International Journal of Science, Environment

and Technology, Vol. 3, No 3, 2014, 910 – 916

ISSN 2278-3687 (O)

STUDIES ON HETEROSIS AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION FOR
GRAIN YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN RICE
(Oryza Sativa L.)
V. Venkanna*, Ch. S. Raju, N. Lingaiah and V.T. Rao
Scientist (Pl. Br.), RARS, Warangal – 506 007 A.P.
E mail: rksing_05@yahoo.co.in (*Corresponding Author)

Abstract: The present study was carried out with a view to know the extent of heterosis,
heterobeltiosis and inbreeding depression for grain yield and grain quality characters in rice.
Significant heterosis over mid and better parent in desired direction was observed in many
crosses for various traits under study. The crosses IR 64 X NLR 34449 and MTU 1010 X
BPT 5204 exhibited highly significant heterosis and heterobeltiosis for yield. The crosses
JGL 3844 X JGL 11690, Erramallelu X LGL 11690, BPT 5204 X JGL 11690 and MTU 1001
X JGL 1798 exhibited significant positive heterosis for yield along with one or more grain
quality traits. In most of crosses significant inbreeding depression existed for grain yield
while five crosses reported inbreeding depression towards negative side. Those crosses with
significant positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis were also reported with high percentage of
inbreeding depression.
Keywords: Rice, Heterosis, Heterobeltiosis, Inbreeding depression.

INTRODUCTION
Rice is the most important staple food crop for more than two third of the population
in India. In India, this crop plays a livelihood for millions of rural households. Rapid increase
in production and productivity of rice is the need of hour as per the growing population.
Exploitation of hybrid vigour in rice has been recognized as important tool in improving the
yield and grain traits for breeders. For hybrid exploitation of hybrid vigour, heterosis,
heterobeltiosis and inbreeding depression are important aspects. Therefore, the present study
was carried out with a objective to estimate extent of heterosis and inbreeding depression for
yield and grain characters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experimental material for heterosis, Inbreeding depression studies comprised of nine
(Oryza sativa L.) genotypes viz., MTU 1010, MTU 1001, BPT 5204, NLR 34449, JGL 1798,
Erramallelu, JGL 3844, and JGL 11690, their 36 F1s ( crosses were effected in a 9x9 diallel
Received Apr 04, 2014 * Published June 2, 2014 * www.ijset.net

Out of 36 crosses tested.92 per cent.68 per cent. For Kernel Length the hybrid MTU 1001 X BPT 5204 recorded significant positive heterosis with highest value of 10..87 per cent (Erramallelu X JGL 3844). Regional Agricultural Research Station. (2006) reported both negative and positive heterosis and Heterobeltiosis.48 per cent. (2006). MP is mean of parents and BP is mean of better parent. heterobeltiosis and inbreeding depression are presented in table 1. The recommended package of practices and necessary prophylactic measures were adopted to raise a healthy crop.. none of the hybrid recorded positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis for the trait Hulling percentage. F1s and F2s.. Six crosses expressed heterobeltiosis in significant negative direction with a range of –4.911 V. where F2 is mean of F2s. Inbreeding depression was expressed as per cent decrease observed in F2 over F1 as F1-F2X100/F1. . where F1 is mean of F1s. 27 hybrids recorded positive and two negative significant values of heterosis over their better parents. The results of low or negative heterosis was reported by Chauhan and Chauhan (1995) and significant positive heterosis was reported by Saravanan et al. Among all the hybrids studied.1971). Lingaiah and V.83 to 6. Kernel length. thirty were recorded positive significant heterosis over mid parent ranging from 24. F1s and F2s were evaluated during Rabi 2007-08 to 2008-09 at Rice Research Scheme. Venkanna. Heterosis over mid parent was estimated as percent increase or decrease in F1s over the mid mid parent as F1-MPX100/MP and Heterobeltiosis as F1-BPX100/BP(Liang et al. Two hybrids MTU 1010 X JGL 1798 and MTU 1010 X JGL 3844 recorded significant negative heterosis. Heterobeltiosis was observed in both posotive and negative direction. Raju.T. Rao design to produce 36 crosses) and F2s. The means were computed for yield and grain characters such as Hulling percentage. Out of all the crosses tested. Observation on grain yield was recorded on 5 randomly selected plants from each plot per replication in parents.97 to –2. All the parents. Jagtial to estimate mid parental heterosis.98 (JGL 1798 X JGL 11690) to 257. Ch. Raju et al. Kernel width and L/B ratio. Heterosis and Heterobeltiosis was recorded in undesirable direction in most of the crosses. 7 crosses had higher kernel length than their respective better parent with a range of 2. heterobeltiosis and inbreeding depression. while Pandya and Tripathi (2006) reported positive Heterobeltiosis and both negative and positive Heterobeltiosis for Hulling Percentage. N. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Estimation of heterosis. S.

