occupied by four oblate spheres arranged like a square . 4). each terminating in a few golden bead-like drops. as in our Plate xi. whilst from the broad end arise four ashers.. the "eggs" being at the outside. with the point outwards. thus forming a cross. or male. the short ones. it consisted of four . in that the long arms of the cross represent the sun. 36. lingas united together by the heads. 1865). Though like the cruciform. however. . and as in the Figures When once a person knows the true 40. Ouranos and Ge. 41. from the salient curves of each of these springs a yoni (shaped as in Figure 59). indicated by the triad . 2. the moon. 3. or the is female (see Plate xi. but in that the mystery is embodied in deeply veiled. sun and moon. privately printed. of the ovoids a yoni is inserted with the apex inwards. Figs. which project beyond the shield. The whole is a graphic natural representation of the intimate union of the male and female. Church (as may be seen by a reference to Pugin's points. the Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament) adopts the use of crosses where the inferior members of the trinity are more or less central. p. was discovered cut on a rock in the island from which it takes its name. a Phoenician emblem. infra. It was an easy thing for an unscrupulous priesthood to represent this " invention " of the cross as a miracle. one which is far too origin of the doctrine of the Trinity improper to have been adopted by the writers of the New Testament it is impossible not to recognise in the signs which are symbolic of it the thing which is signified. each ray of which is an egg and At each junction fig. Somefigured as four triangles meeting at the leaving the outlines of times this cross is which has the same meaning.

especially if they are papal. Nor will the most fiery persecuthe intrinsic value of facts. Figure 37 is copied from the Journal of the Royal 37. and enthusiastic . the same idea under different Each limb of the cross represents the fascinum at right angles with the body. by the same female emblem. sceptics. is not tainted by a mass of paganism of disgusting origin. Sciolism is ever intolerant. and presented towards a barleyEach limb is marked corn.43 It may readily be supposed that those who have knowledge of the heathenish origin of many of the cherished doctrines of the so-called Christian church. emblem. one of the symbols of the yoni. plate 4. vol. tion demonstrate that the religion of Christ.. or atheists. as it appears in our churches and cathedrals. charged with being freethinkers. and represents It is a Buddhist p 393. and theological hatred is generally to be measured by the mental incapacity of those who But no amount of abuse can reduce indulge in the luxury. and terminates with the triad aspects. . Asiatic Society. cannot remain members of her communion and it is equally easy for the enlightened philosopher to understand why such persons are detested and abused by the ignorant. xviii.

++ Figure 38. the most obtuse would recognise Asher. and the inferior or lower members of the "triune." Figure 43 ' by Egyptologists called the symbol of life. In some remarkable sculptures. beyond this again is seen the conjunction of the sun and moon. by some called Thor's hammer. the creative four. If the horizontal limb on the free end of the arm or trinity. which he identifies as the Troy of Homer's Iliad. is ' the female unit. Schliemann in a very ancient city. Figures 38 to 42 are developments of the triad triangle. Figure 45. There are few symbols more commonly met with in Egyp- Figure 44. tian art than this. buried under the remains of two others. under a decent form. Figure Figure 40. Figure 41.' handled cross. were to be prolonged to twice its length. Figure 42. Copies of a cross similar to this have been recently found by Dr. where .44 . The whole therefore represents the mystic triangle arba. Figure 43.' or crux It is also called the It represents the male triad and ansata.

the offerings which these bring are many a crux ansata. British He is copied from Lajard. from a gem cylinder in the states that it is Museum. . 49.45 the sun's rays are represented as terminating in hands. In Fig. are ancient designs. _ Figures 46. the male ancient derns to symbolise JL v J Figure 46. Opposite to a particular part of the figures is to be . Culte de Venus. Figures 44. Figures 48. " purse.2. It will be seen that from one stem arise three curiously-shaped segments. the ancient Hindoos as emblematic of the celestial triad." or bag. are representatives of & ^> adopted by mo- ^ *\^ if the Trinity. represent the trefoil which was used by Figure 49. in which the male and female elements are more disguised than is usual. 44 the woman is indicated by the dolphin. each of which is supposed to resemble the male scrotum. Figure 48. and adopted by modern Christians. 47." Figure 50 fig." " " basket. Figure 47. 45. It represents a male and female figure dancing before the mystic palm-tree. emblematic of the truth that a fruitful union is a gift from the deity. into whose signification we need not enter beyond saying that it is a symbol of Asher.. plate i.

it or symbolic illustrates in a Figure 50. Figure 60.46 seen a diamond. or oval. as lys. This gem is peculiarly valuable. and a fleur de triad. . of the emblems in question. Fignre 59. graphic manner the meaning " " and how the lilies of France had a Pagan origin.

or other impersonations of the feminine element in crea- placed. piscis. sistrum of Isis. In modern Christian art this symbol is called vesica surrounded with rays. tion. therefore. Figure 61. Diana. Figure 62 represents one of the forms assumed by the Figure 62. Ceres. the androgyne. or the linga-yoni. and in a subsequent figure demonstrate the meaning of the symbol unequivocally. and . We should not feel Figure 61. the arba. Sometimes the instrument is oval. Venus. We must. obliged to demon- strate the truth of this assertion if decency permitted us to reproduce here designs which naughty youths so frequently chalk upon walls to the disgust of the proper part of the community. have resort to a religious book. It and is sometimes commonly serves as a sort of framework in which female saints are who are generally the representatives of the older Juno.47 Figures 51 to 60 are various representations of the union of the four.

ii. Figure 64. plate 61. a sacred animal amongst the Egyptians. On its handle is seen the figure of Vol. reference to Maffei's vol. . second edition. pp. etc. instead The inquirer can very readily recogof in an acute angle. 1707). wherein Diana of the Ephesians is depicted body of the exact shape of the sistrum figured in as having a Payne Knight's work on the remains of the worship of The bars across the sistrum show that it Priapus. 743-746).. for the same reason that Isis was figured sometimes as a cow viz. nise in the emblem the symbol of the female creator. denotes a pure virgin (see Ancient Faiths. ii. If there should be any doubt in his mind. he will be satisfied after a Gemme Antiche Figurate (Rome... for its a cat salacity and its love for its offspring.48 occasionally it terminates below in a horizontal line.

are symbolic of the triple creator. of these is explained I was unable at first to signification subsequently. where. . quote any authority to demonstrate that the pine cone was a distinct masculine symbol. whilst in the other she bears a thyrsus. in vol. replaced by ivy leaves. may be Antiche Figu- rate plate 8. The biblical female " offer genii The which is probably the grove. but now the reader Gemme referred to Maffei. Figure 65. he (Rome. Occasionally the thyrsus was a lance or pike. Venus Tirsigera. Now this cone and stem terminating in a pine or fir cone.49 Figures 63 to 66 are all drawn from Assyrian sources. like the fig. and carries in of the male triad." represents the delta. and can be readily Sometimes the thyrsus is are carried in the Bacchic festivities. The figure of the god stands upon a D pillar of three stones. But a stronger confirmation of my views may be found in a remarkable group (see Fig." To it the attendant central figure. The goddess is her hand the tripliform arrow. recognised as virga cum ovo. round which vine leaves and berries were clustered . the pine cone and basket. This is entitled Sacriand represents a female offering to Priapus. Bacchus cum vino being the companion of Venus cum cerere. fizio di Priapo.. iii. which. emblem will see a nude. 124 infra). or "door. 1708).

50
bears a thyrsus from which depend two ribbons.
The
is accompanied by a boy, who carries a pine- or fircone in his hand, and a basket on his head, in which may be

and

it

devotee

In Figure 64 the position of the
recognised a male effigy.
advanced hand of each of the priests nearest to the grove is
It resembles one limb
very suggestive to the physiologist.
The finger or thumb
of the Buddhist cross, Fig. 37, supra.

when thus pointed
position, with

Anu

are figurative of Asher, in a horizontal
Hea hanging from one end. Figure 65

or

It is to be noticed that a door is
explained similarly.
adopted amongst modern Hindoos as an emblem of the sacti

is

(see Figs. 152, 153, infra).

My friend Mr. Newton, who has taken great interest in
the subject of symbolism, regards these "groves" as not
being simply emblems of the yoni, but of the union of that
As his ideas are
part with the lingam, or mystic palm tree.
extremely ingenious, and his theory perfect, I have requested
him

to introduce

them

at the

end of this work.

Figures 67, 68, 69, are fancy sketches intended to repre-

Fifiure 67

Figure

Figure

sent the
history.

"

sacred shields

The

last is

"

69.

spoken of in Jewish and other
drawn from memory, and represents a

51
Templar's shield.

According to the method in which the

appears like the os tincce or the navel.
Figures 70, 71, represent the shape of the sistrum of

shield is viewed,

it

Figure 70.

Isis,

and the yoni. When a garment of
"
"
it becomes the
pallium
the
male
and
female
individuals
consecrated
by

the fruit of the

this shape is

donned
to

alike

Roman

Figure 71.

fig,

made and worn,

worship.

" The circle
of
King, in his Ancient Gnostics, remarks
the sun is the navel, which marks the natural position of the
:

womb

the navel being considered in the microcosm as
corresponding to the sun in the universe, an idea more fully
exemplified in the famous hallucination of the Greek ancho-

touching the mystical 'Light
revealed to the devotee after a fast of

of Tabor,' which

rites

many

was

days, all the time

staring fixedly upon the region of the navel, whence at
length this light streamed as from a focus." Pages 153, 154.
Figures 72, 73, represent an ancient Christian bishop,

and a modern nun wearing the emblem of the female sex.
In the former, said (in Old England Pictorially Illustrated,
by Knight) to be a drawing of St. Augustine, the amount of
"
nimbus " and the tonsure are
symbolism is great. The
solar emblems ; the pallium, the feminine sign, is studded
with phallic crosses; its lower end is the ancient T, the
mark of the masculine triad; the right hand has the forefinger

extended, like the Assyrian
to the grove, and within it

homage
which

is

priests
is

said to have tempted Eve.

the

whilst

fruit,

When

doing

tappuach,

a male dons

the pallium in worship, he becomes the representative of the
See Ancient
trinity in the unity, the arba, or mystic four.
Faiths, second edition, Vol. n., pp. 915-918.
I take this opportunity to quote here a pregnant page of
King's Gnostics and their Remains, (Bell & Daldy, London,

52
"

1864).

To

this period belongs a

collection representing Serapis,

.

.

beautiful sard in

my

whilst before

him

.

stands Isis, holding in one hand the sistrum, in the other

Figure 72.

Figure

a wheatsheaf, with the legend

our lady

...

'

73.

Immaculate

is

terms applied afterwards to that
personage who succeeded to her form (the Black Virgins,'
Isis,'

the

very

'

so highly reverenced in certain French Cathedrals during the
middle ages, proved, when examined critically, basalt figures
of Isis), her symbols, rites, and ceremonies.
Her
devotees carried into the new priesthood the former badges of
their profession, the obligation to celibacy, the tonsure, and
.

.

.

the surplice, omitting, unfortunately, the frequent ablutions
The sacred image still
prescribed by the ancient creed.

moves

in procession as

when Juvenal laughed

'Escorted by the tonsured surpliced
title,

Domina, the exact translation

train.'

at

it, vi.

Her

530,

proper

of Sanscrit Isi, survives

with slight change in the modern Madonna, Mater Domina.

53

By

a singular permutation the flower borne by each, the
ancient emblem of the sun and fecundity
now

lotus

re-named the

lily, is

interpreted as significant of the opposing

The tinkling sistrum

...

is replaced by
.
,
.
The erect
the bell, taken from Buddhist usages.
oval symbol of the Female Principle of Nature became the

quality.

.

.

Vesica Piscis, and the Crux Ansata, testifying the union of
the male and female in the most obvious manner, is trans-

formed into the orb surmounted by the
royalty."

cross, as

an ensign of

Pp. 71, 72.

Figure 74

a well known Christian emblem,
The anchor, as a symbol, is of great

is

foul anchor."

called

"a

antiquity.

It may be seen on an old Etruscan coin in the British
Museum, depicted in Veterum Populorum et Regum Nummi,
etc.
is

(London, 1814), plate

a chariot wheel.

The

ii.,

fig. 1.

On

the reverse there

foul anchor represents the crescent

Figure 74.

moon, the yoni, ark, navis, or boat; in this is placed the
mast, round which the serpent, the emblem of life in the

The cross beam completes the
"verge," entwines itself.
mystic four, symbolic alike of the sun and of androgeneity.
The whole is a covert emblem of that union which results in
fecundity.

It

is

said

by Christians to be the anchor of

This it certainly cannot be,
the soul, sure and steadfast.
for a foul anchor will not hold the ground.
in

Figures 75 to 79 are Asiatic and Egyptian emblems
use amongst ourselves, and receive their explanation

similarly to preceding ones.

Figure 75.

Figure 76.

Figure 77.

Figure 78.

Higgins refers to two similar Figure groups. ii. one which exists in the Egyptian temple of Ipsam- .54 Figure 79. text. copied from Godfrey Higgins' Anacalypsis. vol.. ii. 6. pi. fig.. fig.. Figure 80 vol. is 27. It is In his drawn from Montfau9on. cxxxii.

'dolphin. The group is not explained by Montfaugon. The story Figure si. in his History of Rajpootanah. grouped as in the woodcut. 236).. for those In the Song of Solomon. Critics imagine that not good eating. and have even been found in Indian temples in central America. apples and the tree are often referred to . story. brought forth.. 127. found in a cave temple in the south of India. and we have in " Comfort me with 5 the curious expression. be a representative of the mystic triad (the two additions to the upright stem not being seen in a front view) round which a dolphin (8eA$/j. The female repreVenus bearing in one hand an her arm rests upon what seems to apple session. Tod. seems to indicate that where beauty contends against majesty and wisdom for the love of youth. that writer sees no difficulty in the who affirm that rocks and hard stones have granate. described by Col. unknown. fig. apples.bul in Nubia. p. ii." awarded by Paris to Venus. The apple plays a strange part in Greek and " the of Hebrew mythology.' for 8sA<f>o$ 'womb') is entwined. although in another place the prolific fruit is said to have been a pome- Mythologically. and is described by Wilson. for I am them sick of love. it is sure to win We learn from Arnobius that a certain Nana conthe day. Figure 81 is is copied from Lajard. On Buddhists and Jeynes." We are familiar with the account of Eve being tempted by the same as the apple in Palestine is fruit. plate The origin of this. another. p. apple of discord. that bears Ch. ceived a son by an apple (Op. 11. is common emblems. and combines the story of Hercules with The tree and serpent are the seductiveness of Circe. Cit. Culte de Venus. It apparently Greek. the quince . from whose mouth comes the stream of life. is sents . which a silver statuette in that author's pos- xix.

but is apparently Babylothe male and female in conjunction : each appears to be holding the symbol of the triad in much respect. as shown in the recognition for the first time of the respective nudity of the couple. whilst the curious cross suggests a new reading to . we know that a leaf of that tree is to be seen in every amorous picture found in Pompeii. whose shape makes it an emblem of the testis. However this tolerably clear. or as soon as it was possible Issachar afterwards. 3. Git. the result being the birth of we find . that the desire for an intimate union between the sexes. the apple figures. I have of late heard learning. Figure 82. the Others plant having been supposed to increase virile power. plate xivfe. imagine that the citron is intended. fig. which was followed immediately. from Lajard (Op. it asserted. from all the tales may be decided. Leah is fruit like will it and pictures in which a represented as purchasing her husband's company for a night by means of mandrakes.56 is meant . it of an ancient symbol. by sexual intercourse Figure 82 is and the conception of Cain. in is emblem symbolised a The reader Genesis xxx. unknown The gem is nish represents origin.}. doubtless remember how. and in the well-known story of the Creation that the apple gives birth to desire. if so. by a man of considerable though of a very narrow mind in everything which .

