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.The demand for data and high-speed services means that new. incentivizing off-peak traffic © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. 8 . The ever-increasing capacity requirements necessitate the use of smaller cell sizes. HDTV demands 6 to 9 Mbps of continuous connectivity – an entire HSPA/WiMax sector. Ltd. The surest way to increase data rates is to use more spectrum. New wireless technologies must therefore focus on: • More spectrum • More spectral efficiency • Smaller cell sizes (Femto cells) • QOS differentiation. smarter wireless technologies are needed to support such volumes and speeds. But spectrum must be used efficiently. For instance.

HDTV demands 6 to 9 Mbps of continuous connectivity – an entire HSPA/WiMax sector. New wireless technologies must therefore focus on: • More spectrum • More spectral efficiency • Smaller cell sizes (Femto cells) • QOS differentiation. For instance. smarter wireless technologies are needed to support such volumes and speeds.. Ltd. The ever-increasing capacity requirements necessitate the use of smaller cell sizes. 9 . The surest way to increase data rates is to use more spectrum.The demand for data and high-speed services means that new. incentivizing off-peak traffic © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. But spectrum must be used efficiently.

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. requiring none of the costly circuitswitched components that are necessary in earlier generations to support conversational services. significantly improving user experience. the eNodeB. the user and control planes are separate. This further reduces latency. In the LTE core. eases signaling loads and allows operators to expand traffic capacity independent of voice. This reduces the latency on the air interface.Shown above is a comparison between the LTE and GSM / WCDMA architectures. There is no controller equivalent of the BSC or RNC. The LTE access network consists of a single node. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. LTE is a completely packet-switched network. 11 . Ltd.

. 12 . R9 introduced Self-Organizing Networks.Shown above is the timeline for important 3rd and 4th generation 3GPP releases along with the key features in each release. Ltd. and LTE femtocells or home base stations. Femtocells are very small cells with low transmit powers meant for homes or small offices. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Release 10 introduces Co-operative Multi-antenna Processing (CoMP) which is a feature where multiple eNodeB’s co-operate to transmit signals to cell-edge UE’s. R8 was the first LTE release where OFDMA and the LTE core network were specified. discussed later.

Control Plane  Transit time (RAN only) from non-active to active state. Packet-switched devices often lapse into a dormant state and take some time to become fully active again. LTE requirements therefore clearly spell out the maximum allowable latencies in user and control planes..Apart from the need for higher data rates. a major driver for LTE has been the need to reduce network latencies. 13 . and using IP-based ‘single node’ access and core networks help LTE reduce delays and improve user experience. 5ms in unloaded network. 3GPP has since paid special attention to this issue. User Plane  Time to transmit small IP packet to / from RAN edge node measured on IP layer. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. 50 ms for R6 Cell_PCH state. Ltd. 200 terminals in active state should be supported in 5 MHz and 400 in wider deployments. WCDMA and early HSPA releases suffered from latency issues that hampered user experience. Related to this. 100 ms for transition from R6 Idle state. Separating the user and control planes.

. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Deployments with different cell sites using different bandwidths are also supported.. This is particularly useful for high-capacity hotspots and layering. LTE systems can use any of the bandwidths listed above. This allows operators to deploy in a gradual manner. LTE also supports both paired (FDD) and un-paired (TDD) spectrum. RJIL will use TD-LTE. i.e. starting with lower bandwidths and increasing the bandwidth as traffic grows. LTE supports flexible bandwidth deployment. 14 .Unlike previous generations of cellular standards. micro or pico cells. Ltd.

Samsung / RJIL will use the 2.6 GHz bands are favored in Asia. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. 15 ..3 to 2.Shown above are bands used by TD-LTE. There are regular additions to this list based on ITU regulatory meetings. The 2. Ltd.3 GHz band.

