Course 1 : basic concepts

Pierre Simon de Laplace (1814), in his book Essai Philosophique sur les Probabilités (Philosophical
Essay on Probability):
We must consider the present state of Universe as the effect of its past state and the cause of its
future state. An intelligence that would know all forces of nature and the respective situation
of all its elements, if furthermore it was large enough to be able to analyze all these data,
would embrace in the same expression the motions of the largest bodies of Universe as well
as those of the slightest atom: nothing would be uncertain for this intelligence, all future
and all past would be as known as present.

Poincaré map
points-periodic
closed figure quasi periodic

Course 1 : basic concepts

Fixed point

Limit cycle
Strange attractor

Perrin experiment
particle 0.52 µm
grid 3,2 µm

Course 1 : basic concepts

52 µm grid 3. But it is not always so. that is all . Prediction becomes impossible and we have the fortuitous phenomenon. we could still knowt we require. that it is governed by the laws. it may happen that small differences in the initial conditions produce very great ones in the final phenomena. A small error in the former will produce an enormous error in the latter. we could predict exactly the situation of the same universe at a succeeding moment. But even if it were the case that the natural laws had no longer any secret for us.he situation approximately. If we knew exactly the laws of nature and the situation of the universe at the initial moment. If that enabled us to predict the succeeding situation with the same approximation. and we should say that the phenomenon had been predicted.Perrin experiment particle 0. and then we say that the effect is due to chance.2 µm Course 1 : basic concepts Henri Poincaré Science et Méthode (1908): Avery small cause which escapes our notice determines a considerable effect that we cannot fail to see.

Course 1 : basic concepts The variable x versus t of the Lorenz system. for σ = 10. b = 8/3 and r = 28. .

Course 1 : chaos and ergodicity logistic map .

2. 6.Course 1 : chaos and mixing Cat map Evolution of the cat map. Going from left to right and from top to bottom. the evolutions are plotted with 40 000 points. . 4. at times t = 0.

Course II: Probability basic concepts • algebra-probability • Random variable .pdf • Independence • Conditional probability-Bayes formula Let’s make a deal .

Course II: Probability basic concepts .

Course II: Probability limit theorems .

Course II: Probability limit theorems Chebyshev inequality Strong law large numbers CLT: (i)σx < ∞ (ii)xi independent (iii) Lindberg cond .

Course II: LDT very briefly Bernoulli .

Course III: Stochastic processes Def Markov Process Forward Kolmogorov Fokker-Planck .

Course III: Stochastic processes Gaussian process Wiener .

Course III: Stochastic calculus SDE Ito integral Ito formula Wiener properties .

Course III: coarse-graining .

Course III: coarse-graining .

Course III: coarse-graining .

Course III: coarse-graining .

Course IV: Fluid Mechanics basic definition Flow visualization http://web.edu/hml/ncfmf.mit.html .

Course IV: Fluid Mechanics viscosity .

Course IV: Fluid Mechanics basic definition .

Course IV: Fluid Mechanics ideal and incompressible flows •Euler • Crocco-Bernoulli •Kelvin’s Theorem •Potential flows .

strictly speaking. however. at this surface one layer of fluid "slides" on another. has a discontinuity. Figure 1 shows a surface of discontinuity which separates moving fluid from a region of stationary fluid behind the body. all these conclusions are of only very limited validity.Course IV: Fluid Mechanics: potential flows Flow around an obstacle Any flow for which the fluid is initially at rest must be a potential flow. having followed the surface for some distance. the discontinuity in the tangential velocity component corresponds to a surface on which the curl of the velocity is non-zero. invalid for a line which lies in the surface of a solid body past which the flow takes place. . In other words. From a mathematical point of view. on this surface the fluid velocity. since the presence of this surface makes it impossible to draw a closed contour in the fluid encircling such a streamline. become separated from it at some point and continue into the fluid. The reason is that the proof given above that curl v = 0 all along a streamline is. The resulting flow pattern is characterized by the presence of a "surface of tangential discontinuity" proceeding from the body. In fact. The equations of motion of an ideal fluid therefore admit solutions for which separation occurs at the surface of the body: the streamlines. which is everywhere tangential to the surface.

.Course IV: Fluid Mechanics:Viscous fluids •NS •Vorticity •Low Reynolds number: Stokes formula •Navier-Stokes from Boltzmann eq.

Course IV: Fluid Mechanics similarity http://web.html .mit.edu/hml/ ncfmf.

Course IV: Fluid Mechanics Present research in low reynolds number complex flows Antkowiak. . Josserand. 108 (2011). Neukirch and Rivetti. PNAS. Audoly. Instant fabrication and selection of folded structures using drop impact.

10-6 Nm2 • Totally wetting liquid: silicone oil .Drops on elastic fibers g 0 2d0 top view g 2d zg (t) z 0 side view L H (t) z • Flexible fibers: glass. r=0. B=7 x 10-7 .145 mm.

5 cm top side top L=4 cm .Drops between parallel flexible fibers side L=4.

5 PARTIAL SPREADING V ƫ/.Phase diagram NO SPREADING 3 2.

V.1* 727$/635($'. B and γ • Two critical drop sizes: • One critical volume trigger coalescence/spreading • One optimal volume induces maximum spreading .1* 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 L (cm) 4 5 • Three distinct regimes Ref: Wetting of flexible fiber array (Nature 2012) • Final state depends on d/r.5 1 727$/635($'.$/635($'. 2 3$57. L.1* NO SPREADING 1.

. µ=20.10-3Pa.s. Fast camera: 1000 fpss D=1mm.BOUNCING DROPS Drop bouncing at the surface of a bath of the same fluid (oscillating). acc=3g Ref: From Bouncing to Floating: non-coalesence of drops on a fluid bath (PRL 2004) . f=80Hz.

WALKING DROP View from top of a walking drop (occurs close to the threshold of the Faraday instability) Walker velocity: VW=18 mm.s-1 Drop bounces on the slope of the wave created at its previous bounce giving it this radial impulsion. Ref: Dynamical phenomena: walking and orbiting droplets (Nature 2005) Particle-wave association on a fluid interface (JFM 2006) 32 .

html .mit.edu/hml/ncfmf.3 scenarios Ruelle-Takes Feigenbaum Pomeau-Manneville http://web.

edu/hml/ ncfmf.mit.Course V: Turbulence visualization http://web.html .

Course V: Turbulence Richardson cascade KO Spectrum .

Course V: Turbulence .

Course V: Turbulence 2D .

Course V: Turbulence multifractal .