Using  a  Compound  Microscope  ..........................................................................................  5  
Cell  Structure  ......................................................................................................................  5  
Mitosis  ................................................................................................................................  6  
Cytokinesis  ..........................................................................................................................  9  
Differentiation  ....................................................................................................................  9  
Meiosis  ...............................................................................................................................  9  
Mistakes  in  Meiosis  ..........................................................................................................  11  
Abnormal  Chromosome  Number  ................................................................................  11  
Abnormal  Chromosome  Structure  ..............................................................................  11  
The  Origin  of  Genetics  ......................................................................................................  12  
Punnett  Squares  ...............................................................................................................  13  
Genetics  after  Mendel  ......................................................................................................  14  
Incomplete  Dominance  ...............................................................................................  14  
Co-­‐Dominance  .............................................................................................................  14  
Multiple  Alleles  ...........................................................................................................  14  
Sex  Linkage  .......................................................................................................................  15  
Applications  of  Genetics  in  Society  ..................................................................................  15  
Recombinant  DNA  Technology  ...................................................................................  15  
Plasmids  in  Genetic  Engineering  .................................................................................  16  
DNA  Fingerprinting  ......................................................................................................  16  
Cloning  a  Gene  in  a  Bacterial  Plasmid  .........................................................................  17  
Nucleic  Acids  .....................................................................................................................  18  
Protein  Synthesis  ..............................................................................................................  19  
Transcription  ...............................................................................................................  19  
Translation  ..................................................................................................................  20  
Adaptation  and  Variation  .................................................................................................  21  
Selective  Advantage  .........................................................................................................  22  
Natural  Selection  ..............................................................................................................  22  
Artificial  Selection  .............................................................................................................  24  
Evolution  ...........................................................................................................................  24  
Developing  the  Idea  of  Natural  Selection  .........................................................................  26  
Evidence  for  Evolution  ......................................................................................................  27  
Mechanisms  of  Evolution  .................................................................................................  28  
Genetic  Drift  ................................................................................................................  28  
Gene  Flow  ...................................................................................................................  29  
Non-­‐Random  Mating  ...................................................................................................  29  
Mutation  .....................................................................................................................  29  
Natural  Selection  .........................................................................................................  29  
Stabilizing  Selection  ..................................................................................................  29  
Directional  Selection  .................................................................................................  30  
Disruptive  Selection  ..................................................................................................  30  
Pre-­‐Zygotic  Isolating  Mechanisms  ...............................................................................  31  

 

2  

Post-­‐Zygotic  Isolating  Mechanisms  .............................................................................  31  
Types  of  Speciation  ...........................................................................................................  32  
Sympatric  Speciation  ...................................................................................................  32  
Allopatric  Speciation  ...................................................................................................  32  
Adaptive  Radiation  ...........................................................................................................  33  
Models  of  Evolution  .........................................................................................................  33  
Gradualism  ..................................................................................................................  33  
Punctuated  Equilibrium  ...............................................................................................  33  
Classification  of  Living  Things  ...........................................................................................  33  
Classification  of  Living  Things  ...........................................................................................  34  
The  Linnaean  System  of  Classification  ..............................................................................  34  
The  Six  Kingdoms  ..............................................................................................................  35  
Archaebacteria  ............................................................................................................  35  
Eubacteria  ...................................................................................................................  35  
Protista  ........................................................................................................................  35  
Fungi  ............................................................................................................................  35  
Plantae  ........................................................................................................................  35  
Animalia  ......................................................................................................................  35  
Kingdom  Protista  ..............................................................................................................  36  
Animal-­‐Like  Protists  .....................................................................................................  36  
Fungus-­‐Like  Protists  ....................................................................................................  36  
Plant-­‐Like  Protists  ........................................................................................................  36  
Reproduction  ...............................................................................................................  37  
Kingdom  Bacteria  -­‐  Archaebacteria  and  Eubacteria  .........................................................  38  
Classifying  Bacteria  by  Shape  ......................................................................................  38  
Classifying  Bacteria  by  Gram  Stain  ..............................................................................  38  
Reproduction  in  Bacteria  .............................................................................................  39  
Binary  Fission  ..............................................................................................................  39  
Conjugation  .................................................................................................................  39  
Endospore  Formation  ..................................................................................................  39  
Nutrition  ......................................................................................................................  40  
Respiration  ..................................................................................................................  40  
Viruses  ..............................................................................................................................  40  
Life  Cycles  ....................................................................................................................  40  
Lytic  Cycle  ....................................................................................................................  41  
Lysogenic  Cycle  ...........................................................................................................  41  
Kingdom  Fungi  ..................................................................................................................  42  
Reproduction  ...............................................................................................................  42  
Division  Zygomycota  ...................................................................................................  42  
Division  Ascomycota  ...................................................................................................  43  
Division  Basidiomycota  ...............................................................................................  43  
Imperfect  Fungi  ...........................................................................................................  43  
Fungal  Associations  .....................................................................................................  44  
Kingdom  Plantae  ..............................................................................................................  44  

 

3  

Classifying  Plants  .........................................................................................................  44  
Non-­‐Vascular  Plants  (Bryophytes)  ...............................................................................  45  
Vascular  Plants  (Tracheophytes)  .................................................................................  45  
Spore  Producing  Plants  ...............................................................................................  45  
Seed  Producing  Plants  .................................................................................................  45  
Gymnosperms  .............................................................................................................  46  
Angiosperms  ................................................................................................................  46  
Kingdom  Animalia  .............................................................................................................  48  
Phylum  Porifera  ...........................................................................................................  48  
Phylum  Cnidaria  ..........................................................................................................  49  
Phylum  Platyhelminthes  .............................................................................................  49  
Phylum  Nematoda  ......................................................................................................  50  
Phylum  Annelids  ..........................................................................................................  50  
Phylum  Chordata  .........................................................................................................  51  
Class  Vertebrate  ..........................................................................................................  51  
Superclass  Agnatha  .....................................................................................................  51  
Class  Chondrichthyes  ..................................................................................................  51  
Class  Osteichthyes  .......................................................................................................  51  
Class  Amphibia  ............................................................................................................  51  
Class  Reptilia  ...............................................................................................................  51  
Class  Aves  ....................................................................................................................  52  
Class  Mammalia  ..........................................................................................................  52  
Phylum  Mollusca  .........................................................................................................  52  
Class  Bivalva  ................................................................................................................  53  
Class  Gastropoda  .........................................................................................................  53  
Phylum  Cephalopoda  ..................................................................................................  53  
Phylum  Echinodermata  ...............................................................................................  53  
Phylum  Arthropoda  .....................................................................................................  53  
Class  Arachnida  ...........................................................................................................  53  
Class  Crustacea  ............................................................................................................  53  
Class  Insecta  ................................................................................................................  54  
Class  Diplopoda  and  Class  Chilopoda  ..........................................................................  54  
Glossary  ............................................................................................................................  55  

 

4  

Using  a  Compound  Microscope  
 
Structure  

Function  
To  look  through  at  the  specimen,  has  10x  
Eye  Piece  
magnification  
Contains  the  optical  components  of  the  
Body  Tube  
upper  microscope  
Revolving  Nosepiece  
Rotate  to  change  magnification  lenses  
Primary  optical  lenses:  low  is  4x,  medium  
Objective  Lens  
is  10x,  and  high  is  40x  magnification  
Stage  
The  specimen  is  placed  here  
Diaphragm  /  Condenser  
Adjusts  the  amount  of  light  
Illuminator  /  Mirror  
Provides  illumination  
Base  
Supports  the  microscope,  used  to  carry  
Precise  adjustment,  used  on  medium  and  
Fine  Adjustment  Knob  
high  power  
Coarse  Adjustment  Knob   Imprecise  adjustment,  used  on  low  power  
Connects  the  eyepiece  to  the  base,  used  to  
Arm  
carry  
Stage  Clips  
Hold  the  specimen  in  place  

 
Cell  Structure  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Typical  Animal  Cell  

 

Typical  Plant  Cell  

5  

  Although   there   is   a   tremendous   variety   among   cells,   all   cells   share   some   common  
structures:  a  cell  membrane  to  protect  and  regulate  what  enters  and  leaves  the  cell,  as  
well  as  hereditary  material  in  the  form  of  DNA.    In  addition,  all  cells  must  make  food  for  
energy   and   rid   themselves   of   waste   products.     While   no   such   thing   as   a   typical   cell  
exists,  all  cells  can  be  classified  as  prokaryotic  or  eukaryotic.      
 

Type  of  Cell  

DNA  

Size  

Organization  

in  nucleoid  
region  

usually  
smaller  

usually  single-­‐
celled  

 
 

 

may  not  need   no  organelles  
oxygen  

within  
membrane-­‐
bound  
nucleolus  

usually  larger  

usually  multi-­‐
cellular  

usually  needs  
oxygen  

membrane-­‐
bound  
organelles  

O2  

Mitosis  
 

Chromatin  
 
 
 

Organelles  

O2  

Prokaryotic  

Eukaryotic  

Metabolism  

  DNA   in   our   cells   takes   the   form   of   chromatin.     Chromatin   is   the  
form   that   DNA   takes   during   interphase.     It   is   an   irregular   network   of  
strands   and   granules.     During   mitosis,   chromatin   condenses   into  
chromosomes.     When   a   chromosome   replicates,   it   is   called   a   double-­‐
stranded   chromosome.     Each   strand   is   called   a   sister   chromatid,   and  
chromatids   attach   to   one   another   at   the   centromere.     However,   a  
double-­‐stranded   chromosome   is   still   considered   to   be   one  
chromosome.      

6  

 
 
Double-­‐
Centromere  
 
Stranded  
 
Chromosome  
Single-­‐
 
Stranded  
 
Chromosome  
 
 
Sister  Chromatid  
 
 
 
  In   humans,   somatic   cells   (all   cells   on   our   bodies,   excluding   gametes)   have   46  
chromosomes.    These  chromosomes  form  23  pairs  called  homologous  pairs.    Our  cells  
have  two  of  each  kind  of  chromosome:  one  paternal  (from  the  father)  and  one  maternal  
(from   the   mother).     Homologous   pars   are   double-­‐stranded   too.     For   human   somatic  
cells,  46  is  known  as  the  diploid  number,  and  23  is  the  haploid  number.  
 
Homologous  Pair  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sister  Chromatids  
 
 
  The  cell  theory,  as  proposed  by  Rudolph  Virchow,  states  that  all  cells  are  derived  
from  pre-­‐existing  cells.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The  Cell  Cycle  
 
 
 
 

 

7  

Nucleus  

Replicated,  
Uncondensed  DNA  

Mitotic  Spindle  

 
 
Pair  of  
 
Metaphase  
Centrioles  
 
Plate  
 
 
 
 
 
  Separating  
 Chromosomes  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Spindle  Fibres  
  Shortening  
Nuclear  Envelope  
 
Forming  
Cleavage  Furrow  
 
 
Interphase:  
• DNA  duplicates  during  the  S  phase  
• centrioles  double  
Prophase:  
• DNA  condenses  into  chromosomes  and  becomes  visible  
• nuclear  envelope  breaks  down  
• nucleolus  disappears  
• centrioles  begin  to  migrate  to  opposite  poles  of  the  cell,  sprouting  microtubules  
Metaphase:  
• mitotic  spindle  attaches  to  the  sister  chromatids  at  the  centromere  
• double-­‐stranded  chromosomes  line  up  "single-­‐file"  at  the  equator  (Metaphase  
plate)  of  the  cell  
Anaphase:  
• sister  chromatids  detach  from  one  another  and  move  to  opposite  poles  of  the  
cells  as  the  protein  fibres  in  the  mitotic  spindle  shorten  
Telophase:  
• DNA  reforms  chromatin  
• nuclear  envelope  reforms  
• nucleoli  reappear  and  spindle  and  aster  disappear  
• two  nuclei  are  visible  
• cleavage  furrow  begins  

 

8  

Cytokinesis  
 
 
• Begins  in  
  late  telophase  
• Cell  membrane  
pinches  in  at  
 
the  equator,  
producing  a  
 
furrow  
 
• Furrow    deepens  until  two  
separate  
  daughter  cells  form  
• Parent  c  ell's  organelles  are  
distributed  
among  the  
 
daughter  
  cells  
 
 
 
Animal  Cell  
 
 

• Begins  in  late  Anaphase  
• Membrane-­‐lined  vesicles  
accumulate  near  the  
Metaphase  plate  
• Vesicles  fuse  together,  forming  
a  cell  plate  that  grows  toward  
the  parent  cell  wall  
• Cellulose  is  added  to  the  cell  
plate  to  form  a  new  cell  wall  
Plant  Cell  

Differentiation  
 

  Differentiation   is   the   process   by   which   cells   in   a   multi-­‐cellular   organism   change   so  
they   can   take   on   specific   functions.     After   mitosis   and   Cytokinesis,   daughter   cells   are  
identical  to  the  mother  cell.    During  the  development  of  a  multi-­‐cellular  organism,  each  
cell   has   exactly   the   same   number   and   kinds   of   chromosomes   as   those   in   every   other  
cell.     Cells   must   undergo   differentiation   so   that   the   cells   within   one   organism   have  
different  functions.      
 

Meiosis  
 

  The   purpose   of   meiosis   is   to   ensure   that   sex   cells   have   a   haploid   number   of  
chromosomes.    This  ensures  that,  upon  fertilization  of  an  egg  cell  by  a  sperm  cell,  the  
resulting  zygote  receives  the  correct  number  of  chromosomes.      
  Meiosis  only  occurs  in  reproductive  tissues.    In  humans,  spermatogonia  are  sperm-­‐
producing   cells,   and   oogonia   are   egg-­‐producing   cells.     Meiosis   is   characterized   by   two  
major  divisions  called  meiosis  I  and  meiosis  II.      
  A  gamete  is  a  specialized  sex  cell.    The  female  gamete  is  the  egg,  and  the  male  is  the  
sperm.    Gametes  are  formed  by  meiosis  because  if  they  were  produced  by  mitosis,  the  
number  of  chromosomes  in  the  cell  would  double  each  time,  producing  new  organisms.    
The   haploid   number   for   human   cell   is   n,   and   the   diploid   number   is   2n,   23   and   46  
respectively.     Chromosomes   are   referred   to   in   pairs   called   homologous   chromosomes.    
One   chromosome   in   each   pair   is   inherited   from   the   mother   (maternal   chromosome),  
and  the  other  is  inherited  from  the  father  (paternal).      
 
