Rules for Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

1.

Write the metal symbol first and then the non metal symbol second.

Ca

I

2.
Write the cation charge above the metal and the anion charge above the non
metal
2+

1Ca

I

3.
Do the crossover rule and write the charge for the cation as a subscript for the
non metal symbol and the charge for the anion as a subscript for the metal.
2+

1-

Ca
the
m of the symbol

I

à CaI2

ß subscript goes at
botto
and is smaller.

Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds

First Word – Name of the metal
Second Word – Name of the non-metal end in “ide”
Ex: Calcium Iodide

Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals
The stock naming system uses roman numerals to indicate the charge of the cation
because they can have more than one charge.

First Word – Name of the metal
Roman numeral in brackets to indicate the charge
Second Word – Name of the non-metal end in “ide”

Ex:

FeCl3 is Iron (III) chloride

First Word – Name of the metal Roman numeral in brackets to indicate the charge Second Word – Name of the non-metal end in “ide” Ex: FeCl3 is Iron (III) chloride Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals The classic naming system uses the latin word with the ending “ous” to indicate the transition metal’s with the lower ion charge and the ending “ic” to indicate the greater ion charge of the transition metal. Element Latin Name Iron Ion with lower charge Ion with Higher Charge Fe2+ Fe3+ Copper Cuprum Cu+ Cu2+ Lead Plumbum Pb2+ Pb4+ .FeO is Iron (II) oxide Cu2S is coper (I) Sulfide PbO2 is lead (IV) oxide How do I know the charge for iron is 3? I use the reverse crossover rule 3+ Ex: FeCl3 à Fe 1Cl à Iron (III)Cloride Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals The stock naming system uses roman numerals to indicate the charge of the cation because they can have more than one charge. For example: Fe is Ferrum and can have a charge of +2 ferrous or +3 ferric.

because of its simplicity. introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913. it can be derived as a first-order approximation of the hydrogen atom using the broader and much more accurate quantum mechanics and thus may be considered to be an obsolete scientific theory. it also provided a justification for its empirical results in terms of fundamental physical constants. and its correct results for selected systems (see below for application). but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity. The improvement to the Rutherford model is mostly a quantum physical interpretation of it. the Bohr model is still commonly taught to introduce students to quantum mechanics or energy level diagrams before moving on to the more accurate. Not only did the Bohr model explain the reason for the structure of the Rydberg formula. and the Rutherford model (1911) came theRutherford– Bohr model or just Bohr model for short (1913). compared to the valence shell atom. depicts the atom as a small. After the cubic model(1902). While the Rydberg formula had been known experimentally. positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar in structure to the solar system. the Saturnian model (1904). However. the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model. but more . the plum-pudding model (1904). it did not gain a theoretical underpinning until the Bohr model was introduced. but the quantum theory remains sound. The Bohr model is a relatively primitive model of the hydrogen atom. The Bohr model has been superseded.Formula Classical System FeCl3 Ferric Chloride FeO Ferrous Oxide Cu2S Coprous Sulfide PbO2 Plumbic Oxide Stock System Write the chemical formula for each a) Copper (I) Oxide b) Lead (IV) Bromide c) Iron (III) Sulfide d) Nickel (III) Flouride e) Manganese IV) Fluoride In atomic physics. The model's key success lay in explaining the Rydberg formula for the spectral emission lines of atomic hydrogen. As a theory.

The quantum theory of the period between Planck's discovery of the quantum (1900) and the advent of a full-blown quantum mechanics(1925) is often referred to as the old quantum theory. valence shell atom. A related model was originally proposed by Arthur Erich Haas in 1910. but was rejected.complex. .