%oipoj. The Figure 83. formed as in Figure 83. clubs are joined with four balls on a Tudertine coin. the Roman words for the Linga. as their conjunction is in the one before us and in the fleur-de-lys and in the position of the individuals. and other Greek and Latin names of the yoni. and the ju-u^oj. two occurs frequently on Etruscan coins. and Virga and Mentula. In Hindostan. one containing the club. and sometimes a female deity. dolphin and crescent moon on the reverse. Figure 83 may be found in Fabretti's Corpus Inscriptionum Italicarum (Turin. and Scandinavian the moon Figure 113 sun was always a male. oval symbol. and the letters A similar inscription exists on the VELATHHI. and he based his strange assertion solely upon the ground that in German and some other languages the sun was moon by a masculine noun. coins which bear the figures are of brass. 1867). The club.57 bears upon religious subjects. fig. 303 f. for crajSurroj. are feminine. represented by a feminine.. or the moon as a female . are masculine nouns. and . the sun is always represented as a God. that there is no proof that the sun was commonly regarded as a male. For example. in Etruscan. the moon is occasionally a In ancient Gaulish male. plate xxv. The argument is of no value. and Their identification will be seen in figures. and were found at In one the double head is associated with a Volateme. the a female. having on the reverse a hand apparently gauntleted for fighting.

and the other masculine. be seen a bee." and it is design is spoken of as Col. In plate 49 associated with a serpent. fabricator. On these the male. "V. statuettes of silver have been found. I must notice. to Culpian pleasing. a collar. The figure here represented x form or another. and other tripliform figures. CVINTI AKNTIAS CULPIANSI ALPAN TUBCE (2) V. The double head with times two. but the usual marks of sex are absent. A buskins are the sole articles of dress worn. under one 7~~~*\ """~^\ ) V__^_ ( i \^_^/ Figure 84. What or heavy hitter was intended to be symbolised. or tongs. whilst on the reverse is a single head. Quintus (1) of " V. having on the reverse what appears to be a leg with the foot turned upwards. Early Races of Scotland. Aruntia. have been found Etruscan inscriptions (1) v. too. and sometimes one. a trident. a spear head. Forbes Leslie's it is very commonly associated with another figure closely resem- It is very natural for the inquirer to bling the letter Z associate the twin circles with the sun and earth. or the sun . but neither The pectorals and the general form indicate is bearded. OVINTE AENTIAS SELANSE TEZ J Which may be rendered ALPAN TUBCE. The " the spectacle ornament. two balls is seen on a Telamonian coin. apparently the cobra. that on other coins a hammer and pincers. on which a that was At Cortona two head appears thrusting out the tongue. appear. is further indicated by other coins. extremely com- / mon amongst the stones in Scotland. (2) Quintus of Aruntia to Vulcan pleasing gave a gift. associated with three balls in a triangle some. and faced individual. representing a doublelion's head for a cap." evidently showing " that they were ex voto offerings. a gift . One face appears to be feminine. ties may be sculptured Four varie- seen in plate 48 of f is. Figure 84.58 On other coins are to four balls arranged in a square. In a coin of Populonia the club associated with is a spear and two balls. as if the idea was to show that a maker.

Figures 85. a six -rayed star. " yet I have only been able to meet with the Z and spectacle " ornament once out of Scotland . 3. Kistvaens. copied from Descriptions and other of Celtic. it is figured on apparently a Gnostic gem (The Gnostics and their Remains. Cromlechs. each ray termi- is circle. stone circle. supra. Druidical. . London. In that we see in a serpent cartouche two Z figures. both ends terminating in a circle . by C. fig.. W. plate ii. 86.59 and moon. represent a Yorkshire and an Indian Figure 85. each having the down stroke crossed by a horizontal line. On one Scottish monument the circles represent As wheels. 5). I can offer no satisfactory explanation of the emblem. Figure 86.. and they probably indicate the solar chariot. The first is Cairns. King. nating in a besides them Fig. 1864. precisely resembling the star in Plate in.

on which are inscribed. A and twenty other skeletons above and beside perusal of this very interesting paper will well repay it. Twizell. that there is a celebrated monolith in Scotland called the Newton Stone. or Betal. evidently with a graving tool. Yorkshire. by Col. and another in some ancient Aryan character (see Moore's Ancient Pillar Stones of Scotland). of very recent conThe dots upon the stones represent dabs of red struction. very similar to those found by Taylor in the Dekkan this contained only one single urn. Figure 87. besides the circle indicates . skeleton of the great individuals man who had been buried therein. The name of the god worshipped in these recent shrines is It is worth mentioning. Transactions of the Royal Irish The mound exists at Academy. in one instance two bodies and three heads were found in the principal grave. . as well as in modern India. skeletons of other slaughtered over his tomb. and the centre of the an ancient tomb. It represents a the study bestowed upon Leslie's modern stone circle in the Dekkan. The circles are similar paint. vol. but many of the Indian ones contained. it. to some which have been found in Palestine. Meadows Taylor. and buried above the kistvaen containing his bones . passing. xxiv. in Vetal. which again represent blood.or Scythian Monuments in the Dekkan. plate 59. and give evidence of the presence of the same religious ideas existing in ancient England and Hindostan. Figure 86 is copied from Forbes book mentioned above. an inscription in the Ogham.

simply an emblem of power or superiority. The solar cross is very common in Ireland. amongst the Romanists generally as a head dress for and male saints. at others they are more numerous. reference to the mystic four. much but this is intensely mystical about the figure. Figure 88 is copied from Hyslop. This sign is a very common one upon ancient coins . is that is and two curiously the calf reclining upon a plinth. placed over the tail. wherein a division into three is conspicuous. sometimes the rays or spokes are four. On . inasmuch as he who can castigate must be in a higher position than the one who is punished. I have long had a doubt respecting the symbolic meanSome inquirers have asserted that it is ing of the scourge. The whip. It is There said to represent Osiris. or flagellum. emblem of the chariot of Apollo. who copied it from the original collection made by the artists of the French Institute of Cairo. Hamilton Smith. and the head passing through the yoni. who gives it on the Figure 88. all have a meaning in their central dot. the circular spots with doubtful. authority of Col. shaped feathers (?). But of this view I can find no proof. Occasionally the tire of the wheel is absent. the horns with solar disc. and amongst the Etruscans the nave is omitted.61 Figure 87 indicates the solar wheel.

because the round mound of masonry the plate is surmounted similar by the short pillars is precisely similar to found in Hindostan on the East and erections . will be disposed to believe that the flagellum is an indication or symbol of the god who gives to man the power to reproduce his like. where it is stated that a copy of a picture of a nymphoeum found when excavating a foundation for the Barbarini Palace at Rome. It is copied from a part of the Frontispiece of Faber's Dissertation on the Cabiri. These are representations of Ashtaroth the andro- gyne deity in which the female predominates. and is figure is to be In the other the woman is a dolphin. 90 represents an ancient Italian form of the Indian Ling Yoni.62 the other hand. bearded. A similar found in Payne Knight's work On the Worship of Priapus. 4? ft^C ' - an enlarged impression of a gem. It deserves notice. 14. or who can restore the it has faded.. plate i. is borne in one hand. Figure 89 is taken from Lajard's Cidte de Venus. apparently fig. In both instances the female is fringed with male emblems. and who notices that the representations of Osiris and the scourge show evidence that the deity is in the same condition as one who has been subjected to the rod. any one who is familiar with the effect upon the male produced by flagellation. whose hands are more familiar with punishment than blessing. It is not for a moment to be supposed that a deity who was to be worshipped would be faculty after depicted as a task-master. In the one before us a fish. Fig.

63 America on the West. . The aperture is blackish with the grease of many hands. in ancient sepulchral monuments. Apertures alike in Figure 90. a relic in the precincts of an old church in modern Rome. p. Anacalypsis. some of a different Figure 91 is stated by Higgins. Hindostan and England one perforated stone is preserved as . were common and vice versa. as well as in various parts of Europe. 217. to be a mark on the breast of an Egyptian mummy in the Figure 91. therefore by no means remarkable that form of faith should swear by the Yoni. which have been put therein whilst their owners took a sacred oath. We have already remarked how ancient Abraham and a modern Arab have sworn by the Linga it is . The oval in the pediment and the solitary pillar have the same meaning as the Caaba and hole the upright stone and pit revered at Mecca long before Mahomet's time the tree serves to identify the pillar.

It may also be seen in vol." so they adopted the episcopalian crook from the augurs of Etruria.64 Museum of University College. It may be seen in Hyde's Religion of the Ancient Persians. second edition. it. similar head-dress having been worn by gods or angels it appeared crowned by an emblem in ancient Assyria. and is emblematic of the male triad and the female unit. ii. London. It is essentially the same symbol as the crux ansata. 1707). around which words written in Greek. in passing. plates 10 and 11. and the artistic form with which they clothe their angels from the painters and urn-makers of Magna Grecia and Central Italy. Etruscan . Figure 92 is simply introduced to show that the papal has not about it anything particularly Christian. that as the Romanists adopted the mitre and the tiara from " the cursed brood of Ham. of plate i. a tiara Figure 92. In plate 10 the Mithraic lion has seven stars above are placed respectively. Maffei's Gemme Antiche Figurate (Rome." We may mention.. where "the trinity. of Figure 93 is the Mithraic lion.

TELKON." " over them. showing that the emblem was adopted by the Gnostics. TELKAN. I call I fancy that may be on thee. apparently and Phoenician characters. spirits. UNEULK. Just one. LNKELLP. It would be unprofitable to dwell upon the meaning of these letters." "Bad made . TELKON. After puzzling pity us.65 ZEDCH. QIDEKH..

as wholly astrological. in Spain. . it has existed in all is a source of health. Arnobius. ancient mundane representative of the I have not yet met with any or sculpture gem which seems to identify completely with various goddesses. Peru. and in civilised and savage evil spirits . and the other. that it was found on a stone in a church in France. where it had Dubois regards for six hundred years. on the authority of Dubois. and at Servatos. and the yoni so Those who are familiar with the with the virgin Mary. 249. 33. Anacalypsis. Figure 94 is copied by Higgins. vol. wherein the Figure 95. 156). rude designs too often chalked on hoardings. infra. pp. Cit. will see that learned ancients and boorish moderns represent certain ideas in precisely similar fashion. where she is standing on one side of the doorway. Nor must we forget how Baubo cured the intense grief of Ceres by exposing herself in a strange fashion to the distressed goddess. emblem is even more strikingly identified with woman.. and represents Harpocrates seated on a lotus. adoring the mother of creation. in North America. who states.66 out by considering the words to be very bad Greek. been kept religiously it We have introduced it show how such to tales are inter- mingled with Sabeanism. and an equally conspicuous man on The same has been found in Mexico. Figure 95 is a copy of a gem figured by Layard (Nineveh and Babylon. and as having no reference to the story told in Genesis. iii. Op. and however grotesque the idea may ages.. p. p. and the letters to be much transposed. A rude image of a woman who shamelessly exhibits herself has been found over the doors of churches in nations alike. It is unprofitable to speculate on the draped figures as representatives of Adam and Eve. Ireland. Compare this with Figure 138. 250. and will understand the mystic I have elsewhere called attention to an ^ ~\ meaning of Q the idea that a sight of the yoni a charm against be.

3. she wanders one. of 'the Philistines resembled the two figures Dagon supporting the central one. and is supposed to represent Cannes. having been stolen away by Pluto. or Bel and two that fish It is thought gods. piscine below. snatching two Etna-lighted torches. the authors of fecundity. in the story. In her agony. is pleased with the strange form of consolation. Figure 96 is copied from plate 22. the legend referred to may be shortly The goddess. He states that it is an impression of Culte de Figure 96. mortal bethinks her of a scheme. in the collection of the late Sir William Ouseley. fig. Dagon. round the earth and in due course visits Eleusis. was miserable in consequence of her daughter. described. Figure 97 is a side view of plate a female. of Lajard's Venus. was . Ceres fixes her eyes upon the denuded spot. Proserpine. 1.67 As I have already noticed modern notions on the influence produced by the exhibition of the yoni on those who are suffering. the fish god. consents to take food and is restored to comfort. The idol represents male above. a cornelian cylinder. in search of the lost Baubo receives her but nothing that the hostess does induces the In despair the guest to depose her grief for a moment. shaves off what is called in Isaiah "the hair of the feet" and then exposes herself to hospitably. the goddess.

one of the many symbols of an androgyne creator.
In the
first of the Avatars of Vishnu, he is
represented as emerging
from the mouth of a

fish,

and being a

fish himself;

the

Figure 97.

legend being that he was to be the saviour of the world in
See Moor's Hindu Pantheon,
a deluge which was to follow.

and Coleman's Mythology of the Hindus.
Figure 98 is a fancy sketch of the fleur-de-lys, the lily of
.
France.
It symbolises the male triad, whilst the ring

Vy

around

fe?

of this

Fig. 98.

it

The identification
represents the female.
of the trinity with the tripliform Maha-

emblem

d evaj an(j O f the ring with his

sacti,

may

be seen in

the next figure.

is

Figure 99, which we have already given on page 46,
one of great value to the inquirer into the signification of

certain symbols.

It

has been reintroduced here to show the

identification of the eye, fish, or oval shape, with the yoni,

and

of the fleur-de-lys with the lingam,

which

is

recognised

by the respective positions of the emblems in front of

parti-

69
mystic animals, who both, on their
symbolic palm tree, with its pistil and
The rayed branches of the upper part of the tree,

cular

parts

part,

adore the

stamens.

the

of

Figure

and the nearness to
that the

The

palm was a

it

of the crescent

moon, seem to indicate
emblem.

solar as well as a sexual

great similarity of the

palm

round towers in Ireland and elsewhere
the observer.

He will

tree

to the ancient

will naturally strike

perhaps remember also that on certain

occasions dancing, feasting, and debauchery were practised
about a round tower in Wicklow, such as were practised round

the English may-pole, the modern substitute of the mystic
We have now humanised our practice, but
palm tree.
we have not purified our land of all its veiled symbols.
In some parts, where probably the palm tree does not
It was
flourish, the pine takes its place as an emblem.
sacred to the mother of the gods, whose names, Rhcea,

We

learn from
Ceres, Cybele, are paraphrastic of the yoni.
Arnobius, Op. Git., p. 239, that on fixed days that tree was

introduced into the sanctuary of that august personage, being
It does not require any
decorated by fleeces and violets.
recondite knowledge to understand the signification of the
entrance of the pine into the temple of the divine mother,

nor what the tree when buried in the midst of a fleece
Those who have heard of the origin of the Spanish
depicts.

70
Koyal Order of the Golden Fleece know that the word is an
euphemism for the lanugo of the Romans. Parsley round a

modern symbol, and the violet is as good an
modern pistol.
It has long been known that the ancient custom of erecting a may-pole, surrounding it with wreaths of flowers, and
then dancing round it in wild orgy, was a relic of the ancient
carrot root is a

emblem

of the lingam as the

custom of reverencing the symbol of creation, invigorated by
the returning spring time, without whose powers the flocks
and herds would fail to increase. It will not fail to attract
the notice of

being

offered

my
to

readers, that a

the

sacred

pine cone is constantly
the priests of

"grove" by

Assyria.

Figures 100, 101, represent the Buddhist cross and one
The first shows the union of four phalli. The

of its arms.

Figure 100.

Figure 101.

single one being a conventional form of a well-known organ.
This form of cross does not essentially differ from the

Maltese cross.
to

Anu and Hea

" The

In the
;

latter,

Asher stands perpendicularly
it is at right angles to them.

in the former

"

is a well-known name amongst our soldiery,
and four such joined together by the muzzle would form the
Buddhist cross. Compare Figure 37, ante.
Figures 102, 103, 104, indicate the union of the four

pistol

Not having at hand any
creators, the trinity and the unity.
copy of an ancient key, I have used a modern one ; but this
makes no essential difference in the symbol.

wO
Figure 102.

Figure 103.

Figure 104.

71
Figures 105, 106, are copied from Lajard, Sur le Culte
de Venus, plate ii.
They represent ornaments held in the
hands of a great female figure, sculptured in bas relief on a
rock at Yazili Kaia, near to Boghaz Keni, in Anatolia, and
described by M. C. Texier in 1834. The goddess is crowned
with a tower, to indicate virginity ; in her right hand she
holds a

staff,

shown

by an antelope.

106
upon a

in Figure

in Figure 105, she stands

Figure 105

is

;

in the other, that given

lioness,

and

a complicated

is

attended

emblem

of the

'four.'

Figure 106.

Figure 105.

Figures 107, 108,

Pantheon, plate

Ixxxiii.

109, are copied

from Moor's Hindu

They represent the lingam and the

Figure 107.

Figure 109.72 Figure 108. .

