Overview of Process Plant

Piping System Maintenance
and Repair

Participant’s Workbook

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Overview of Process Plant Piping System
Maintenance and Repair
Edited by:
Vincent A. Carucci
Carmagen Engineering, Inc.

Copyright © 1999 by

All Rights Reserved

…65 VII..……..………40 III..……. Inspection Frequency and Extent ……………………….. Alterations.………….3 Part 2: BACKGROUND MATERIAL…………………………………36 I.………. Suggested Reading …………………….……68 VIII...…. Evaluation and Analysis of Inspection Data ……. 37 II.………45 IV. and Rerating ………………………. Summary ……………………………………………..….69 . Inspection and Testing Practices ……………………….. Introduction ……………………………………………………..…….………….…55 VI.…..TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 1: PARTICIPANT NOTES……………………………………….. Inspection of Buried Piping …………………………..…49 V. Repairs..

Part 1: Participant Notes 3 .

and Rerating • Inspection of Buried Piping • Closure 2 Notes: 4 . Alterations.Overview of Process Plant Piping System Maintenance and Repair 1 Notes: Course Outline • Introduction • General • Inspection and Testing Practices • Inspection Frequency and Extent • Evaluation and Analysis of Inspection Data • Repairs.

hydrocarbons. similar flammable or toxic services 3 Notes: Scope of API 570 (Cont. steam-condensate. alteration. repair.Scope of API 570 • Inspection. BFW. rerating of inservice metallic piping systems • To be used by qualified organizations and individuals • Included fluid services: process fluids. steam.) • Excluded and optional piping systems – Hazardous services below threshold limits – Water. Category “D” services – Systems on movable structures governed by jurisdictions – Systems integral with mechanical devices – Internal piping – Plumbing and sewers – Size ≤ NPS 1/2 – Non-metallic or lined piping 4 Notes: 5 .

) • Rerate .Pipe section exposed to similar corrosivity. or both • Piping Circuit . with similar design conditions and material 6 Notes: 6 .Maximum permitted internal pressure for continuous operation at design temperature 5 Notes: Definitions (Cont.Physical change affecting pressure containing capability or flexibility • Repair .Change in design pressure. design temperature.Definitions • Alteration .Work to restore piping system to be suitable for design conditions • MAWP .

Types of Pipe Deterioration • Injection points • Deadlegs • CUI • Soil-to-air interfaces • Service-specific and localized corrosion • Erosion and corrosion/erosion • Environmental cracking • Corrosion under linings and deposits • Fatigue cracking • Creep cracking • Brittle fracture • Freeze damage 7 Notes: Typical Injection Point Circuit O ve rh ead L in e G re ate r of 3D or 1 2" * * In jectio n p oin t * * O ve r hea d Co nde ns e rs * D istilla tion T o we r In jectio n p oint pipin g cir cuit * * * = Typical T M L 8 Figure 1 Notes: 7 .

moisture ingress.Systems Susceptible to CUI • Areas exposed to: – – – – Mist overspray from cooling water towers Deluge systems Steam vents Process spills.) • Austenitic stainless steels operating in range 150-400°F • Vibrating systems with damaged insulation jacketing • Steam-traced systems with tracing leaks • Systems with deteriorated coatings and/or wrappings 10 Notes: 8 . acid vapors • CS systems operating in range 25-250°F • CS systems in intermittent service over 250°F • Deadlegs and attachments protruding from insulation 9 Notes: Systems Susceptible to CUI (Cont.

or missing caulking • Piping low points in systems that have insulation breach • Insulation plug locations • Insulation termination points • Jacket seams on top of horizontal piping or improperly lapped/sealed jacket • Bulges or staining of insulation or jacketing.Locations Susceptible to CUI • Penetrations/breaches in jacket • Damaged/missing jacketing • Hardened. separated. or missing bands • Carbon or low-alloy steel components in high-alloy systems 11 Notes: Inspection Types • Internal visual • Thickness measurement • External visual • Vibrating piping • Supplemental inspection – Radiography – AET – Thermography – UT 12 Notes: 9 .

External Visual Inspection • Observations by non-inspectors • Scheduled inspections by qualified inspector and documented • Check for: – – – – – Leaks Vibration Corrosion Paint condition Incorrect components – Misalignment – Support condition – Insulation condition – Unrecorded field modifications or temporary repairs 13 Notes: Thickness Measurement Locations (TMLs) • Specific inspection areas along piping circuit – Nature of TML varies by location – Selection considers potential for local corrosion and service-specific corrosion • Thickness monitoring at TMLs – TMLs distributed in circuit – More TMLs and more frequent monitoring based on situation 14 Notes: 10 .

circles – Within TMLs Pipe Size Circle Diameter ≤ NPS 10 ≤ 2” > NPS 10 ≤ 3” – Thickness averaging • Mark TMLs for follow-up measurements 15 Notes: TML Selection • More TMLs: – Leak has high risk potential – High potential for localized corrosion – High CUI potential – Higher corrosion rates – Complex system • Fewer TMLs: – Low risk if leak – Long.) • Test points .Thickness Measurement Locations (TMLs) (Cont. straight piping – Relatively non-corrosive service • No TMLs: – Extremely low risk if leak – Non-corrosive service 16 Notes: 11 .

3 • Normally a hydrotest • Special considerations for stainless steel piping 18 Notes: 12 .Thickness Measurement Methods • UT for pipe over NPS 1 • RT for pipe ≤ NPS 1 • Use appropriate UT procedures • Pit depth measurements 17 Notes: Pressure Testing • Normally not part of routine inspections – Some jurisdictional exceptions • Done per ASME B31.

HF – Pipe over or adjacent to water. %) – Anhydrous hydrogen chloride.Other Inspections • Material verification and traceability • Valve inspection • Weld inspection • Flanged joint inspection 19 Notes: Piping Service Classes Class 1 Description • Highest potential of immediate emergency if leak • Examples: – Flammable service that may auto-refrigerate – Pressurized services that may rapidly vaporize and form explosive mixture – H2S in gas stream (> 3 wt. over public throughways 2 3 • Services not in other classes • Includes most process unit piping and selected off-site piping • Flammable services that do not significantly vaporize when leak • Services harmful to human tissue but located in remote areas 20 Notes: 13 .

conditions warranting supplemental inspections 21 Notes: Inspection Intervals (Cont. inspection history.) • Maximum thickness measurement intervals shorter of: – Half remaining life (considers corrosion rate) – Maximum specified in API 570 • Review/adjust intervals as needed 22 Notes: 14 . current inspection results.Inspection Intervals • By Owner-user or inspector based on: – – – – Corrosion rate and remaining life calculations Piping service classification Applicable jurisdictional requirements Judgment based on operating conditions.