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e.5G GSM / GPRS architecture. The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and the Gateway-GGSN (GGSN) form the packet core of the GPRS / EDGE and early WCDMA releases. CS-voice part is handled by the Base station Controller (BSC) and the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). Shown above is a 2G / 2. 19 . the CS core remains.Before introducing the LTE network architecture. Ltd. i. With the introduction of GPRS. The GSM.. Still. requiring huge investments in switching equipment and infrastructure. the first step toward packet switching was taken. The MSC is a switch that connects to a Gateway-MSC (GMSC) which is plugged in to the landline PSTN.. A Packet Controller Unit (PCU) in the BSC split the traffic to the CS and PS core networks. it’s worth re-visiting earlier generations to get a sense of how the architecture has evolved. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co.

there was little development in R99. A Radio Network Controller (RNC) took on some of the functions of the MSC. 20 . made the NodeB capable of fast dynamic scheduling but some of the more executive functions (e. admission control) continued to rest with the RNC. The base station was called NodeB. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. On the core side. This was the first time that control and user planes were separated in the core.g. R5 HSDPA and above. Ltd.The WCDMA R99 architecture took some further steps towards independence of the Radio Access Network (RAN) and the core. Still. R5 allowed full IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) support. Later releases. an all IP network. R4 did introduce the MSC Server or soft-switch and Media Gateway (MGW) functionalities. most operators continued to rely on CS core for voice. largely to allow upgrades using existing core networks. The inter-RNC interface was introduced in order to support the CDMA soft handover feature..

Every node in the LTE traffic path is QoS aware.The LTE access network is a single node RAN. There is no controller node analogous to the 2G Base Station Controller or the 3G Radio Network Controller. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Ltd. The LTE base station. a failure in a centralized controller for multiple base stations could potentially degrade service for the entire area. 21 . The LTE network is completely packet-based end to end.. user and administrative traffic. In earlier generations. LTE supports real-time conversational traffic by ensuring appropriate QoS treatment for it. This minimizes the number of interfaces required. is completely responsible for all the access functionalities. No traffic is circuit switched. eNodeB. Different QoS treatment is given to control. LTE reduces such single-point failures. making QoS an endto-end feature.

. Ltd. So most users will require handover to a legacy network when they travel out of LTE coverage. Since IP is used end-to-end. though the control and user plane nodes are separate. The LTE core is a single logical node. Since LTE is the technology of choice for both 3GPP and 3GPP2 operators.Work on the LTE core was called System Architecture Evolution (SAE). The result was an Evolved Packet Core (EPC). it is often referred to as a flat architecture. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. 22 . EPC supports interworking with a wide range of other networks – GSM / GPRS. interworking with both legacy cellular systems is a must. WCDMA / HSPA. Initial LTE deployments are usually in urban pockets. CDMA and WiFi – with appropriate interfaces defined for each scenario.

The EPC consists of a Mobility Management Entity (MME) that handles all control plane functionality. 23 . Since there is no controller.. the eNB’s coordinate with each other. The S-GW and P-GW can be combined into a single physical node called the SAE-GW. The functions of each node are explained in some detail in the following slides. Ltd. the LTE base station. and two gateways – Serving Gateway (S-GW) and PDN Gateway (P-GW) – in the user plane. The eNodeB’s are connected to each other via the X2 interface.The LTE access network is an evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network. but no controller node. It consists of a single eNodeB. or EUTRAN. It also reduces unwanted signaling loads. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. The separation of user and control planes allows operators to expand one independently of the other.

© SAMSUNG Electronics Co.Being the single node in the E-UTRAN. An eNB is connected to one or more MME’s via the S1-MME interface. it coordinates with other eNB’s using the X2 interface to control user mobility. Encryption and header compression were carried out by controller nodes in earlier generations. the eNB performs all the Radio Resource Management (RRM) functions. When a user attaches to the network. During handovers or cell reselection. It handles scheduling of resources as well as paging and broadcast functions. Thus it sets up radio bearers and admits or disallows services based on the radio resource availability. but they are done by the eNB in LTE. The eNB is also responsible for dynamic radio resource allocation on the LTE time-frequency resource grid. Ltd. the eNB must select an MME from an MME-pool. It sends signaling information such as measurements and messages to the MME.. 24 . An important function of the eNB is to control mobility within the radio network.

which is the controller. 25 . The two are connected using an optical cable. Ltd. The DU is installed in a cabinet at the bottom of the tower or the rooftop floor. The RRU is installed close to the antenna.Universal platform type A Management board Assembly LTE eNB Channel card board Assembly Shown above are the Samsung Digital Unit (DU) and Remote Radio Unit (RRU). A single L9CA board can support up to 3 sectors. This minimizes losses along the length of the tower and allows high data rate information exchange.. It consists of a UAMA board. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. and an L9CA board which is the channel card.