In Lucian's account prophet." Compare Gen. repair They make a lustration by sprinkling early in the morning. was being carried in procession past them. and emblem. second edition. water. which we have condensed in pillar is associated with the serpent of Alexander. 20. Cit. and one bedaubed with muttered. I worshipped it. bius. I copy the following remarks from a paper by Mr. p. every village has its temple so every temple has its Lingam. and called the place Bethel. there is a reference to one of a distinguished Roman officer. 31. . as if I that Jacob set up a stone and anointed with it oil. or. Sellon. wherein we find olive oil. who Here the are anxious for lovers or husbands. feet in height. spout. gods made on anvils and by hammers. or oil. xliv. xxvii. but so very superstitious. . addressed myself to it. called " the bambino. in Memoirs of the London Anthropological Society. and begged blessings from a senseless stock. offering This may by some be thought prayers and vows thereto.78 yoni. 18. and these parochial Lingams are usually from two to three for 1863-4. is Sometimes the adorned by a necklace. quite as reasonable as the practice once enforced in Christian Rome. xxviii.. is poured over the pillar. says." or a bit of bread. which obliged all persons in the street to kneel in when an ugly black doll. ghee. the false Ancient Faiths. that at the sight of a stone he would his dupes. and Is. as he would say of himself. or and allowed to run off by the Christians. which amongst the Indians are regarded as holy emblems. some person resided in it. much in the same way as a crucifix is esteemed by certain modern In worship. the bones of elephants. the god with water brought from the Ganges they deck the village girls. who was fall prostrate and adore it for a considerable time. and rather broad at the base. wreaths on aged trees whenever I espied an anointed stone. so deeply imbued with religion. " As Speaking of Hindostan. . paintings. 19. he remarks. over which some cabalistic words had been reverence Arno" I worshipped images produced from the furnace. Op. 10-20. xl.

" which may be summed up most absolute freedom of love. 8vo. although other Hindoos also venerate it. man very familiar with them gave the information that. D. who with little exception is the highest of deities and the greatest of the spirits. that is. and translated by David Shea. " This is the celebrated Linga puja. during the performance of which the panchaty. has a spouse whom they call Maya With them the power of Mahadeva's Sakti The wife. the female organ. or incantations. plate xxii. that as men and all living beings derive their existence from it. London)." See also Moor's Hindu Pantheon. and entreat the deity to make them fruitful mothers of pulee-puUum (i. be frequently rung to scare away the demons. reciting the prescribed mantras. according to bestowed upon A their belief. or rosary of a hundred and eight round beads. Linga is called the virile organ. Leadenhall Street. Another man among them said that as the just-named place emblems the bhaga. about A. 68. so do they venerate the bhaga. or gesticulation with the fingers. Mahadeva. or bell. surpasses that of the husband. " The belief of the Saktian is that Siva. zealous of this sect worship the Siva Linga. who is Bhavani. 1660. 70. in the Dabistan.e. or five lamps. that is. the high altar. vol... on behalf of this worship.74 Linga with garlands of the sweet-smelling bilwa flower they perform the mudra. of the sect. child fruit). Allen and Co. they rub themselves against the emblem. we read. is an emblem of the bhaga. must be lighted. a work written in the Persian evil language. the minar or turret of the mosque represents the The author then goes on to describe the practices linga. in the words the . pp. pp. 69. 148-160. for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland (3 vols. and. and the gantha. ii... As the linga of Mahadeva. . or principal place in a mosque of the Mussulmans.. by a travelled Mahometan. and they say. The mala. Again. adoration is duly it. is also used in this puja.

so as to utter from thence the prayers of the faithful. pp. .75 Apropos of the Mahometan minaret and Christian church may mention that Lucian describes the magnificent temple of the Syrian goddess as having two vast towers and spires. 111. 394. which represent the yoni. Figure 112. or sacred sacrificial cup. See Moor. Figures 110. Copied from Rawlinson's Ancient Monar- Figure 112. and how at certain seasons men ascended to their summit. bowl. Hindu Pantheon. are forms of the argha. plate Ixxxvi. I phalli before its main entrance. or basin. Figure 111. and remained there some days.. both from Moor. 393. and some other things besides.

and represents the male and female as the sun and moon. symbolises Ishtar. John Newton. plate xix. Isis. even in ancient Mexico. Figure 114 is taken from a mediaeval woodcut.. Being before the sun. Parvati. to whom I am indebted for and the privilege to copy. nursing her infant. me Mr. who have been called ' Queen ' of Heaven. the union of the triad with . lent to by my friend.' of God. Juno.76 chies. and identified with the crescent moon. fig. many other figures. the Christian mother and child with Isis and Horus. 176.' ' Queen Spouse of God. vol. Figure 113 copied from Lajard. the sight of. The virgin and child are and Mary. In it the virgin Mary is seen as the Queen of Heaven. thus identifying the symbolic sex of those The legend in the Pehlevi characters has not luminaries. been interpreted. Venus. nothing could more completely identify its light. she almost eclipses Than this. Venus. and a host of other pagan goddesses.' ' Mother ' Heavenly Peace Maker.' Celestial Virgin. p. Sur is le Culte de Venus. Figure 113. the emblem of virginity. to be found everywhere. They are intended to indicate the sun and moon in conjunction. the i. 6. Assyrian repre- sentative of Devi.. Ishtar. common devices in papal churches and pagan symbolism. 116.' the Figures 115. are ' of the Universe.' the etc. Astarte.

in me some mediaeval passing. Figure 115. Newton has woodcuts. unmarried women in a mixed assemblage were indicated by wearing upon their foreheads a crescent moon. Figure 116. . that Mr.77 the unit. in which the young Figure 114. showed to I may notice.

. previously remarked. Maityna Bodhisatwa. or an effigy thereof.their shoes. was to be seen in stone over the door of certain churches. 894. Society." I think we may fairly conclude . p. or donkey. piscis of the It is Roman remarkable that some nations should use the female organ.78 Figure 117 is a Buddhist symbol. mare. " " of the Assyrian worshippers. and from the man the grove standing within it as the symbolic pine tree stands in the self. like the vesica church. from the monastery of Gopach. taken from some cow. in the It is taken from Journal of Royal Asiatic valley of Nepaul. indicates the yoni . within the last century. the last. as a charm against ill luck. or rather a copy of Figure 117. to keep off the evil eye. xviii. From the resemblance in the shape of the horse-shoe to. a female shamelessly exhibiting her- and called Shelah-na-gig. as we have others adopt the male symbol. whilst In Ireland. The horse-shoe. " Asherah. being used in eastern parts where we now use. Mesopotamian. vol.

79
that the Indian, like the Shemitic emblem, typifies the union
the androgyne creator.
of the sexes

That some Buddhists have mingled sexuality with their
ideas of religion,
tweit's Atlas of

may be

seen in plate

Buddhism

ii.

of

Emil Schlagin-

in Tibet, wherein VAJARSATTVA,

" The God above

all," is represented as a male and female
Rays, as of the sun, pass from the group ; and
conjoined.
all are enclosed in an ornate oval, or horse-shoe, like that in

Few, however, but the initiated would recognise
the nature of the group at first sight.
I may also notice, in passing, that the goddess DOLJANG
(A.D. 617-98) has the stigmata in her hands and feet, like

this figure.

those assigned to Jesus of Nazareth and Francis of Assisi.
Figure 118 is a copy of the medal issued to pilgrims at
It was lent to me by
the shrine of the virgin at Loretto.

Figure 118.

Mr. Newton, but the engraver has omitted to make the face
of the mother and child black, as the most ancient and
renowned ones usually are.
Instead of the explanation given in Ancient Faiths,
ii., p. 262, of the adoption of a black skin for Mary and

Vol.

her son, D'Harcanville suggests that it represents night, the
period during which the feminine creator is most propitious
or attentive to her duties.

It is

unnecessary to contest the

80
almost every symbol has more interpretations
than one. I have sought in vain for even a
plausible reason for the blackness of sacred virgins and
children, in certain papal shrines, which is compatible with
point,

for

given to

it

decency and Christianity.
not bear the light.

Figure 119

is

It is clear that the matter will

from Lajard, Op.
moon, and a

It represents the sun,

Cit., plate
star,

iii., fig.

8.

probably Venus.

Figure 119.

The legend is in PhoBnician, and may be read LNBRB.
Levy, in Siegel und Gemmen, Breslau, 1869, reads the
legend ymi^, LKBEBO, but does not attempt to explain it.
Figure 120 is also from Lajard, plate i., fig. 8. It represents an act of worship before the symbols of the male and

Fignre 120.

female creators, arranged in three pairs.
Above are the
heavenly symbols of the sun and moon. Below are the male

81

palm

tree,

and the barred HTSK,

identical in

meaning with the

Next come the male emblem,
virgo intacta.
the cone, and the female symbol, the lozenge or yoni.
Figure 121 represents also a worshipper before the barred
sistrum,

i. e.,

female symbol, surmounted by the seven-rayed

star,

emblem

Figure 121.

It will
of the male potency, and of the sun or the heavens.
and the matter is significant that the hand
which is raised in adoration is exactly opposite the conjunc-

be noticed

Compare this with Fig. 95, where the
the object of reverence.
Lajard and others state that homage, such as is here
depicted, is' actually paid in some parts of Palestine and

tion of the two.

female alone

is

India to the living symbol the worshipper on bended knees
offering to it, la bouche inferieure, with or without a silent
;

A

prayer, his food before he eats it.
corresponding homage
is paid by female devotees to the masculine emblem of
any

very peculiarly holy fakir, one of whose peculiarities is, that
no amount of excitement stimulates the organ into what may

be called creative energy. It has long been a problem how
such a state of apathy is brought about, but modern observation has proved that

Such homage

is

it is by the habitual use of
weights.
depicted in Picart's Religious Ceremonies

82
of

att

the

People in the World, original French edition,

plate 71.

Figure 122

is

third edition, vol.

copied from Bryant's Ancient Mythology,
That author states that he
iii., p. 193.

Figure 122.

from Spanheim, but gives no other reference. It
apparently from a Greek medal, and has the word
CAMIilN as an inscription. It is said to represent Juno,

copied

it

is

Sami, or Selenitis, with the sacred peplum. The figure is
remarkable for showing the identity of the moon, the
It is doubtful whether the attitude
lozenge, and the female.
of the goddess is intended to represent the cross.
As in religious Symbolism every detail has a signification,

we naturally speculate upon the meaning of the beads which
fringe the lower part of the diamond-shaped garment.
have noticed in a previous article that the Linga when

We

in the original of arms of the cross have a of beads depending from them. The is a composition taken from Bryant. series a very ancient coin of cross. will readily gather their true the meaning from our articles upon our remarks upon the DOVE ARK and WATER. second edition. I have not been able to discover it.83 worshipped was sometimes adorned with beads. and from in Ancient Faiths. the crescent moon iv. supra. plate xi. which were the fruit of a tree sacred to Mahadeva fig. it is clear that he is not aware of its full signification. They may only be used decoration and without religious signification. a rosary of beads. . for Figure 123 p. has been found and beads are common ornaments on Hindoo Divinities. if they have the last. Citium. 286. and the dove hovering over it. rock. The reader .. the water. are all symbolical but though the author of it is right in his grouping. Figure 123. with On arranged round a horse-shoe form a . 4. as an ark. the four . vol.

same light as and St. which has deified or made saints of a spear and cloak. the pillar is very conspicuously phallic. And it is at Isernia." and consecrate him as an object for Christian worship. 3. plate xl. only a sort of saint. the figure upon Figurate.84 Figure 124 is copied from Maffei's Gemme Antiche In the original. xviii. where . But the patron saint of Lampsacus was not really a deity. whose business it was to attend to certain parts. vol. The idea of guardian angels was once common. Damian were in Christian France. and the whole composition indicates what was associated with the worship of This so-called god was regarded much in the Priapus. under the names Longinus and Amphi- " bolus. and give him an appropriate name and emblem. should also adopt the god of the gardens. Figure 124. not at all surprising that a church. Cosmo and St. 10. Foutin St. see Matt.

ou les instrumens. the 69. and assisted in making them sterile wives. also an ass's head. which may have been made of pastry. the cuts are grouped so as to show how the knobbed stick. inasmuch as it assists us to under- stand the signification of the pine cone offered to the 'grove. apparently a cake. Figure 126. the episcopal crozier is a presentable effigy of a very private and once highly venerated portion of the human frame. or Ishtar. le baton.' The basket contains apples and phalli. are various contrivances for indicating decently that which it was generally thought religious to conceal. by out from the nude the heathen saint.85 we read. Figures 125. le baton pastoral. as it was in Assyria to Astarte ' name given there to the mother of all saints. equivalent to la feuille de sage. la bequille. Figure 127. As after his infantile charge. This amongst the Greeks was sacred to Cybele. 127. See Martial's Epigrams. the pagan who looks Hymen and Lucina attended upon weddings and parturitions. that each child has a guardian in heaven. wax To effigies of figure in our plate. The pillar and its base are curiously significant. or a There is no doubt that priestly crook. Figure 125. b. and demonstrate how completely an artist can appear innocent.' the equivalent of le Verger de Cypris. 126. xiv. egg-shaped bread. fruitful. whilst her attendant offers a pine cone. This gem is valuable. we see a female votary offer quince leaves. Figure 128 represents the same subject. la verge. whilst to the initiated he unveils a mystery. becomes converted either into a bent rod. . To the last two the part left were offered. so the Christian Cosmo and Damian attended to spouses.

130.. when they mapped out the sky. 130 is emblematic of Cupid. or Saint Desire 131 is . Fig. like the preceding four." or bonnes fortunes . le timon. or luck. represents Fig. has for her characteristic le timon. Perhaps we ought birds. or la pique gems . copied from various antique gems . always depicted as a woman. when comprehend many a legend otherwise dim . Fig. Figure 130. and is usually held in the hand " Saint of good fortune. Fortuna. it is synonymous with a form less common le in dard. or as moderns would say Luck. the hammer. prior to noticing the flight of Figure 128. it . Figures 129. a steering oar. 129 represents Figure 131. le marteau qui frappe V enclume et forge les enfans. The ancients had as many pictorial euphemisms as ourselves. g.86 which was used in long by-gone days by Etruscan augurs. to be grateful to Popery for having consecrated to Christ what was so long used in that which divines call the service of the devil. "For- . and for her motto the proverb. Figure 129. and when these are understood they enable us to e. are. 181.

32. It consists of the double triangle. knowledge.87 tune favours the bold. steering oar indicates power. the emblems of Siva and Parvati. The plate repre- Fignre 132. sents "a pattern thoroughly orthodox. 31. and bravery in him who wields it. . of Rimmon the pomegranate. pp. see Figures 20. of Pugin's Glossary skill. I presume. for diapering. the male and female . Figure 132 is copied from plate xxix. without such a guide. of Ecclesiastical Ornament (Lond.." we readily understand the double The entente. 30. few boats would attain a prosperous haven. 32. 38. 1868)." and is.

It is Hindu Pantheon. 3. Lakshmi. There are also the triad. Crishna. or Vishnu. Bhavhani. emblem of self-fructification. Such groups are as common in India . Kamala. ix. analogous to other symbols circles enclosing common in Hindo- stan. pi. or la porte de la vie. whilst in the original the group which we copy is surrounded by various forms of the triad." la fente. represents the triad. There are also two new moons. all of which are as characteristic of man as Kimmon is of woman.. Figure 133 fig. which is seen to be full of seed through the "vesica piscis. She bears in one hand the lotus. and the number four. emblems of Venus. Maia. one of the many forms given to female nature. placed. Devi. in other similar figures an effigy of the phallus is whilst in the other she holds her infant Krishna. or la The crown above the pomegranate nature. or copied from Moor's represents Figure 133. introduced.88 the emblem of the womb.

of viz. the male and female creators. Figure 134 is taken from plate xxiv.. Hindu Pantheon. in pagan temples as in Christian churches. Arddha-Nari. The male on the androgynism. the Hindoos and the Greeks. of Moor's It represents a subject often depicted by Figure 134.. idea of the mother and child is pictured in every ancient country of whose art any remains exist.89 as in The Italy. fig. 1. the union The technical right side bears the word is emblems .

or circle. the female on the left those of Parvati The bull and lioness are emblematic of the masThe mark on the temple culine and feminine powers. who male. The symbol resembles the crux is la queue dans la louche. its signification. which the mouth appears to swallow. carries indifferently this. ansata in earth is sexes. The tail of the animal. or the triad See Maffei's Figure 136 is Oemme. of Siva or or Sacti. serpent and the ring indicate I' andouille and V anneau. . emblem plate of the viii. as in modern pictures of saints. is It will be noticed.. is one of the symbols of Venus. the vesica piscis. the Figure 136. or fish's bladder. that the 38. common Egyptian emblem. vol. Figure 135 a is much less indelicately. 7. but generally than the Grecian artists. the East. page 1. the idea being that the stream from Mahadeva is as copious and fertilising as that mighty The metaphor here depicted is common in precisely the same as that quoted in Num. and xxiv. and imports that life upon the rendered perpetual by means of the union of the A ring. an aureole is seen around indicates the union of the two In this drawing the head. Hindoos express androgyneity quite as conspicuously.90 Mahadeva. iii. but in truth it said to The has another meaning. Figure 135. the Ganges rises from the male. signify eternity. . and also from some lost Hebrew book in John vii. river.

woman therein identifies the and a man bowing same idea as is depicted or la nature. 63. 1524. as the Assyrian "grove. 138. figures. The Mr. license from the Inquisition my friend. printed at Venice. are copied from an ancient Rosary emblem of the Blessed Virgin Mary. in adoration thereof shows the in Assyrian sculptures. . The book the book being lent to me by first represents the same part It may appropriately be called in question contains numerous resembling closely the Mesopotamian emblem of The presence two as symbolic of down . pp. with a Figure 137. all Ishtar. Figures 137. Compare Figs. 65. 66. 48 seq. 64.of woman and of the virgin. as may be seen in the two following woodcuts. Newton." the Holy Yoni. of the Isis. where males oifer to the goddess symbols of themselves.

having luminous rays outside. the fertility follows. power. were the parents of creation came from heaven to impregnate Alcmena. goodness. This being received. Ouranos and Ge. and attributed the regeneration of the world to "holy breath" and Mary. . could have found any pictorial representation more illusof the relationship of certain symbolic forms to each other than is Figure 138.92 If brated had been able I Alexandrian to search through the once celeit is doubtful whether I library. dart a spear (la pique) down upon the earth (la terre). dove. trative Figure 138. extraordinarily conspicuous for wisdom. heaven and earth. A circle of angelic heads. indeed. and a emblem of Venus. or the virgin. Every individual. all civilised adopted the idea. merely altering the The same Christian- names of the respective parents. mythos prevailed throughout ity nations. or and Jupiter . In Grecian story. forming a sort of sun.