. hence the crosses viz. Similar results were obtained by Pandya and Tripathi (2006) and Saravanan et al. Accordingly in three crosses viz.15 percent). Erramallelu X JGL 11690. suggesting that additive gene action might be controlling the inheritance of this character. The cross with high heterosis followed by depression in F2 involve dominance and epistatic components of gene interactions.27. Four crosses had shown heterosis to kernel L/B ratio in desirable direction and maximum percentage of 10. For grain breadth negative heterosis is desirable to evolve quality rice. heterosis in negative direction is desirable for quality rice.10 and –5... The hybrid JGL 3844 X JGL 11690 recorded significant positive heterobeltiosis with a percentage of 8.30 to (IR 64 X JGL 1798) to – 11. BPT 5204 X JGL 11690 and IR 64 X NLR 34449 with –8. JGL 1798 X JGL 3844 and MTU 1001 X NLR 34449 could effectively be utilized through heterosis breeding. IR 64 X JGL 1798. Similar findings were reported by Chauhan and Chauhan (1995)... Seven crosses recorded significant negative heterosis over mid parent ranging from –3. MTU 1010 X Erramallelu. -7. heterosis was positive and significant for grain breadth for twenty five and negative in seven crosses out of thirty six crosses studied. Erramallelu X JGL 11690.20 was associated with the Erramallelu X JGL 11690 and minimum was seen in MTU 1001 X JGL 1798 (4. MTU 1001 X BPT 5204.27. 1995). NLR 34449 X JGL 1798 and BPT 5204 X NLR 34449 which were significantly superior in performance over their respective mid as well as better parent had shown highly significant depression from F1 to F2 indicating the major involvement of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of grain yield (Ram.Studies on Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression for Grain Yield …. BPT 5204 X JGL 11690 and IR 64 X NLR 34449. (2006). Thus this character could be fixed early generations and single plant selection in F2 could be quite effective in improving grain length.41 per cent (IR 64 X NLR 34449). In the present study there was nither any appreciable heterosis nor any significant inbreeding depression for grain length.29 per cent respectively. The crosses Erramallelu X JGL 3844. 912 For the trait Kernel breadth. heterobeltiosis as well as inbreeding depression was highly significant and negativ indicating the presence of certain amount of non-additive gene action (dominance and epistasis ) for grain breadth. 1992 and Reddy and Nerkar.Significant negative heterobeltiosis observed in three hybrids viz. Pandya and Tripathi (2006) have also reported heterobeltiosis in positive direction.

Rao Only one cross JGL1798 X JGL 11690 showed highest significant Heterobeltiosis with least Inbreeding depression suggesting that additive gene action play key role for L/B ratio in this cross. . Venkanna. The segregating material generated during this study may be utilized in identification and selection of desirable recombinants in advanced generations in order to develop high yielding varieties with specific attributes. Lingaiah and V. Raju. this might be due to close relationship between Heterosis and Inbreeding depression and also due to non-additive gene action. Ch.. Same findings were reported by Reddy et al. N. Most of the crosses exhibited significant heterosis. heterobeltiosis coupled with Inbreeding depression. (1991). S.913 V.T.