 
 

 

9  

Tetrad  
  Prophase   I   of   meiosis   is   similar   to   Prophase   of   mitosis   in  
that   the   chromosomes   condense,   shorten   and   become   visible.    
However,   in   Prophase   I,   chromosomes   undergo   a   process  
called   synapsis,   such   that   the   double-­‐stranded   pairs   lie   side-­‐
by-­‐side   along   their   entire   length.     The   unit   formed   by   each  
homologous   pair   of   chromosomes   now   consists   of   four  
chromatids  and  is  called  a  tetrad.      
  In   this   configuration,   the   maternal   and   paternal  
homologous   pairs   can   break   and   exchange   sections   of   the  
chromosome   in   a   process   called   crossing   over.     This   process  
allows  for  greater  genetic  variation.      
Sister  Chromatids  
 
 
  In   Metaphase   I,   the   homologous   pairs   are   moved   by   the   spindle   fibres   to   the  
Metaphase   plate   of   the   cell   (similar   to   mitosis).     However,   in   Metaphase   I,   the  
homologous  pairs  do  not  line  up  "single  file",  because  having  formed  a  tetrad,  they  line  
up  side-­‐by-­‐side  with  their  homolog.      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  In  Anaphase  I,  the  sister  chromatids  do  not  separate  from  one  another  as  they  do  in  
mitosis.     Instead,   the   tetrads   separate   and   are   pulled   to   opposite   poles   of   the   cell.    
Depending   on   how   the   chromosomes   arrive   at   the   equator,   maternal   and   paternal  
chromosomes  can  assort  randomly.      
 
 
 
 
 
or  
 
 
 
 
 
  In  Telophase  I,  the  chromosomes  condense  slightly  and  a  nuclear  membrane  may  or  
may  not  form.      
  At   the   end   of   meiosis   I,   the   two   daughter   cells   that   form   each   have   half   the   number  
of  chromosomes  as  the  parent  cell.    This  is  why  meiosis  I  is  often  called  the  reduction  
division.      
  In   meiosis   II,   there   is   no   duplication   of   chromosomes   in   the   interphase   between  
meiotic   divisions.     The   second   meiotic   division   is   similar   to   mitosis,   but   it   begins   with  
half  the  genetic  material.    At  the  end  of  meiosis  II,  there  are  four  haploid  cells.      

 

10  

 

Mistakes  in  Meiosis  
 

 
There   are   two   common   errors   in   meiosis:   abnormal   chromosome   number   and  
abnormal  chromosome  structure.      
 
Abnormal  Chromosome  Number  
 
 
This  happens  during  Anaphase  I  or  Anaphase  II,  when  one  pole  gets  too  many  or  
too  few  chromosomes.  
 
Aneuploidy:  a  condition  in  which  there  are  too  many  or  too  few  chromosomes.    Trisomy  
and  polysomy  are  conditions  when  there  are  too  many  chromosomes,  and  monosomy  is  
a  condition  when  one  chromosome  is  missing.  
Non-­‐Disjunction:  the  failure  of  chromosomes  to  separate  and  move  apart  
Polyploidy:  the  possession  of  more  than  two  complete  sets  of  chromosomes  
 
Abnormal  Chromosome  Structure  
 
 
This  happens  when  errors  occur  during  crossing  over.  
 
Duplication:  the  chromosome  piece  is  attached  to  the  wrong  chromosome  
Deletion:  the  chromosome  piece  is  lost  and  does  not  re-­‐attach  
Inversion:  the  chromosome  piece  is  re-­‐attached  backwards  
Translocation:   the   chromosome   piece   attaches   at   the   wrong   location,   but   to   the   right  
chromosome  
 
  If   non-­‐disjunction   occurs   during   meiosis   I,   as   a   result,   all   four   gametes   produced   will  
have  an  abnormal  number  of  chromosomes:  either  one  too  many  or  one  too  few.    On  
the  other  hand,  if  non-­‐disjunction  occurs  during  meiosis  II,  only  two  of  the  four  gametes  
produced  are  impacted.  

 

11  

The  Origin  of  Genetics  
 
  Gregor   Mendel   is   considered   to   be   the   "father"   of   genetics.     Through   his   many  
experiments,   he   established   the   basis   for   the   modern   study   of   genetics.     He   established  
purebred  plants  for  seven  different  traits  in  the  common  pea  plant,  Pisum  satiuum.    He  
then   conducted   controlled   experiments   where   he   crossed   purebred   plants   that   were  
different  for  only  one  contrasting  pair  of  traits.    He  called  these  plants  the  P  (Parental)  
Generation.    He  called  the  hybrid  offspring  the  F1  (First  Filial)  Generation.    The  trait  that  
was   seen   in   this   generation   was   termed   dominant,   while   the   trait   that   was   not  
expressed  was  termed  recessive.    Mendel  then  crossed  plants  from  the  F1  Generation  to  
yield   the   F2   (Second   Filial)   Generation.     Having   done   this,   he   identified   the   genotypic  
and  phenotypic  ratios  for  all  three  generations.  
 
 
P  Generation:    
Tall  -­‐  50%  
 
Short  -­‐  50%  
 
F1  Generation:  
Tall  -­‐  100%    
Short  -­‐  0%  
 
F2  Generation:  
Tall  -­‐  75%  
 
Short  -­‐  25%  
 
 
 
P  Generation:    
  Tall  :  Short  =  1  :  1  
F1  Generation:  
  Tall  :  Short  =  1  :  0  
F2  Generation:  
  Tall  :  Short  =  3  :  1  
 
  Mendel  suggested  that  an  organism's  phenotype  was  determined  by  a  pair  of  alleles  
that  could  be  identical  or  different.      
 
Homozygous  Dominant  :  TT  
 
Heterozygous  :  Tt  
 
Homozygous  Recessive  :  tt  
 
  Mendel's  Law  of  Segregation  states  that  members  of  a  pair  of  alleles  for  a  given  trait  
are  segregated  (separated)  during  gamete  formation.      
  Mendel's   Law   of   Independent   Assortment   states   that   when   two   or   more   pairs   of  
traits   are   considered   simultaneously,   each   pair   shows   dominance,   recession   and  
segregation  independently  of  each  other.      
  A   monohybrid   cross   is   the   reproduction   of   two   heterozygous   individuals   for   one  
trait.    The  expected  phenotypic  ratio  is  3:1  (T:t),  while  the  genotypic  ratio  will  be  1:2:1  
(TT:Tt:tt).      
  A  dihybrid  cross  is  the  reproduction  of  two  heterozygous  individuals  for  two  traits.    
The   expected   phenotypic   ratio   for   this   cross   is   9:3:3:1   (Ab:ab:AB:aB).     The   genotypic  
ratio  is  the  same.      
  A   testcross   is   the   mating   of   an   individual   of   unknown   genotype   with   an   individual  
that  is  homozygous  recessive  for  a  certain  trait.      
 
 

 

12  

Punnett  Squares  
 
  Punnett   squares   illustrate   the   possible   outcomes   (offspring)   of   a   particular   cross.    
For  example,  a  homozygous  dominant  individual  is  crossed  with  a  homozygous  recessive  
individual.      
 
P  Generation  (parental  genotypes):  AA  x  aa  
 
By  separating  the  
  A   A  
Offspring   alleles,  we  are  
Gamete  
 
Genotype   applying  Mendel's  
a   Aa   Aa  
Genotype  
 
(diploid)  
(haploid)  
 
a   Aa   Aa  
Law  of  Segregation.      
 
F1  Generation  (offspring  genotypes):  Aa  
 
  Each   gamete   can   only   contain   one   of   the   alleles   for   a   gene   for   any   given   trait,  
because  each  gamete  contains  only  one  of  each  homologous  pair  of  chromosomes.    This  
is   Mendel's   Law   of   Segregation   and   is   a   result   of   the   separation   of   homologous   pairs  
during  Meiosis  I.      
 
 
 
=  T  
=  t  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Parent  
cell  
Prophase  I  
Anaphase  I  
 
 
 
 
Metaphase  II  
 
 
Gametes  
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 

13  

Genetics  after  Mendel  
 
Incomplete  Dominance  
 
  Neither   gene   is   completely   dominant   over   the   other.     The   F1   hybrids   have   an  
appearance   somewhere   in   between   the   phenotypes   of   the   two   parental   varieties.     A  
snapdragon  flower  is  an  example  of  incomplete  dominance.      
 
P  Generation  
F1  Generation  
F2  Generation  
 
RR  
x
 
r
r  
Rr  
RR,  Rr,  rr  
 
(red  x  white)  
(pink)  
(red,  pink,  white)  
 
 
The  intermediate  variation  is  not  a  blending  of  
 
colours  since  the  F1  cross  results  in  the  
 
reappearance  of  the  red  and  white  individuals.  
 
Co-­‐Dominance  
 
  Both   alleles   are   separately   manifested   in   the   heterozygous   phenotypes.     For  
example,  in  cattle,  the  red  coat  colour  (R)  and  the  white  coat  colour  (r)  behave  as  co-­‐
dominants.    In  its  heterozygous  state,  the  colour  of  the  cattle's  coat  is  roan  (Rr):  it  has  
both  the  red  and  the  white  hair  pigments.      
 
Multiple  Alleles  
 
  When   there   are   more   than   two   allelic   forms   for   a   gene,   the   organism   has   what   is  
known  as  multiple  alleles  for  that  particular  trait.    The  ABO  blood  types  are  an  example  
of  multiple  alleles.      
 
The  blood  reacts  (clumps)  when  red  blood  cells  
Antibodies   from  the  groups  below  are  added  to  the  serum  
Blood  
Genotype   in  Blood  
from  the  groups  are  the  left.  
Type  
Serum  
O  
A  
B  
AB  
O  

ii  

A  
B  
AB  

IAIA  or  IAi  
IBIB  or  IBi  
IAIB  

anti-­‐A  
anti-­‐B  
anti-­‐B  
anti-­‐A  
N/A  

No  

Yes  

Yes  

Yes  

No  
No  
No  

No  
Yes  
No  

Yes  
No  
No  

Yes  
Yes  
No  

 
  A   and   B   are   carbohydrates   on   the   surface   of   the   blood   cells   that   act   as   blood  
markers  ("nametags").    Type  A  blood  has  A  markers,  type  B  blood  has  B  markers,  type  
AB  blood  has  AB  markers,  and  type  O  blood  doesn't  have  markers.      
  Blood  type  O  is  the  universal  donor,  and  blood  type  AB  is  the  universal  receptor.      
 

 

14  

Sex  Linkage  
 
  The   sex   of   an   individual   is   determined   by   the   sex   chromosomes,   X   and   Y.     XX   is   ♀
(female),  and  XY  is  ♂ (male).      
  Thomas   Hunt   Morgan,   in   his   work   with   the   common   fruit   fly,   Drosophila  
melanogaster,  noticed  that  the  inheritance  of  certain  traits  seemed  to  be  linked  to  the  
sex  of  the  fly.      
  Traits   that   are   controlled   by   genes   on   the   X   chromosome   are   called   "sex-­‐linked",  
since  the  chromosome  is  also  involved  in  determining  the  gender  of  the  individual.      
   
   
 
  Since   the   X-­‐chromosome   is   larger,   it   carries   more   genes   than   the  
 
smaller  Y-­‐chromosome.      
 
  A  gene  on  the  X-­‐chromosome  for  a  male  has  no  matching  allele  on  
 
the   Y-­‐chromosome.     Therefore,   any   gene   on   the   X-­‐chromosome,  
 
whether  it  is  dominant  or  recessive,  will  be  expressed  in  males.  
 
  X   Y  
 

Sticky  Ends  

Applications  of  Genetics  in  Society  
 

  Recombinant  DNA  is  a  technique  in  which  gene  segments  from  different  sources  are  
combined  in  vitro  (in  glass)  and  transferred  into  cells  where  the  DNA  may  be  expressed.  
  Restriction   enzymes   are   enzymes   that   recognize   and   cut   up   DNA.     These   enzymes  
are  very  specific,  recognizing  short  nucleotide  sequences  in  DNA  and  cutting  at  specific  
points  within  these  sequences.      
 
Recombinant  DNA  Technology  
 
G     A  A  T  T  C  
C    T  T  A  A  G   The  restriction  enzyme  cuts  the  DNA  into  pieces  at  a  certain  point.  
 
 
Same  sticky  ends  
:::::::::
       A  A  T  T  C  
 
:::::::::
::  
       ::::::::::  G  
 
::  
Different  source  of  DNA  
 
       G    ::::::::::  
       C    T  T  A  A  
       G  
       A  A  T  T  C  
       C  T  T  A  A  
                                 G  
 
 
Recombinant  DNA  molecule  
 
  The  DNA  fragment  is  attached  to  a  different  source  of  DNA.    The  two  fragments  stick  
together  by  complimentary  base  pairing.    The  strand  is  then  sealed  with  DNA  ligase  -­‐  an  
enzyme  that  allows  the  DNA  backbone  to  form  covalent  bonds.      

 

15  

Plasmids  in  Genetic  Engineering  
 
Bacterium  

 
 
Chromosome  
 
Plasmid:  a  small  ring  of  
 
DNA  that  carries  
 
accessory  genes  separate  
 
from  the  chromosome  
Cell  containing  the  gene  
 
1)  The  plasmid  
of  interest  
 
is  isolated  
 
 
 
 
DNA  
 
 
4)  The     plasmid  is  returned  
3)  The  gene  is  inserted  
2)  The  DNA  is  
 
to  the  bacterium  
into  the  plasmid  
purified  
 
  Once   the   altered   plasmid   has   been   returned   to   the   bacterium,   that   bacterium   is  
cloned.    Once  there  are  many  copies  of  this  bacterium,  its'  protein  can  be  injected  into  
animals   (human   growth   hormone,   heart   attack   therapy),   or   copies   of   the   gene   can   be  
inserted  into  plants  and  other  bacteria  (pest  resistance  for  crops,  bacteria  can  be  used  
to  clean  up  toxic  waste).  
 
DNA  Fingerprinting  
 
1. Isolation  of  DNA.    DNA  must  be  recovered  from  the  cells  or  tissues  of  the  body.    
Only  a  small  amount  of  tissue,  like  blood,  hair,  or  skin,  is  needed.    For  example,  
the  amount  of  DNA  found  at  the  root  of  one  hair  is  usually  sufficient.  
2. Cutting,   sizing   and   sorting.     Special   enzymes   called   restriction   enzymes   are   used  
to  cut  the  DNA  at  specific  places.    For  example,  an  enzyme  called  EcoR1,  found  in  
bacteria,  will  cut  DNA  only  when  the  sequence  GAATTC  occurs.    The  DNA  pieces  
are   sorted   according   to   size   by   a   sieving   technique   called   electrophoresis.     The  
DNA   pieces   are   passed   through   a   gel   made   from   seaweed   agarose   (a   jelly-­‐like  
product  made  from  seaweed).    This  technique  is  the  DNA  equivalent  of  screening  
sand  through  progressively  finer  mesh  screens  to  determine  the  particle  sizes.  
3. Transfer   of   DNA   to   nylon.     The   distribution   of   DNA   pieces   if   transferred   to   a  
nylon  sheet  by  placing  the  sheet  on  the  gel  and  soaking  it  overnight.      
4. Probing.     Adding   radioactive   or   colored   probes   to   the   nylon   sheet   produces   a  
pattern  called  the  DNA  fingerprint.    Each  probe  typically  sticks  in  only  one  or  two  
specific  places  on  the  nylon  sheet.  
5. DNA   fingerprint.     The   final   DNA   fingerprint   is   built   by   using   several   probes  
simultaneously.    It  resembles  the  bar  codes  used  by  grocery  store  scanners.  