.. in the figure It is difficult to believe before us the child takes her place.93 etc. or Durga." he remarks. and the form with which individuals.. i. the worshippers. 1. and consistent with him as his bride. " of the Sakti. for example. and caused his own self to fall in He approached twain. vol. appears to have originated in the literal interpretation of the metaphorical language of the Vedas. who sanctioned the publication of such a print could have been as ignorant as modern ritualists.. in Essays on " The Religion of the Hindoos. androgyne. It is equally difficult to believe that the latter. ch.e.. and v. time. the creator felt not delight being alone he wished another. if they knew the real meaning of the symbols commonly used by the Roman that the ecclesiastics church. p. symbolic of adoration before divine sexual emblems. Elohim viz. that he created image." statement which we may that propounded in Genesis. The most Bhavani. would adopt them." " The Sama-veda. is said to father. A sentiment or notice in passing is very similar to i. afford me the opportunity to give a descripHindostan at the present tion of a similar worship existent in the My authority is H. it is invested depends upon the bias of the favourite form is that of Parvati. H. 240. and thus were human beings produced. bisexual respecting in his own but united an . are exceedingly numerous amongst all classes of Hindoos about threefourths are of this sect. This active energy is personified. The last two figures. with or without the child . man and woman as male and female. the virgin herself. while only a fifth are Vaishnavas and a sixteenth Saivas. as distinct from the divinity. power or energy of the divine nature in action. 27. says. i. in which the u-itt or purpose to create the universe is represented as originating from the creator. her. or Mahadeva. the wife of Siva. and thus became husband and wife.." " The worship of the female principle. London. 2. have been begotten on a Within the vesica woman by a celestial artists usually represent piscis. Triibner and Co. Wilson.

the males and females rush together and society. fish. barber's wife. the Ring or Full indulge in a wild orgy. a courtesan. nine. every nymph. as Mahadeva. there are many who consider it right to pay their devotions to the thing itself In this form of worship six rather than to an abstraction. but richly ornamented. mother of all. and all women are is the the principle personified She identified with it. elements are required. Rost. milk-maid. the male principle. women. to whom meat and wine are offered and then distributed amongst the company. dancing girl.94 " This female principle goes by innumerable cognomens. image of any goddess Maya. so as to prove to his readers that the Sri Chakra is performed under a religious prescription. wine. inasmuch as every goddess. Durga. Bhavani. a section of the Rudra account is Ydmala. and is placed on the left of a circle (Chakra) described for the purpose. These eat and drink alternately with and when the religious part of gesticulations and mantras the business is over. or eleven couples. Parvati. washerwoman. or a female devotee. But in accordance with the weakness of human nature. The ceremony is to take At place at midnight with eight. a full given in Sanscrit of the Sakti Sodhana. or Devi -just in the same way as Romanists may pray to a local Mary. and after . entitled the Sri Initiation. flower-girl. is the father of all. lations flesh. gesticu- and mantras which consist of various unmeaning monosyllabic combinations of letters of great imaginary " The ceremonies are mostly gone through in a mixed by a naked female. We learn that the woman should be an actress. the Sakti being personified This ceremony is Chakra or Purnabhisheka. first there are sundry mantras said. In a note apparently by the editor. Lakshmi." Dr. or any other. then the female is disrobed. as they are prescribed in the Devi Rahasya." " The homage rendered to the Sakti may be done before an Prakriti.

145. 147. Many resemble what are known as designs found on tooled stones. Fig. 143. 139.. 152. Feasting then follows. and now. Fig. Fig. o V Fig. Fig. Figures 139 to 153 are copied from Moor's Hindu Pantheon . Fig.* It is natural such a religion that should be popular. 153. . e. Fig. they are sectarial marks in India. lest Venus should languish in the absence of Ceres and Bacchus. The above quotations from Wilson's work Editor's account. 141. but never to be so carried away by their zeal as to neglect the holy mantras appropriate to every act and to every stage thereof. amongst the young of both sexes. and formulas she is purified by being sprinkled over with wine. are selections from his and his In the original the observations extend over eighteen pages. W Fig. "mason's marks. when the veins are full of rich blood. and are too long to be given in their entirety : the parts omitted are of no consequence. traced on the forehead. mantras. If a novice. the girl has the radical mantra whispered thrice in her ear. 142. Fig. Fig. and are usually especially Fig. 140. 144.95 sundry gesticulations. Fig. 148." * i. 146. the actors are urged to do what desire dictates.

It is the outline of a pectoral ornament worn by some Roman siastic in Italy. plate iv. These figures are alike emblematic of the "trinity. 1400 eccle- Figure 154. it appears absurd to suppose that the eye could ever have been symbolical of anything but sight . alike . the emblem of the trinity. which we have been obliged to conshown in a distinct manner. A.6. the O the unit. they symbolic of the sun and moon. plate v. P. like our own. In the latter. given in Ancient Faiths. Fig. it represents the Egyptian crux "J" signifying the triad. figs. p. are different forms of the sistrum. E. Vol. and of the See Pugin. 155 is ix. is The cat at the top of the indicate that Isis is a virgin. one emblems of Isis. in are 5. which will readily suggest itself to those who know the meaning of the triad." Figure 154 is from Pugin. but the mythos of Indra.. Figure 157 represents the cup and wafer." and the numerous forms representative of "la nature.. the triple bars have of the one signification." and the "four. " trade marks. 7 supra. 156. Figures 155. elements in the Eucharist. proves that it has another and a hidden meaning. or Eros.. figure 3." Cupid. n." "the virgin. 649. " instrument indicates desire. the ansata under another form. D. .96 in various ancient edifices. and p." A priori. The cross bars ventionalise. Knight's Worship of Priapus. to be found copied from plate the hands of many effigies of papal bishops . In the former. second edition.." are introduced here to illustrate the various designs employed to indicate the union of the "trinity" with the They "unity.

97 Figure 158 is copied from Lajard. It . tig. 6. plate xv..

Figure 159.whilst below. tends to show what we have so frequently before observed. her and the by represent Virgin Mary. Mary. that the female in creation is Figure 158. Figur This. Parvati. are copied from Audsley's Christian Symbolism (London. amongst other symbols. Figure 159 represents the various forms symbolic of Juno. . Isis. Figure 156. Ishtar. of which the succeeding woodcuts give us additional evidence. They are ornaments worn as the crescent moon. 161. or the virgin. represents a temple in a conventional form Ceres appears seated within a horse-shoe shaped ornament. 1868). Figures 160. characterised by a great variety of designs. . or woman. 162.

162).99 conjoined with the cross (in Figure 160. a cock. Fig. a spear The female head. The male is indicated by a serpent. a hare. Figure 161. all of which represent. of Isis (in Fig. When one sees a Figure 163. one can understand why both in India and in Greece the animal should be regarded as sacred to the goddess personifying the female creator. 161). 160). and why in Hindoo myths it is said to support the world. and with the double triangle (in Fig. one of which has been apparently circumcised. whilst upon the part as the glans penis are a number of symbols. In the British Museum there are three Assyrian obelises. a tiara. Figure 163 represents a tortoise. and also a known figure of the reigning king. in the most conspicuous way. resemblance between this creature's head and neck and the linga. the The phallus. . which are intended apparently to designate the generative powers in creation. with the collar Figure 162. and a tortoise. body is occupied with an inscription recording the sale of land.

those why who are familiar with the ram will know that it is remarkable Like the cat. the fig tree and . that Pausanias mentions having seen at some place in Greece one figure of Venus standing on a tortoise. The tortoise is to this day a masculine emblem in Japan. but he leaves to the ingenious to discover why the association takes place. or sound could remind mankind of the creators and of the first part of creation was regarded with reverence. pine. the palm. Fig. 28. as the bull was in Assyria and for persistent Hindostan. there is no necessity for the animal itself always to be depicted. Any the animal is dear to the goddess of amorous delight. It has been stated on page 19 supra. the the ivy. fleece typifies in the first A woman is in like and a golden " place the grove. inasmuch as I have discovered that both in But Assyrian and Greek art the tortoise the segments into which the shell a very is In symbolism divided. and seen the action of the head and neck when the quadruped is excited. and the female who possesses both. It was this intimation which led me to identify the person who has ever watched this creature in repose. and that which it may remind her of. In fact. common thus an egg is pourtrayed under the which resembles somewhat the markings upon figure it is is thing for a part to stand for the whole made to do duty for the triad .100 appears under precisely the same form as is seen on the head of the Egyptian Isis. with their tripliform leaves. everything which in shape. salacity caused it to be honoured in Egypt. and oak trees. and a man is . 175. See Figs. whose and excessive vigour. 174. habits. sometimes represented by a spade. and another upon a ram. Thus tall stones or natural pinnacles of rock. the ram was in that country also sacred. shadows. will recognise tortoise as a male symbol." which it overor a mirror. In like manner. manner represented by a comb.

and we may hope that with a knowledge of we shall cease to have a faith based upon a and virgin a lingam and a yoni. . the dove from its note. symbolised Bel. we cannot deny the fact that it is so. figure found on an ancient coin of The second may be seen in any of our churches to-day. the thumb thrust between the two fore-fingers or grasped by the hand. but to me it is simply horrible blasphemous and heathenish.. and any umbrageous retreat surrounded with thick bushes. and represents a Apollonia. the dolphin and the mullet from their names. I cannot help regarding the sexual element as the key which opens almost every lock of symbolism. In like manner a hole in the ground. were symbolic of woman. trinity. Some may cling still to such a doctrine. the myrtle from the shape of its leaf. Missale Romanum. Figure 166 is from an old papal book lent to Newton. fig. So also the sword and sheath. Knight (plate x. and however formation of a much we may dislike the idea that modern religionists have adopted emblems of an obscene worship. represent a pagan and Christian cross The first is copied from R. a deep cave. the spear and shield. the fish from its scent. Baal. their impurity trinity and Figures 164. monk (Venice.101 mandrake. a crevice in a rock. I Figure 164. the spade and the pillar by a well. or Mahadeva. Figure 165. the thumb and finger. illustrated by a me by Mr. with its strange human form. P. the plough and furrow. and a host of other things were typical of the union which brings about the trench. new being. the arrow and target. Asher. 165. 1).

the four creators. who the Figure 166. . Egyptian symbol of life. It represents a confessor of the wears the crux ansata. emblem pallium. in the place of the usual It is remarkable that a Christian church should of have adopted so Figure 167 many pagan symbols is copied as Rome has done. from a small bronze figure in Figure 167.102 1509). the Roman church.

or the trinity and the virgin. It represents the ancient sistrum of Isis. represents the feminine creator holding a well marked lingam in her hand. Figure 170 is a copy of an ancient pallium. It is symbolic of the celestial When donned virgin. who wore a female dress when they ministered before the altar or shrine of a goddess. by a Christian priest. and the unit in the creative four. . or the cross with a handle. Liverpool. It is the old Its common name is Egyptian symbol described above. crux ansata. worn by papal ecclesiastics three or four centuries ago. and the yoni of the Hindoos. which closely resembles an Irish round tower. Possibly the Hebrew ephod was of this form Figure and nature. Figure 168. Figure 168 represents two Egyptian deities in worship before an emblem of the male. he resembles the pagan male worshippers. and is thus emblematic of the four. Figure 169 represents the modern pallium worn by iioman priests. Figure 170.103 It the Mayer collection in the Free Museum.

104 Figure 171 ecclesiastics is when the albe worn officiating at Roman and by mass. instead of priests of the Egyptian ! using veiled language. etc. When worshipping the ancient goddesses. one of the of the yoni. breast and body. shoulders. and the adoration of woman How horrible all this would sound if. we may see on Christian priests the relics of the worship of Venus. represents on head. he forms the male element. Its form is archs. a copy of the chemise ordinarily worn by women as an under garment. and with the chasuble that of the vesica piscis. Hence the use of the chemise. adopted from the " " V anneau. the priest. The . It is adorned by the completes the sacred four. whom Mary has displaced. most common emblems When worn by triad. It is other simply Figure 171. Figure 172 represents the chasuble worn by papal hierIt is copied from Pugin's Glossary. etc. the officiating ministers clothed themselves in feminine attire. so that Isis. we had employed vulgar words. Even the tonsured head. etc.

with the Figure 172. as well as civilisation teaches us to conceal. when ministering before God nature effigies of those parts which and the people. but when all is said to be mysterious and con- nected with hidden signification.105 idea of a man adorning himself. would be simply disgusting. almost everybody tolerates and many eulogise or admire it ! .

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C. these. BY JOHN NEWTON. brooding over the idea of the Unseen and the Infinite. It has hitherto been almost ignored by sacerdotal historians . whose habits and thoughts are of the earth. healthy to visible and soar. who is unable to count his fingers up to five. abundant proofs exist that the imagination of men. we have still a world of symbolism existing amongst us which is far older than our sects and books. . then. The study of sacred symbols is as yet in its infancy. pre-historic past. our creeds and articles. E. Yet how can a savage.107 APPENDIX. earthy. for it equally applies to the present As nothing on earth is a relic of a forgotten. Untold ages before writing was invented. were bounded by the things which were presented in their daily experience. more conservative than religion. apart from things. S. it is believed that men attempted to express their ideas in visible forms. they attempted to embody such religious ideas as they felt. form a conception of the high and holy One who inhabiteth eternity? Even under the highest forms of ancient civilisation. THE ASSYKIAN "GROVE" AND OTHER EMBLEMS. and which most moved their passions. and has no idea of abstract number. and thus a rich mine of knowledge on the most interesting the history of the Religious Idea in man The topic has a two-fold of all subjects remains comparatively unexplored. They could not teach others with- Through out visible symbols to assist their conceptions and emblems were rather crutches for the halting than wings to help the . and the past. M. Mankind in all ages has clung to the The people care little for the abstract tangible. interest. hopes and fears.