20** -8.10** -3.06 -14.94 ** -0.35** -7.58** -4.57** 15.50** -4.70** 50.29 -11.30* 1.99 * 4.31** 66.42** 3.36** -17.48 -2.55** -2.60 * 40.82 3.25 -0.19 -13.06 ** IR 64 X JGL 11690 8.56 IR 64 X MTU 1001 80.25 * 1.19 ** MTU 1010 X JGL 11690 92.87** 0.76 ** IR 64 X BPT 5204 35.34** 66.57** -1.90** 3.97 0.92** 7.07 MTU 1010 X BPT 5204 MTU 1010 X NLR 34449 MTU 1010 X JGL 1798 58.48** 6.86 -2.86 -8.57** -5.51 ** -3.82 -15.02 -0.60** 43.09** -25.00 -8.96 -9.85 ** -7.09** -20.22 -1.41** -22. Grain yield per plant Hulling per cent Kernel length Kernel breadth Kernel L/B ratio Crosses H1 H2 ID H1 H2 H1 H2 ID H1 H2 ID H1 H2 ID 51.08 -2.99 0.16** 2.87** -14.45 -3.14 -3.95 -9.84 ** MTU 1010 X MTU 1001 13.29 -1.11** 0.60** -0.59** -11.22 -26.40** 1.15* -2.93 3.10** -13.55** 2.24 2.62** -0.42 ** MTU 1001 X BPT 5204 MTU 1001 X NLR 34449 MTU 1001 X JGL 1798 -2.16 1..20** -2.20 ** -21.51** 25.29* -13.58 (Contd…1) .57 6.37 * -14.87** 25.71* -9.43 7.91** 44.49 -0.32** -36.56** -23.58 ** -2.45 ** 0.84** 11.60 2.65** -18.38** 45.72 ** 3.60 7.15 * -1.77** 40.19 5.46** 22.18** -0.21** 11.22 38.35 * 20.89** -6.57 -0.08** -4.42** -80.67 10.15** 18.83** 4.54 0.04 -11.68** 48.70 2.05* 18.58 -11.82 0.98** 168.65 ** IR 64 X JGL 1798 187.70** 0.68 ** -2.66 2.54 MTU 1010 X IR 64 MTU 1010 X JGL 3844 -29.67** 21.58 10.14 9.27** -15.12* -10.24** 12.42** -1.34 0.84** 5.14 ** -0.18** -9.83 -9.34 5.20 -4.23 0.94** -13.16 ** 2.72* -10.49* -0.16 3.63** 1.76** -20.67** -6.02** -16. better parent (H2) and inbreeding depression (ID) for grain yield per plant.59** 113.46 2.83** 2.54 5.66 7.19 -0.25 -0. hulling per cent.43** -16.50 -2.40** -9.12** 16.81 ** 1.87 4.20** 34.02 ** -1. Kernel breadth and Kernel L/B ratio. 914 Table 1: Estimation of heterosis over mid parent (H1).81 -3.84 5.32 0.25** -7.34** -20.21* 16.99 ** -1.96 ** 1.83 -4.02 -8.55 -1.42** 3.Studies on Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression for Grain Yield ….84 -9.52 * 0.88** -0.38** 3.10 ** -8.50 4.81 -5.49 -24.01** 18.29** 3.31 * -1.97** -3.87** 15.55* -3.07 -8.63** 28.22 -2.59 -12.10 ** -0.02** 5.26 -3.50 -12.13 * -1.96** -16.42 6.92** -24.92** 44.75** 4.21** 34.21 * 0.72** 6.49 -0.66 -0.91 ** 6.48** 1.10 46.09 ** -11.55 -8.29 -1.68* -1.54 5.94** 87.13 IR 64 X JGL 3844 -4.73 -0.41** -5.56** -38.81** 14.98** 51.26** 1.00** 104.71** -13.42 -7.06 4.04 ** IR 64 X NLR 34449 136.17** 28.02 -0.63** -8.79* 11.94** -3.53 -4.87 ** -5.62 5.32** -11.52* -8.05** -7.34 * -13.05** 17.16** -5. Kernel length.06 MTU 1010 X Erramallelu 150.25 9.41** 16.96 10.73** 2.86 * 0.49** -1.00** -16.79** -13.90* -14.28 IR 64 X Erramallelu 73.12** -22.22 -0.

