Chapter 1 a term which comes from the Greek words photos (light) and graphos (drawing).

• the process of making pictures by means of capturing light on a lightsensitive medium, such as a sensor or film. • Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects are recorded onto a sensitive medium or storage chip through a timed exposure. Photography is full of rules but the basic you have to do when taking a photograph is : Compose This is the creative or artistic bit where you arrange all of the elements of your picture within the frame or viewfinder to produce what should hopefully be a pleasing composition. Expose This is the scientific and mechanical bit where you expose your film to light through the lens of your camera and if you are lucky preserve the image for posterity.

The single-lens reflex (SLR) camera uses an automatic moving mirror system which permits the photographer to see exactly what will be captured by the film or digital imaging system, as opposed to non-SLR cameras where the view through the viewfinder could be significantly different from what was captured on film

Other cameras, such as the LOMO LC-A, Lubitel, and Holga, while originally intended as consumer, mass-market cameras, have also become identified with the term.

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The mirror in a single lens reflex (SLR) camera reflects light upwards through a pentaprism to be viewed. The pentaprism turns the image the right way round for the eye to see. When a picture is taken the mirror flips up to allow light to hit the film at the back of the camera. As the eye seems the image through the main lens it appears identical to that produced on the film.

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Twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length. One of the lenses is the photographic objective (the lens that takes the picture), while the other is used for the waist-level viewfinder system.

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A point-and-shoot camera, also called a compact camera, is a still camera designed primarily for simple operation. Most of them use auto-focus or focus free lenses for focusing and automatic systems for exposure as well. Point-and-shoots are by far the best selling type of camera. hey are popular with people who don’t consider themselves photographers but want an easy to use camera for vacations, parties, reunions and other events.

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Toy cameras are simple, inexpensive film box cameras made almost entirely out of plastic, often including the lens. The term is misleading, since they are not 'toys' in the sense that these cameras are actually capable of taking photographs. Many were made to be given away as novelties or prizes. The Diana, an inexpensive 1960s 4x4cm novelty box camera from Hong Kong, is typically the camera most associated with the term 'toy camera'.

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