 

16  

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

There  are  many  applications  of  DNA  fingerprinting:  
• Diagnosis  of  inherited  disorders  
• Developing  cures  for  inherited  disorders  
• Forensic  or  criminal  
• Personal  identification  
 
Cloning  a  Gene  in  a  Bacterial  Plasmid  
 
1)  Isolate  
  DNA  
from  two  sources  
 

Human  cell  

Tetracycline  
Resistance  

Ampicillin  
Resistance  
Human  DNA  containing  
gene  of  interest  

2)  Cut  both  DNAs  
with  the  same  
restriction  enzyme  

3)  The  human  
gene  is  i  nserted  
into  the    plasmid  

4)  Return  the  plasmid  
into  the  bacterium  by  
transformation  

5)  The  cells  containing  the  recombinant  
plasmid  can  be  identified  by  their  ability  
to  grow  in  the  presence  of  Ampicillin  but  
not  Tetracycline.      
 

17  

Nucleic  Acids  
 
  Nucleic   acids   are   polymers   made   from   nucleotide   monomers.     A   polymer   is   a   long  
chain  of  repeating  units;  a  monomer  is  the  basic  unit  of  a  polymer.    DNA  and  RNA  are  
nucleic  acids.      
 
 
Polymer  
  Monomer  
  Nucleotide  monomers  themselves  are  made  of  three  sub-­‐units:  
 
1.    Nitrogenous  Base:  
sugar   -­‐  a  ·∙·∙·∙·∙  ʇ  -­‐   ɹɐƃns  
 
|  
 
|  
• Adenine  (A)  
Two  Rings  
phosphate  
 
ǝʇɐɥdsoɥd  
• Guanine  (G)  
|  
 
|  
• Cytosine  (C)  
One  Ring  
sugar   -­‐  g  ·∙·∙·∙·∙  ɔ  -­‐   ɹɐƃns  
• Thymine  (T)  
|  
|  
 
phosphate  
ǝʇɐɥdsoɥd  
2.    Five-­‐Carbon  Sugar  (Pentose):  
 
 
• Deoxyribose  
 
3.    Phosphate  Group  
 
 
O  
P  
 
 
 
 
 
 
O  
 
 
 
Sugar  
Nitrogenous  Base  
 
 
  In  DNA,  the  sugar  and  phosphate  groups  form  the  "backbone"  and  the  bases  point  
toward  the  interior.    Bases  on  one  strand  form  hydrogen  bonds  to  bases  on  the  other  
strand.    Complimentary  strands  (A  pairs  only  with  T,  and  C  pairs  only  with  G)  and  the  
two  chains  form  a  double  helix.  
  Therefore,  if  one  strand  of  DNA  has  a  given  sequence  of  bases,  it  is  possible  to  
predict  the  sequence  of  bases  on  the  complimentary  strand.  
 
G  A  T  T  C  C  G  A  T  A  A  C  
C  T  A  A  G  G  C  T  A  T  T  G  
 

 

18  

Protein  Synthesis  
 
  Protein  synthesis  is  the  process  of  assembling  amino  acids  into  polypeptides  based  
on   "instructions"   encoded   on   a   DNA   molecule.     It   occurs   in   two   steps:   transcription   and  
translation.  
 
Transcription  
 
  Transcription  is  the  production  of  an  mRNA  molecule  from  a  DNA  strand.  
 
 
 
 
Double-­‐stranded  DNA  
 
 
One  strand  of  DNA  is  copied  ("transcribed")  
 
into  "messenger  RNA"  (mRNA)  by  
 
complimentary  base  pairing*  
 
 
Transcription  
 
 
mRNA  passes  through  nuclear  pores  into  the  
 
cytoplasm,  where  it  is  carried  to  the  ribosomes  
 
on  the  rough  endoplasmic  reticulum  
 
 
 
 
*  
 
DNA  
mRNA  
 
C  
G  
 
G  
C  
 
A  
T  →  U  (Uracil)  
 
T  
A  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

19  

Translation  
 
  Translation  is  the  formation  of  a  protein  from  the  instructions  encoded  on  an  mRNA  
molecule  at  the  ribosome.      
 
mRNA  
  triplets  make      a                                            U  A  U        C  G  C        C  A  U        A  A  U  
Nucleotide  
  -­‐  the  code  to  a  
codon  
 
specific  
amino  acid  
 
Anticodon  
The  complimentary  bases  to  
 
codons  on  the  mRNA  strand  triplet  
 
 
 
 
tRNA  (transfer  RNA)  
 
transfers  specific  amino  
 
 
acids  to  the  ribosome  to  
 
Every  tRNA  carries  a  specific  
build  a  protein  
Amino  Acid  
 
amino  acid  
 
 
  tRNA  molecules  bring  the  required  amino  acids,  one  at  a  time,  to  build  the  "primary  
structure"  of  protein,  according  to  the  instructions  on  the  mRNA.    Each  amino  acid  links  
to  the  next  by  a  peptide  bond.  
 
  After  protein  synthesis:  
1. Polypeptides  enter  the  rough  endoplasmic  reticulum.  
2. The  protein  assumes  2º,  3º  and  4º  structures  by  folding  itself  repeatedly.  
3. The  protein  is  sent  to  the  Golgi  Apparatus  in  the  vesicle.  
4. The  protein  is  modified  in  the  Golgi  Apparatus.      
5. The  protein  is  packaged  in  a  vesicle,  ready  for  export.  
 
  Protein  synthesis  begins  when  a  strand  of  DNA  unravels.    The  code  for  producing  a  
protein  is  carried  in  the  sequence  of  the  nucleotides  in  the  DNA.    Each  group  of  three  
nucleotides   forms   a   codon,   which   represents   a   particular   amino   acid.     One   of   the  
unwound   strands   of   DNA   forms   a   complimentary   strand   called   mRNA.     This   process   is  
called   transcription.     It   takes   place   in   the   nucleus   of   the   cells.     Afterwards,   the   mRNA  
moves   into   the   cytoplasm,   where   it   attaches   to   a   ribosome.     A   phase   of   protein  
synthesis   called   translation   then   begins.     A   cloverleaf-­‐shaped   molecule   of   tRNA  
approaches   the   ribosome.     At   one   end   of   this   molecule   are   three   bases   (nucleotides),  
known   as   an   anticodon.     At   the   ribosome,   each   anticodon   aligns   with   its   complimentary  
codon  on  the  mRNA.    This  occurs  according  to  complimentary  base  pairing.    At  the  other  
end  of  the  tRNA,  an  amino  acid  is  attached.    As  the  ribosome  moves  along  the  strand  of  
mRNA,  new  tRNAs  are  attached.    This  brings  the  amino  acids  close  to  each  other.    The  
amino  acids  are  joined  by  peptide  bonds,  and  the  resulting  strand  is  a  polypeptide.      

 

20  

Adaptation  and  Variation  
 
  Adaptations   are   structures,   behaviours   or   physiological   processes   that   help   an  
organism  survive  and  reproduce  in  a  particular  environment.  
 
Structural  Adaptations:  
• mimicry  
• camouflage  
• skunk  scent  
Protection  from  Predators  
• rose  thorns  
• porcupine  quills  
• different  bird  beaks  
• different  teeth  
Obtaining  Food  
• claws  for  digging  
• webbed  feet  
• hooves  
Locomotion  
• feathers  
 
Behavioural  Adaptations:  
• mating  rituals  
Reproduction  
• hissing  snakes  
• locating  safe  places  for  building  nests  
Protection  from  Predators  
• turtles  hiding  in  shells  
• opossums  play  dead  
Availability  of  Food  
• migration  
 
Physiological  Adaptations:  
• hibernation  
 
  Variations  are  differences  between  individuals,  which  may  be  structural,  functional  
or   physiological.     Variations   arise   in   populations   because   of   continuously   occurring  
mutations  -­‐  permanent  changes  in  the  genetic  material  of  an  organism.  
  Mutations  come  about  because  of  errors  that  occur  during  DNA  synthesis.    They  can  
be   harmful,   beneficial,   or   neutral.     Mutations   that   occur   during   gamete   formation   are  
passed  on  to  subsequent  generations  and  can  become  established  in  entire  populations.    
  Environmental   conditions   determine   whether   a   variation   in   an   individual   has   a  
positive,   negative,   or   no   effect   on   the   individual's   ability   to   survive   and   reproduce.     A  
particular   variation   may   have   no   impact   on   survival   at   one   time,   but   due   to  
environmental  changes  in  the  future,  this  variation  might  become  beneficial  to  survival.  
   
 
Variation   (already  exists  in  a  population)  
 
 
(mutation)  

 

New  Variation  

(environmental  conditions)  

Adaptation  

21  

Selective  Advantage  
 
  The   offspring   of   sexually   reproducing   organisms   inherit   a   combination   of   genetic  
material  (genes)  from  both  biological  parents.    The  number  of  possible  combinations  of  
genes   that   offspring   inherit   from   their   parents   results   in   genetic   variation   among  
individuals  within  a  population.    A  change  in  the  content  of  the  genetic  message  -­‐  the  
base   sequence   of   one   or   more   genes   -­‐   is   referred   to   as   a   mutation.     Some   mutations  
alter  the  identity  of  a  particular  nucleotide,  while  others  remove  or  add  nucleotides  to  a  
gene.     Mutations   that   occur   in   somatic   tissue   can   have   significant   effects   on   an  
individual,   but   will   not   be   passed   on   to   offspring.     Some   mutations   have   negative  
effects,   some   have   neutral   effects,   and   some   have   positive   effects   for   the   individual.    
Mutations   that   occur   in   gametes   can   have   significant   effects   on   offspring   and   on   the  
entire   species.     Mutations   result   in   new   alleles   and   therefore   underlie   all   other  
mechanisms  that  produce  variation,  the  raw  material  for  evolutionary  change.      
  Selective  advantage  is  the  genetic  advantage  of  one  organism  over  its  competitors  
that  causes  it  to  be  favoured  in  survival  and  reproduction  rates  over  time.    For  example,  
some   flies   have   a   mutation   that   makes   them   immune   to   the   effects   of   the   insecticide  
DDT.    This  mutation,  however,  reduces  the  flies'  growth  rate.    Before  the  introduction  of  
DDT  to  their  environment,  this  mutation  was  a  disadvantage  to  the  flies.    When  DDT  was  
introduced,   this   mutation   enabled   the   individuals   that   possessed   it   to   survive.     These  
flies  had  a  selective  advantage  in  the  population.    They  were  more  likely  to  survive  and  
reproduce,   potentially   passing   on   this   now-­‐helpful   mutation   to   their   offspring.    
Adaptations   are   the   result   of   gradual,   accumulative   changes   that   help   an   organism  
survive   and   reproduce.     Mutations   like   the   one   that   allows   some   flies   to   survive   DDT  
exposure   come   about   completely   by   chance.     Organisms   do   not   alter   their   genetic  
information   so   they   can   exist   in   new   environments.     When   an   environment   changes,  
some  individuals  in  a  population  have  mutations  that  allow  them  to  take  advantage  of  
the  chance.    If  so,  they  may  survive  and  pass  their  beneficial  genes  on  to  their  offspring.    
Organisms   that   do   not   have   this   mutation   may   not   survive   or   may   not   be   healthy  
enough   to   reproduce.     The   rate   at   which   resistance   develops   in   a   population   is  
influenced   by   genetics   and   also   by   other   biological   properties,   such   as   the   organisms'  
rate  of  reproduction.      
 

Natural  Selection  
 

  Natural   selection   is   a   process   whereby   the   characteristics   of   a   population   change  
because   individuals   with   certain   heritable   traits   survive   specific   local   environmental  
conditions   and   pass   on   their   traits   to   their   offspring.     In   order   for   this   to   occur,   diversity  
within  a  species  or  variability  within  a  population  must  already  exist.    The  environment  
exerts  a  selective  pressure  on  a  population  as  it  selects  for  certain  characteristics,  and  
against  others.    Organisms  with  a  high  degree  of  fitness  have  high  reproductive  success.    
This   is   because   they   are   well-­‐suited   to   the   environment.     Their   advantageous   genes   can  
be  passed  on  to  their  offspring.  

 

22  

Evolution:  
1. Genes  mutate  
2. Individuals  are  selected  
3. Populations  evolve  
 
  There   exists   phenotypic   variation   within   a   population.     Some   phenotypic   variation   is  
heritable.    Within  populations  there  is  differential  reproductive  success.    The  differential  
reproductive  success  is  influenced  by  the  phenotypic  differences  between  individuals.  
  Reproductive  success  leads  to  a  decline  in  undesirable  genotypes.    It  also  increases  
the  frequency  of  desirable  genes,  which  are  more  fit  to  the  environment.    "Survival  of  
the  fittest"  is  commonly  associated  with  natural  selection.  
  Natural  selection  is  the  differential  success  in  reproduction.    It  occurs  between  the  
environment   and   the   species.     The   product   of   natural   selection   is   the   adaptation   of  
populations  of  organisms  to  their  environment.    Once  organism  can  survive  a  change  in  
its  environment,  it  can  pass  on  its  successful  genes  to  its  offspring.  
 
Abiotic  Factors:  
 
Biotic  Factors:  
 
• air  
• predators  
 
• wind  
• humans  
 
• light  
• disease  
 
• temperature  
 
• gases  
 
• water  
 
• soil  
 
  For  natural  selection  to  occur,  there  must  be  pre-­‐existing  diversity  within  a  species.    
This   is   what   allows   changes   in   the   population's   proportions.     Natural   selection   has   no  
will,   purpose   or   direction.     Rather,   it   is   situational.     A   trait   that   at   one   time   seemed  
irrelevant  may  be  the  trait  that  allows  a  population  to  survive  in  a  different  situation.  
 
DNA  
 
 
 
Mutations  
 
 
Change  in  Genotype  
 
 
 
Change  in  Phenotype  
 
 
Variability  in  Populations  (adaptation)  
 
 
 
Change  in  allele  frequency  in  the  gene  pool  
 

 

EVOLUTION  

New  Species  

EXTINCTION  

23  

Artificial  Selection  
 
  People   artificially   select   organisms   for   particular   traits.     Selective   breeding   is   an  
example   of   artificial   selection.     Most   grains,   fruits,   vegetables,   meats   and   milks   are  
obtained   through   artificial   selection.     The   environment   plays   no   role   in   artificial  
selection;  rather,  humans  do.      
 