! they might have it more abundantly. such as this volume presents. gathered from climes and ages. the sopher's Stone. Maker's command. my youth. they were punished by being cut off from Genesis . and clime. Whilst studying a collection of symbols. that I want. This fulness of highest good. it is What do men desire and " Skin for skin all that a man . and that not far to seek. Life in its highest as necessarily contained in the idea of sense. The Israelites preferred a calf of gold to the Jehovah and sensuous forms of worship still fasci- invisible . whereof our nerves are scant. ." is a saying as true now as in " Give me back the days of Job. For this the and gods. and I will give you all was said by the aged Voltaire to his our poet laureate has sung. life. long for most ? Life. not to advance chemistry.108 and unseen. I possess. connecting them like a string of beads ? I believe that there is. but to discover the Elixir of Life and the PhiloBut what nature refused to science. which life has been the summum mankind has sighed bonum. would surely give to the pious the glorious prize referred to has been promised by every " I am come that they might have Life. O life. I feel sure that every intelligent student will have asked himself many Is there not some key which unlocks these more than once enigmas. for which we pant and fuller. it was believed. some grand idea which runs through them all. midst of that Paradise which is described in the book of and when the first human couple disobeyed their . those things which make Life desirable. And 'T is Life. the for in every age alchemists toiled. nate the multitude." Life is the reward which has been promised under every system. But we must add. hath will he give for his life. including that A Tree of Life stood in the of the founder of Christianity." physician. and that religion. More not death.

ascended to Valhalla and the eternal manhood which awaited them there was * . a tree of life shall stand To the nations. creed promises a Nirvana. for the former things are passed shall there be " " there the weary be at rest. atheistical worshippers. In the wondrous theology of Ancient Egypt. a haven of eternal calm. renewed is promised. promise added. long " Thy youth is the good life. which. to Paul points out (Eph. even life for evermore. the Amrita cup of immortality. by one supreme effort. This idea of tranquillity is in striking contrast to the heaven promised by the religion of the north of Europe. neither any more pain. the deceased and by which all remaining stains of corruption are wiped away." (Exod. which at " Ritual of the Dead " celebrates length is open to us. whose parts are to be reunited. informs us that long life was the reward promised to her votaries.) St. which was the one most congenial to a people whose delight was in conquest and battle. as those of Osiris were by the trials are recorded through which Isis. (Metam. which is promised to the blessed by the author of the book of Revelation. his cold. " the blessing. xxi. an escape from the horrors of " there metempsychosis. 17. offspring. the the mystical reconstruction of the body of the deceased." See also Psalm cxxxiii."* Ps. who had been initiated into the mysteries of Isis. away. they partake of with their Even for the Buddhist. where shall be no more death. t In the ancient mythology of India. 5. . 2) that to only one of the ten commandments is a And what is the promise ? " That thy days may be long. after the success of their scheme. xx. in the Hebrew and a numerous like the eagle's." Scriptures. or perished bravely in fight.109 the perennial fount of vitality. Job iii. it is recounted that of old the gods in council united together to procure. once more " for the healing of man prosperity. and in a second Paradise. cap. ciii. vi." Rev. Those who had led a life of heroism. xi. and the record ends when the defunct is born again glorious.) f Apuleius. neither sorrow nor crying. 3. resurrection. like that Sun which typified the Egyptian passes. lest they should eat its fruit and thus live for ever . 12. 4.

ruder types were highly conventionalised. rejoicing in beauty and ever-blooming youth. ever-renewed. Life. as great a mystery as it was to primitive races of mankind the formation of a new being proceed emblems. but at evening the conflict was to cease . where. To the lights. Every day in that abode of bliss was to be spent in furious conflict. attended by lovely maidens. will be created for the use of the rapture on meanest believer to . in the light of Such being the God. Seventy-two houris. we might anticipate that the symbols of every religion would reproduce. its rivers and bowers. under the loftier ideal of Christianity. Thus we see that in all these great historical faiths the prize held out to the true believer has this in common. The Arabian prophet dwells with its gardens and palaces. or black-eyed girls. rudest faiths were content with gross and simple emblems of In the later and more refined forms of worship. We replaced now to investigate the more primitive origin of life is. in some shape or The earliest and other. the ideal which is common to all. every wound to be suddenly healed.110 be passed in scenes that were rapture to the imagination of a Dane or a Saxon. even to us. are summed up in Life.. whether they are sensuous pleasures. the life. viz. they could feast on the exhaustless flesh of the boar Saehrimnir. and by a more intricate and less obvious symbolism. with the addition of those make life desirable for men . a thousand years. and drink huge draughts of mead from the skulls of those enemies who had not attained to the glories of Valhalla. both temporal and things which eternal. Then the con- tending warriors were to sit down to a banquet. in the struggle of armies and the cleaving of shields . or those which. case. The paradise promised to the faithful by Mahomet is full of sensuous delights. a moment hundred-fold to of pleasure will be prolonged a and his powers will be increased render him worthy of his felicity. overflowing. The . with all our the ancients.

out that. " Thus. face the east which are still followed by Christian architects. which have continued from the earliest known period. when his rays scarcely reached the earth. that god of this world. Mankind watched with rapture its rays gain strength daily in the Spring. happiness and glory. Christ expired towards and the sun became eclipsed as he was dying.* Of the elements. for he seemed to sicken and grow paler at the advent of December. Hence sleep. Sun-worship was spread all over the ancient world. break. Vitruvius. When the sun once more began its course downwards to the solstice. appeared to many of the ancients as a true resurrection . was naturally chosen as fire fire. and of building temples and shrines with an opening towards the east. while the east came to be regarded as the source of light and warmth. thus. the glorious sun. decay and death. his votaries sorrowed. and subsequently the Gospels. and even worshipped. It mingled with other faiths and assumed many forms. and all nature. the west was associated with darkness and chill. and an effigy thereof used as a symbol. was early adored. according to all earthly symbol." the source of life and light to our earth. until the golden of Midsummer had arrived. To effect this. A sacred * its at first miraculously kindled. when the earth was glories bathed during the longest days in his beams.Ill appeared to be a constant miracle. benumbed Winter and sunk into a death-like cold. The daily disappearance and the subsequent rise of the sun. which ripened the fruits that his returning course had started into life. gave precise rules. We may point suDHet. to our own times. under various names. feasts and were instituted to mark the commencement of the fasts various phases of the solar year. two thousand years ago. He rose again exactly at day- . those objects or organs by which the miracle appeared to be wrought. and men very naturally used as tokens of life. This led to the common custom of burying the dead so as to when they rose again.

roots lie concealed is the vegetable world.112 kept up by the sedulous care of priests or priestesses." or daughters of fire. Ireland. These. formed an important part of the religions of Judea. through the withdrawal of the sun. whose seeds underground in the darkness of winter. The Queen of Heaven with crescent horns. Ceres was the Greek A^TTJP. Mother Earth. the fable of Ceres mourning the death of her The Roman daughter Proserpine is another sun-myth. was kept ever burning on a shrine at Kildare. who through the winter time wanders inconsolable. Indeed. called amongst us a sacred in " still. and the superstition lingers So late as the advent of the Reformation. Again. Fox Talbot has lately given the translation of an Egyptian poem. also with the Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus . Greece and Home. and the Egyptian legend reappears in the west as the mourning of Venus for the loss of Adonis. Persephone. and having for its subject the descent of Ishtar into Hades. or yrj M^p. the later " Phoenician Astarte." the moon-goddess. was supposed to be caused by the mourning of the earth-goddess over the sickness and disappearance into the realms of darkness of her husband and mate. more than three thousand years old. her daughter. solar myths form no unimportant part of ancient mythology. and attended by virgins of high rank. or Tammuz. Every year is the ceremony repeated at Jerusalem of the miraculous kindling of the Holy Fire at the reputed sepulchre. and provide ample nourishment for men and or . Persia. fire inghean au dagha. which they pass through with a naked body. To this region of darkness and death the goddess goes in search of her beloved Osiris. This Ishtar is identical with the Assyrian female in the celestial quartette. and men and women crowd to light tapers at the sacred flame. Mr. when Spring comes with its brightness. the sun. Babylonia. bud forth and dwell in the realms of light during a part of the year. Thus the death of nature in the winter time.

This was used as a talisman at a very remote period. being receptive only. sun and moon were often associated the forming a sacred seven. a figure which is continually crop- ping up in religious emblems. still more suggestive by the union of which all animated life.. fying cause in nature. i. and mankind. and beneath its ten feet of stalagmite. and the generative parts in the two sexes. The moon and the earth.e. and a phallus in baked clay. sun. Yet. appeared to be created. " in the Jewish scriptures. the most interesting of all to human beings. the occurrence of pregnancy. flint implements. in vigour which also marks a recurring event in women. 5). those savage tribes who still reproduce for us the pre- H . This reverence for. the ancients celebrated the bridal of the sun and the earth. xix. a bone And if we turn to needle. and perpetually renew light and life. Again. were naturally regarded as female. like the horse-shoe is to modern side-posts. has been traced to a very early period in the In a bone-cave recently excahistory of the human race. With the five visible planets. inasmuch as the orbs of heaven and the face of nature remain the same from year to year. as a man full of generative.113 animals with their The fruits. was generally regarded as male. or worship of. At the vernal equinox. the organs of generation. and as such adorns the brow of the Greek Artemis and Koman Diana. procreative vigour. So much for the great cosmic symbols of Life. the ancients conceived the bride and mate of the sun-god as continuing ever virgin. and was fixed over the doors of the early lake-dwellers in Switzerland. were found bones of animals. the certain that ceases at once on lunar crescent became a symbol of virginity. as the ancient month was always reckoned by the an interval interval between one new moon and the next. he is compared to a bridegroom coming out of his chamber" (Ps. vated near Venice. being the active fructi- Thus. themselves remaining fresh and unharmed by age. But the primitive races of mankind found others nearer home.

or female camel. it has assumed in symbolism very various forms. and a land tortoise. most uncomfortably prominent. he informs us. The historic past. which drips into a pot or shard placed below it. and pour a libation over its feet before he would drink himself. and at every meal he would take the little fetish out of tribes in Africa his pocket. His guide. this organ being less definite than that of the male. The commonest substitution for the part itself has been a horse-shoe. which . and the would-be mother of children prays before the image that the great god Legba would make her Burton tells fertile. Opposite to these was the male symbol or phallus. god Obatala. a fish. conjoined figures representing their is in coitu with the female emblem. advent of Christianity. it is. the pointing to her symbol. some Du Chaillu met with who adore the female only. " Tree of Life " is anointed with palm oil. as a The figure of talisman to avert the influence of the evil eye. was placed over the portal of many a church as a protector from evil spirits . of which the innermost was a sort of holy of holies. and the elaborate though rude manner in which these figures were sculptured shows that they were considered as objects of great importIt was the universal practice among the Arabs of ance. the two latter emblems of the male. a male and a female. everywhere. Northern Africa to stick up over the door of their house or tent the genital parts of a cow. Its doors had carvings on them of a leopard.114 this form of religious symbolism meets us In Dahomey. carried a hideous little image of wood with him. us that he peeped into an Egba temple and found it a building with three courts. who worshipped under two forms. There were also two rude or lodge. beyond the Ashantees. In every street of their settlements are priapic figures. The first two of these are female symbols. mare. a serpent. the deity of life. according to Captain Burton. We know long after that a similar superstition prevailed in Ireland There a female.

the passive though fruitful element in creation. the gross symbols of creative power were cast aside. a trident. a torch. a lozenge. . in curing any disease in. From a lively story by is to this Beroalde de Verville. ever renewed. came a ship cow with her or boat. fire. a fig. either natural or artificial. a narrow bottle or amphora. fruits having many seeds. was formerly supposed to protect the cattle from witchcraft. water. a rose. we learn that in France a sight of the female organ was believed. and its emblem a triangle " the yoni. pouring cup any narrow cleft. light.115 day fastened over many of the doors of stables and shippons in the country. the female date-palm bearing fruit. or active element As symbols sun. such as the pomegranate. ever originating. a pyramid. a bull. a lion. and many other animals conspicuous for masculine power. the crescent moon. a calf by her side. Equally useful for symbolism were a tall upright stone (menhir). which should represent the ancient ideas in a decorous manner. The old belief sublimated form. an arch or doorIn the same category of symbols way. and priestly ingenuity was taxed to the utmost in inventing a crowd of less obvious emblems. a garden. and thus symbolised in the highest degree the great source of The Egyptian temple life. As civilisation advanced. a cone. the fish. a mast. an arrow. linga. a thumb or finger pointed straight. but in a mysterious or of the male. and for the fortunate beholder. especially the erect serpent. a lance. a shell (concha). to be a powerful prolonging the charm life of. a cavern. As symbols of the female. were employed. fluid for (cratera). in creation. These two great classes of conventional often represented in conjunction with symbols were each other." a shallow vessel or with the apex downwards. an the was retained. the earth. a bower. palm and the fir or pine. a bow. etc. and. a fountain. the phallus or a tall straight tree. into a ring or oval. a horse. and other things of suggestive form. a rod. were adopted. darkness. as late as the sixteenth century.

44 and at emblem formed by uniting the female oval with the male sacred Tau T and thus identical in meaning with the coarse emblem seen by Captain Burton in the African idol 70). though in reality the whole is sculptured The out of one block of basalt. outline of the frame. who is is an emblem of the represented in Hindu mythology as uniting in Himself the two sexes. in which it is associated with Esculapius and fertility.116 Denderah has lately been explored by M. apparently inserted into another stone formed like an elongated saucer. to the great monoliths pudendum. . Mariette. generative power seen throughout nature. These lingas vary in size from the tiny amulets worn about the neck. to which the name lingyoni is This representagiven. The earth was the primitive or yoni. is termed argha or yoni. This was simply a GOLDEN SISTRUM (see ante. The entire symbol. owe their being " " and continued existence. pp. the primitive linga. centre of a yoni. the fountain of of the the lingam all life. older than Greek and Roman art. plants and the fruits of the earth. pp. to whose vivifying rays man and animals. the type of the virile organ. the caduceus. the adoration of which is to this day of the characteristic There is scarcely a leading dogma of Hindu temple in India which has not religion. 73. (See ante. which reminds us of a Jew's harp (the conventional form of the The former. polished. black stone. cylindrical. Another symbol. round perpendicular stone. an . is the linga. A similar emblem is the linga standing in the temple. has precisely the Hermes. union of the sexes typifies the divine sacti. Thus temples. its lingam and in numerous instances this symbol is the only form under which the great god Siva is worshipped. which is fecundated by the solar heat. Creator. In a niche of the Holy of Holies he discovered the sacred secret.) The linga is generally a tall. is also occasionally called lingam. 72. or tive of the productive energy. or female member). in union with the procreative. the sun. the gods of health and .

and stood erect. the name for the serpent also signifies life. were all Fi - 173 - They cobras. C. 3. we meet with a good and Oriental dualism. though in the and elsewhere. Hebrew scriptures. which casts its youth every year. Balfour. published in Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship. is compared to the sun-god. Fig. Plate iv. that on the male side. t It has been usually worshipped as the Agathodcemon. has been used from remotest times as a living symbol of generative energy. as the emblem of the life female. the lunar crescent. E. and no one could have seen them without at once recognising that they were in congress. and is preserved as such. Both are for life is the same in . in 1841." skin and seems to renew its The serpent. As in French. indeed. the material becomes a representative form of Lakshmi. and believe that a person can throw a cloth at if the pair so as to touch them with it. though not in spelling or gender. " I have only once seen living snakes in the form of the Esculapian It was at Ahmednuggar. as the active principle in creation over whose head is . The Kakodoemon. or life-giving energy of Vishnu. moonlight night. in the most ancient Eastern languages. from a in the following extract This is letter by Dr.* of the highest virtue. on a clear rod. a bad serpent ever. 1873. life.117 same signification as the sistrum made clear enough and the lingam. Natives of India consider that it is most fortunate to witness serpents so engaged. the name for the male organ and sound. the deity is represented as uniting in himself the male and the On each side is a serpent.. * f The consort. and health. is usually represented as winged the Dragon. flowing from the Creator. having round his head the solar glory. how- the god of good fortune. and of immortality . that on the female side. In the remarkable Babylonian seal. They dropped into the garden from the thatched roof of my house.and earth-goddess. the passive principle in creation. to the moon. as in the following example.