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This results in increased cell-edge throughput. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Since LTE radio resources are basically frequencies. The eNB scheduling mechanism exploits this by preferentially scheduling UE’s in better radio conditions while keeping a fair amount of resources for UE’s in bad radio conditions. It constantly keeps eNB’s informed of neighbor resource allocations. thereby improving throughput and quality. Some co-ordination is therefore required to reduce interference in the network. so that their own allocations can minimize inter-cell interference. Additionally. Neighboring NB’s can operate on the same bandwidths. 28 . the Smart Scheduler also provides O&M functionalities. Ltd. Radio conditions within the cell vary with time and location. The Samsung Smart Scheduler Server addresses this problem by providing UL & DL co-ordination among the eNB’s it controls.Channel-dependent scheduling is an important aspect of an LTE eNB. one of the key challenges in LTE networks is managing inter-cell interference..

The MME is the heart of the EPC as far as signaling is concerned. It is responsible for
the setup and management of bearers, or logical connections, with the user. When
user equipment (UE) is idle, the MME needs to generate a paging message to reach
the UE. This means that the MME must have some idea of the UE location. So the UE
updates the MME of change in location at suitable times. The MME is also
responsible for authentication.
Since it does setup, the MME is responsible for selecting gateways for user plane
traffic. This could be based, for example, on load considerations. The MME also has
an S3 interface to connect with other 3GPP core networks, e.g. to an SGSN. When a
user travels out of LTE coverage into 2.5/3G coverage, the MME can select the
appropriate SGSN. Within an LTE network, inter-MME mobility is handled via the S10
interface. The MME checks authorization and roaming issues via S6a, its interface to
the Home Subscriber server (HSS). It also supports lawful intercept for signaling
messages.

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The Samsung MME offers high reliability and capacity. It supports mobility
management functions such as tracking area updates, paging and handover. It can be
co-located with the S-GW and the P-GW.

The MME consists of three kinds of cards:
LEMA: The LTE EPC Management Board Assembly consists of the switch and the
management functionality.
LENA: All external connections to the MME terminate on the LTE EPC Network

Assembly board.
LESA: The core MME functionality resides in the LTE EPC Session management board
Assembly.

Samsung MME supports high redundancy. The LEMA and LENA boards support 1:1
redundancy, while the LESA board operates in 2:1 redundancy mode.

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The S-GW is the local mobility anchor. It is analogous to the 2G SGSN. It ‘anchors’ the
UE data connection during inter-eNB handovers. Packets may arrive for the UE when
it is idle. The S-GW then buffers them until the UE is active and ready to receive data.
It also initiates a network triggered service request in such cases. Besides, the S-GW
can also handle handovers to other 3GPP networks via the S4 interface. It facilitates
re-ordering of packets by sending an “end marker” to the eNB or source SGSN / RNC
after handover.

The S-GW helps in inter-operator charging via the S5 / S8 interface to the P-GW. It
supports transport level QoS functions such as IP Differentiated Services and
supports lawful interception of data packets.

A UE has one and only one S-GW at a time.

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The P-GW is the EPC entry and exit point for packets to travel in and out of the LTE
network. It is analogous to the GGSN. Thus, the P-GW is connected to the external
Packet Data Network (PDN), for example the Internet, and to all other external
networks such as 3GPP, 3GPP2.

The P-GW allocates IP addresses to UE’s and performs all the policy control and
charging related functions. Naturally, it also performs DHCP functions. It plays an
important role in QoS and also supports IP Differentiated Services. The S-GW and P-

GW can be and often are combined into one physical node, called the SAE Gateway.

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33 . Ltd.g.The Samsung SAE-GW supports P-GW functionalities such as Policy & Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF). User and service based QoS control as well as flow based charging are supported.. allowing operators to monitor services. DPI refers to the opening of a packet all the way up to the application layer. The LEMA and LENA cards have the same functions as in the MME. The LTE EPC Data Processing Assembly (LEDA) performs the core SAE-GW functions of the user plane. IMSI) to application servers. HHE refers to enhancements to the HTTP protocol header allowing the operator to provide subscriber information (e. In addition advanced features such as Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) and HTTP Header Enhancement (HHE) are also supported. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co.

© SAMSUNG Electronics Co. 10 AG1 rings (up to 4 AG1’s per ring) connect to the AG2 level. 34 . Finally.. i. AG1.Shown here is a schematic of the RJIL 4G network deployment. a total of 20 eNB’s per AG1 pair. Different levels of Aggregation routers (AG’s) are deployed.e. The EPC and IMS nodes are deployed at the AG3 level. Ltd. The centralized scheduler is located at the AG2 level. An AG1 pair (for redundancy) consists of 4 rings with 5 eNodeB’s per ring.. an AG3 node supports 16 AG2 pairs. Each eNodeB is connected via backhaul to an Aggregator node.