Maximum Inspection Intervals Circuit Type Thickness Measurements. years Visual External. years Class 1 5 5 Class 2 10 5 Class 3 10 10 Injection points 3 By Class Soil-to-air interfaces - By Class 23 Notes: Extent of Visual External Inspection • Bare piping – Assess condition of paint and coating systems – Check for external corrosion. other deterioration • Insulated piping – Assess insulation condition – Additional inspection if susceptible to CUI 24 Notes: 15 .

CUI Inspection Considerations • Insulation damage at higher elevations may cause CUI at lower areas remote from damage • RT or insulation removal and VT normally required • Expand inspection as necessary • CUI inspection targets specified in API 570 • Systems that may be excluded – Remaining life over 10 years – Adequately protected against external corrosion 25 Notes: CUI Inspection Targets Pipe Class Amount of Follow-up NDE or Insulation Removal Where Insulation Damaged Amount of NDE at Suspect Areas on Piping Within Susceptible Temperature Ranges 1 75% 50% 2 50% 33% 3 25% 10% 26 Notes: 16 .

≤ NPS 2 – Primary process lines and Class 1 secondary lines: + Per all API 570 requirements – Classes 2 and 3 SBP + Inspection optional + Inspect deadlegs where corrosion expected • Secondary. auxiliary SBP – Inspection optional if associated with instruments or machinery – Consider classification and potential for cracking. CUI 28 Notes: 17 .Extent of Thickness Measurements • Obtain thickness readings on representative sampling of TMLs on each circuit • Include sampling data for various components and orientations in each circuit • Include TMLs with earliest renewal date based on prior inspection • More TMLs → more accurate prediction of next inspection date 27 Notes: Extent of Other Inspections • Small-bore piping (SBP). corrosion.

) • Threaded connections – Inspection based on SBP and auxiliary piping requirements – Select TMLs that can be radiographed – Additional considerations if potentially subject to fatigue damage 29 Notes: Remaining Life Calculations • RL = tact − tmin CR Where: RL = Remaining life. in. in.3 or detailed calculations. (May average at test point) tmin = Minimum required thickness for location. Per B31. 30 Notes: 18 . years tact = Minimum measured thickness.Extent of Other Inspections (Cont.

) • RL for circuit based on shortest calculated RL • Determines – Inspection interval – Repair/replacement needs 31 Notes: Corrosion Rate Calculations • Long term and short term – Compare to determine which governs – Rationalize if significantly different t initial − t last • CR (LT) = ( years between last and initial inspection s) t previous − t last • CR (ST) = ( years between last and previous inspection s) 32 Notes: 19 .Remaining Life Calculations (Cont.

375” • Service = Gas with 3.34.Corrosion Rate Estimation New Systems or Changed Service Conditions Determine using one of the following: • Data from other systems of similar material in comparable service • Estimated from Owner-user’s experience or from published data on systems in comparable service • Thickness measurements – After maximum 3 months service – Consider using corrosion coupons or probes to help establish measurement timing – Repeat until establish CR 33 Notes: Example 1 • Pipe = NPS 16. 0.28 • tmeas = 0. tinitial = 0. 0.36.32. 0. 0.5% H2S • treq = 0.32 • In operation 10 years 34 Notes: 20 .33.

28) = 0.04 • Maximum Interval = = 3.) • Unknown material .6 years 2 x 5.0.375 − 0.g.) • Service → Class 1 → 5-year interval • CR/Maximum = 0.6 years 35 Notes: MAWP Determination • Based on applicable code (ASME B31.5 x 10 −3 < 5 years • CA/Available ∴ Maximum thickness measurement interval = 3. valves. flanges. fittings.Calculate based on lowest grade material and joint efficiency of code • MAWP calculation based on: – Actual measured thickness – Double estimated corrosion until next inspection – Allowances needed for other loadings 36 Notes: 21 .04 in.32 . pipe. etc.5 x 10-3 in. 0.32 = 5..3) • MAWP of system based on weakest component (e.Example 1 (Cont./yr. 10 = (0.

• S = 20.32 . B.0 • tmeas = 0. E = 1. MAWP = 2 S Et/D = 2 x 20.01 in.5 years 37 Notes: Example 2 (Cont.) • Estimated thinning until next inspection 5 x 0.000 x 1 x [0. A-106 Gr.Example 2 • DP = 500 psig. OD = 16 in. • Next planned inspection .000 psi.32 in. DT = 400°F • Pipe = NPS 16.05 in.01 = 0. • CR = 0./yr.05]/16 = 550 psig > 500 psig ∴ OK 38 Notes: 22 . STD weight.2 x 0.

01 = 0.) ∴ Not acceptable.07]/16 = 450 psig 39 Notes: Example 3 (Cont.07 in.Example 3 • Same system as Example 2 • Change next planned inspection to 7 years • Estimated thinning until next inspection 7 x 0.2 x 0.0 [0. Must either: – Reduce inspection interval – Confirm maximum operating pressure will not exceed 450 psig before 7th year – Renew pipe before 7th year 40 Notes: 23 .32 . MAWP = 2 S Et/D = 2 x 20.000 x 1.

Minimum Required
Thickness Determination
• Based on:
– Pressure, mechanical, structural considerations
– Appropriate design formulae and code allowable stress

• Consider general and localized corrosion
• Consider increasing calculated value if high
potential failure consequences
– Unanticipated/unknown loads
– Undiscovered metal loss
– Resistance to normal abuse
41

Notes:

Local Thin Area
Evaluation Alternatives
• ASME B31.G criteria
• Numerical stress analysis and ASME Section VIII,
Division 2, Appendix 4 criteria
– Code allowable stress but < 2/3 SMYS at temperature
– Additional considerations if temperature in creep range

• Additional considerations if corroded longitudinal weld
and E < 1.0
– Weld includes base metal each side of weld within greater
of 1 in. or twice measured thickness

• Additional considerations for corroded pipe caps
42

Notes:

24

Piping Stress Analysis
• Piping to be supported and restrained to:
– Safely carry weight
– Have sufficient flexibility for thermal movement
– Not vibrate excessively

• Not normally part of inspection, but:
– Prior analyses identify high stress locations
– Compare predicted thermal movements with actual
– Analysis often needed to solve vibration problems

• New analyses may be needed if conditions
change or system modified
43

Notes:

Recordkeeping Requirements
• Owner-user responsibility
• Permanent/progressive records required
• To include:
– Service
– Identification
– Inspection and test details
and responsible individual
– Repairs (temporary and
permanent), alterations,
reratings done