Positive  
Negative  
Breeding  animals  for  certain  
Health  problems  
characteristics  
Breeding  plants  to  express  their  most  
Lack  of  genetic  diversity  
desirable  qualities  
Most  of  the  food  we  eat  today  is  artificially  
Monocultures  are  susceptible  to  disease  
selected  
 
  A   gene   bank   contains   a   population   of   early   ancestors   of   modern   plants.     Their  
genetic   combination   allowed   them   to   thrive   for   thousands   of   years.     If   the   need   ever  
arose,  their  genetic  diversity  could  be  reintroduced  into  modern  plants.  
 

Evolution  
 

  Evolution  is  the  process  in  which  significant  changes  in  the  inheritable  traits  (genetic  
material)  of  a  species  over  time.    Fossil  evidence  and  geological  processes  are  some  of  
the  scientific  evidence.    The  fossils  and  their  geographic  distribution  provided  important  
scientific  insights  into  the  past.  
 
Name  
Theory  
"Catastrophism"  and  "Creationism":    local  catastrophes  caused  widespread  
extinctions.    Extinct  species  are  replaced  by  newly  created  species,  or  by  
repopulating  from  nearby  areas.  
 
 
newer  fossils  
more  complex  
Cuvier  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
older  fossils  
less  complex  
 
 
(does  not  support  
 
(supports  theory)  
theory)  
 
"Uniformitarianism":  the  Earth's  surface  has  always  changed  and  continues  
to  change  through  similar,  uniform  and  very  gradual  (not  "catastrophic")  
Lyell  
processes.    Therefore,  the  Earth  must  be  very  old.    Dramatic  change  could  
result  over  extremely  long  periods  of  time  through  slow,  seemingly  slight  
processes.    This  was  an  important  stepping  stone  for  other  theories.      

 

24  

Species  change  over  time,  leading  to  new  organisms  (similar  organisms  may  
have  a  common  ancestor)  
 
 
New  Organisms  
 
 
Buffon  
 
 
 
Common  Ancestor  
 
 
 
He  was  the  first  to  recognize  that  the  environment  plays  a  role  in  the  
evolution  of  a  species,  since  species  need  to  adapt  to  environmental  
conditions.    "Theory  of  Inheritance  of  Acquired  Traits":  each  species  gradually  
Lamarck  
becomes  more  complex  and  new  species  are  formed  by  spontaneous  
generation  (arising  from  non-­‐living  matter).    However,  this  theory  is  
incorrect.  
 
 
The  origins  of  life  are  strongly  influenced  
 
by  religion  and  philosophy.    These  ideas  
 
suggest  that  all  forms  of  life  have  existed  
 
unchanged  since  their  creation.  
A  system  of  empirical  studies  
 
  (observations  and  experiments)  is  used  
to  explain  the  natural  world.  
 
The  idea  that  life  forms  are  unchanging  
 
was  challenged.    The  similarities  
 
between  humans  and  apes  suggest  a  
 
possible  common  ancestor;  therefore  
 
species  do  change  over  time.  
 
  The  development  of  palaeontology  -­‐  the  
study  of  fossils  
 
 
Catastrophic  events  periodically  
 
destroyed  species  (caused  extinction).  
 
  Subtle,  slow  geological  processes  could  
  happen  over  a  long  period  of  time  and  
 
result  in  substantial  change.  
 
Characteristics  that  are  acquired  over  a  
 
lifetime  can  be  passed  on  to  offspring.  
 
 
The  theory  of  evolution  by  natural  
 
selection  is  developed.  

 

25  

Developing  the  Idea  of  Natural  Selection  

 
  Darwin's   journey   on   the   Beagle   provided   him   with   important   evidence   which   he  
then  used  to  develop  his  ideas  about  natural  selection.  
 
1.    Plants  and  animals  observed  in  the  temperate  regions  of  South  America  were  more  
similar  to  plants  and  animals  in  the  South  American  tropics  than  to  plants  and  animals  in  
other   temperate   regions   in   the   world   (the   rodents   in   South   America   were   structurally  
similar  to  one  another,  but  were  quite  different  from  the  rodents  Darwin  had  observed  
on  other  continents).  
  Q:   If   all   organisms   originated   in   their   present   forms   during   a   single   event  
  ("creation"),  why  was  there  a  distinctive  clustering  of  similar  organisms  in  different  
  parts  of  the  world?  
  A:   Organisms   living   relatively   close   together   more   likely   evolved   from   a   common  
  ancestor.  
 
2.     Darwin   found   fossils   of   extinct   animals   (such   as   the   glyptodont)   that   looked   very  
similar  to  animals  presently  living  in  the  same  region  (for  example,  the  armadillo).      
  Q:   Why   would   living   and   fossilized   organisms   that   looked   similar   be   found   in   the  
  same  region?  
  A:   Extinct   animals   are   recent   ancestors.     Changing   environmental   conditions  
  selected  for  certain  traits  over  others.  
 
3.     Plants   and   animals   living   in   the   Galapagos   Islands   closely   resemble   plants   and  
animals  living  on  the  nearest  continental  coast  (the  west  coast  of  South  America).      
  Q:  Why  are  these  plants  and  animals  similar  to  one  another?  
  A:  Once,  they  were  the  same  species,  but  at  one  point  in  time,  the  island  broke  off  
  from  the  continent.  
 
4.    Species  of  animals  (such  as  tortoises  and  finches)  that  at  first  looked  identical  actually  
varied  slightly  from  island  to  island.      
  Q:  Why  are  these  animals  different  from  one  another?  
  A:   Different   variations   were   selected   for   because   of   different   environmental  
conditions  on  the  different  islands  (such  as  different  predators  and  food  sources).  
 
5.     Through   his   experience   with   artificial   selection   (such   as   breeding   pigeons),   Darwin  
knew   that   traits   could   be   passed   on   from   parent   to   offspring,   and   that   sexual  
reproduction  resulted  in  many  variations  within  a  species.  
  Q:   Could   the   same   thing   happen   in   nature?   Could   the   environment   "select"   the  
  desirable  traits?  
 
6.    After  reading  Lyell's  work,  Darwin  understood  that  geological  processes  are  slow  and  
subtle  -­‐  over  time,  they  can  result  in  substantial  changes.      

 

26  

Evidence  for  Evolution  
 
The  Fossil  Record:  
• Most  fossils  are  very  different  from  species  we  see  today  
• More  recent  fossils  are  more  similar  to  species  alive  today,  since  they  have  had  
relatively  little  time  to  change  
• Fossils  appear  in  a  chronological  order  
• Organisms  do  not  all  appear  in  the  fossil  record  simultaneously:  gradual  change  
is  seen  (ancestral  fish  →  ancestral  amphibian  →  ancestral  reptile)  
• Transitional   fossils   show   links   between   different   organisms   since   they   share  
characteristics   common   to   two   separate   groups   (Archaeopteryx   had   reptilian  
teeth,  claws  and  a  bony  tail,  but  it  also  had  bird-­‐like  feathers)  
 
Geographic  Distribution  of  Species:  
• Geographically   proximal   environments   are   more   likely   to   be   populated   by  
related   species   than   are   locations   that   are   geographically   separate   but  
environmentally  similar  
 
Anatomy:  
• Homologous   structures   are   anatomical   structures   that   have   the   same  
evolutionary   origin   and   may   or   may   not   have   the   same   structure   and   function   (a  
human   arm   and   a   bat   wing).     They   point   to   a   common   ancestor   both   species  
shared  
• Analogous   structures   are   body   parts   of   organisms   that   do   not   have   a   common  
evolutionary   origin   but   perform   similar   functions   (a   bat   wing   and   a   butterfly  
wing)  
• Vestigial   structures   are   structures   that   were   functional   in   the   organism's  
ancestors,  but  are  no  longer  functional  because  they  have  lost  their  use  (pelvic  
bone  in  baleen  whales)  
 
Embryology:  
• When   embryos   are   examined,   similar   stages   of   embryonic   development   are  
evident  (early  stages  of  development  in  fish,  bird,  reptile  and  mammal  embryos  
all  have  a  tail  and  gill  pouches,  revealing  a  common  ancestral  origin)  
 
Genetics  and  Molecular  Biology:  
• Species   with   similar   patterns   in   their   DNA   indicate   that   they   have   a   common  
ancestor  from  which  this  DNA  was  inherited  (T-­‐Rex  and  chicken)  
 

 
 
 

 

27  

Mechanisms  of  Evolution  
 
  Individuals  do  not  evolve  -­‐  populations  do.    Therefore,  to  study  evolution,  we  focus  
on  changes  within  populations.  
  Macroevolution   refers   to   large-­‐scale   changes   in   organisms,   which   are   significant  
enough   that   over   time,   the   newer   organisms   would   be   considered   an   entirely   new  
species.  
  Microevolution  refers  to  changes  in  the  gene  pools  or  changes  in  allele  frequencies  
within  populations  that  can  lead  to  the  formation  of  a  new  species.    A  gene  pool  is  all  of  
the  alleles  of  all  the  genes  of  all  the  individuals  in  a  population.    Allele  frequencies  are  
the   number   of   copies   of   an   allele   compared   to   the   total   number   of   alleles   in   a  
population  (expressed  as  a  percentage).  
  There  are  five  factors  that  cause  microevolution:  
• Genetic  Drift  
• Gene  Flow  
• Non-­‐Random  Mating  
• Mutation  
• Natural  Selection  
 
Genetic  Drift  
 
  Genetic  drift  is  the  change  in  allele  frequency  in  a  population  as  a  result  of  random  
chance.     This   typically   occurs   in   small   populations.     This   can   be   caused   by   either   the  
bottleneck  effect  or  the  founder  effect.  
  The  bottleneck  effect  is  a  change  in  the  gene  pool  that  occurs  after  a  rapid  decrease  
in   population   size.     Populations   can   be   driven   to   near   extinction   because   of   natural  
disasters   (floods,   fires,   earthquakes,   etc...)   or   due   to   humans   (over-­‐hunting,   loss   of  
habitat,   etc...).     The   surviving   population   (random   individuals   who   survived   the   calamity  
by  chance)  does  not  have  the  same  allele  frequency  as  the  original  "parent  population".    
The  genetic  drift  then  follows,  and  the  surviving  population  has  less  diversity/variation.    
The   northern   elephant   seals   and   the   whooping   cranes   are   such   examples;   both   were  
hunted   until   there   were   only   20   and   12   individuals   left   in   each   species,   respectively.     All  
of   the   individuals   of   these   species   that   exists   today   have   arisen   from   these   few  
ancestors  -­‐  there  is  very  little  diversity  within  the  species.      
  The  founder  effect  is  a  change  in  the  gene  pool  that  occurs  when  a  few  individuals  
start   a   new,   isolated   population.     The   founders   may   not   carry   all   of   the   alleles   of   the  
original   population   (alternatively,   they   may   carry   a   rare,   recessive   allele).     In   the   new  
environment,   the   founding   population   has   less   diversity/variation.     Many   cases   of  
polydactoly   in   an   Amish   population   of   Philadelphia   and   many   cases   of   Huntington's  
disease  in  a  Venezuelan  village  can  all  be  traced  back  to  a  single  individual,  who  acted  as  
a  founder  of  that  particular  colony.  
 
 

 

28  

Gene  Flow  
 
  Gene   flow   is   the   movement   of   genes   into   and   out   of   gene   pools   due   to   migration   of  
individuals   from   one   population   to   another.     Gene   flow   can   decrease   the   genetic  
differences   between   populations.     If   the   gene   flow   is   extensive,   neighbouring  
populations  can  become  a  single  population  with  a  common  genetic  structure.  
 
Non-­‐Random  Mating  
 
  Non-­‐random   mating   is   the   mating   of   individuals   on   the   basis   of   mate   selection   or  
inbreeding.    Only  certain  individuals  contribute  to  the  gene  pool  of  the  next  generation.  
  Inbreeding   is   the   mating   between   closely   related   partners.     This   results   in   a  
population   with   many   homozygous   individuals.     Therefore,   harmful   recessive   alleles   are  
more  likely  to  be  expressed.    An  example  of  inbreeding  are  self-­‐fertilizing  plants.  
  Mate   selection   occurs   when   individuals   choose   a   partner   that   has   a   similar   of  
desirable   phenotype,   such   as   size.     An   example   of   this   is   the   competition   for   mates  
among  caribou.  
 
Mutation  
 
  If  a  mutation  alters  DNA  in  a  gamete,  it  can  be  passed  on  to  subsequent  generations.    
Mutations   can   have   effects   that   are   favourable,   unfavourable   or   neutral.     Favourable  
mutations   that   provide   a   selective   advantage   will   eventually   appear   with   increased  
frequency   in   a   population.     Neutral   or   negative   mutations   may   ultimately   provide   a  
selective  advantage  in  a  rapidly  changing  environment;  otherwise,  they  will  disappear.      
 
Natural  Selection  
 
  Selective  forces  work  on  populations,  therefore  some  individuals  are  more  likely  to  
survive   and   reproduce   than   others.     Selection   causes   changes   in   a   population's   allele  
frequencies  in  three  ways:  
• Stabilizing  Selection  
• Direction  Selection  
• Disruptive  Selection  
 
Stabilizing  Selection  
 
  The  intermediate  phenotype  is  favoured  and  the  phenotypes  at  both  extremes  are  
unfavoured,  reducing  genetic  variation.    This  type  of  selection  improves  a  population's  
adaptations   to   constant   aspects   in   the   environment.     An   example   of   this   type   of  
selection   is   the   birth   weight   of   babies:   too   light   is   unhealthy,   and   it   is   difficult   to   give  
birth  to  a  heavy  baby.  
 
 

 

29  

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 
Directional  Selection  
 
  An   extreme   phenotype   is   favoured,   and   so   the   distribution   curve   shifts   in   that  
direction.     Some   examples   of   this   type   of   selection   include   the   peppered   moth   and  
antibiotic-­‐resistant  bacteria.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Disruptive  Selection  
 
  The   extremes   of   a   phenotype   range   are   favoured,   and   so   the   intermediate  
phenotypes   are   eliminated   or   extremely   decreased.     An   example   of   this   is   the   Coho  
Salmon:  there  are  large  and  small  male  salmon,  but  no  intermediately-­‐sized  ones.      

 

30  

Isolating  Mechanisms  
   
  There   are   two   isolating   mechanisms   that   ensure   that   different   species   cannot  
interbreed:   pre-­‐zygotic   and   post-­‐zygotic   isolating   mechanisms.     Pre-­‐zygotic   isolating  
mechanisms  either  impede  mating  between  species  or  prevent  the  fertilization  of  eggs.    
Post-­‐zygotic   isolating   mechanisms   prevent   hybrid   zygotes   from   developing   into   viable,  
fertile  individuals.      
 