The RJIL plan consists of 18 EPC’s for 22 circles. most of the core IMS nodes will be deployed at the regional level. Ltd. At the highest level are 2 zones – Mumbai for the West and South zones. east and west. OSS and billing will reside at the zones. south. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. 35 .. High level functionalities such as IMS applications. While each circle will have a Media Gateway (MGW). These 18 EPC’s are managed by one of 4 regions – north. and Delhi for the North and East zones.

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Cellular systems therefore rely on other techniques to increase data rates: • Link Adaptation: Modifying link transmission parameters to handle variations in radio link quality. 39 . where UE’s in good radio conditions are given better data rates by modifying the modulation and coding used • Channel-dependant Scheduling: Minimize the amount of resources used keeping the required QOS in mind • Hybrid ARQ: Transmitters add redundant bits to the data (precaution before transmission) and receivers request retransmission of erroneously received data (improvement after transmission) • Multiple Antennas: Diversity. MIMO © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Continually increasing the spectrum cannot be the only way to obtain high data rates.. Ltd. A well known example is Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC).Spectrum is a scarce and costly resource. beam-forming.

Typical values are 2 x 2 and 4 x 4. This is Transmit Diversity and it helps reduce the interference experienced by the UE . where N is the number of transmitters and M the number of receivers. Ltd.Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) refers to the use of multiple antennas on the transmit and receive side. In this case. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. It was first introduced in HSPA+. two copies of the same information can be sent to the UE. For UE’s that are at the cell-edge. MIMO is a general term often used to describe two possibilities.. the dominant problem is poor signal quality due to interference. wherein two data streams are sent on two antennas simultaneously. In fact one of the strengths of OFDMA compared to WCDMA is that it makes MIMO implementation feasible. but has been part of LTE since R8. It is often described as N x M MIMO. thereby increasing data rates. 40 . The first one is Spatial Multiplexing. This is typically used for UE’s in good radio conditions.

This is the smallest physical resource in LTE. The small sub-carrier spacing implies large bit periods. making OFDMA robust against multipath. 41 . The sub-carriers are orthogonal because the LTE pulse is designed so that. A single OFDM symbol is constructed by parallel transmission of multiple sub-carriers during a symbol time interval. A single sub-carrier during one OFDM symbol is called a Resource Element (RE)..LTE uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). the peak power of one sub-carrier coincides with zeroes of all the other sub-carriers as shown above. in frequency domain. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. This multiple access technique allows for allocation of different bandwidths to different services. One can imagine a large number of finely tuned radio stations transmitting simultaneously without interfering with each other. The total carrier bandwidth is divided into mutually orthogonal sub-carriers of fixed width – 15 KHz. Ltd.

42 .Along with OFDMA. called the eNodeB. reducing latencies and improving throughputs.5 ms.. dynamic time-domain scheduling done at the LTE base station. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. The fact that radio resources are managed completely by the eNodeB makes LTE a single-node access network. Ltd. 0. LTE also uses fast (of the order of 1ms). This allows for a highly flexible allocation of radio resources on a time-frequency grid as shown above. The basic unit of allocation is a Resource Block (RB) consisting of 12 sub-carriers (12 x 15 = 180 KHz) and a single time slot.

The transmitted power in OFDM is the sum of the powers of all the subcarriers. contiguous parts of the carrier.A problem with OFDMA systems is the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR). the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) tends to have a large range. This is a problem for use with mobile (battery-powered) devices. SC-FDMA enables a lower UE peak-toaverage power ratio (PAPR) which eases amplifier design in the mobile devices. By restricting uplink transmissions to smaller. the greater the range of power levels over which the power amplifier is required to work. OFDMA-based scheme called single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) was developed for the LTE uplink. The higher the peaks. A new. 43 . Due to large number of subcarriers.

The number of sub-carriers N depends on the bandwidth allocated to the UE.Shown above is a time-frequency view of OFDMA and SC-FDMA. As can be seen. 44 . SC-FDMA sends one modulation symbol on N sub-carriers (4 in the above example) in 1/Nth symbol duration. OFDMA sends one modulation symbol on one sub-carrier in one symbol duration.