– Classification
– Inspection interval
– Results of thickness measurements
and other inspections and tests done
– Pertinent design information and
piping drawings

– Maintenance and other
events affecting system
integrity

– Date and results of external
inspections

44

Notes:

25

Authorization and Approval of
Repairs, Alterations, and Rerating
• Authorization



Work by appropriate repair organization
Authorized by inspector before starting
Piping engineer must approve alterations first
Inspector may designate hold points

• Approval
– Design, execution, materials, welding procedures, examination,
testing to be approved by inspector or piping engineer
– Owner-user to approve on-stream welding
– Consult piping engineer before repairing service-induced cracks
– Inspector to approve all repairs/alterations at hold points and
after completion
45

Notes:

Welded Repairs
• Follow principles of ASME B31.3 or original
construction code
• Temporary repairs
– Full encirclement split sleeve or box-type
enclosure (generally not for cracks)
– Fillet welded split coupling or lap patch if:
• Localized deterioration
• SMYS < 40,000 psi
• Material matches base metal unless otherwise approved
46

Notes:

26

g. inspection. minimum radius • NDE after welding (e. 1 in.) 48 Notes: 27 . MT.) – May be welded onstream with proper design.. procedures – Replace with permanent repair next opportunity + May extend if approved/documented by piping engineer + Owner-user establishes appropriate procedures • Defect repair – Remove defect to sound metal – Deposit weld metal 47 Notes: Welded Repairs (Cont.Welded Repairs (Cont. etc. PT.) • Locally corroded areas – Remove surface irregularities and contamination – Deposit weld metal • Remove/replace cylindrical section • Insert patch – Full-penetration weld – 100% RT or UT for Class 1 or 2 systems – Rounded corners.

Split Box and End Plates on CL Typ. CL (2) 3/4" .Typical Welded Repairs ts t MT or PT See Detail 1 C L See Detail 2 LEGEND: 1/8" Maximum Gap ts = Sleeve Thickness t = Pipe Thickness Field Weld CL F ield Weld ts ts Backing Strip t Detail 2 Butt Weld for Seam Detail " 1 " Fillet Girth Weld Figure 2 Split Sleeve 49 Notes: Typical Welded Repairs (Cont. Figure 3 Complete-Encirclement Box 50 Notes: 28 .) Lifting Lugs CL Typ. (2) Required Typ. CL Typ.3000# Couplings New Containment Box End Plate.

) Figure 4 Partial Box 51 Notes: Typical Welded Repairs (Cont.Typical Welded Repairs (Cont.) 1/8" Maximum Gap See Detail 1 LEGEND: t p = Sleeve Thickness t = Pipe Thickness tp t Detail " 1 " Figure 5 Lap Patch 52 Notes: 29 .

Non-Welded Repairs • Temporary onstream repairs of locally thinned sections. • Bolted leak clamp or box • Design must consider: – Control of axial thrust load if piping may separate – Effect of clamping forces on pipe component – Need for and properties of leak sealing fluids 53 Notes: Typical Non-Welded Repairs Figure 6 Flange Clamp 54 Notes: 30 . flange leaks. circumferential linear defects. etc.

recordkeeping • Hot tapping (or other onstream welding) – Per API Publication 2201 – Detailed inspection. qualifications.) Figure 7 Bolted Box 55 Notes: Welding and Hot Tapping Requirements • Per principles of ASME B31.Typical Non-Welded Repairs (Cont.3 or original construction code • Procedures. design. safety procedures required 56 Notes: 31 . installation.

Welding and Hot Tapping Requirements (Cont.) • Preheat – Per applicable code and welding procedure – May be alternative to PWHT • PWHT – Per applicable code and welding procedure – May be needed due to service – Local PWHT may be possible 57 Notes: Welding and Hot Tapping Requirements (Cont.) • Design – Full-penetration groove welds for butt joints – New and replacement components per applicable code – Special design considerations for fillet-welded patches • Materials • NDE 58 Notes: 32 .

and on completed weld for fillet welds 60 Notes: 33 . or straight pipe sections of equal diameter and thickness. SO and SW flange alternatives identified – 100% RT or UT – MT or PT root pass and completed weld for buttwelds.Pressure Testing • Done if practical and deemed necessary by inspector • Normally required after alterations and major repairs • May use NDE instead after consultation with inspector and piping engineer 59 Notes: Pressure Testing (Cont.) • If not practical to pressure test final closure weld: – Pressure test new or replacement piping – Closure weld is full-penetration butt weld between WN flange and standard pipe component. axially aligned. equivalent materials.

Rerating Requirements to be met: • Design calculations • Inspection verifies condition and CA provided • Safety valves reset • All system components acceptable • Records updated • Meet original or latest code • Must be pressure tested unless already done at sufficient pressure • Acceptable to inspector or piping engineer • Piping flexibility adequate for design temperature changes • Temperature decrease justified by impact test results 61 Notes: Inspection of Buried Piping • Significant external corrosion possible • Inspection hindered by inaccessibility • Above-grade visual surveillance for leak indications • Close-interval potential survey • Pipe coating holiday survey • Soil resistivity • Cathodic protection monitoring 62 Notes: 34 .

alteration.Other Requirements for Buried Pipe • Inspection Methods • Intervals • Extent • Repair Methods 63 Notes: Summary • Inspection. rerating of inservice piping systems are normal activities • Requirements and procedures are necessary to maintain piping system integrity • API 570 is industry standard to be used 64 Notes: 35 . repair.

Part 2: Background Material 36 .

and Rerating of In-Service Piping Systems. • Catalyst lines. hydrocarbons. Included Fluid Service Unless identified by API 570 as being an excluded or optional system. and excluded and optional piping systems. reliable. Thus. API 570. API 570 applies to piping systems for process fluids. Introduction The structural integrity of piping systems must be maintained after they have been placed into service so that they will provide safe. But since most of its requirements have broad applicability. This course is based on API 570. a repair organization. alteration. “Piping Inspection Code – Inspection. Therefore. Should unacceptable deterioration or flaws be identified. and finished petroleum or chemical products. and examiners (as defined in API 570). and rerating of piping systems after they have been placed into service. long-term operation.I. Process plants must adopt and follow established procedures for the inspection. fuel gas.” provides the basic procedures to be followed by process plants. While API 570 applies to all petroleum refineries and chemical plants. it may be used for any piping system. It must be used by organizations that maintain or have access to an authorized inspection agency. API 570 requirements do not necessarily have to be applied to every piping system in a refinery or chemical plant. Existing piping systems might also require alterations or rerating to accommodate new operational needs (or to accommodate deterioration that cannot or will not be repaired). 37 . and technically qualified piping engineers. as defined by jurisdictional regulations. existing piping systems require periodic inspection to determine their current condition and permit evaluation of their structural integrity to permit future operation. Alteration. • Sour water and hazardous waste streams or chemicals above threshold limits. and flare systems. Scope of API 570 API 570 was developed for the petroleum refining and chemical process industries. Examples of these are the following: • Raw. and similar flammable or toxic fluid services. intermediate. its scope defines both specific included fluid services. • Hydrogen. pipe repairs may be required. repair. Repair. inspectors. natural gas.