14** 55.28 -1.45** 4.32 17.94 * -0.49* 4.49** 50.05** 3.24 MTU 1001 X JGL 3844 52.54 -8.61 -2.05 * -1.24** 4.37 63.70** BPT 5204 X JGL 1798 36.13 -0.95** -6.64 5.80 15.14** -2.13** -1.30 -2.86 0.20** -5.26* 4.92 ** 4.04** 85.74 ** BPT 5204 X JGL 11690 80.86 -2.95** -6.18 -5.11** 7.38** -8.80** 88.10** BPT 5204 X NLR 34449 138.46 ** -1.37 -1.64** * Significant at 5 % level.94** -11.70** 12.46** -7.27 2.94** -0.22** 7.98 * -1.21 -7.19 ** 1.92 JGL 3844 X JGL 11690 132.90 ** BPT 5204 X JGL 3844 105.61** -9.74 2.91 -10.56 ** 108.915 V. Venkanna.46** 3.95 ** -15.23 -1.65 NLR 34449 X Erramallelu 97.48** 5.14** -22.71** 2.38 ** 48.20 Erramallelu X JGL 3844 257.08 -1.28 ** -6.06 ** 4.14 ** 10.70** 8.44 -2.60* -10.83** 90.50 * -0.90 -2.35** 24.37 * JGL 1798 X JGL 3844 56.40** -21.90 -2.78** 8.60** -4.31** 6.65** 26.89 6.48 6.76** 5.80** -10.84 -12.65 -0.66** 0.04* 1.06 ** -1.33** -4.46 -0.46* -12.52** 5.56 7.46 6.92** -21.91* -14.48** -3.98** -6.78 ** -1.57** -19.41** -5.70** -0.28** 3.08 -0.03 1.74** -7.52** 8.38 -0.98** 19.78 -8.44** -0.00 ** JGL 1798 X Erramallelu 30.28** -4.31 -0. Raju.12** -12.79** -12.96** 6.98 -2. Rao Table 1 Contd… Grain yield per plant Hulling per cent Kernel length Kernel L/B ratio Kernel breadth Crosses H1 H2 ID H1 H2 H1 H2 ID H1 H2 ID H1 H2 ID MTU 1001 X Erramallelu 31.62 6.87** 231.82** -14.30* 0.50 ** 43.00 4.17 ** -4.16 ** NLR 34449 X JGL 3844 68.69** 35.61 -1.54 1.86 ** 5.73** -1.48** -7.52** 4.96 -1.56 -1.51 -2.20** 0. S.74** -4.54 -0.76** 4.06 0.51 * -0.44** 6.92 ** 43.49** 2.43** -14.27** 1.24** 30.09 -7.23 4. Ch.08 * 4.81** 3.T.92 -1.79 ** 3.70 2.64** -8.32* 4.94** 50.21 * BPT 5204 X Erramallelu 83.93 49.08 -0.09** -13.16 -1.76 -1.61** 14. ** Significant at 1 % level . N.98** 6.15** 9.65** -10.96** -7.98 0.22 8.28** 27.53 -2.64** 9.20 10.11 ** -4.39** Erramallelu X JGL 11690 29.09 ** NLR 34449 X JGL 11690 125.76 -3.81* 4.53** -8.11 -3.88** 10.12 -6.61 ** 7.28** 36.47 -0.91 * -3.73** 0.57 8.61** 5.15 ** MTU 1001 X JGL 11690 99.72 0.97 -2.16 -5.43** -14.00** -2.63 -1.09 -8.93** 98.24 -1.54** 5.75 2.92 -6.49 ** 15.81* 13.93 -2.08** -6.10** -9.65** 2.52 -2.55** 114.00 -7.16 12.10 -4.91 -1.84** 4.11** 56.06** 17.26 -2.90 ** -7.99 ** -9.21** 106.61 1.72** 65.66** 6.15 ** 4.31** -20.99 0.95 JGL 1798 X JGL 11690 24.87 * NLR 34449 X JGL 1798 143.82 ** 3.75 -1.31** -4.58** 21.27** -14.62 ** 8.51** -8. Lingaiah and V.60** 17.75 1.18 ** -2.55** 15.32** 75.79** 8.52 1.93** -0.60** 8.25 -9.06 ** -5.90** -1.66 -9.

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