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especially for handovers. The UE must setup.The LTE UE is a stand alone device performing all the functions that are performed in the network. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. as well as supports multiple receive / transmit. maintain and teardown IP sessions with the LTE network. At the lowest physical layer. The UE updates the network of its location and sends measurements to allow the network to make informed decisions. it encodes and decodes data. Ltd. performs OFDM. It must also keep a record of the identities given to it by the eNB and the EPC. modulation and demodulation.. 50 .

the different LTE UE categories have a wide range in the supported parameters and performance. but LTE UE category five supports 4x4 MIMO. LTE category 1. It is also worth noting that UE class 1 does not offer the performance offered by that of the highest performance HSPA category.3 and 4 support different maximum data rates. Based on their maximum data rates and number of multiple transmit / receive antennas. categories 2. 51 . dongle or other equipment will operate. As can be seen in the table above. for example does not support MIMO. UE’s are assigned categories. Additionally all LTE UE categories are capable of receiving transmissions from up to four antenna ports. This is because they differ in the number of maximum bits they can decode in each TTI. There are five different LTE UE categories defined.LTE UE categories define the standards by which a particular handset. Note that despite supporting the same modulation and MIMO. Shown above are the R8 / R9 UE categories.

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Web-browsing. it also requires high data rate and has low tolerance for errors.PoC: Push to talk over cellular Different services have different requirements of the network. Quality of Service (QoS) is a way to differentiate between services based on these requirements so that the network can serve users better. For instance. Ltd. QoS is understood in terms of three key factors: bit-rate.. If the RT service happens to be video. Shown above are some typical services used on cellular networks. delay and error. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Since LTE supports a wide variety of services. Each of these has its own QoS requirements. it needs to have a QoS mechanism in place to satisfy service requirements. Generally. real-time (RT) services are strict about delay. 53 . on the other hand. Services are then categorized based on their requirements of these three. can tolerate some delay but is strict about error rates.

it is important to understand bearers. an EPS bearer is equivalent to a PDP context. the UE has a radio bearer. With the EPC. the internet). A PDN connection is the IP session link between the UE and the external data network (e. The UE is logically connected to different entities in the LTE network.g. A bearer is essentially a logical connection that carries some data. All EPS bearers belonging to one PDN connection share the same IP address. This is the level at which the UE is known by an IP address. the UE is connected to the P-GW via an EPS bearer that is used to carry IP traffic with a certain QoS. in 2G terms. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. eNB). 54 . Each EPS bearer is associated with a set of QoS parameters. With the E-UTRAN (i. While a PDN connection is equivalent to a session..e.Before discussing the LTE QoS mechanism. Ltd.

Having a Default Bearer is a way to minimize the signalling required to start data transfer when coming out of inactivity. Since the Default bearer is associated with a set of QoS parameters. Ltd.When a UE first attaches to the network and establishes a new PDN connection. From the QoS perspective. Dedicated bearers can be GBR or not. a Dedicated EPS bearer may be set up. Default bearers are always non-GBR. Recall that packet switched user devices frequently go into dormant modes. A Default Bearer is essentially a way to provide always on connectivity. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. bearers can be Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) or non-GBR. 55 . This is essentially demand based. any service that has different QoS requirements may require a Dedicated Bearer. LTE sets up a Default Bearer that remains active for the lifetime of that connection. Depending on services that the UE requests. A GBR bearer is a way to commit a certain bit rate to the user. depending upon the service QoS.. This helps LTE achieve low signalling latencies.

i.e. Since an SDF corresponds to a QoS treatment and so does an EPS bearer.html Since QoS is essentially a function of the service or application being invoked by the user. QoS treatment remains the same within a bearer.. LTE uses the notion of a Service Data Flow (SDF). 56 . i. it follows that an EPS bearer can carry only one SDF aggregate. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co.SDF: An aggregate set of packet flows that matches a set of filters..blogspot.in/2010/09/sdf-qci-and-dedicated-bearers. http://wired-n-wireless.e. which is a P-GW functionality.. maps these IP flows to SDF’s. This is how the LTE network maps services to bearers based on QoS. Ltd. Each SDF corresponds to a particular QoS treatment applied by the Policy Control & Enforcement Function (PCEF). An SDF aggregate is a combination of one or more IP flows. An SDF is basically a set of IP flows corresponding to a service. An SDF thus corresponds to a QoS treatment. The P-GW receives IP flows from an external PDN and performs Filtering.