- Piping systems that are an integral part or component of rotating or reciprocating mechanical devices (e.3). heat exchangers.) where the primary design considerations and/or stresses are derived from the functional requirements of the device. pumps. and the fluid handling or processing equipment (including internal piping and connections for external piping). - Pressure vessels. and maintenance resources on areas that would have the largest potential effect should leakage or failure occur.).. Classes of piping systems that are excluded or optional are as follows: - Piping systems on movable structures covered by jurisdictional regulation (e. etc. API 570 permits these services and systems to be excluded from its specific requirements to focus inspection. boiler feedwater. - Plumbing. and Category D fluid services (as defined by ASME B31. - Internal piping or tubing of fired heaters or boilers.Excluded and Optional Piping Systems API 570 permits the following fluid services and classes to be excluded from its specific requirements. Therefore. this should not be interpreted that these “excludable or optional” systems should be completely ignored. heaters.. Furthermore. For example: 38 . ships. However. and different requirements and procedures may be used for other services or systems. and storm sewers. sanitary sewers. steam condensate. furnaces. any of these excluded systems may be included in a plant’s API 570 program at the option of the owner. engineering. compressors.g. steam. owners may wish to include some of these services or systems in their API 570 program in all respects. etc. This is done to focus attention (with associated manpower and budget expenditures) on applications that would have the most significant consequences should a pipe failure occur. - Piping or tubing with an outside diameter not exceeding that of NPS ½ - Nonmetallic piping and polymeric or glass-lined piping. However. • • Fluid services that are excluded or optional include the following: - Hazardous fluid services below threshold limits. process waste sewers.g. the consequences of a failure in some of these systems could be dangerous or unacceptable in particular circumstances. - Water (including fire protection systems). piping systems on trucks. as defined by jurisdictional regulatories. barges.

The following are several of these terms used in this course: • Alteration A physical change in any component that has design implications affecting the pressure containing capability or flexibility of a piping system beyond the scope of its design. • Piping Circuit A section of piping that has all points exposed to an environment of similar corrosivity and that is of similar design conditions and construction material. 39 . • MAWP The maximum internal pressure permitted in the piping system for continued operation at the most severe condition of coincident internal or external pressure and temperature (minimum or maximum) expected during service.• The failure of a high pressure steam or boiler feedwater system could have significant personnel safety consequences. • Repair The work necessary to restore a piping system to a condition suitable for safe operation at the design conditions. • Rerate A change in either or both the design temperature or the maximum allowable working pressure. Definitions API 570 contains definitions of technical terms that are used in the standard. • The failure of an NPS ½ vent connection in an “included” fluid service could have significant personnel safety and economic consequences. An owner might include such services in his API 570 program. An owner might wish to include such systems in his API 570 program.

Such regions should be treated as separate inspection circuits and be thoroughly inspected periodically. API 570 provides suggested lengths of pipe upstream and downstream of the injection point that should be included in the injection point circuit. Inspection and Testing Practices Types of Pipe Deterioration The piping inspection techniques that are used must consider the type(s) of deterioration that might be found in particular services or locations. The following types and areas of deterioration might occur: • Injection point corrosion • Deadleg corrosion • Corrosion under insulation (CUI) • Soil-to-air (S/A) interfaces • Service specific and localized corrosion • Erosion and corrosion/erosion • Environmental cracking • Corrosion beneath linings and deposits • Fatigue cracking • Creep cracking • Brittle fractures • Freeze damage Several of these items are briefly discussed below.II. 40 . Injection Points Portions of a piping system that are in the vicinity of injection points may be subject to accelerated or localized corrosion. Figure 1 illustrates a typical injection point circuit.

• Carbon steel piping operating intermittently above 250°F. • Austenitic stainless steel piping operating between 150°F and 400°F.Greater of 3D or 12" Overhead Line * * Injection point * * * Distillation Tower Overhead Condensers Injection point piping circuit * * * = Typical TML Typical Injection Point Circuit Figure 1 Systems Susceptible to CUI Piping systems may be subject to external corrosion under insulation (CUI) in situations where the integrity of the insulation system has been compromised. • Vibrating piping that may damage insulation jacketing. special inspection attention should be paid to situations where CUI might be a concern. 41 . moisture ingress. • Deadlegs or other attachments protruding from insulation and at a different temperature than the active line. acid vapors • Carbon steel piping operating in the range 25°F to 250°F. Therefore. The following highlights areas and types of piping systems that might be more prone to CUI: • Areas exposed to : - Mist overspray from cooling towers - Steam vents - Deluge systems - Process spills.

• Improperly lapped or sealed insulation jacketing. leakage. Used to determine the extent of pipe thinning and may be done with the system either in or out of service. by using remote inspection techniques. Types of Inspection The particular type of inspection that is used depends on the details of the piping system. separated. paint and coating systems. • Damaged or missing insulation jacketing. the service. or missing bands. • Caulking that has hardened. • Thickness Measurement. • External Visual. insulation. Also used to check for misalignment. Only applicable for large diameter piping. or is missing. • Carbon or low-alloy steel flanges.• Steam traced piping that may have leaking tracers. • Piping with deteriorated coating or wrapping. or other components under insulation. Locations Susceptible to CUI For systems that are susceptible to CUI. inspection efforts should be focused first on the most likely locations where corrosion might be found. • Bulged or stained insulation or jacketing. Done to determine the condition of the pipe exterior. • Piping low points in systems that have a breach in the insulation system. • Internal Visual. or vibration. bolting. 42 . and the type(s) of deterioration expected. or at local areas that are accessible at openings. • Insulation termination points in vertical pipe. • Insulation jacket seams located on the top of horizontal piping. • Insulation terminations at flanges and other piping components. The following summarizes such locations: • Penetrations through or breaches in the insulation jacketing.