16.118 attacked by a winged dragon. is only once thus applied. as expressing His many Another name was Baal or powers and manifestations. now proceed The religion of the East at a very remote period appears to have been the worship' of one God. see Exod. II. and was adopted by them. destroying the serpent Python. = the Eternal. Soon coveries of Botta and Layard were published. or Al." new cognomen. the mighty one . 14. the ODC good and the other The Chinese still think chat an eclipse is caused malign. with the insignificant exception of the Jews . inspired by God. Hosea ii. and a it was so frequently associated " the or Supreme. when the latter migrated into Canaan they were surrounded . This name. " Baal " Ever-Living One. the kakodoemon. we shall further apply it to unlock the after the dis- famous object of Assyrian worship. or its plural Elohim.. Even Apollyon appears in old paintings with huge by the moon efforts . though so appropriate to the Almighty. Baalim. which also had a plural form. translated far the view was correct we shall "grove" English version. wings. like those of a bat. or the evil This is according to the ancient Chaldean doctrine principle. of a fnrions dragon to destroy the sun and and Apollo. How to examine. under several names. iii. the lord. The most primitive was El. might be the asherah of the Hebrew scripin the tures. has reappeared on our coin as St. prophesies from the high places of Baal. Having thus explained what appears to be the key to a wide range of religious symbolism. was the supreme god of all the great Syro-Phoenician nations. became Baal abhorrent to the Jews when with idolatry. many cases. first word is continually used in the Hebrew scriptures. and shown its application in . the sun-god. George killing the dragon. The Bel. of two creations of living beings. and applied both to the true God and the gods of the nations. the viz. yet Balaam. it was conjec- tured that this strange object. so continually represented as being adored. = the strong. Jehovah. the Creator .

and in the licentious androgyne. including the English. xxv. Septuagint ment. and Beelida. Baal-Hammon. xi. or two-sexed god. 4. As the generative and productive power. whilst the masculine name (as Bel or Bal. she Beltis.. Now. Meribbaal. as we do. the feminine equivalent attire. i. translated in the Septuagint and Latin vulgate. temples. 2 Chron. sexes him thus : " Hear Though he us. Assyrians. and an image of the sun appeared over his altars." gender in the Hebrew. nri PK. whilst the worship of this men on certain occasions women appeared in male Each of this god's names had and the feminine form of Baal was As he was the sun-god. 41 . As the creator. viz. Ishtar. Asherah or AsJiarah.119 on all sides by his worshippers. . viii.) appears nearly one hundred times in the Hebrew Old Testament. the wore female garments. in the New Testa- 4 . feminine gender occurring in the Hebrew twenty-four times. her worship amongst the Babylonians. and Ashtarte. the immense diffusion of Baal-worship. and six times in the plural Ashtaroth . 11 . is Baal whether thou be a god or a goddess. As 2 Kings the sun-god. 8 4. Zeph. 1T&*. plural. men." in which they have been followed by most modern This supplies the void. At the = the lady. this appears strange. for versions. the lord. Song of Sol. brandishing weapons. Romans ii. Towns. even of high birth. Num. 7. Eshbaal. Baal-Peor . he was represented to be of either or of both and Arnobius tells us that his worshippers invoked . . prostituted themselves in his honour or service. 2 Kings xxiii. he was worshipped under the form of the phallus. Baalim. is only found three times in the singular Ashtoreth. and youths and maidens. were called after him. a female counterpart.. ! of the masculine ty??. Asharoth . 5 . was the moon-goddess. viz. Num. and There is a word of the Phosnicians. he was worshipped on high places. of David and of Jonathan. . xxii.. xxxiv. Hos. xxiii. including even a son of Saul. a tree. or " grove. yet Baal is called y BaaX. Baal. always in association with Knowing.

" "^ (Osir). . It an image 2 Kings xxi. . representation of the singular. . 33. representing the erect phallus. xxxiv. 2 Chron. was of wood. . straight. and Gideon offered a wood of the Asherah. daughter of Ethbaal. female emblems of Baal. 25 and 30 1 Kings xvi. 7. as is plainly seen by the following passages: " " They forsook Jehovah and served Baal and Ashtoreth . was the Asharah ? It They forgot . and baring the words underneath. 32. What. and must have been a multiple " IBV which means . those of " Asherah were four hundred. king of Sidon. which are mentioned sixteen times in the Hebrew scriptures. xxi. symbolising his generative power" (Fiirst. " to be * and firm. 7. male emblems of Baal. strong. 7 Ezek. . in the whilst following chapter we read. so was the Asherah with that of the moon 2 Kings xxi. then. 13. xvi. 2 Bangs .120 Asharah may be regarded as another name for the goddess Ashtoreth. . Besides these Asheroth. 3. Hebrew Lexicon). It often stood close to the altar of Baal. . Judges " ii. and of large size cut it down . but one was erected in the temple of Jehovah by Manasseh . who ate at the table of Queen It was someJezebel. xxxiii. 2 . etc. 13 . " husband. for whilst the priests of " the " the Baal " were four hundred and fifty. Asher. and was worshipped by both sexes with licentious rites 2 Kings xxiii. Exod." . 16." cognate with the Phosnician * The lupanars at Pompeii were distinguished by a sign over the street door. 23 Jer. Jehovah their God. xvii. prosperous. 7. Judges vi. and served the Baalim and " the Asharoth iii. painted or carred. 1 Kings xviii. there " were Asherim. As Baal was associated with sun-worship. . the Jews were ordered to . 4. . D ^?. It is only found in the plural. times surrounded with hangings. . 19 and its worship It had priests was as popular as that of Baal. Usually on high places and under shady trees 1 Kings xiv. 3 2 Chron. was carved or graven as bullock as a burnt sacrifice with the it Occasionally was of stone. " Hie habitat felicitas. xxxiv." " lord. happy.

the Egyptian Osiris. 4. the Sanscrit. pale. " multimammia " They were then counterparts Roman of Greek and worship. 13) deposed the queen mother." "terrified. Greek $aAXoj. palash. have suffered death like the said all sun . Fig. then. in Plate iii. V. Doubtless this was also identical with = = the sun. Syriac. son of Solomon. his in the land. phalash. the Hebrew scriptures. is rendered by the Vulgate "simulacrum Priapi. and (xv. had "built them high places. " " to break or go a word or root found in the Doubtless the Hebrew." The word is derived from fi*.) But Asa. and under every green tree . Maachah.) nifJl ?. on succeeding to the swept away all these things.&ypole. English with a corres- Thus. since it has no and Herodotus and Dioindependent meaning in Greek . is a conventional form. xv. consecrated the phallus as his representative. having lapsed into idolatry. and Asharim ("groves. We learn (xiv. ponding = Compare A M." brother." A.palatz." A. . and Ethiopic. 16)." or the cognate B^S. V. unable to discover He was and Plutarch the phallus. 16. there were two chief See Figs.) on every high hill. miphletzeth." A. was hence derived. "to be broken. dorus expressly assert that the chief gods of Greece and their mysteries. meaning. throne. phallus. 23) that the Jews. because she had made a miphlet31 zeth to an Asherah ("an idol in a grove. Phoenician.121 an epithet of Baal. 13 (repeated 2 Chron. 1 Kings xv. especially the Dionysiac or Bacchic revels. of which the branch carried by an Assyrian priest." "to open up a way. Thus " " the Asharim were male symbols used in Baal-worship.* of the This is confirmed by a curious passage. in which the phallus was carried in procession. to tells us that Isis. under Rehoboam. exists according to also the Latin similar word. were derived from the east. through. images. and sometimes consisted of multiple phalli. and that there were also consecrated ones (" sodomites. the remains of her husband. V. in pales. 15. pole.

the Beltis. gave the name of Bel or Baal to their chief god. the consort of Bel. from whom Assyria is named. And . the other female. 450) the great temple of Belus at Babylon. written in the Baby" the favour lonian and Arcadian languages. is the last city. and science. xv." gods " Asherah " identical with Assur." city beloved In another inscription he says of the king of Egypt " the terror of Ashur and Ishtar overcame him and he fled. and the Vulgate by by "Astaroth. and their have been by great good fortune laid open to us. and is identical with Ishtar. In the cuneiform inscriptions of Sennacherib. " chambers of imagery. Ishah = woman). Doubtless." in Judges iii. astronomy." annals: "The great Assur and Ishtar." in 2 Chron. we read "Nineveh the : the delight of Ishtar. " Astarteand Beltis." : Assurbanipal thus commences his am I. and was Now. We can now look upon the very symbols themselves.C. Ashteroth. name with the feminine termination (as Ish = man." of the Assyrian kings. or Asher. 7. the great king of Assyria. from all other nations derived their religion. perhaps the most remarkable in exist- which were so used ence. therefore. that the palaces nightly visited by the god. a king rules by of Bel. but there was a golden couch. and its seven stages dedicated to the sun. The Septuagint has rendered "Asherah " Astarte." and by Ishtar. wife of Bel. moon. the royal offspring warrior." Again." " " Assur and Beltis. so we have. 16." Another name for Baal is Assur. then.122 symbols used in the worship of Baal. we might expect to discover the long-lost symbolism of Baal-worship. and Ashur. Nineveh is called " " the the city of Bel. It is well known whom that the Chaldeans. In the most ancient inscription yet deciphered. the delight of In a cuneiform inscription of Nebobelzitri. upon which a chosen female lay. and planets. Herodotus described (B. one male. on the top of which was the shrine. This contained no statue. that of Thus we see Baal and Bel were Assyria.

the phallic pillar putting forth branches like flames. the simple phallus. the Asherah. of all life. and the tree with seven phalloid branches. emblems. The (Asherim) seen as the mystic palm-tree. Plate xvii Fig. 65 . and as such was addressed " (Dan. He was the " source of life to the empire. and the western son of Venus. of which there are two remarkable specimens in the British Museum. For in ancient symbolism. like the gods.. See also the remarkable Syrian medals. 10). Or. Fig. always worn by the Assyrian guardian angels. his garments and crown are embroidered with that sacred emblem. least conventional of all. the source king. emblems of virile power. covered with bulls' horns. on which is represented Baal as the sun-god. Vive le Roi" The ensigns of royalty were also those of the creator-god. and surrounded by phalli. rian . He bears the strung-bow and arrows. a part of . v. borne afterwards by the sun-god Apollo. Fig. by the phallus. glans is covered with symbols. Fig. the tree of life. the boundaries were also marked by a phallic statue of Hermes. The body is mainly occupied with a full length portrait of the great For as the Assyrians represented the Deity. king. live for ever " Le Roi est mort . and once guarded the bounds of an estate. An erect serpent occupies the The other side. and intense emblems of the male potency. Plate xvii. the god of fertility. Each of these is about two and a half feet high. Among Greeks and Romans. and ends with forky tongue near the orifice. Figure 174. 4. sun emblems the glans-shaped caps. never dies. He. the incarnation of God on earth. holding the bow. A they are also covered with its conventional back view of oneis given. 2. 99 . These Assyrian emblems have doubtless often been honoured with rural sacrifice. over two of which are . Themselves the most expressive symbol of life. so the monarch was the god of this lower world. so common on AssyD'TB'K is and Babylonian seals.123 To commence with the simplest. On the summit is a triad of beneath are three altars. Accordingly.

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both male symbols. besides. and there two altars marked with the tortoise-emblem in Over both rises the erect serpent. and a initiated of the We cock. probably resembled these Assyrian phalli. whose protruded head and neck reminded the phallus . or the Asherim. Figure 175. and plumage The glans ruffled. emblem of sexual union. and upon one lies front. Above the third altar is a tortoise. pattern drawn from the tortoise scales. only running of the hen in after a other is copied. The miphletzeth which Queen Maachah placed in or near the Asherah. 175. the horse-shoe-like head-dress of Isis. .125 a symbol stands for the whole . a vase with a rod inserted. and the glans the phallus. as here. with wings amorous heat. Beneath are is At the top are the sun-symbols. and the altars are covered with a have. Fig. as before. the head of an arrow or a dart. the horns represent the bull.

with eagles' heads and wings. and though it is continually recurring in the sculptures from Nineveh. . worshipped by human who present to it =the scrotum (?). and the basket. the pine-cone. In Fig. intense emblems of the male creator. a much more complex symbol than any other which we have named. Fig. figures. 176 we see it Figure 176. it And now we come and difficult has not yet been fully explained. This object has long puzzled antiquarians.126 to the Asherah. = the testis. 177 it is adored by the king and his son or successor. In Figure 177.

then. t We infer from Numbers } xxv. '?03 doors of the womb. Qubbah is translated by the LXX. perhaps as ancient. whence the Spanish Al-cova. would be Q. the Alcove was as though a place of entrance new life issues to the world.symbol. 10. and our Alcove. xxv. Lex. A. In the earlier hieroglyph it must have been thus VThe Egyptian hieroglyph for ten is n Compare the Greek AeVa and Latin Decem. like the Roman who . = an ox. the goddess is here symbolised as an In the Phoanician alphabet. the very form of the Asherah. like the Arabic El. is Q. kaminos. as nf\ on the Moabite stone. even on the Moahite stone. but it meant also the female parts.? 13D *6 *3 because it shut not up the pudendi. " according to Fiirst." In the Latin also. this word stands for the labia 1 'n ?. addressed to the goddess Artemisias IIpo0vpai'<x. Kubba. written thus. an arch. something hollow and arched. well-known symbol of it a and good fortune. or women devoted to the god.* In the plural. the fist with the " the phallic hand. is also called n3 P. Aleph. itself a symbol of and emergence.127 The kings present towards with their attendant genii. 6-8. is. presided over childbirths. the one word being derived from the other. and from it was derived fornicatio. 8). 92 (7). or Ashtaroth. the " female Baal. f The first of the Orphic Hymns is (Prothuraia) or the Door-keeper. " the door whence life issues life As such to the world. Heb. or we have evidently the Asherah. the Kadeshoth. the life-producer. and And when the male * The first letter. woman. Qubbah means." Job iii. an arched tent.. and others. Num. which. whence Thus. the word fornix. daleth. then. "an oven or arched furnace" (Liddell and See Herodotus Scott) . has the shape of a tent-door. according to Onkelos. Aquila. another form. v. and has become the modern A. and also in the Greek AeAra But letter. when placed in its proper position. forefinger extended. Diana Lucina. xapvoj. the woman's vulva. called The part also through which Phinehas drove a qubbah. = a door. the fourth arched door-way. his spear (see qobbali. a vault. <." Here. offered themselves to his wor- shippers each in a peculiar bower or small arched tent. meant a brothel. n ?i?.. that in the rites of Baal-peor.

thy " shall flourish like the palm-tree (Ps. xv. the palm-tree. the living embodiment of the goddess. vii. In Vespasian's famous coin. " doubtless an Asherim. " " Idumeae palmee of Virgil. curved." a modified palm-tree. 18). even in the ornament on the king's robe. of equal thickness throughout. the the sun. crowned at the top with a cluster of long. as we shall now show. Christ. Judaea The Palmyra. 19." represented as a female sitting under a palm-tree. the Hebrew Tamar " Jtulaa (1 Kings capta. 174. 3) is derived from <$ov. fruitful and ever green. phallus. " not " They (Jer." says Fiirst. Palm-Sunday. it is probable. 1*?$. 3-5). The central object in the Assyrian " grove " is a male date-palm. was called in the ix. is tree branchless stem. All these characteristics are readily recognised in the highly conventional forms of the religious emblem. the phoenix Tamar. but speak is evidently describing the The prophet of an Asherah. from the worship of Baal there "under the form of a The real form was priapus-column. feather-like branches. life. phoinix. designated so. the analogy to the Asherah became complete. and by its singularly wrinkled bark.. which are sometimes used as emblems. There was a Canaanite city called Baal-Tamar. 12). which was well known as an emblem of Baal. The word Phoenicia (Acts xi. city of the sun.128 Baal entered to the worshipper of kadeshah. xcii. is still Even within the present century. " " The righteous clusters breasts to (Cant. and victory. tree. straight. Lex. This remarkable tree. fig. was formerly abundant in Palestine and the neighbouring regions. Heb. . making are upright as the palm-tree. being always distinguished " Thy stature is like to a palmby the clusters of date fruit. as we have Palm-branches have been used in all ages already shown. 7). (o Qoivit.) in Greek. the feast of palms. can at once be identified by its tall. and life. as the country of palms like the . = Baal. x. in Phoenician and Hebrew. The date-palm is dioecious. the female trees. m. as They were strewn peace. on this festival. in emblems of before kept.

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PLATE XVII. .

the Tyrian (1 Kings We read " he carved upon them carvings of vii. sacred to Osiris.. = It stands Although to our modern ideas the mystical tree. was sculptured on the great doors of Solomon's temple." The " pine " the the women been blest having priest. carefully preby served it during the following year as an amulet. alway s (like the golden candlestick. older than the Exodus. (Dulaure. Chemosh. In strength. whilst the " the water of life. Fig. is represented by a date-palm on some of the earliest Christian mosaics at Rome. and spread gold " (1 Kings vi. Jachin and Boaz. was also the name of that mythical Egyptian bird. symbol of life and immortality. by Hiram. undisguisedly. upon the cherubims and palm-trees He also erected two phallic Solomon fell to pillars in front of the Temple. Hist. and a symbol of the resurrection." whence bread. 13-21). 32-35). Berlin. the festival was called " La Fete des Pinnes.) Again. Q i . Something very like the Assy- life emblem. and Milcom. with seven branches The Assyrian as on the shekel represented Plate xvii. yet no sooner did the Jews possess a national coinage under the Maccabees than the palm-tree reappears. now preserved in the museum at Two arms issue from the top of the tree . which they called. No wonder worship Astarte." is figured as a tree of life on an Egyptian sepulchral tablet. 4. rian Asherah. and the tufts of foliage tree (symbolising the entire female tree) which deck the margins of the mystic have also apt emblems of fertility This may remind us of the invariably seven branches. des differens Cultes. the Greek name for the palm-tree. phoenix.). With some early The date-palm Christian writers. seems out of place in Judaism.129 many towns of France. Ex. or sacred cherubims and palm-trees and open flowers. xxv. Christ was "the Phoenix. one of which presents a tray of dates to the deceased." The tree of other gives him water. has always the same number. women and children carried in promade of cession at the end of their palm-branches a phallus " la pine.