Pre-­‐Zygotic  Isolating  Mechanisms  
 
  There  are  five  pre-­‐zygotic  isolating  mechanisms:  
 
• Behavioural  Isolation:  Any  special  signals  or  behaviours  that  are  species-­‐specific  
that   prevent   interbreeding   of   closely-­‐related   species,   such   as   bird   calls   or  
courtship  rituals  
• Temporal   Isolation:   Species   reproduce   at   different   times   of   the   day   or   during  
different   seasons,   such   as   tropical   orchid   species,   which   reproduce   at   different  
times  of  the  month  
• Habitat  Isolation:  Two  species  may  live  in  the  same  general  area  but  in  different  
habitats,   thus   rarely   encountering   each   other,   such   as   the   common   garter   snake  
and  the  northwest  garter  snake,  which  are  found  near  water  and  in  open  areas,  
respectively  
• Mechanical  Isolation:  Species  may  attempt  to  mate  but  will  fail  because  they  are  
anatomically  incompatible,  such  as  different  insect  species  
• Gamete  Isolation:  The  gametes  will  not  fuse  to  form  a  zygote  because  the  sperm  
may  not  survive  in  the  female,  or  may  be  unable  to  germinate  the  female,  such  
as  sperm  dying  in  a  hostile  female  environment  
 
Post-­‐Zygotic  Isolating  Mechanisms  
 
  There  are  three  post-­‐zygotic  isolating  mechanisms:  
 
• Hybrid   Breakdown:   First-­‐generation   hybrids   are   viable   and   fertile,   but   after  
mating   with   another   hybrid   or   either   of   the   parent   species,   the   resulting  
offspring  are  either  sterile  or  weak,  such  as  the  hybrids  of  cotton  plants  
• Hybrid   Inviability:   The   interbred   species   are   genetically   incompatible,   and   the  
development   of   a   hybrid   zygote   stops,   because   mitosis   is   prevented,   such   as   the  
hybrids  of  sheep  and  goat  
• Hybrid  Sterility:  Although  two  species  mate  and  produce  a  viable  offspring,  that  
offspring  is  sterile  due  to  a  failure  of  meiosis  to  occur,  because  the  chromosomes  
differ  in  number  or  structure,  such  as  the  mule,  the  cross  between  a  horse  and  a  
donkey  
 

 

31  

Types  of  Speciation  
 
  A   biological   species   is   a   population   or   a   group   of   populations   in   nature   where  
individual   members   can   interbreed   to   produce   viable,   fertile   offspring   that   can   also  
interbreed.    Speciation  is  the  formation  of  a  new  species  from  a  pre-­‐existing  one  (also  
called   macro-­‐evolution).     When   a   population   is   reproductively   isolated,   it   means   that  
there  is  little  or  no  gene  flow  between  the  populations.      
  Phyletic   speciation   is   the   result   of   sequential   changes,   through   which   one   species  
become  another.      
A  
B  
 
  Converging  speciation  is  the  result  of  similar  traits  arising  because  different  species  
have  independently  adapted  to  the  same  or  similar  environmental  conditions.  
 
A  
C  
 
B  
 
  Diverging  speciation  is  when  species  that  were  once  similar  to  an  ancestral  species  
diverge  to  become  increasingly  distinct.      
B  
 
A  
 
C  
    There  are  two  types  of  divergent  speciation:  sympatric  and  allopatric  speciation.  
 
Sympatric  Speciation  
 
  Sympatric   speciation   is   a   form   of   divergent   speciation   in   which   populations   within  
the  same  geographical  area  diverge  and  become  reproductively  isolated.    This  form  of  
speciation  is  more  common  in  plants  than  in  animals.    There  are  two  forms  of  sympatric  
speciation:  polyploidism  and  hybridization.      
  In   polyploidism,   parent   plants   can   produce   offspring   that   are   polyploidy   (generally  
tetraploidy,   4n),   given   that   mistakes   occur   during   meiosis.     These   individuals   are  
reproductively   incompatible   with   the   parent   population,   and   are   therefore   considered  
as  a  new  species.    These  organisms  can  reproduce  with  other  tetraploidy  organisms,  or  
can  self-­‐fertilize  themselves  (if  they  are  plants).  
  In  hybridization,  two  different  species  can  interbreed  to  produce  a  sterile  offspring.    
Asexual   reproduction   by   the   offspring   results   in   the   formation   of   a   separate   population.    
Through   mistakes   in   meiosis,   namely   non-­‐disjunction,   sterile   hybrids   can   become   fertile  
polyploids,  this  forming  a  new,  fertile  species.      
 
Allopatric  Speciation  
 
  Allopatric  speciation  is  a  form  of  divergent  speciation  in  which  a  population  and  its  
gene   pool   are   split   into   two   or   more   isolated   groups   by   a   geographical   barrier.     If  
enough   time   passes,   the   two   populations   become   so   distinct   over   time   that   they   are  
unable  to  interbreed  if  they  are  ever  reunited.      

 

32  

 

Adaptive  Radiation  
 

Adaptive   radiation   is   the   relatively   fast   evolution   of   many   species   from   a   single  
ancestral  species.    This  often  happens  when  an  organism  is  presented  with  many  new,  
unprecedented  opportunities:  
• Organisms  enter  a  new  ecological  area  (Darwin's  Finches)  
• Mass  extinction  (mammals  after  the  death  of  dinosaurs)  
• A  new  trait  evolves  (plant  flowers  attract  pollinators)  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Models  of  Evolution  
 

  There   are   two   models   that   attempt   to   explain   the   speed   of   evolutionary   change:  
gradualism   and   punctuated   equilibrium.     Currently,   both   models   are   accepted:   while  
many   species   have   evolved   rapidly   during   periods   of   Earth's   history,   the   fossil   record  
also  shows  very  gradual  change  for  some  species  over  extended  periods  of  time.  
 
Gradualism  
 
  Evolutionary  change  is  slow  and  steady,  occurring  before  and  after  divergence.    Big  
changes  are  the  result  of  the  accumulation  of  small  changes.    However,  the  fossil  record  
does  not  support  this  model,  as  species  are  found  to  appear  and  disappear  suddenly  in  
the  record.  
 
Punctuated  Equilibrium  
 
  Evolution   consists   of   long   periods   of   stasis   -­‐   equilibrium   -­‐   that   are   punctuated   by  
periods  of  divergence.    Most  species  undergo  much  of  their  morphological  change  when  
they   first   diverge   from   the   parent   species.     After   that,   they   change   relatively   little,   even  
as  they  give  rise  to  new  species.  
 
 

 

Gradualism  

Punctuated  Equilibrium  

33  

Classification  of  Living  Things  
 
  The  biosphere  is  the  part  of  the  Earth  inhabited  by  living  organisms.    This  area  is  only  
about   1/10,000,000,000   of   the   Earth's   mass.     Nevertheless,   as   many   as   100   million  
different  organisms  live  here.      
  Aristotle  identified  about  1,000  different  organisms  approximately  2,300  years  ago.    
Today,   biologists   estimate   that   there   are   approximately   30-­‐100   million   different  
organisms   that   exist.     Many   scientists   tried   to   classify   these   organisms   according   to  
specific  categories:  land,  air  or  water  dwellers,  useful  or  harmful  organisms,  consumer  
or   producer,   etc...   As   our   knowledge   of   the   number   of   organisms   increases,   a   better  
system  was  created.      
  John  Roy,  an  English  clergyman,  tried  to  classify  all  organisms  in  the  world  in  the  17th  
century.     He   was   the   first   to   use   the   word   "species".     To   be   a   member   of   the   same  
species,  three  criteria  must  be  met:  
1. the  organisms  must  be  similar  in  nature  
2. the  organisms  must  be  able  to  interbreed  under  normal  conditions  
3. the  offspring  must  be  fertile  

 
 

The  Linnaean  System  of  Classification  
 

This   system   was   developed   by   Carolus   Linnaeus.     He   is   considered   the   "Father   of  
Modern   Taxonomy".     In   this   system,   organisms   are   organized   according   to   their  
structural  similarities.    His  classification  system  is  known  as  binomial  nomenclature.    It  is  
very   useful   because   a   species   may   be   known   by   several   different   common   names   in  
different  parts  of  the  world  (cougar,  panther,  and  mountain  lion).    There  are  two  parts  
to  an  organism's  scientific  name.    The  first  part  of  each  name  is  the  organism's  genus,  
and  the  second  word  is  its  species.    
  Each  species  must  be  classified  into  seven  main  classification  groups.    Each  group  is  
called   a   taxon   (plural:   taxa).     They   are:   kingdom,   phylum,   class,   order,   family,   genus   and  
species.    They  go  from  the  broadest  to  the  most  specific.      
  For  instance,  if  a  human  were  being  classified,  he  would  be  put  in  the:  
 
(animals  with  a  notochord  -­‐  the  axis  around  which  the  
Kingdom:  Animalia  
spinal  chord  develops)  
Phylum:  Chordata    
Class:  Mammalia  
(animals  that  have  hair  and  nurse  their  young)  
Order:  Primates  
(monkeys,  baboons,  etc...)  
Family:  Hominidae  
(no  other  living  species  in  this  family)  
Genus:  Homo  
Species:  Sapiens  

 
 

 

Therefore,  if  you  are  a  human,  your  scientific  name  is  Homo  Sapiens.  

 
 

34  

The  Six  Kingdoms  
 
  To  classify  an  organism,  biologists  first  place  them  in  the  correct  kingdom.    There  are  
six:  animalia,  plantae,  fungi,  protista,  archaebacteria  and  eubacteria.      

 

Archaebacteria  
 
  These  bacteria  are  unicellular  prokaryotes.    The  have  neither  nuclei  nor  organelles.    
They   are   known   for   living   in   harsh   habitats   (low   oxygen,   extreme   temperatures,   acid).    
They  are  ancient  bacteria,  believed  to  be  the  first  forms  of  life.      
 
Eubacteria  
 
  Like   archaebacteria,   the   eubacteria   are   also   unicellular   prokaryotes,   lacking   both  
nuclei   and   organelles.     They   can   be   found   living   almost   anywhere.     As   many   as   4   million  
of  these  "true  bacteria"  may  exist.      
 
Protista  
 
  Unicellular  for  the  most  part,  these  eukaryotes  have  nuclei,  organelles,  and  several  
contain  chloroplasts.    They  are  found  everywhere  (land  or  water).    They  are  the  evolved  
descendants  of  prokaryotic  bacteria.    This  kingdom  includes  all  eukaryotes  that  are  not  
plantae,  fungi  or  animalia.      

 

Fungi  
 
  Organisms   in   this   kingdom   are   multicellular   eukaryotes.     They   have   nuclei,  
organelles,  no  chlorophyll,  and  no  cellulose  in  their  cell  walls.    They  inhabit  a  variety  of  
environments.     They   are   unable   to   photosynthesize,   do   not   need   sunlight,   and   live   of  
dead  organic  material  (decomposers).    There  are  over  100,000  types  of  these  organisms.  
 
Plantae  
 
  The   organisms   in   the   plantae   kingdom   are   multicellular   eukaryotes.     They   have  
nuclei,   organelles,   but   unlike   fungi,   they   have   both   chlorophyll   and   their   cell   walls  
contain   cellulose.     These   autotrophs   can   also   inhabit   a   vast   variety   of   environments.    
They  are  for  the  most  part  land  dwellers,  but  there  are  also  plants  that  live  on  water.      
 
Animalia  
 
  The   organisms   of   this   kingdom   are   multicellular   eukaryotes.     They   have   nuclei,  
organelles,  but  not  chlorophyll  and  cell  walls.    They  live  in  many  different  environments.    
These  organisms  are  heterotrophic,  and  can  be  either  vertebrates  or  invertebrates.      

 

35  

Kingdom  Protista  
 
  The  organisms  of  this  kingdom  have  existed  for  about  1.5  billion  years;  they  are  the  
first  eukaryotes.    It  is  a  very  diverse  group,  containing  about  115,000  different  species.      
  Because  of  the  diversity  of  this  group,  there  is  no  single  correct  way  to  categorize  its  
members.    Since  the  species  differ  in  many  different  categories,  such  as  cell  structure,  
nutrition,   metabolic   needs,   reproduction   and   habitat,   they   can   be   classified   by   any   of  
these   diverse   characteristics.     Here,   they   will   be   classified   by   their   nutrition   patterns:  
whether  they  are  animal,  plant,  or  fungi-­‐like  protists  in  their  diet.  
 
Animal-­‐Like  Protists  
 
  While  some  parasites  are  harmful  to  their  hosts,  others  are  beneficial.    For  example,  
Giardia   cause   digestive   problems   in   humans   and   Trypanosoma   Gambiensis   cause  
sleeping   sickness,   but   Trichonympha   live   in   the   termite's   gut   and   help   it   digest   wood.  
Amoeba  and  other  animal-­‐like  protists  use  endocytosis  to  obtain  their  food,  a  process  in  
which   they   use   their   pseudopodia   ("false   feet")   to   capture   and   take   in   particles   to   be  
internally  digested.  
 
Fungus-­‐Like  Protists  
 
  Some   examples   of   these   protists   is   the   acellular   slime   mould   -­‐   a   single-­‐celled  
organism   with   many   nuclei,   cellular   slime   mould,   which   live   in   fresh   water,   damp   soil  
and  in  decaying  matter,  and  the  water  mould,  which  lives  in  water.      
 
Plant-­‐Like  Protists  
 
  These   plant-­‐like   protists   contain   chlorophyll   and   can   undergo   photosynthesis.     For  
example,  a  Euglena  is  autotrophic  in  sunlight,  but  turns  heterotrophic  in  the  dark.    Algae  
such   as   diatoms   (very   abundant,   glass-­‐like   shells,   are   a   key   marine   food   source)   and  
dinoflagellates   (have   two   flagella   that   cause   a   spinning   motion,   are   luminescent,   can  
have  toxic  effects  on  humans  if  they  are  concentrated  in  shellfish)  are  also  autotrophic  
protista.      
  Protists  have  developed  many  different  methods  to  move.    Some  use  flagella:  long,  
thin,   tail-­‐like   structures   composed   of   microtubules.     They   have   a   whip-­‐like   action   that  
propels   the   protist   forward,   such   as   Euglena.     Others   have   pseudopodia:   "false   feet"  
that  are  temporary  projections  of  the  cytoplasm  that  allow  the  organism  to  move  in  an  
oozing,   creeping   motion,   like   Amoeba.     Others   yet   have   cilia:   short,   thin,   hair-­‐like  
structures   composed   of   microtubules.     They   have   a   wave-­‐like   action   that   propels   the  
protist  forward.    However,  some  protists  are  non-­‐motile,  meaning  they  have  no  means  
of  locomotion,  such  as  the  Plasmodium.      
 