A test point is a circle having the following maximum diameters. however. Pipe wall thicknesses are measured at “test points” within the TMLs. Excessive piping vibration should be reported to engineering for evaluation. straight piping No TMLs • Extremely low risk if leak • Non-corrosive service 43 . Pipe Size Circle Diameter ≤ NPS 10 ≤ 2” > NPS 10 ≤ 3” TML Selection The number and location of the TMLs must be based on the expected types and patterns of corrosion expected in the particular service. or ultrasonic thickness surveys. Other inspection methods may also be used based on the specific situation. Excessive pipe vibration or other line movement could result in leakage at flanged joints or threaded connections. acoustic emission testing (AET). • Supplemental Inspection.• Vibrating Piping. More TMLs • Leak has high potential to cause damage • • High potential for localized corrosion • High CUI potential Higher corrosion rates • Complex system • Relatively non-corrosive service Fewer TMLs • Low risk if leak • Large. TML locations and their number are selected based on the potential for localized or service-specific corrosion and the consequences should a failure occur. It should be remembered. or a fatigue failure. and the thickness readings may be averaged to arrive at a composite thickness reading at the TML. These include radiography. that some amount of pipe vibration is normal. Thickness Measurement Locations (TMLs) TMLs are the specific areas in a piping circuit where inspections are made. thermography.

44 .g. repairs.g. All subsequent pressure tests should be per API 598. the inspector must ensure that the correct materials are used.Thickness Measurement Methods The following thickness measurement methods are normally used. pressure tests are not normally done as part of a routine inspection. Flanged joints should be examined for signs of leakage. after alterations) they should be based on the following: • Must meet ASME B31. • UT for pipe over NPS 1 • RT for pipe ≤ NPS 1 • Pit depth measurements for pitted areas using pit depth gauges In all areas. When alterations or repairs are made on low or high-alloy piping systems. Welds are always inspected as part of new construction. • Stainless steel piping requires special attention (e. appropriate inspection procedures must be used to obtain reliable results.. • Flanged joint inspection. and alterations. The cause of any leakage found should be determined..3 requirements. potable water and blown dry). When pressure tests are done (e.. water disposal problem). They are also sometimes inspected for deterioration as part of the normal inspection activity if problems are suspected. Inspect valves for any unusual corrosion patterns or thinning.g. freezing. process contamination. • Material verification and traceability. • Weld inspection. Valves in high temperature cyclic service might be subject to fatigue cracking. Pressure Testing Except where local jurisdictions require it. Special attention should be paid to flanges that have been clamped and pumped with sealant to stop leaks since the bolting might corrode and/or crack with time. • Valve inspection. • Test fluid must be water unless this would have adverse consequences (e. Other Inspections Other inspections may also be required.

Anhydrous hydrogen chloride. • Examples: .Pressurized services that may rapidly vaporize and form explosive mixture .III. over public throughways 2 3 • Services not in other classes • Includes most process unit piping and selected off-site piping • Flammable services that do not significantly vaporize when leak • Services harmful to human tissue but located in remote areas Inspection Intervals Inspection intervals are determined based on the following: • Corrosion rate and remaining life calculations • Piping service classification • Jurisdictional requirements • Judgment of inspector and piping engineer based on experience The maximum interval between thickness measurements should be the lower of half the remaining life or what is specified in the following table: 45 .Pipe over or adjacent to water. %) . HF . Class 1 Description • Highest potential of immediate emergency if leak. Inspection Frequency and Extent Piping Service Classes Process piping systems are categorized into different classes to help identify systems where greater inspection efforts should be made. Greater effort should be devoted to systems where there would be more significant safety or environmental impact should a leak occur.H2S in gas stream (> 3 wt.Flammable service that may auto-refrigerate .

) Insulated piping should be checked for: • Damaged insulation or jacketing • Signs of CUI for systems that might be subject to this CUI Inspection Considerations After external visual inspection. The additional inspection required depends on the pipe class and whether the insulation is damaged. additional inspection must be done for systems potentially subject to CUI. damaged supports. Extent of Visual External Inspection External visual inspection should also be conducted at the same maximum intervals as are used for thickness measurements.g. as specified in the following table: 46 . Bare piping should be checked for: • The condition of paint and coating systems • External corrosion • Other deterioration (e. etc. leakage.Thickness Measurements. Years Class 1 5 5 Class 2 10 5 Class 3 10 10 Injection Points 3 By Class Soil-to-Air Interfaces - By Class Circuit Type The inspection intervals must be reviewed and adjusted as necessary based on the results of the thickness measurements that are made.. Years Visual External.

Systems with a remaining life of over 10 years. the condition of the insulation system should be periodically checked by operating personnel to identify signs of deterioration. Small-Bore Piping (SBP) [ ≤ NPS 2] Inspect SBP per the following: Service Class Primary Process Piping All Inspect per all requirements of API 570 Secondary Process Piping 1 Inspect per all requirements of API 570 Deadlegs Inspection Requirement 2&3 Inspection is optional 2&3 Inspect where corrosion was experienced or is anticipated Note that while inspection is optional for Class 2 or 3 SBP.Pipe Class Amount of follow-up NDE or insulation removal where insulation is damaged Amount of NDE at suspect areas on piping within susceptible temperature ranges 1 75% 50% 2 50% 33% 3 25% 10% The inspection may be expanded as necessary based on the initial results. or that are adequately protected against external corrosion. The sampling should include data from the various components in the circuit and in different orientations (i. TMLs with the shortest remaining life must be included. However. 47 . need not be included in the CUI inspection program. Extent of Thickness Measurements Each thickness measurement inspection must obtain thickness readings from a representative sampling of TMLs in each circuit.. horizontal and vertical). the owner must always consider the potential consequence should a leak develop in SBP that has not been inspected. The inspection should obtain as many measurements as necessary to accurately assess the condition of the piping system.e. Extent of Other Inspections Other inspections are also required to adequately assess the condition of a piping system.