First. 1 . we explain the greatest symbol in Eastern it is the "Tree of Life in the midst of the Garden. and to the caduceus of Greece and Rome. When Mary. 109). To exhibit all the strange developments and modifications which this idea has assumed in the religious symbolism of Eastern and Western nations would require a large volume. Rev.130 " in seven visible spheres that move around our earth mystic dance." and of Balak's offering. being precisely analogous in meaning to the famous crux ansata (Fig. used in the Q was represented the Second. to represent the inviolable purity and eternal perfection which were associated with the idea of door is also divinity. the great emblem of Siva. As represented on the Assyrian sculptures. Inman belongs the distinguished merit of having first broken ground In his Ancient Faiths." worship. This goddess herself. 1. in the right direction. ii. to the lingam or lingyoni of India (Fig. within the worship of Isis. a Thus. like the Egyptian sistrum carried by the priestesses of Isis. But the subject is so rich in varied interest that we cannot conclude without taking a glance at it. upon seven altars. as " in the Indian yoni." the dogmas which in Christendom of propounded her immaculate conception and perpetual ginity followed as vir- matter of course. barred. . the result of a gradual refinement upon some rude primitive type. xxiii. then." and the Egyptian sistrum. really much more complex. which has remained so long a mystery. To Dr. is reproduced with a contraction towards the base. the simple Q. seven bulls and seven rams (Num. 1) The mystic barred. as revealed within her own symbol.worship . it is always Probably this stereotyped form was substantially the same." We and pointed out have seen that it its is analogy to the barred sistrum. the central mystery of Egyptian worship . 170). 1868. took the place " the great goddess. vol. perhaps as coarse as that seen by Captain Burton in the African idol-temple. the mother of Jesus. " Asherah " with the female " door he identified the Assyrian of life.

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PLATE XVIII. nmmra btatemartt mrgt0 pfaltmum .

stands hand a (Plate xvii. In some Hindoo pictures. Fig. xii. the portico of her temple. as has already been explained. holding in one crozier. and his son the Emperor Maximilian. holds in her right hand the cross.. as Queen of Heaven. the goddess evidently ancient Astarte. an emblem of virginity.131 Plate is illustrated in xvii." is seated with the God-child shape of the Assyrian. Thirdly. is pictured beneath the mystic doorway. very like the Assyrian scenes. that most and thus completes the symbol. spouse of God. " " clothed with the sun.. 8. standing within the Q. the child is naked. from a bronze coin of Damascus. copied from the woodcut title to the arms. but much more commonly. printed at Czenna. 7.) Under Christianity. the goddess. emblem of the male and of life. Blessed Virgin. xvii. the mystic Argha or Ark. Wherein the Word Divine was made incarnate. " " Among the many titles given to the Virgin in Mediaeval times. " Here is the Rose. 1492. she is the mother and yet the Psalter of the Prussia. with her cornucopia. who. exactly the . with (the God as) a male child in her See Plate xviii. we find Santa Maria della Rosa. in old Like Isis. composed of fruits highly significant of sex. the goddess holds in her hands emblems of the male potency in creation... having the In Plate xviii. the moon-goddess. On either side is a king. 1). that flower being consecrated to her. the Virgin goddess in a bower. Hence it is often represented in Dante writes :her hand. where Demeter or Ceres is thus depicted. at their under her feet is The alcove is of roses. stands on the crescent moon. and having the moon The upper half of the picture (Kev. In the beautiful Greek coin of Sidon next figured. the Virgin Mary. the Queen of Heaven on a ship. Fig. in the other the cross. Frederick III. As in the coin figured Plate Fig. " Romaunt de la Rose " turns upon The famous Mediaeval devotions.. 5. this.

and in Fig.132 member erect. 6. wheat. It played an important part in sun- The emperor Heliogabalus (who.) right forefinger erected. 362. famous even in the days of Homer. and also making the phallic hand. 177. inserted meaning within the crescent moon. as his name worship. Fig. In the Fig. and nvpof puros. He himself drove . the cone. 14. Placed on a stem taken for the whole frequently represented as worshipped on Assyrian bas_reliefs. The goddess united both sexes in her own person. of blood in the rite of circumcision. wheat and honey were used in the Bacchic rites. within the innermost sanccastrated priests. Fig. Plate xvii. the sun. tum of the temple. with the (Plate xiv. pur. and life as such it formed a fitting monument for it is . Our word pyramid is from the Greek irupotpis. had been a priest of Baal. it was also the part dedicated to God by effusion. Let us next examine how the cone came to be used emblem. If we turn to Figs.. it " " was will be seen that the honoured as as a masculine glans particularly the head of the phallus. in Syria. the sun-god. the Egyptian kings. See Fig. the cone or and thus a part being pyramid was used as a conventional symbol of the male creator. On this remarkable medal of Cyprus of Venus is a representation of the temple Paphos. 3..) have been imported into Cyprus from the East. 177. and was served by We see here. puramis. because pyramid-shaped cakes of . Thip " acorn " is conical or dome-shaped. we see the fir-tree or pine take the place of the palm-tree. This is a very numerous class. at The worship of that divinity is said to (Odyss. and the is further pointed by the sun-emblem above. It was also a symbol of fire. Plate xvii.) established the Syrian worship at Rome. viii. a cone as emblem of the male . 174 and 175. itself derived from xup. fire. implies.. In other conventional forms we have male symbols only within the female Q.

the It belongs to Siva. . flame. 178. at Emesa. in Indian mythology. . = plays fire. amidst general brated fane rejoicing. By far their most important application is when used as nuptial halls. the conjunction of Jupiter and Venus was considered the most fortunate of all such as kings and princes should be born under. + water = this globe. wisdom was that perfect and also the doctrine Fig. united by the it . crescent moon with heaven. said to have fallen from heaven .133 the golden chariot of the sun. = life. or Astarte. like the lingam it typified the divine source of life. through the streets of Rome to a splendid new temple on the Palatine mount. whose emblem. The creator-god. goddess. important part. Fergusson tells us that "the most extraordinary buildings connected with Hindu temples are the vast pillared colonnades or choultries. drawn by six white horses. was brought by his orders from a celeat Carthage to Rome. the god being represented by a conical black stone. in which the mystic union of a male and female divinity is celebrated once a year. and there solemnly married with licentious rites to the sun-god. mounts upwards. Earth sented. very = an the common China and Thibet.* A curious parallel to these mystic nuptials of the Assyrian god and goddess may be found in some of the religious ceremonies of the modern Hindoos. symbol. in At a subsequent period. and which the emperor removed from a temple of the sun." Again. the universe was thus repreNotice the upward gradation. is the author and representative of all life upon he is the connecting link. The arrow- or spear-head inserted within the crescent is an emblem of Siva . on ancient Hindoo = one complex monuments in pyramid the sun. By phallus. to be found only in the combination * In Astrology. an image of the moonSyria.

from Fig. In all these.. intrusion of newer faith is also to be recognised. the Fig< m .134 male and female principles in nature. or stone conical pillar. culled from mediaeval heraldry. as the feet of are sculptured before the throne. as if from the trisul or trident. the symbols in Fig. on the seat of which are In the other placed the two emblems of earth and water. to understand the remarkable sculptures of the second or third century. taking the the mystic palm- "" J> tree. It decorates the roofs of the Buddhist monasteries in Thibet. the An it above. Figs. rising above the throne. 179. 178 were Buddha They represented the elements to which the soul ought to be successively united in passing through the also employed. In Fig. attend floating over the heads of the worshippers. three symbols of life in one. was derived from older faiths. both of which became of the emblems of Buddha. It rises from a throne. on the front of which is sculptured the sacred tree. the sacred tree takes the place of the linga. from the Amravati Tope. in both of which the Asherah. and like the sacred lotus flower and the linga. the "grove" of Baal-worship. Other This will enable us interpretations may suggest themselves. In the mysteries of Mithra. with branches like flames . will be at once recognised . Plate xix. the arrow and the cross. male emblems of Siva. Winged figures. Garudas. worshipping a linga. symbols of the male place of creator. We will add but two more emblems. new birth. figure. the sexes being separated. 179 and 180. 2 we see a congregation of males and females. which present so many points in common with the religious symbols of the Chaldeans.

.PLATE XIX.

.

viz.135 rudest to the most complex. a feeling after God.. we are thus able to trace a common idea. as the Life and Light of the Universe. common hope in . and an attempt to express a visible forms.

.

Alexander false prophet. Amravati tope. 25. 7. Alcove. Asher. Altar. the four. 4. 11. Animals Athor. 49. 71. 92. Abricot fendu. 63.137 INDEX. xv. 5. 4. and 6. 53. Aureole. Atheists. 55. saint. 109. 63. fire. 99. 119 sq. Abraham. 129. xvii. Apuleius. Allah. Anu and Hea. 127. Architecture. 92. 11. ApoUyon. 5. Arrectation. Albe. 111. . 10. Apollo. Baal. 66. 112. 10.. 11. 70. Ancient faiths and names. Athanasius. Anatolia. Angels. xiii. xxxii. Arddha-nari. 89. Higgins'. 25. Anu and Hea. 19. 110. 73. Antelope. 69. Arita cup. 70. 84. 114. punished. Adam and Arbor vita. 130. 3. Aleph. 35. 4. 34. 10. Androgyne. Amphibolus. 66. 41. Agathodaemon. Jf"^ xxviii... Aphrodite. 12. Augurs. 36. 84. Arrow. 21.. 43. Assyrian. 113. 127. xxviii. 8. 16. 112. 117. 4. 83. 118.. 133. 14. 61. Baal-Peor. 8. Arabian paradise. 19. Asherah. 107. Ahriman. Adonis. 104. Aztec ruins. 122. 50. 25.. the golden. Eve. 9. xxii. xi. Art Christian. 31. 75. 119 sq. how Adultery. 112. Baalim. 122. Al. 132. 119. 9. prophet of. 89. 73. 118. -Ark. 55. Anchor. 4. 13. 24. Arab swearing. 70. 116. Anacalypsis. Ass. Baal-Tamar. a symbol. 51. Abuse does not c-hange facts. 119. Apple. Aerolite. 9. live peaceably. 3. Aslitaroth.. ix. Alexandrian library. Argha. Avatars. 66. 118. Appendix. 43.^-Arabs and yoni. 86. 120. xiv. 54. 133. Assur. 130. 9. 11. 50. a cloak. 93. 42. 34. 49. Alcmena. Arba. 119. 11. 68. 84. Astarte. Arnobius. African and fetish. 128. Aryans. 62. x. Arcana. 6. Assurbanipal. xvii. Artemis. Acorn. 74. t 126.

Cabiri. Cat. or ark. 3. 70. Baby. xii. Basket. Bethshemesh. 129. xi. Bag. 29. Barred symbols. 63. golden. bells. Brahma. xxvii. 67. 25. Buddha and 53. 73. Bishop's Crook. 108. Baubo and Breath. Cabrera. 52. xx. 29. 83. 4. Branch. 24. 13C 129. 53. Bowls. Bow. 114. xiv. Botta. Boundary stones. 118. 116. Box. Bequille. Breasts. xiii. 45. 122. Burton on Dahomey. 6. xiii. 6. 100. 64. Bohen. blessing. 118. 6. 82. xiii. Bene nasatus. 117. 28. 113. 123. Bhaga. Boaz and Jachin. Miss. Faber's. 63. 43. Barleycorn. 16.138 INDEX. 48. 18. Hindoo god. 60. xvii. 51. 118. 9. a Caaba. " Bigotry. 130. Cakes. 129. 3. grove. 80. Ceres. xxiii. CadiSre. 116. 10. Barberini palace. Carthage. Caduceus. the Great. Dr. . Bacchus. Cairo. 52. xxix. 94. a brave. British Beads. 76. called sistra. 8. xiv. ix. Bathsheba and Lucretia. 24. Bifrons. 122. Balfour. Berlin 123. 49. famine in. Brazen serpent. 80. ancient.. Celestial "Virgin. Bravery routs imposture. 118. Bouche festivities of. 96. and Sistrum. Bells. 81. 86. Belus' temple. Cave near Venice. divinities. 55. where from. Balaam. Museum. Brothels. Buddhists and Jeynes. 113. xii. See Sis- trum. la. 79. 126. two. 5. Bishop. round. 21. Calf. 109. . cross. Bhavani. 73. 88. 12. 75. Bethel. xiv. 20. 92. 130. 81. 62. Carrot. 95. xxxiv. 82. 66. 4. 35. 115. golden. Bryant. Bonomi. 30.. 4. 12. la. 116. 74. Beroalde de VerviUe. 49. 78. inferieure. 57. Balak. 20. Bull. 30. BEING. sacred. Babylonia. Bel. Bell Museum. Blessing. Buddhist Beltis. 85. Babylons. holy. xxxiii. 49. 74. 3. 50. Bambino. Bugbears. 7Brahmin. 84. Berne Cathedral.. xi. Black Jesus. Celibacy of priests. Bengal and Palestine. Boy. 67. viii. 121. Betal. 22. 34. and microscope. 34. 9. Bat. Bonnes fortunes. 25. 43. heaven. multiple. 52. 7. Candlestick.

xxxiv. dances obscenely. and Venus. . Commandment. 110. 18. xiii. Cock. . Dabistan."35. Cyprus. and Tarquin. 99. Cross. 2. 1. 6. Central America. 19. xi. Circles. x. 84.. Corinth. 5. 21. 102. Coronation orb. Christians. 14. 128. xiii. Xolpos choiros. sexual ornaments Cupid. their Virgin and Child. wants a scavenger. Circumcision. 6.. 38. 101. 103. 36. Churches. Chaldeans. Chariot of sun. 53. 18. Clitoris. 36. Czenna. 1.. 69. Collation of facts. 34. 26.. Comparisons. 128. Cosmo. Comana. 7. episcopal. Cohen. viii. Crescent. Curse on a nation. Choultries. Ceres. 181. Classification of symbols. 46. Cypris. 96. Children and secrets. 26. saint. 34. ix. Dancing before a box. le. 57. 64. 131. 104. Comb. ix. 37. Coins. 15. Christendom. Culte de Venus. 88. 118. 13. 9. 27. 16. xvii. xxxiii. 133. le Verger de. in. 55. 45. and heathenism. ix. Club on coin. 11. xxxiii. 85. 74. Coleman's Mythology. . Cherubim. Damian. 28. xv. Coniculstone. 84. 58 129. 125. Creator. David and ark. xxxii. 57. 67. 26. xxvi. 53. 43. xvi. 41. 18. Community 25. Francis. Child and Virgin. 55. 27. 83. 68. 119. Christianity. 86. Cobden. xxxiv. 99. and rosary. Chrishna. Cupola. Date palm. 42. xix. 114 Cibotus. 75. Cup and Wafer. 132. 57. 130. 6. Chasuble. Dahomey. of St. 69. 6. 45. Dard. Conjunction of sun and moon. Danes. 35.139 INDEX. 132. a fruit. 28. 6. xxxii. 70. of ideas. 71. 61. 112. 133. xx. Conventional emblems. 53. 102. 127. 64. on. Consecrated ones. 26. xiv. the. 64. 131. 4. 67. Q.. Clusters. 8. Creation. Cone and Venus. 69.. xxiii. 74. Crozier. 132.. xx. Cord 129. 36. xiv. xxvii. 2. vii. 96. 95. and Bacchus. 2. Chemosh. 85. a saint. 44. 66.. xxviii. Crook of bishop. 100 see Kreis. second. xx. Combined symbols. 16. Chinese and eclipse. 11. 11. 129. x. 122. 35. 64. Ham. 62. 5. Cybele. x. xxxi. Citron. containing Baal. 75. Crux ansata. Dagon. xxxiv. 114. and Baubo. 56. Cognomens. 15.