 

 

36  

Reproduction  
 
  Protists  can  reproduce  in  four  different  ways.    During  asexual  reproduction,  protists  
like  Paramecium  undergo  binary  fission,  similar  to  bacteria.    During  sexual  reproduction,  
they   undergo   a   form   of   conjugation,   exchanging   micronuclei   during   meiosis.     Some  
protists   are   able   to   form   fruiting   bodies:   for   example,   in   acellular   slime   moulds   when  
food   is   abundant,   the   slime   moulds   exist   as   a   mass   of   cytoplasm   with   many   nuclei.    
However,  when  food  becomes  scarce,  they  form  fruiting  bodies,  which  produce  spores  
that   are   dispersed   and   germinate   elsewhere.     Finally,   some   protists   produce   spores  
without  making  fruiting  bodies,  such  as  Plasmodium.      
Euglena  
 
Paramecium  
 
 
 
 
pellicle  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life  Cycle  of  P   lasmodium  
 
 

 

37  

Kingdom  Bacteria  -­‐  Archaebacteria  and  Eubacteria  
 
  Bacteria  are  the  oldest  and  most  diverse  group  of  organisms  on  the  planet.    They  are  
unicellular  prokaryotes,  and  lack  a  nucleus  and  organelles.      Bacteria  live  and  thrive  in  
extreme  habitats  (heat  and  acidity).    They  can  be  harmful,  but  the  majority  are  helpful.      
 
Cell  Wall  
 
 
 
 
 
 
Flagellum  
 
 
 
Plasmid  
 
 
DNA  
 
Cell  Membrane  
 
Cell  Wall  
 
 
  There  are  two  ways  to  classify  bacteria:  by  shape  and  by  gram  stain.      
 
Classifying  Bacteria  by  Shape  
 
Shape  
Diagram  
Name  
Single  
Pairs  
Linear  
Clusters  
Cells  
Chains  
Sphere  
 
Coccus  
Mono-­‐  
Diplo-­‐  
Strepto-­‐  
Staphy-­‐  
(Cocci)  

Rod  

 

Bacillus  
(Bacilli)  

Mono-­‐  

Diplo-­‐  

Strepto-­‐  

 

Spiral  

 

Spirillum  
(Spirilli)  

Mono-­‐  

 

 

 

 

Classifying  Bacteria  by  Gram  Stain  
 
  Adding   crystal   violet   stain   and   iodine   to   bacteria   on   a   slide   is   another   form   of  
classifying  bacteria.    Gram-­‐positive  bacteria  will  retain  the  purple  because  of  their  thick  
cell  walls,  but  gram-­‐negative  bacteria  lose  the  purple  colour  and  appear  pink;  these  tend  
to  be  pathogenic.  

 

38  

Reproduction  in  Bacteria  
 
  Bacteria   reproduce   very   quickly:   most   divide   every   15-­‐20   minutes.     However,   their  
reproduction  is  limited  by  factors  such  as  space,  food  and  temperature.    Because  of  this  
speed  of  reproduction,  there  is  a  high  mutation  rate  during  DNA  replication,  which  often  
results  in  antibiotic  immunity.    Bacteria  can  reproduce  both  sexually  and  asexually,  but  
are  also  able  to  form  endospores.  
 
Binary  Fission  
 
  This  is  the  bacteria's  form  of  asexual  reproduction.    The  parent  cell  divides  into  two  
identical  offspring,  provided  there  is  no  genetic  mutation.      
 
 
 
Cell  Wall    
 
 
DNA  
 
 
 
Cytoplasm  
 
 
 
DNA  has  been  replicated  
 
Cleavage  furrow  forms  
 
 
The   two   daughter   cells  
 
formed   are   identical   to  
 
the  parent  cells  
 
Conjugation  
 
  Conjugation   is   a   form   of   sexual   reproduction   that   occurs   between   bacteria   when  
conditions  are  not  ideal.    Two  bacteria  connect  by  a  protein  bridge  and  a  plasmid  from  
one  bacterium  is  transferred  to  the  other,  altering  its  genetic  makeup.    This  might  give  
the   bacteria   antibiotic   resistance,   since   those   genes   are   found   on   the   plasmid.     The  
plasmid  transfer  is  a  one-­‐way  process,  not  an  exchange.  
 
Endospore  Formation  
 
  Under   extremely   unfavourable   conditions,   some   bacteria   form   resistant   structures  
called   endospores.     The   original   bacterium   replicates   its   DNA,   and   one   copy   becomes  
surrounded   by   a   durable   wall   which   allows   it   to   survive   harsh   conditions   (drought,  
malnutrition,  extreme  heat  and  cold,  poison,  etc...).      

 

39  

Nutrition  
 
  Bacteria   have   a   source   of   energy   and   carbon   to   produce   the   organic   compounds  
needed  for  cellular  metabolism.      
 
Mode  of  Nutrition  
Energy  Source  
Carbon  Source  
Photoautotroph  
Light  
CO2  
Chemoautotroph  
Inorganic  Chemicals  
CO2  
Photheterotroph  
Light  
Organic  Compounds    
Chemoheterotroph  
Organic  Compounds  
Organic  Compounds  
 
Respiration  
 
  All  living  things  must  carry  out  cellular  respiration  to  receive  a  supply  of  energy  to  
function.     Bacteria   vary   on   whether   or   not   the   process   of   cellular   respiration   requires  
oxygen.    Bacteria  are  classified  in  one  of  five  categories  based  on  these  criteria:  
 
1. Aerobes:  cellular  respiration  involves  oxygen  to  produce  energy  from  food  
2. Obligate  Aerobes:  oxygen  is  absolutely  necessary  for  the  bacteria's  survival  
3. Anaerobes:  cellular  respiration  is  carried  out  in  an  oxygen-­‐free  environment  
4. Obligate  Anaerobes:  the  presence  of  oxygen  kills  these  bacteria  
5. Facultative  Aerobes:  can  survive  with  or  without  oxygen  
 

Viruses  
 

  A   virus   is   a   submicroscopic   pathogen.     A   virus   is   composed   of   genetic   information  
surrounded   by   a   protein   coat.     When   they   are   not   invading   a   host,   they   take   on   a  
crystalline  form.    Biologists  agree  that  viruses  are  not  alive,  as  they  cannot  move,  grow  
or  carry  out  respiration,  and  need  a  living  host  to  reproduce.      
  There  are  many  kinds  of  viruses,  such  as  the  common  cold,  the  flu,  West  Nile  Virus,  
AIDS  and  SARS.    Viruses  have  very  geometric  shapes,  such  as  spheres  and  spindles.    They  
have  molecules  on  their  shell  that  are  used  to  attach  the  virus  to  its  host.    A  virus  that  
attacks   bacteria   is   called   a   bacteriophage.     Viruses   are   very   specific   -­‐   they   can   only  
attack  certain  kinds  of  cells.      
 
Life  Cycles  
 
  Viruses  have  two  distinct  cycles:  the  lytic  cycle  and  the  lysogenic  cycle.    In  the  lytic  
cycle,  the  host  cell  is  taken  over  and  the  viruses  are  released  after  one  generation,  and  
symptoms  appear  immediately.    In  the  lysogenic  cycle,  the  DNA  of  the  virus  is  integrated  
with   that   of   the   host,   and   the   viruses   are   released   only   after   several   generations,  
resulting  in  delayed  symptoms.      
 

 

40  

Lytic  Cycle  
 
The  lytic  cycle  is  the  "life  cycle"  of  the  virus.  
The  virus  attaches  itself  to  a  cell.  
DNA  from  the  virus  enters  the  cell.  
The  cell's  original  DNA  is  destroyed.    The  cell  makes  new  viral  DNA  and  proteins.      
New  viruses  are  made  from  the  protein  and  DNA.  
The  cell  breaks  open  in  a  process  called  lysis  and  the  viruses  are  released.      

 
A.  
B.  
C.  
D.  
E.  
 
 
Virus  
 
 
 
  Viral  DNA  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Cell  DNA  

Host  Cell  

 
 
Lysogenic  Cycle  
 
  In  the  lysogenic  cycle,  the  virus  does  not  destroy  the  host  cell  immediately.    Instead,  
it  integrates  its  DNA  with  that  of  the  host,  and  then  becomes  inactive.    As  the  bacteria  
reproduces,   it   copies   the   DNA   of   the   virus   along   with   its   own.     At   some   later   point   in  
time  (several  generations  later),  the  DNA  of  the  virus  is  activated  by  an  environmental  
stimulus,  and  enters  the  lytic  cycle.      

 

41  

Kingdom  Fungi  
 
  All   fungi   are   saprobes:   they   release   enzymes   on   dead   organic   matter   and   then  
absorb   the   nutrients   through   the   cell   well,   in   contrast   to   slime   moulds,   which   use  
endocytosis.     Although   fungi   can   vary   significantly   in   appearance,   they   have   the  
following  structures  in  common:  
• Hyphae:  thread-­‐like  filaments  that  make  up  the  body  of  the  fungus  
• Mycelium:  tangled  mass  of  hyphae  used  for  absorbing  nutrients  
• Cell  Wall:  made  from  chitin  rather  than  cellulose  
 
Reproduction  
 
  Most  fungi  reproduce  both  sexually  and  asexually.    Their  reproduction  involves  the  
use   of   spores   (haploid   reproductive   cells).     Their   reproduction   patterns   are   used   to  
subdivide   the   100,000   species   into   divisions   (the   equivalent   of   phyla).     There   are   four  
main  divisions:  
1. Division  Zygomycota  (case-­‐like  fungi)  
2. Division  Ascomycota  (sac-­‐like  fungi)  
3. Division  Basidiomycota  (club-­‐like  fungi)  
4. Imperfect  Fungi  
 
Division  Zygomycota  
 
  The   spores   of   these   fungi   are   in   caselike   structures,   such   as   bread   mould.     These  
fungi   reproduce   asexually   by   spreading   out   threadlike   hyphae   called   stolons   over   the  
food  surface.    Root-­‐like  hyphae  called  rhizoids  extend  into  the  food  and  absorb  nutrients  
and  water.    Reproductive  hyphae  form  black  case-­‐like  structures  called  sporangia,  each  
containing   thousands   of   spores.     After   the   spores   are   released,   they   germinate   and  
begin  to  grow  on  a  new  food  source.      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  During  sexual  reproduction,  two  genetically  different  types  of  reproductive  hyphae  
(+   and   -­‐)   make   contact.     The   nuclei   join   to   make   a   zygospore.     Zygospores   remain  
dormant   until   growing   conditions   are   good.     They   then   germinate   and   form   new  
mycelial  masses.      

 

42  

Division  Ascomycota  
 
  The  fungi  in  this  division,  such  as  mildews,  moulds,  yeasts  and  truffles,  have  spores  
in  a  case-­‐like  structure.    Spores  produced  sexually  in  an  ascus  (sac)  are  called  acospores.    
Spores  produced  asexually  are  called  conida.      
  Yeasts  divide  asexually  by  budding  when  conditions  are  good.    When  conditions  are  
bad,  they  form  acospores  by  sexual  reproduction  and  remain  in  a  dormant  phase  until  
conditions  improve.      
  Yeasts  carry  out  anaerobic  respiration  (fermentation)  in  order  to  break  down  sugar  
molecules   and   release   energy   for   the   cells.     Carbon   dioxide   and   alcohol   are   by-­‐products  
of   this   respiration.     Therefore,   yeasts   are   used   extensively   in   baking   (carbon   dioxide  
makes   dough   rise)   and   in   wine-­‐making.     However,   yeasts   also   cause   infection   and  
disease  in  plants  and  animals.      
 
Division  Basidiomycota  
 
  The   spores   of   the   fungi   in   this   division   are   in   a   club-­‐like   structure   called   a  
sporangium.    Mushrooms,  rusts,  smuts,  puffballs  and  bracket  fungi  are  all  examples  of  
fungi   from   this   division.     Many   are   saprobes,   but   some   can   be   parasitic.     They   have  
complex  reproductive  cycles.    They  can  cause  extensive  damage  to  crops.      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
Imperfect  Fungi  
 
  The  fungi  in  this  division  have  no  known  sexual  phases,  so  they  cannot  be  classified  
in  any  of  the  other  three  divisions.    Many  of  these  fungi  are  responsible  for  diseases  in  
plants   and   animals.     One   notable   fungus   in   this   division   is   Penicillium,   the   source   of  
penicillin.    Another  is  Trichophyton  rubrum,  the  fungus  responsible  for  athlete's  foot.      

 

43  

 

 

Fungal  Associations  
 
Fungi  have  many  symbiotic  relationships  with  other  organisms:  
• Lichens   provide   water,   minerals   and   protection   for   algae,   who   in   turn   provide  
nourishment  through  photosynthesis  
• The  fungal  mycelium  of  Micorrhizae  absorbs  water  and  minerals  from  the  soil  for  
plant  roots,  who  provide  the  fungus  with  amino  acids  and  sugar  
• Certain  fungi  in  the  Amazon  rainforests  provide  food  for  leaf-­‐cutting  ants,  while  
the  ants  leaves  food  for  the  fungus  and  removes  competing  fungi    

Kingdom  Plantae  
 

  All  plants  are  eukaryotic  multicellular  organisms  that  can  carry  out  photosynthesis.    
They   have   cell   walls   made   of   cellulose,   are   for   the   most   part   land-­‐dwellers,   and   develop  
from  embryos  that  are  protected  by  the  parent's  plant  tissue.      
  One  characteristic  common  to  plant  life  cycles  is  the  alternation  of  generations.    One  
generation  is  haploid  (n,  gametophyte),  and  the  other  is  diploid  (2n,  sporophyte).      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Classifying  Plants  
 
  There   are   two   broad   divisions   of   plants:   non-­‐vascular   plants   (bryophytes)   and  
vascular   plants   (tracheophytes).     Vascular   plants   are   further   categorized   into   spore  
producers  and  seed  producers.    Lastly,  the  seed-­‐producing  plants  are  grouped  into  cone  
producers  (gymnosperms)  or  flower  producers  (angiosperms).      
 