48 . Consideration may be given to using a thicker wall. TMLs for threaded connections should only include those that can be radiographed during scheduled inspections.g. and/or using a welded connection in situations where the potential fatigue damage is a concern. Threaded connections that might be subject to fatigue damage (e.. adding bracing. those associated with machinery systems) should be periodically assessed. Consider the following in determining whether inspection will be done: • Piping system classification • Potential for environmental or fatigue cracking • Potential for corrosion based on experience with adjacent primary systems • Potential for CUI Threaded Connections Threaded connections are inspected based on the same criteria as other SBP.Secondary. Auxiliary SBP Inspection is optional for SBP associated with instruments and machinery.

in inches. One of the following methods must be used to determine the probable corrosion rate. 49 . • Data collected from other piping systems fabricated of similar material and in comparable service. • Estimate based on the owner-user’s experience or from published data for similar material in comparable service. Corrosion Rate Estimation The expected corrosion rate must be estimated for new piping systems or for systems whose service has been changed.IV. Corrosion coupons or probes may be useful to help determine when thickness measurements should be made. The remaining life of the circuit should be based on the shortest calculated remaining life. Make additional thickness measurements as necessary until the corrosion rate is determined. CR (ST) t previousl − t last D2 = Time (years) between last and previous inspections D2 The long term and short term corrosion rates should be compared and the higher value used in the remaining life calculations. determined at inspection tmin = Minimum required thickness. • Make initial thickness measurements after no more than three months of service. CR (LT) t initial − t last D1 D1 = Time (years) between last and initial (nominal) inspections Corrosion Rate. further evaluations should be made in an attempt to determine the cause. Evaluation and Analysis of Inspection Data Remaining Life Calculations The remaining life of piping systems must be calculated based on the corrosion rate using the following: Calculation Remaining Life. in inches. for the limiting section or zone Corrosion Rate. RL Equation t act − t min corrosion rate tact = Actual minimum thickness. If there is a significant difference between the two corrosion rates.

).32 = 5.375 − 0.04 = 3. flanges.Inspection Interval Determination An NPS 16 piping system has been in operation for 10 years and has been taken out of service for its first thorough inspection. Now check the remaining life criterion.g.e.5 x 10 −3 ∴ Maximum thickness measurement interval is 3. ASME B31.5% H2S Minimum required thickness .0.6 years < 5 years 2 x 5.6 years.e. Note that in both cases. The MAWP calculation is based on: • • • The actual thicknesses determined by inspection. The following examples illustrate calculation of the MAWP.28 in. what maximum thickness measurement interval should be used for this system? Solution: The pipe service places this system into Class I.33.3 in the case of process plant piping systems). valves.0. MAWP Determination The MAWP of a piping system must be determined based on the requirements of the applicable piping code (i.Example 1 .32.375 in.04 in. Therefore. Thicknesses measured at five locations: 0.. Originally installed thickness . 50 . 0. all other system components must be considered (e. The following information is given: • • • • Pipe service .34. 10 Available corrosion allowance = (0.. Additional allowances that might be necessary in specific cases to account for applied loadings other than pressure.36.32 Based on the information provided. etc.28) = 0. in addition to the pipe itself. the MAWP calculations must be based on the lowest grade (i. the maximum interval cannot be more than 5 years based only on the service. 0.Gas with 3. The MAWP of the system is that of the weakest component within the system.32 . CR/Maximum = 0. 0. Maximum Interval = 0. If the pipe material is unknown.0./yr.. 0. Thus. only the pipe thickness is considered. weakest) material and lowest weld joint efficiency that would be permitted by the code.5 x 10-3 in. Double the estimated corrosion loss until the next inspection is done.

05 in./year Next Planned Inspection 5 years Estimated Thinning Until Next Inspection 5 x 0.3) MAWP = 550 psig > 500 psig Since the MAWP exceeds the system design pressure. or rerating.3) Longitudinal Weld Efficiency 1.32 − 2 x 0. Observed Corrosion Rate 0.01 = 0. MAWP = 2 S Et D MAWP = 2 x 20.01 in.05 ) 16 (from B31. B Pipe Size NPS 16 Allowable Stress 20.Example 2 – MAWP Determination Design Pressure 500 psig Design Temperature 400°F Pipe Material A 106 Gr. 51 . the system may remain in service at the design pressure without repairs.000 psi (from B31. replacements.32 in.0 (A 106 Gr.000 x 1 x (0. B is seamless pipe) Thickness Measured During Inspection 0.

07 ) 16 (from B31.3) MAWP = 450 psig The MAWP is less than the design pressure. 52 . either the inspection interval must be reduced. Therefore. Estimated thinning until next inspection = 7 x 0. the operating pressure must not exceed 450 psig. or the pipe must be repaired or replaced.Example 3 – Check Increased Inspection Interval For the same system as in Example 1.000 x 1 x (0. MAWP = 2 S Et D MAWP = 2 x 20.32 − 2 x 0. determine if the inspection interval can be increased to seven years.01 = 0.07 in.

e. then there is no need to go further. local thermal displacement stresses.. valve weights. tolerance in the thickness measurements.G criteria. In cases where there are significant safety or economic loss consequences should a failure occur. then a more detailed evaluation approach using one of the following methods may be used. it is prudent to increase the minimum required thickness above the calculated value. However. the proximity of a thinned area to the weld is relevant. the retirement thickness) must be determined considering all applicable design loads. This simplified approach considers the maximum depth and length of the locally thin area. This additional allowance is meant to account for unanticipated or unknown loads. A conservative evaluation approach for such regions is to consider the locally corroded region in isolation and determine the minimum thickness there. the normal code design formulas and allowable stresses must be used. the pipe diameter. and resistance to normal abuse. The design pressure of the system will normally govern the minimum required thickness.g. However. This is a detailed numerical stress analysis approach that permits a more exact calculation and evaluation of the local stresses. • ASME B31. wind or earthquake. and nominal thickness to determine whether the thin area is acceptable. In all cases. If this approach produces an acceptable MAWP. • ASME Section VIII. local loading conditions (e. Division 2. Additional considerations are required if the design temperature is in the creep range of the material. If the pipe has a longitudinal weld seam and its joint efficiency is less than one. but not less than 2/3 of the specified minimum yield stress (SMYS). if the resulting MAWP is not acceptable. It intrinsically accounts for the additional strength that the surrounding uncorroded pipe provides to the thin area. • Weld joint efficiency considerations. Local Thin Area Evaluation Local areas of a pipe may have thinned much more than the surrounding region.Minimum Required Thickness Determination The minimum required thickness of a piping system (i. undiscovered metal loss. etc. 53 . Appendix 4 criteria.) might govern the minimum required thickness in particular situations. Both general and localized corrosion must be considered.. The basic code allowable stress (rather than the Division 2 allowable stress) is used in this analysis.