40. 118. 34. Epigrams of Martial. 113. revels. 4. Elixir of viii. 43. Death and feet marks. 7. 96. xi. 113. Facts. xxv. Fables. a Fetish. 93. Diet. 127. Doljang and Francis of Assisi. 11-13. 30.. 112. 28. Door and yoni. Egg. 57. 3. 66. Dhurga. Dubois. Devil. intoxicating. Dulaure. 79. 36. 114. 109. xix. 2. Egypt. Exoteric. Ephod. xxiv.. xxxi. 116. 23. of Mary. ritual of the dead Desire. 8. Devi. Diana of Ephesians. 4. Erection of serpents. 21. 83. Eros. 85. and womb. Etruscans. 114. Elohim. xv. 121. 5. Faith. Dualism in nature. Esoteric. 14. 10. xxviii. xii. Deuteronomy. xiv.. Eclipse. Double Esdras. Enjoyment. 111. Equinox. Early races of Scotland. 8. 5.. fish. xxxi. face. divine. of the year. 18. 58. 66. Dress. 66. xx. xiv. in Bengal. triangle. Fascinum. D'Harcanville. Delphi. ark in. 87. Explanations. 2. xvix. Dekkan. xii. Roman. 94. 117. Ecclesiastical Delta. xiii. 27. spotted. trinity. 79. 11. the. mother. Dove. xxix. 7. emblems. not necessary. 87. 112. 58. 111. xxiv. Diodorus. 62. Drunkenness in England. deities. xxv. xi. Earth and sun. 41. 127. how selected. 94. East. x. 129. 118. 118. Discs. 100. Dolphin. Drink. Euphemisms. 55. Faber's Cabiri. 110. 11. Deities. the. Demon and Vampire. 49. 103. 9. 62. 121. entente. xii. Eve. 60. . 53. English writers. in. Dionysus. Egyptian crosses. why xi. Feasts and fasts. Denderah. 4. xxvii. xvii. 64. El. Esculapius. Ezekiel and Jerusalem. 11. 10. Digger and trench. 48. Fabretti. 111. xix. Error pleasauter than truth. 108. collation of. xi. Eyes. 11. Emblems and language.140 INDEX. xvi. Egba temples. monuments in.. 8. ix. Devices symboli. 58. a. Edinburgh Review. xxiv. xxiii. life. 62. sacred. vii. Du Famine Chaillu. 131. Dirty statue cleaned. viii. 116. Dragon.. Divine revelation. Demeter. xvi.

99. 1-4. 122. 67. of. 18. love. xxiii. 10. 118 sq. Flower. of Buddah. Graven image. la. xxviii. ix. 133. 112. 127. Heliogabalus. Harpocrates. 115. what. Golden fleece. Five. 127. 73. xxxi. xx. cord of. . vii. 43. xxviii Free love. Foundation of religion. Ferguson. 46. Fleur de Ham. fire. 89. 22. Friday and Higgins' Anacalypsis.. xxvii. Holy breath. 68. Goddesses. Fire and altar. Hea. 25. 43. xxvii. Fish. 7. 115. Feuille. uncircumcised. 93. 24. 43. Gnostics. 68. 67. 50. de sage. 112. 53. Gods. la. 111. xvii. France and yoni.. 70. 3. Gaulish figures. of. 33. xix. 73. xxiii. 58. 90. xxxi. 85. Foutin. soles of.. Glans penis. 92. Father. Fete des Pinnes. Hatred. 74. 98. Greeks and Venus. 50. 103. Fleece. symbols. 66. ix.. 112. 112. a French saint. Four. xxi. Fox Talbot. 34. xv. 126. xv.141 INDEX. of Thor. 79. Heathendom. in Christianity. xxvi. xv. the. 61.. 100. Female and fish. 57. Hades. Forefinger and thumb. 69-70. xxviii. the. Heavenly peace maker. 79. Grove. 122. 65. 54. 68. 56. 44. xvii. vii. weak. Hebrews. 134. 47. GREAT BEING. Fetish. Goats and sheep.. 10. Hole and pillar. Hercules and Solomon... 4. the. 40. 129. Hammer 8. Ginsburg. 53. and Venus. lys. xxiii. xxxi. Hand. Gerard. Hiram. fish. x. Fente. Hare. 64. Fornix. Giants and shams. 91. 121. the ark in.. 117. See ABBA. 8. 6. 22. St. 132.. Ge. theological. 63. 116.. Flagellum. 34... Garudas. Foul anchor. 76. hair of. Ganges. and 3. and male. Goat. Foreskins and Philistines. names black. xiv. for Bel. 114. Greece. Feet and death. Heathenism. 100. Freethinkers. Hindostan. 49. 14. 1-4. xiii. Francis. the. Fornication. 134. 40. 9. 129. Finger in worship. the. 1. 70. Guardian angels. god of. Herodotus. 84. xv.. water Giant. 81. Hair of feet. Hindoos. 2. 84. 41. 37. 32. 4. Anu and Asher. 61. Gardens. xvi. 127. 92. Flood. Hermes. sacred. Flagellation. 99. 84.

Lanugo. proper. 24. 60. 64. 129. Letters and Symbols. 28. 4. xxiv. Inman. 101. xi. 81. ix. Lampsacus and xvi. 1. 98. Improprieties made India. Indranee.. 10.142 INDEX. Jacob and xxxiii. 73. xiii. 49.. 58. 2. 7. Lily. 112. King. Light of Tabor. kteis. Labice pudendi. 85. Inquiry forbidden by priests. Linga. Ipsambul. xxii. 97. 23. 73. xxv. 37. in worship. 4. Impaled vampires. 128. Laws made and broken. 46. of. Isis. 54. 3. Indra. 58. xxi. Image. 118. 3. Houris. Knight. 134. 123. Liber and Prosumnus. Payne. R. swears by thigh.. xxviii. 125. 133. ideas of. Images. xx. 62. Judaism. Kreis. 130. 55. 70. Jesus.. Layard. 117. 109. 66. 10. 9. 73. 13. x. 117. 10... 52. 84. Hymen. 22. Instrumens. xxix.. 81. 56. 110. xxviii. i###BOT_TEXT###amp;vs. 112. Isernia. 128. vii. 23. pillar. xiii. sin. Horseshoe. xxi. 73. " Gnostics. 53. xii.. 25.. Kildare. 2. Legba. 34. 22. xxxii. Ireland and Spain. 73. 74. 66. and life. 109. Dr. Hyde. Leslie's Scotland. xxii. 85. Interpretation. Leprosy and ix. xiii. les." xxvii. 5. 51." 51.. viii. 96. 118. Jupiter. Kistvaens. Homage Horns and Isis. 25. viii. a God.. 94. Kabbalah. graven. make impropriety to proper. Juvenal. Kakodaemon. 113. St. Issachar. 1. Lamps Language and emblems. 5. 22. 78. 65. vii. 74. 118. 88. Juno. Lebanon. 68. Key.. 52. 91. in. dwellings. 25. 2.. Isaiah on. xxi. Lake Immortality. See Chrishna.. 128. xxxiii. 84. 4. 116. Jachin and Boaz. lingams mythology Lajard. xiii. Ishtar. 28.. ichthus. 108 sq. Isaiah on images. 114. 63. Krishna. Jew's harp. 70. Idumece palmce. Life. 73. Jerusalem. 23. 23. Lais and fish. ( . Ka/uuvos. " Jehovah. 68. Leah. Hosea. of. Holy XX 1 V Judaa to yoni. Foutin. name 127. 81. Lakshmi. 34. Hyslop 61. Kadesh. Virgin. 127. 56. 114. How Ivy leaves. 116. and yoni. Jews. 24. Invention of religion. 12. capta. II. 134 Likeness not to be made. 112. 109. King's Kneeling in modern Rome. xxv. 33.

6.. Moon and Isis. Maffei. Lustration for Linga. Lozenge and yoni.. Names Nana. 62. 74. 94. 84.. Maia. 88. Longinus. 116. Ocello. 5. Harteau. 121. 64. Mitre. ix. 10.. 71. of sexual parts. xxxiv. what. 81. 129. 19. 105. Mexico. Lucretius. Maypole. 66. Lucretia and Bathsheba. 9. 22. Multimammia. xi. Mylitta. 121. 78. xxii. 100. 30. Loins. leaf. 116. Martial's epigrams. Luck and Misunderstanding. 60. 11. 33. 88. 12. xii. Mahometans. 63. Milcom. animals. Christian. 21. 129. Myth and meaning. Mutilation. Lion Mithraic. 53. 65. sect of. Maccabees. 56. 79. Nabhi. 41. xvii. Myrtle Mandrakes. xxviii. and months. deities.. 25. 26. Mater Creatoris. Lucina. xxvii. 49. 104. 70. Masonic appropriations. 95. 19. in religion. and sun.. 77. 85. xx. 113. Male and female. 76. 12. Malignancy. Marriage of 3. 57. 25. 104. 86. 114. 74. Maharajahs. Mama pillar stones. Ling Yoni. 89. 33. 4. 3. Marttand. symbols. 76. 56. 55. 85. 57. 51. 86. xiv. yoni. Virgin and Child in. 28. 10. Mahadeva. Mithraic lion. Moore on 4.. 52. 75. 76. 57. Venus. 91. a spear. 18. 71. Mythology. Minarets and spires. 94. 76. 52. 16. 8. 29. Miss Cadiere. xxii. xix. xi. 72. Lioness. 116. Maacha. Mahomet. Mumbo Jumbo. 18. of UVYOS. 34. 110.143 INDEX. 95. Malta cakes. 69. 70. Maidens. 42. 2-19. Men and Loretto Virgin. 31. 74. 131. 16. Mecca. Mysteries. 7. muchos. . 7. Microscope and Brahmin. Moor's 34. xii. 62. Lucian's dea Syria. God. 18. 65. Coleman's. 40. xxvi. 1. Mary. 121. ix. Mantras. 95. 115. Ministers of God. St. 68. 90. 18. 68. 68. female. le. Mudras. xv. Mirror. 125. Lotus. Lycian coins. 76. 64. . Scotch. 25. 54. xvii. 64. Morocco Jews. 133. 28. Saint. 97. Naples museum. Mariette. Hindu Pantheon. Mosaics. 23. cross. 129. Monkey. 74. Modern nun. 84. 33. Lingam. 73. Mother xix. MontfauQon. Masons' marks. 21. sacred. Love and fire. 10.

fictitious. .144 Narratives. XT. INDEX.

69. 35. Eesurrection. supernatural. 110. . towers. . 117. Sciolism is intolerant. 26. 32. 66. 57. Serapis. 73. 52. 95. 130. Behoboam. sacred. 94. 78. xxxi. 107. Servatos. 90. Besearch in symbolism. priests of Isis. Bimmon. xvii. of the dead. <ra/3vTro? sabuttos. 5. xxv. Catholic priests. xxiv. Bain. 13. 10. 43. Sennacherib. Sectarians. Sensuality. Savages and religion. 7. xviii. 82. xv. Sacrifice to Priapus. Sellon. 119. Bitual and symbolism. 122. Sceptics. . xi. Bod. 10. Shelah na gig. of heaven. xxi. 50. Bomance of Bose. Belies and ark. xiv. Sami. Pyramid. sacred. Quartette. Bibbons and Thyrsus. 90. xxii. 16. xxviii. Queen St. 116. 123. early. 45. 82. xvi. Sheep and goats. Sakya muni. 76. Sffihrimnir.. Saxons. Beligion. Schliemann. Beptile. 66. Bosary. Secrets Beview. Bishi. 107. vii. 4. Ea. xiii. 8.. xiv. Serpents in coitu. George. 43. la. 112. 13. 111. 4. Septuagint. Sabeanism. Bose. Scrotum. 84. xix.. for the wise. Boman Serpent. mistaken. 25. 69. Bawlinson's Monarchies. Sacred fire. 7. Qubbah. xi. 66. xvii.. 131. 12. 34. viii. and children. xxxii. Sects. 109. virtue of. Scourge. 100. Sharpe. Dr. Seal. Eomans. 102. Quince. Shields. xiv.. 61. 131. unnecessary to man. Eitualists xvi. 44. Croix. 57. xiii. Assyrian. 11.. xxi. Queue. 90. Bam. 131. xxv.145 INDEX. 110. Sex in Bound Sexual Christianity. 50. 50. 121. Edinburgh. 127. 14. 18. Sanctified sins. Besemblance. prostitution. Jewish. Selenitis. 49. Irish. 133... shields. Beticence of English authors. 50. x. 33. 118. 60. xvii. Scythian burials. ancient. xxv. Mr. Second commandment. Scavenger wanted. Bhjea. rival. xii. 34. xx. xvii. 56. Scandinavian figures. Saintly impropriety. Sakti. conservative. 117. 83. Seven. 52.. religion. . 93 sodhana. St. and second command- ment. symbols in.-xxii Shams. xx. Sectarial symbols. the. Mr. 113. 52. 25. 109.

49. xix. 76. xxviii. xxxiv. Smith. Thespius. . 52. 4. Thyrsus. xxvi. 23. Sins. 51. Siva. 20. Tod's Eajpootanah. xiii. Thor's hammer.. vii. Stone circles. xvi. 107. how punished. 99. 64. stump. 134. Triad or Trinity. 55. 121. xiv. Sin. 57. 81. Statuette of Venus. xx. 60. 7. Simpson.INDEX. 116. when symbolic. 38. 10. 111. Stories. 9. 19. T. THE. 112. sun.. Talbot. xxv. 115. 99. 123. Spartans and Christians. Spain. Spires and minarets. Stigmata. Spanish order of Golden Fleece. of 70. 94. 61. 101. 3. la. 4. 75.. 146 Silence of English authors. of.. xix. Three heads. 59. 101. a dirty. xxiii. Snails. Tamar. xxiii.. 10. 100. 99. 130. Spots. Summary.. 97. Tabor. Meadows. 66. 10. Templar's shield. 53. 8. Timon. Triangles. Trefoil ornament. door and yoni. xv. 63. 51.. Temple. vii. secrets. xvi. 87. Sun. Tiara. 16. meaning Spectacle ornament. 5. 118. Sistra. 32. Taylor. Symbolism. Tree and serpent. 3. xxxii. Solomon. light Snakes. of. 129. Mr. Thalaba. Surgeons and Surplice. Terre. 116. thanatoid. 55.. Solomon. Tombs in the Dekkan.. 40. cleaned. 9. 50. 36. xxviii. 76. curious church in. 112 Socrates' Ecclesiastical History. Fox. Tortoise. 9. xx. 11. 1-19. 133. of life. Things. Terra. 19.. 86. 111. Col. 39. 100.. Snood. 75. 74. Swearing by sexual organ. 114. Trench and digger. 19. and 0. Thigh. 39. xix. Switzerland. le. xiv. Supernatural religion SUPBEMB. 109 sq. Tonsure and Nimbus. 58. 45. 115. 92. 82. 96.. 55. Sodomites. xxiii. Thumb. Sistrum. Spear. 6. 61. xviii. 4. 44.. vii.. Summer. Syro Phoenicians. xxk. 96. Solar symbols. Spouse of God. 113. 19.. 79. 62. Statue. Tarquin and David. 130. 55. 60. papal. 128. Col. Towers. xviii. 66 Solstice. Symbols. Sri-chakra. 51. Spring. 1. Tammuz. 69. xxii. 64. xxvii. 35. Song 5. and Hercules. Theodosius. Spectres. xi. xxiii.-xxxiv. 16. of virginity. 22. 51. the Virgin. Strabo. 5. 130. Sinner. 111. two bodies. H. 19. 60. Token -jantra. when a saint. 108 sq. 98. xvii.

8. Vajarsvatta. black. PRINTER. 52. 94. 75. Vulgate. LORD STREET. 25. Water vii. 115. Tripliform arrow. Trident. 123. 111. MARPLES. Yorkshire.. naked on church doors. 6. 49.. 49. 112. viii. Yoni. 88. Wheel. 134. Veiled language... 60. 88. x. of feet. 4. 47. 78. 28. 1-28. Women in Hindostan and 55. 71. Unknown emblems. 111. in worship.-xvii. fish in. xv. 62. xiv. Unintelligible prayer. on Hindoo religion. Verger de Cypris. 114. 11-30. 55. 58. 77. Winter. Virga. 100. Venice. and Cybele. le. 68. xv. 2. Yazili Kaia. 114. 29. 1. 22. Vampires. ix. 8. 93. Valhalla. West. 34. Violets Virginity. 113. Wilson. on Irish churches. Vine leaves.. 119. 12. xxi. sculpture at. xx. .. Virgo intacta. 85. la. 128. Types. sun. 49. Venus. xxxii. 79. 62-73. 109. xxvi. 71. 131. 80. 8. of life.. Trisul. LIVERPOOL.. Worship 66. D. of images. x. 129. 85. 5. 111 sq. test of. 147 Vishnu. 7. 69. 61. 55. xxxi. 91. Turnip lantern.INDEX. Urim and Thummim. 96. xxii. 111. stone circles in. Verge. 81. 4. Truth. 73. 90. 91. 33. 104. xxiii. a Hindoo deity. Vitruvius. 59. 57. 93. xi. 49. x. xiv.. Wilderness. Troy. Vive le Eoi. Virgin. in symbolism. xxii. Turks. Wafer and cup. Vetal or Betal. Wicklow. 79. 19. 61. Vespasian. Whip 5. 81. Vesica piscis. 53. H. vii. 16. 11. H. Zipporah. Z ornament. linga. Womb and dolphin.. feasts in. xxxiii. 21.

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