 

44  

Non-­‐Vascular  Plants  (Bryophytes)  
 
  These   plants   appeared   on   Earth   400   million   years   ago.     They   have   no   true   stems,  
leaves   or   transport   tissues,   and   they   grow   in   moist   environments.     This   category   of  
plants  includes  mosses,  liverworts  and  hornworts.      
  Bryophytes   reproduce   both   sexually   and   asexually.     Their   asexual   reproduction   is  
vegetative  propagation,  where  a  small  segment  of  the  parent  plant  breaks  off  and  grows  
into   an   identical   new   plant.     Water   is   critical   for   the   sexual   reproduction   of   the  
bryophytes,  because  the  sperm  have  to  swim  from  the  male  reproductive  organ  to  the  
female  reproductive  organ  through  it.      
  Peat   moss   grows   in   open,   wet   environments.     As   the   moss   begins   to   decay,   it  
accumulates  and  the  lower  layers  are  compressed  by  their  own  weight  and  by  gravity,  
Because   of   the   moisture   and   the   lack   of   oxygen,   moss   layers   only   partially   decay,   and  
can  grow  up  to  10m  in  height.    Peat  moss  has  many  uses,  such  as  fuel,  soil  additive,  heat  
and  electricity.      
 
Vascular  Plants  (Tracheophytes)  
 
  These   plants   appeared   40   million   years   after   their   predecessors,   the   bryophytes,  
approximately  360  million  years  ago.    Unlike  the  non-­‐vascular  plants,  these  plants  have  
transport   tissues   called   xylem   and   phloem.     It   is   because   of   these   newly   developed  
tissues   that   these   plants   are   able   to   grow   taller.     They   are   all   land-­‐dwellers.     Vascular  
plants  are  classified  into  spore-­‐producing  and  seed-­‐producing  plants.  
 
Spore  Producing  Plants  
 
  Club   mosses,   horsetails,   ferns   and   other   plants   in   this   category   produce   spores  
during   their   reproduction.     They   grow   in   marshes   and   on   the   edges   of   streams   and  
rivers.    Ferns  grow  in  a  broad  range  of  environments.      
 
Seed  Producing  Plants  
 
  This   is   by   far   the   most   successful   group   of   plants   due   to   their   highly   specialized  
organs,   namely   leaves,   stems   and   roots   that   allow   them   to   adapt   to   almost   any  
environment.     They   can   reproduce   sexually   by   means   of   pollination:   the   transfer   of  
pollen   from   the   place   it   was   formed   to   a   receptive   surface.     They   are   subdivided   into  
two  groups:  cone  producers,  like  the  ginkgo,  cycads  and  conifers,  and  seed  producers,  
such   as   roses   and   tulips.     Cone   producers   are   called   gymnosperms,   literally   meaning  
"naked  seed",  and  flowering  plants  are  called  angiosperms.      
 

 

45  

Gymnosperms  
 
  Gymnosperms   reproduce   using   cones.     The   male   cone   is   called   a   pollen   cone,   and  
the   female   equivalent   is   the   seed   cone.     Gymnosperms   are   used   extensively   for  
softwood,   which   is   used   for   a   variety   of   purposes,   such   as   in   construction,   for   pulp,  
furniture,  shingles,  doors,  fencing,  decks,  plywood  and  lumber.      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Angiosperms  
 
  During   self-­‐pollination,   pollen   from   a   plant   fertilizes   the   same   plant's   egg   cells.     In  
cross-­‐pollination,  the  plant's  pollen  is  transferred  from  one  plant  to  another  of  the  same  
species  by  vectors  such  as  air,  water  or  animals.      
  During   fertilization,   the   pollen   grain   germinates   when   it   lands   on   a   stigma.     A   pollen  
tube  grows  down  into  the  ovary.    One  of  the  two  nuclei  in  the  pollen  grain  divides  into  
two  sperm  nuclei.    One  sperm  nucleus  fuses  with  the  ovum  to  produce  a  zygote.    The  
other  sperm  fuses  with  the  two  polar  nuclei  of  the  ovum  to  become  endosperm  tissue  
(3n).    The  endosperm  stores  nutrients  for  the  developing  seed.    After  fertilization,  the  
ovum  develops  into  a  seed  and  the  ovary  into  a  fruit.    The  ovary  enlarges,  and  the  other  
flower  parts  die.      
  Similar  to  self-­‐pollination,  seed  dispersal  is  done  by  mean  of  air,  water  or  animal.      
 
 
 
 
 

 

46  

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

47  

Kingdom  Animalia  
 
  All   animals   are   eukaryotic,   multicellular,   heterotrophic   organisms.     They   lack   cell  
walls,  but  are  the  only  kingdom  whose  organisms  have  muscle  and  nerve  tissue.    Most  
animals  reproduce  sexually.      
  Animals   are   thought   to   have   evolved   from   colonial,   flagellated   protists.     Some  
colonies   had   cells   that   became   specialized   for   things   like   movement   or   feeding,   which  
gave  them  an  advantage  over  other  colonies  whose  cells  did  not  specialize.      
  Animals   are   often   described   and   classified   by   the   way   their   internal   structures   are  
organized  (their  body  plan):  
• body  symmetry  (bilateral,  radial,  asymmetric)  
• extent  of  cellular  organisation  (independent  cells  vs.  tissues,  organs  and  systems)  
• presence  of  coelom  and  other  structural  and  physiological  modifications  
 
Phylum  Porifera  
 
  This  phylum  consists  for  the  most  part  of  sponges.    They  live  in  warm,  quiet  waters,  
where  they  are  sessile  (stay  fixed  in  one  place).    The  sponge's  body  plan  is  asymmetric,  
lacks  a  mouth,  a  digestive  cavity,  and  has  no  muscle  or  nerve  tissues.      
 
 
Osculum:   opening   that   allows   water   to   be  
 
expelled  from  the  sponge  
 
 
 
Epithelial  Cells:  cover  inner  and  outer  surface;  
 
some  surround  pores  and  control  pore  size  to  
 
regulate  water  flow  
 
 
 
Collar   Cells:   flagella   beat   to   maintain   water  
 
flow  and  filter  micro-­‐organisms  for  ingestion  
 
 
 
Amoeboid  Cells:  move  between  epithelial  cells  
 
and   collar   cells;   they   are   used   for   digestion,  
 
the  distribution  of  nutrients,  the  production  of  
 
reproductive   cells   and   the   development   of   the  
 
internal  skeleton  
 
 
 
    Sponges  reproduce  both  sexually  and  asexually.    They  are  hermaphrodites,  and  
water   currents   carry   sperm   cells   to   other   individuals.     Their   form   of   asexual  
reproduction  is  budding.      

 

48  

Phylum  Cnidaria  
 
  Jellyfish,   coral,   sea   anemone,   hydrozoans   and   sea   fans   are   all   part   of   this   phylum,  
which  includes  animals  with  a  radial  symmetry  and  two  layers  of  cells.    The  outer  layer  is  
called   the   ectoderm,   and   the   inner   later   can   be   called   either   the   endoderm   or   the  
gastrodermis.    In  between  these  layers  is  a  jelly-­‐like  layer  called  the  mesoglea.      
 
Part  
Function  
Muscle  Fibres  
contract  to  move  the  animal  
Nerve  Net  
allows  the  organism  to  respond  to  environmental  stimuli  
Nematocysts  
stinging  structure  in  specialized  ectodermic  cells  (cnidocytes)  
Tentacles  
arm-­‐like  structures  that  release  toxic  substances  through  the  
nematocysts  to  paralyze  prey  
Gastrovascular  Cavity  
sac  with  a  role  in  digestion,  circulation  and  gas  exchange  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Phylum  Platyhelminthes  
 
  This   phylum   contains   flatworms,   all   of   which   exhibit   bilateral   body   symmetry.     An  
important  advantage  to  their  flat  body  plan  is  that  more  of  the  organism's  surface  area  
can   absorb   nutrients,   release   waste   and   participate   in   gas   exchange   than   in   another  
body  plan.      
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

49  

  Planarians  are  2cm-­‐long  flatworms  that  live  in  fresh  water.    They  have  a  pharynx,  an  
organ  that  connects  the  mouth  and  the  gastrovascular  cavity  which  the  planarian  uses  
for   feeding.     They   have   simple   nerve   cells   at   their   anterior   for   sensory:   eye   spots   are  
able  to  sense  light,  and  the  sides  of  their  head  are  sensitive  to  touch.  
  Flukes   are   parasitic   flatworms,   which   spend   part   of   their   life   in   a   mammal   host.    
They   have   an   outer   cuticle   which   protects   them   from   being   digested   by   the   acids   in   the  
mammal,  and  a  sucker  which  they  use  to  attach  themselves  to  their  host.  
  Tapeworms  are  very  flat  and  slender  parasites,  equipped  with  a  sucker  and  a  cuticle.    
However,   they   lack   external   body   extensions   for   locomotion.     They   absorb   their   food  
directly  through  their  body  wall  (they  do  not  have  a  mouth  or  a  digestive  sac).      
 
Phylum  Nematoda  
 
  This   phylum   is   that   of   the   roundworms.     Most   roundworms   are   scavengers   which  
inhabit  soil  and  the  bottom  of  lakes,  but  several  are  parasites,  which  infest  plants  and  
animals.     Roundworms   have   a   more   efficient   digestive   system   that   the   flatworms,   as  
they   have   a   separate   exit   for   the   waste   (an   anus),   allowing   food   to   move   in   one  
direction,  like  all  complex  animals.    They  do  not  require  a  respiratory  and  a  circulatory  
system  because  their  thin  body  wall  and  round  shape  minimizes  energy  consumption.      
 
Phylum  Annelids  
 
  The   segmented   can   are   found   in   terrestrial,   marine   and   freshwater   environments.    
They   have   repeating,   mostly   identical   body   segments   with   the   same   structure.     Because  
of  this  segmentation,  they  have  an  improved  locomotion  compared  to  other  worms,  and  
can  grow  to  a  greater  size  without  losing  the  capacity  to  transport  molecules  and  relay  
messages.      
  Annelids   have   a   coelom:   a   fluid-­‐filled   body   cavity   surrounded   by   mesoderm.     It  
separates  the  body  wall  from  the  digestive  track,  protects  internal  organs  and  acts  like  a  
hydrostatic  skeleton.      
  Annelids   need   a   circulatory   system   because   they   are   much   bigger   than   worms   of  
other  phyla.    Since  they  have  thin  body  walls,  the  gas  exchange  occurs  on  the  surface  of  
the  body,  but  only  in  a  moist  environment.      
  The  body  wall  of  sandworms  extends  outwards  to  serve  as  parapodia,  improving  gas  
exchange   and   locomotion.     They   have   bristles   on   the   end   of   each   parapodium   called  
setae,  which  improve  the  grip.    They  have  a  distinct  male  and  female  gender.  
  Earthworms  are  hermaphrodites;  during  copulation,  they  exchange  sperm  to  fertilize  
each  other's  eggs.    The  worms  are  born  into  cocoons.  
  Leeches   are   external   parasites   that   feed   on   blood.     They   secrete   an   anti-­‐clotting  
agent  that  keeps  blood  flowing.    They  were  used  by  doctors  for  a  long  time  to  let  blood,  
and  are  used  today  to  reduce  swelling  and  to  remove  pools  of  blood.      

 

50  

Phylum  Chordata  
 
  The   members   of   this   phylum   have   nerve   chords,   notochords   and   gill   slits   at   one  
point  in  their  life.    Their  body  symmetry  is  bilateral,  they  have  a  ventral  heart,  and  the  
body   extends   past   the   anus   into   a   tail.     They   are   believed   to   be   evolved   from   marine  
animals.    This  phylum  is  separated  into  seven  classes.  
 
Class  Vertebrate  
 
  This   is   the   largest   class   in   phylum   Chordate.     The   notochord   of   these   organisms  
develops  into  a  backbone;  they  have  two  pairs  of  appendages,  a  skull  with  a  large  brain,  
and  a  skin-­‐covered  body.    In  aquatic  animals,  the  gas  exchange  takes  place  in  the  gills;  
for  terrestrial  organisms,  in  occurs  in  the  lungs.  
 
Superclass  Agnatha  
 
  This  is  the  class  of  jawless  fishes,  such  as  the  lamprey  and  the  hagfish;  they  also  do  
not  have  paired  fins.  
 
Class  Chondrichthyes  
 
  This   is   the   class   of   cartilaginous   fish,   such   as   sharks,   rays   and   skates.     They   are  
marine   animals   with   paired   fins.     They   undergo   internal   fertilization,   and   are  
ovoviviparous.      
 
Class  Osteichthyes  
 
  This  is  the  class  of  bony  fish.    They  have  scales  and  undergo  external  fertilization.  
 
Class  Amphibia  
 
  This  is  the  class  of  amphibians,  such  as  frogs,  toads  and  salamanders.    Most  live  in  
fresh   water   at   some   point   in   their   life.     They   undergo   metamorphosis,   the   abrupt  
change   in   body   structure   (tadpole   →   frog),   are   able   to   breath   through   their   skin,   and  
have  three-­‐chambered  hearts.      
 
Class  Reptilia  
 
  This  is  the  class  of  reptiles,  such  as  crocodiles,  alligators,  lizards  and  snakes.    They  do  
not  need  water  to  reproduce;  instead,  they  undergo  internal  fertilization,  and  then  lay  
eggs.    The  gas  exchange  takes  place  in  the  lungs.      
 

 

51  

Class  Aves  
 
  This   is   the   class   of   birds.     They   have   horny   scales   on   their   legs,   lay   eggs,   are  
endotherms  (warm-­‐blooded),  have  feathers  and  have  hollow  bones.  
 
Class  Mammalia  
 
  This   is   the   class   of   mammals.     They   have   hair,   a   four-­‐chambered   heart,   glands   to  
produce   link,   specialized   teeth,   are   endotherms,   and   undergo   internal   fertilization.    
There   are   three   main   types   of   mammals:   monotremes,   marsupials   and   placentals.    
Humans  fall  under  the  last  category.      
 
Phylum  Mollusca  
 
  The  animals  of  this  phylum  are  mostly  marine,  although  a  few  are  terrestrial.    They  
vary  greatly  in  size,  ranging  from  1mm  to  18m.    They  are  the  descendants  of  annelids.    
Their   moist,   muscular   body   lacks   a   skeleton.     Their   body   plan   consists   of   three   main  
components:  
 
Structure  
Function  
Foot  
locomotion,  feeding  
Mantel  
thin  tissue  that  covers  gills  and  secretes  the  shell  in  shelled  species  
Visceral  Mass  
contains  internal  organs  
 
 
Visceral  Mass  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Mantel  
 
 
 
 
Foot  
 
 
   
 

 

52  

Class  Bivalva  
 
  This   class   includes   organisms   such   as   clams,   oysters,   scallops,   mussels,   and   other  
shelled  fish.    They  have  a  two-­‐part  shell  connected  by  a  hinge,  are  sessile,  and  have  no  
head.    Clams  use  their  foot  to  burrow  into  the  sand  or  mud;  mussels  use  the  foot  to  hold  
themselves   in   place;   scallops   do   not   have   a   foot.     Organisms   in   this   class   use   gills   to  
capture  food  from  water  and  for  gas  exchange.  
 