The knuckle region of a cap requires a larger minimum thickness than the central portion. due to interference by adjacent items). due to equipment rerate) or if the system is modified (e. • The pipe must be adequately supported to carry its weight. or cause a fatigue failure.e. If a pipe cap is corroded. • Adequate flexibility to accommodate thermal displacements must be provided.. Recordkeeping Requirements The owner-user is responsible for maintaining permanent and progressive records for all piping systems covered by API 570. then weld joint efficiency must be considered. • A new stress analysis may be required if the design conditions are changed (e. These records form the basis for developing a cost-effective inspection and maintenance program. then weld joint efficiency does not need to be considered. Identify situations where thermal expansion might be restricted (e. • The pipe must not vibrate excessively..g. stress analysis considerations must still be kept in mind.. - If the thinned area is closer to the weld. Piping Stress Analysis Performing a piping stress analysis is not normally a part of inspection and maintenance. reratings done • Pertinent design information and piping drawings • Maintenance activities and other events affecting system integrity • Date and results of external inspection 54 . However. Locations where supports have become damaged or are otherwise ineffective should be identified for further evaluation or repair. adding a new equipment item with associated piping to the system).g. in the knuckle region or central portion). the location of the corrosion is relevant (i.• - If the thinned area is more than the larger of 1 inch or twice the measured thickness away from the weld..g. alterations. since this could cause leakage at flanged joints and threaded connections. The records must include the following information: • Service • Classification • Identification • Inspection interval • Inspection and test details and responsible individual • Results of thickness measurements and other inspections and tests done • Repairs (temporary and permanent).

Additional approvals are required as follows: • The inspector or piping engineer must approve the design. Welded Repairs Welded repairs are preferably done while the piping system is out of service. • The inspector must approve all repairs and alterations at the designated hold points and at completion of the work. Alterations. and Rerating In all cases. • The piping engineer should be consulted prior to weld repair of any cracks that occurred in-service. it may be possible to make weld repairs while the piping system is in operation in particular situations provided appropriate inspections.V.3 requirements. repairs and alterations must meet ASME B31. examination. Authorization and Approval All repairs and alternations must be done by a qualified repair organization (defined in API 570) and must be authorized by the inspector before beginning. API 570 recognizes that it may be necessary to temporarily repair a piping system to permit its continued operation as fast as possible. API 570 does not distinguish between shut down and on-stream repairs with respect to the specified requirements. welding procedures. and the owner must develop appropriate on-stream repair procedures. and testing. 55 . Alterations must also be approved by a qualified piping engineer. However. Repairs. and hot work permit procedures are used. execution. precautions. The purpose of this is to attempt to identify the cause of the crack and correct it. • The owner-user must approve all on-stream welding. a distinction is made between temporary and permanent repairs. materials. The inspector may designate hold points during repairs and alterations to permit sufficient time for inspection. Thus.

In most situations. However.Temporary Repairs • A full encirclement welded split sleeve or a box-type enclosure may be installed over the damaged or corroded area (See Figures 2 through 4).g.000 psi (See Figure 5). pitting or pinholes) if the SMYS ≤ 40. Temporary repairs should be removed and replaced with permanent repairs at the next available maintenance opportunity. temporary repairs may remain longer if the piping engineer approves this and documents it. temporary repairs should generally be designed as if they will remain installed for a long time. This method will typically not be used to repair longitudinal cracks in the pipe wall unless the piping engineer is convinced that the crack will not propagate from under the repair. The sleeve or box must be welded to the pipe at locations that are thick enough to remain intact during welding.. 56 . A piping engineer must design these repairs. • A fillet-welded split coupling or a lap patch may be used to repair localized deterioration (e.

ts t MT or PT See Detail 1 CL See Detail 2 LEGEND: 1/8" Maximum Gap ts = Sleeve Thickness t = Pipe Thickness Field Weld CL Field Weld ts ts Backing Strip t Detail " 1 " Fillet Girth Weld Detail 2 Butt Weld for Seam Welded Split Sleeve Figure 2 57 .

3000# Couplings New Containment Box End Plate. Typ. Complete-Encirclement Box Figure 3 Partial Box Figure 4 58 .Lifting Lugs CL Split Box and End Plates on CL Typ. CL (2) 3/4" . (2) Required Typ. CL Typ.

and then restoring the thickness with weld metal. This approach is only practical for relatively small areas. 59 . • Locally corroded areas may be repaired by first removing any surface irregularities and contamination. • If the system can be taken out of service. a cylindrical section of pipe that contains the defective area can be removed and replaced.1/8" Maximum Gap See Detail 1 LEGEND: tp = Sleeve Thickness t = Pipe Thickness tp t Detail " 1 " Lap Patch Figure 5 Permanent Repairs • A relatively small defect may be repaired by completely removing it and then filling the resulting groove with weld metal.

• In all cases. flush patch) may be used as a repair if: - Full penetration groove welds are used. 60 . or leaking flanges. Non-welded repairs typically employ a bolted clamp or box which encompasses the damaged component (See Figures 6 and 7).. Butt welds will typically be 100% radiographically (RT) or ultrasonically (UT) examined.e. The pipe must also have adequate thickness at the clamp or box attachment points to withstand the applied bolting force needed to hold the clamp in place. Bolted clamps or boxes will often require injection of a leak sealing fluid to provide a tight seal at the pipe or component interface.• An insert patch (i. The design of the clamp or box must be adequate for the pressure thrust force from the damaged pipe if there is concern that the pipe will completely separate at the area of deterioration. Other welds will typically be PT or MT examined. This approach may be used for locally thinned sections or linear defects (either partially or completely through the pipe thickness). Non-Welded Repairs Non-welded repairs may be used to temporarily repair a locally damaged portion of a pipe or piping component while the system remains on-stream (or possibly depressured but not gas-freed and cleaned). Care must be taken to ensure that insert patches conform to the pipe curvature to avoid local geometric discontinuities that could act as stress concentration points. The sealant must be compatible with the service fluid and design conditions. along with either liquid penetrant (PT) or magnetic particle (MT) examination. - The patches have rounded corners with a 1 inch minimum radius. - The welds are 100% radiographed or ultrasonically examined for Class 1 or 2 piping systems. appropriate NDE should be done of the final welds to ensure that they are high quality.

Inc.Bolted Flange Clamp Figure 6 Courtesy of Plidco International. Inc. 61 . Bolted Pipe Box Figure 7 Courtesy of Plidco International.

. • The PWHT temperature is monitored by two or more thermocouples. the need for full penetration welds.e. hot tapping) must meet the requirements of API Publication 2201.g. PWHT is preferably done in a 360° band around the pipe that encompasses the weld area.g.. 62 . Preheating to at least 300°F may be used as an alternative to PWHT if the system was originally given PWHT as a code requirement (i. All local design.3 or the original piping construction code using qualified procedures and welders. provided: • The pipe is P-1 steel. • Mn-Mo steels are operated at a high enough temperature to provide adequate fracture toughness and there is no hazard associated with pressure testing. • A minimum 300°F preheat is maintained while welding. Any welding that is done while the system is in operation (e. Preheat and Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT) Preheat and PWHT requirements must be per the applicable code (i.e. Local PWHT may be substituted on local repairs for all materials provided: • An appropriate procedure is developed by a piping engineer. • Controlled heat is also applied to any branch connection or other attachment located within the PWHT area. then the 300°F preheat alternative may not be used. based only on material type and thickness). startup. inspection. and the joint is covered with insulation immediately after welding to slow the cooling rate. testing. and surface and volumetric NDE done after PWHT. and hot work permit procedures developed by the owner must also be followed. • The minimum preheat temperature is measured and maintained.. • The PWHT temperature is maintained for a distance of at least twice the pipe thickness from the weld. and shutdown. material properties. thermal gradients.Welding and Hot Tapping Requirements All welding must be done in accordance with ASME B31.3). charges resulting from PWHT. In situations where PWHT is required due to service considerations (e. caustic). local strains and distortions caused by local heating. ASME B31.. • The procedure considers thickness.

• NDE must be per the applicable code. Design. and API 570. owner-user specifications. • The final closure weld must be 100% RT or UT examined.g. • Piping components must be replaced if a repair is not likely to be adequate. • The closure weld is a full-penetration weld between a weld neck flange and a standard pipe component. caustic). The following requirements must be met in these cases: • The new or replacement pipe section must be pressure tested. Materials. Thus. thickness. • MT or PT must be done on the root pass and final weld for butt welds. There may be situations where it is not practical to pressure test a final closure weld in a replacement section of pipe. Alternatives that involve slip-on and socket welded flanges are also identified in API 570.• The PWHT is required for code compliance and not for service considerations (e. and material. or if otherwise practical and deemed necessary by the inspector. and NDE • All butt joints must be full-penetration groove welds. Pressure Testing Pressure testing is normally required after alterations and major repairs. • Fillet welded patches must be designed by the piping engineer considering the following requirements: - Appropriate weld joint efficiency - The possibility of crevice corrosion .Adequate strength per criteria specified in API 570 • New and replacement component materials must be per the applicable code. 63 .. or between straight pipe sections. only the final closure weld is not pressure tested. NDE may be considered as an alternative to pressure testing only after consultation with the inspector and the piping engineer. and on completed fillet welds. axially aligned (not miter cut) of equal diameter.

. flanges. • All components in the system (e. etc. 64 . • The engineering records for the system must be updated. • Piping flexibility is adequate for the new design temperature.Rerating The following requirements must be met to permit rerating a piping system to a new design temperature or MAWP: • Design evaluations must be done by the piping engineer or inspector to verify the system for the new conditions. • The rerating must meet the requirements of either the original construction code or the latest edition of that code. • The system must be pressure tested for the new conditions. • The rerating must be acceptable to the inspector or piping engineer. New calculations may be required to confirm this.) must be checked and found to be acceptable for the new design conditions. bolts. unless records indicate that a previous test was done at a pressure that was greater than or equal to that required for the new conditions.g. • Current inspection data must verify that the system is adequate for the proposed conditions and has sufficient remaining corrosion allowance. • The safety valves must be reset for the new design pressure and confirmed to have adequate relieving capacity. gaskets. • A decrease in the minimum operating temperature is justified by impact test results (or exemptions) if required by the code. valves.

This survey may locate active corrosion points on the pipe surface. it should be periodically monitored to ensure that it is providing adequate protection. • Direct inspection of buried piping may be done using intelligent pigging. • A holiday survey may be done on coated pipe to ensure that the coating is intact and free of holidays. Corrosion cells can be located in this way since the electric potential at a corrosion area will be measurably different from that of an adjacent area. Inspection Methods Several methods may be used to inspect a buried piping system. The survey data can be used to determine the effectiveness of the coating and the rate of coating deterioration. • Soil resistivity measurements may be used to determine the corrosiveness of the soils in contact with the pipe. or excavation. 65 . Periodic inspection of a buried piping system is still required to ensure that the external protection system is effective. Inspection of Buried Piping Corrosive soil conditions may cause significant external deterioration of buried piping. A mixture of different soils in contact with the pipe can cause corrosion.VI. NACE RP0169 and API RP 651 provide guidance for this monitoring. video cameras. Buried piping is typically protected from these soil conditions by using an external coating or wrap.Surface contour change - Soil discoloration . • A visual surveillance may be made above the area of the pipe for visible indications of leaks. this inspection is hindered by inaccessibility. however. • If a cathodic protection (CP) system is used for corrosion protection.Softening of paving asphalt - Formation of liquid pools . These indications could include: . or by using a cathodic protection system.Bubbling crater puddles - Odor • A close-interval electric potential survey can be conducted over the buried pipe.

Conduct survey along pipe route if no CP or where leaks have occurred due to external corrosion Coating holiday survey Frequency based on indications that other corrosion control methods are ineffective Soil corrosivity 5 year interval if no CP system and over 100 ft. is buried CP system monitoring Per NACE 0169 and API RP 651 Internal Base on results of above-ground inspections External (if no CP) Pigging or excavation intervals based on measured soil resistivity per Table 1 Leak testing (i. ohm-cm Inspection Interval.. years < 2000 5 2000 – 10.000 15 Table 1 66 .Inspection Frequency and Extent Method Frequency/Comment Above-grade visual 6 Months Pipe-to-soil potential survey .e.5 year interval for poorly coated pipe where CP potentials are inconsistent .000 10 > 10. pressure testing) Alternative or supplement to inspection. • Hydrotest at 1.1 x MAOP • Interval ½ of Table 1 if no CP • Interval per Table 1 if CP Soil Resistivity.

or welding. • Welded repairs of buried piping must meet the same requirements as those for above-ground piping. • Coating repairs must be inspected to ensure that they meet the following criteria: - Sufficient adhesion to prevent underfilm migration of moisture - Sufficient ductibility to resist cracking - Free of voids and gaps - Adequate strength to resist damage due to handling and soil stress - Can support supplemental CP - Tested with a high-voltage holiday detector • The location of clamp repairs must be logged in the inspection records. 67 . They are considered temporary repaired and are to be replaced with a permanent repair at the first opportunity. clamps.Repair of Buried Piping Repairs to buried piping may involve coatings.

VII. and rerating of in-service piping systems are normal activities that must be dealt with in process plants. API 570 is the industry standard that is used to form the basis for more detailed procedures that must be developed by process plant owners. Requirements and procedures are necessary in carrying out these activities to ensure that piping system integrity is maintained. Summary Inspection. alteration. repair. 68 .

ASME B31G Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines 4. API Publication 2201 Procedure for Welding or Hot Tapping on Equipment Containing Flammables 5.3 Process Piping 3. API RP651 Cathodic Protection of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks 69 . API 570 Piping Inspection Code 2. NACE RP0169 Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems 6. Suggested Reading 1.VIII. ASME B31.

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