Class  Gastropoda  
 
  This   class   includes   organisms   such   as   snails   and   slugs.     They   use   their   foot   for  
locomotion,  and  feed  using  a  radula.    The  gas  exchange  happens  through  gills  and  moist  
skin.      
 
Phylum  Cephalopoda  
 
  This   class   includes   squids,   octopuses   and   the   nautilus.     They   are   ocean   predators  
who  can  see  prey  at  a  great  distance;  they  have  a  well-­‐developed  brain.  
 
Phylum  Echinodermata  
 
  This  phylum  includes  starfish,  sea  urchins,  sand  dollars  and  sea  cucumbers.    All  these  
organisms   have   a   radial   symmetry.     The   adults   and   larvae   look   very   different   -­‐   adults  
have  a  radial  symmetry  while  larvae  are  bilateral.      
 
Phylum  Arthropoda  
 
  The   organisms   in   this   phylum   are   animals   with   an   exoskeleton   made   of   chitin   and  
jointed  legs.    They  have  a  segmented  body  which  they  can  moult  (shed).    They  have  a  
hemocoel   (body   cavity),   and   open   circulatory   system   and   circulatory   system,   eyes   and  
antennae.  
 
Class  Arachnida  
 
  This   class   includes   scorpions,   spiders,   mites   and   ticks.     Their   body   plan   consists   of  
two  main  parts:  the  cephalothorax  (the  head  and  body  fused)  and  the  abdomen.    Most  
have   six   pairs   of   appendages;   their   offspring   hatch   from   eggs,   and   several   have   silk  
glands,  such  as  spiders.      
 
Class  Crustacea  
 
  This  class  includes  shrimp,  lobsters,  crayfish  and  crabs.    They  have  three  main  parts  
in   their   body   plan:   the   head,   the   thorax   and   the   abdomen.     Each   body   segment   has  
paired  appendages  attached  to  it.  

 

53  

Class  Insecta  
 
  Like   the   class   Crustacea,   the   animals   in   this   class   have   a   head,   thorax   and   abdomen.    
The  head  has  one  pair  of  antennae,  and  the  thorax  has  three  pairs  of  legs.    Flying  insects  
have  two  pairs  of  wings  attached  to  the  thorax  (flies  only  have  one  pair  of  wings).    Like  
amphibians,  they  can  go  through  metamorphosis.  
 
Class  Diplopoda  and  Class  Chilopoda  
 
  Organisms  from  class  Diplopoda  are  millipedes;  while  they  do  not  have  1,000  legs,  
each   body   segment   has   two   legs   attached   to   it.     Organisms   from   class   Chilopoda   are  
centipedes;  they  have  one  pair  of  legs  attached  to  each  body  segment.      

 

54  

Nutrition  
 
  Living   cells   need   energy   to   carry   out   all   of   their   functions.     Energy   comes   from  
nutrients  in  the  food.    The  digestive  system  absorbs  the  nutrients  to  all  the  cells  of  the  
body.      
  A   nutrient   is   any   substance   that   has   a   useful   function   when   taken   up   by   the   body  
cells.    There  are  five  types  of  nutrients:  
1. Carbohydrates  
Macronutrients  (needed  in  large  amounts)  
2. Fats  
Organic  
3. Proteins  
4. Vitamins  
Micronutrients  (needed  in  small  amounts)  
Inorganic  
5. Minerals  
  In  addition  to  nutrients,  living  cells  also  need  H2O  to  function.      
 
Carbohydrates  

 

  Carbohydrates   are   composed   of   carbon,   hydrogen   and   oxygen,   and   are   used   for  
short-­‐term   energy   storage.     The   simplest   molecules   are   monosaccharides,   such   as  
glucose,   fructose   and   galactose.     Two   monosaccharides   in   a   group   are   called  
disaccharides,  such  as  maltose,  lactose  and  sucrose,  and  big  groups  of  monosaccharides,  
called  polysaccharides,  include  starch,  cellulose  and  glycogen.    The  reaction  joining  two  
saccharides  by  removing  a  water  molecule  is  called  dehydration  synthesis.    The  opposite  
reaction  -­‐  one  that  breaks  apart  the  polysaccharides  into  monosaccharides  by  adding  a  
water  molecule  -­‐  is  called  hydrolysis.      
 
Lipids  
 
  Lipids   are   long   chains   of   carbon,   hydrogen   and   oxygen.     They   are   used   for   long-­‐term  
energy  storage,  although  they  have  many  other  functions.    Per  gram,  they  provide  more  
energy  than  carbohydrates  (37.6kJ/g  vs.  16.7kJ/g).    There  are  four  types  of  lipids:  fats,  
waxes,  steroids  (cholesterol  and  hormones)  and  phospholipids  (have  hydrophilic  heads  
and   hydrophobic   tails).     The   basic   structure   of   a   fat   is   a   glycerol   molecule   attached   to  
three   fatty   acids,   forming   a   triglyceride.     There   are   two   kinds   of   fats:   saturated   and  
unsaturated   fats.     Unsaturated   fats   contain   double   bonds,   and   are   liquids   at   room  
temperature,  such  as  oil.    Saturated  fats  do  not  contain  double  bonds,  and  are  solids  at  
room   temperature,   such   as   butter.     Some   fatty   acids,   such   as   linoleic,   linolenic   and  
arachide,  are  essential  fatty  acids.      
 
Proteins  
 
  Proteins   are   made   of   carbon,   hydrogen,   oxygen   and   nitrogen,   and   have   many  
functions   within   the   body.     Polymers   are   made   from   amino   acid   monomers,   called  

 

55  

amino   acids.     Polypeptide   chains   are   combinations   of   amino   acids   held   together   by  
peptide  bonds;  these  are  proteins.      
 
 
Met  
Phe  
Gly  
Ala  
Polypeptide  
 
 
Amino  Acid  
 
Peptide  Bond  
 
  Eight   of   the   twenty   amino   acids   are   essential.     The   general   structure   of   an   amino  
acid  is  shown  below.    The  side  chain  (R)  makes  each  amino  acid  unique  from  the  others.      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitamins  
 
  Vitamins   are   composed   of   carbon,   hydrogen,   oxygen,   and   nitrogen,   among   other  
elements.    Most  vitamins  act  as  coenzymes.    There  are  two  different  types  of  vitamins:  
fat-­‐soluble   (A,   D,   E   and   K)   and   water-­‐soluble   (B1,   B2,   B12   and   C)   vitamins.     Fat-­‐soluble  
vitamins   cannot   be   excreted,   but   break   down   over   time.     Water-­‐soluble   vitamins   are  
eliminated  from  the  body  relatively  quickly.      
 
 

 

56  

Glossary  
 
Gamete:  a  specialized  sex  cell  (sperm  and  egg)  
Gene:  a  segment  of  DNA  that  carries  the  code  for  a  specific  protein  
Locus:  specific  location  of  a  gene  on  a  chromosome  
Allele:  one  form  of  a  gene  for  a  specific  trait  
Cancer:  a  group  of  diseases  characterized  by  abnormal  cell  division.  
Tumour:  an  abnormal  lump  of  cells  produced  by  uninhibited  cell  division  
Benign:  a  tumour  that  shows  no  sign  of  spreading  
Malignant:  a  tumour  capable  of  spreading  
Metastasis:   a   life-­‐threatening   malignant   tumour   capable   of   moving   through   the   body  
and  infecting  new  tissues  
Radiation  Therapy:  a  cancer  treatment  that  disrupts  the  mitotic  process,  and  as  a  result,  
daughter  cancerous  cells  are  flawed,  and  die  off  
Chemotherapy:   a   cancer   treatment   involving   the   use   of   a   wide   range   of   drugs,   which  
affect   all   the   cells   of   the   body,   not   just   cancerous   cells;   as   a   result,   chemotherapy  
patients  can  often  be  seen  without  hair  
Immunotherapy:   a   cancer   treatment   that   uses   the   body's   own   immune   defences   and  
naturally  occurring  chemicals  
Blending   Theory   of   Inheritance:   a   19th   century   hypothesis   that   "seeds"   control  
hereditary  traits  and  blend  with  other  seeds  when  they  pass  to  the  next  generation  
Pangenesis:   an   outdated   theory   that   suggests   that   traits   could   be   modified   during   a  
person's  lifetime  and  these  modifications  could  be  passed  on  to  his  or  her  offspring  
Heredity:  the  transmission  of  genetic  characteristics  from  parent  to  offspring  
Gene:  a  distinct  packet  of  hereditary  information  passed  from  generation  to  generation  
Allele:  one  form  of  a  gene  for  a  specific  trait  
Dominant:  the  allele  that  is  expressed  in  a  heterozygous  individual  (TT)  
Recessive:  the  allele  that  is  only  expressed  in  the  homozygous  recessive  condition  (tt)  
Genotype:  the  genetic  make-­‐up  of  an  organism  
Phenotype:  the  physical  characteristic  of  an  organism  
Homozygous:  describes  an  organism  with  two  identical  alleles  of  a  certain  gene  
Heterozygous:  describes  an  organism  with  two  different  alleles  of  a  certain  gene  
Incomplete   Dominance:   neither   gene   is   completely   dominant   over   the   other;   in   a  
heterozygous  individual,  there  is  an  intermediate  phenotype  that  is  expressed,  instead  
of  the  dominant  one  
Co-­‐Dominance:   neither   allele   dominates   or   hinders   another;   the   two   are   expressed   at  
the  same  time  
Multifactorial  Trait:  traits  whose  phenotypic  expression  is  controlled  by  genes  found  at  
many   loci   (polygenic);   multifactorial   traits   are   further   grouped   into   continuous   and  
discontinuous  distribution  
Gene   Linkage:   when   genes   are   found   in   the   same   chromosome   do   not   undergo  
independent   assortment,   they   are   not   separated   during   meiosis;   instead,   a   small  
fraction  of  the  genes  are  exchanged  during  the  process  of  crossing  over  

 

57  

Evolution:   The   process   in   which   significant   changes   in   the   inheritable   traits   (genetic  
makeup)  of  a  species  occur  over  time  
Immutable:   Unchanged   and   unchanging,   believed   (before   the   evolutionary   theory  
became  accepted)  to  be  characteristic  of  life  forms  
Fossil:   Any   preserved   remains   or   traces   of   organism   or   its   activity;   many   fossils   are   such  
of  hardened  body  parts,  such  as  shells  and  bones  
Permineralized   Fossil:   A   fossil   formed   when   dissolved   minerals   precipitate   form   a  
solution  in  the  space  occupied  by  the  organism's  remains  
Fossilization:   The   process   by   which   traces   of   past   organisms   become   part   of  
sedimentary  rock  layers  or,  more  rarely,  hard  tar  pits,  volcanic  ash,  peat  bogs  or  amber  
Microfossils:   Microscopic   remains   of   tiny   organisms   or   structures   that   have   hard   and  
resistant  outer  coverings  
Palaeontology:  The  scientific  study  of  fossil  remains  
Catastrophism:   Cuvier's   theory   that   numerous   global   catastrophes   in   the   past   had  
repeatedly   caused   the   extinction   of   species   that   were   then   replaced   by   newly   created  
forms  
Relative  Age:  An  estimate  of  the  age  of  a  rock  of  fossil  specimen  in  relation  to  another  
specimen  
Absolute  Age:  An  estimate  of  the  actual  age  of  a  rock  or  fossil  specimen  
Radioactive   Decay:   The   release   of   subatomic   particles   from   the   nucleus   of   an   atom,  
which   results   in   the   change   of   a   radioactive   parent   isotope   into   a   daughter   isotope;  
when  the  numbers  of  protons  is  altered,  a  different  element  is  formed  
Radioisotopes:   atoms   with   an   unstable   nuclear   arrangement   that   undergo   radioactive  
decay  
Parent  Isotope:  changes  into  a  daughter  isotope  as  radioactive  decay  occurs  
Daughter   Isotope:   what   a   parent   isotope   changes   into   during   radioactive   decay;   may   be  
stable  or  radioactive  and  capable  of  further  decay  
Half-­‐Life:  the  time  required  for  half  of  a  radioactive  material  to  undergo  decay;  the  half-­‐
time  for  any  given  isotope  is  constant  
Radiometric  Dating:  calculation  of  the  age  of  rock  -­‐  and  of  embedded  fossils  and  other  
objects  -­‐  through  the  measurement  of  the  decay  of  radioisotopes  in  the  rock  
Sexual  Selection:  the  perpetuation  of  alleles  in  a  population  for  characteristics  that  give  
males  the  advantage  of  being  selected  by  females  as  a  mate  
Virus:  non-­‐cellular  particle  of  DNA  or  RNA  surrounded  by  a  protein  coat,  which  lives  as  a  
parasite  within  a  host  cell  
Provirus:  virus  whose  DNA  has  been  inserted  into  the  host  cell  
Recombinant   DNA:   DNA   molecule   formed   when   a   biologist   splices   two   different   and  
combines  portions  of  DNA  from  two  different  sources  
Restriction   Enzyme:   bacterial   enzyme   that   cuts   up   foreign   DNA;   used   in   genetic  
engineering  to  create  recombinant  DNA  
Lysis:  bursting  of  a  host  cell  infected  by  a  replicating  virus  
RNA:  nucleic  acid  made  of  a  single  strand  of  nucleotides,  involved  in  protein  synthesis  
Binary   Fission:   division   of   an   organism   into   two   identical   individuals   through   a   type   of  
asexual  reproduction  

 

58  

Gram  Stain:  dye  made  of  crystal  violet  and  iodine  that  biologists  use  to  classify  bacteria  
based  on  the  organism's  reaction  to  the  stain  
Plasmid:  Small  ring  of  DNA  in  a  bacterium,  often  used  in  genetic  recombination  
Prokaryote:   single-­‐celled   organism   that   lacks   a   membrane-­‐enclosed   nucleus   and  
membrane-­‐enclosed  organelles  
Eukaryote:   organism   made   of   one   or   more   cells   that   have   both   a   membrane-­‐enclosed  
nucleus  and  membrane-­‐enclosed  organelles  
Bacterium:  single-­‐celled  prokaryote  that  belongs  to  the  kingdom  Archaebacteria  or  the  
kingdom  Eubacteria  
Conjugation:  transfer  of  DNA  between  two  bacterial  or  protist  cells  that  unite  in  a  type  
of  sexual  reproduction  
Endospore:  tick  wall  produced  in  some  bacteria  in  unfavourable  conditions  to  enclose  its  
DNA  and  cytoplasm  
DNA:   nucleic   acid   encoded   with   instructions   to   produce   proteins   that   stores   and  
transmits  genetic  information  
Saprobe:  living  organism  that  feeds  on  dead  organisms  and  organic  waste  
Bacteriophage:  virus  that  infects  specifically  bacteria  
Retrovirus:  virus  with  a  complex  reproductive  cycle  

 

59