Ltd. As the name suggests. UE level QoS is enforced by the eNB. at the UE level. QoS is based on Access Point Names (APN’s) defined in P-GW. At the bearer level. At the service level SDF’s are used to apply QoS and other policies such as traffic conditioning to the IP flows.. 57 . the network uses an Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate (AMBR) to enforce QoS. the policy uses Binding. At the session level. voice APN. APN’s correspond to the external network path that the P-GW will use for the service (e.QCI. Since the radio resource allocation and scheduling are done by the eNB. Typically. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. AMBR regulates the total maximum bit rate of multiple bearers set up on a given APN. similar to an APN. For non-GBR bearers. Binding essentially ties a bearer to a Quality Class Indicator (QCI).QoS Class Identifier QoS in LTE networks operates at different levels. Finally. an APN will consist of multiple bearers. QCI is discussed in the next slide.g. Mobile TV APN). which is a numeric value for QoS class. a per-UE AMBR is used to regulate the QoS.

packet delay budget. Each packet flow is mapped to a single QCI value. Ltd. Each QCI implies a Packet Delay Budget (PDB) between the UE and P-GW and a Packet Error Loss Rate (PELR).g. if applicable. together with AllocationRetention Priority (ARP) and. 9 QCI levels are defined in the Release 8 version of the specifications according to the level of service required by the application. 58 . priority.bearer with/without guaranteed bit rate.The QCI is a scalar mapping of a set of transport characteristics . etc. packet error loss rate. queue management thresholds. Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) and Maximum Bit Rate (MBR). © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. It is used to infer node-specific parameters that control packet forwarding treatment. determines the QoS associated with an EPS bearer. e.. scheduling weights. link-layer protocol configuration.The QCI. admission thresholds..

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63 . BBERF: The Bearer Binding & Event Reporting Function. it provides application level information to the PCRF assisting the PCRF in policy decision making. Rx and Sp interfaces are Diameter based. The Gx. PCEF: The Policy & Charging Enforcement Function. Ltd. also in the SAE-GW. especially to charging systems. i.e. AF: The Application Function represents applications.. enforces policies such as gating and QoS control on behalf of the PCRF. residing in the SAE-GW.. PCRF: The Policy & Charging Rules Function decides on polices and charging based on flows and conveys these decisions to the PCEF. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co.Shown above are the key players in the PCC architecture. It also reports events such as request for a new service. SPR: The Subscriber Profile Repository provides subscriber specific data to the PCRF to assist in evaluating policy decisions. binds a service flow to an IP bearer (in effect a QoS).

An SDF can be identified by a flow descriptor.. 65 . Ltd.The PCC functions just discussed are performed based on Rules. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. a 5-tuple consisting of the source and destination IP and port addresses and the protocol type being used. A PCC Rule is essentially a concise way to detect SDF’s and capture PCC parameters for the PCEF to enforce. The protocol type and port are usually good indicators of the nature of the service and can be used to give it a certain QoS treatment.

can change. a new service type.PCC Rules are broadly of two kinds. A Dynamic Rule. is provisioned directly into the PCEF by the operator. Ltd. 66 . as the name suggests. A Pre-Defined Rule. on the other hand. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. for instance.. Dynamic rules allow adaptation to changes in traffic. Its definition comes to the P-GW from the Policy Control and Resource Function (PCRF) via the Gx interface between the two.

Ltd. resulting in the grouping of IP flows into SDF’s. charging and other aspects of the service. a policy is applied to each SDF.. This covers QoS. Then. using policy rules. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. 67 .Shown here is an example of policies applied to flows. The PCEF filters IP flows by applying SDF templates.

68 . a users transactions on a banking website are charged differently than streaming content. Thus. activation). duration (e. Also important is the method to measure usage – it can be based on volume (e. An important consideration is whether charging is offline or online. Ltd. a combination of the two. or in fact the service is free of charge.g..g. This identifier can then be used to support Flow-Based Charging.Like policy rules. A Service Identifier establishes the identity of the service or service component that the SDF in a rule relates to. per unit time).g. per MB). A Charging Key is used for an SDF to determine the tariff to be applied to it. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. charging has its own components. or an event (e.

OFCS (off-line charging system) receives events from the PCEF and generates charging data records (CDRs) for the billing system. 69 . OCS (online charging system) provides credit management and grants credit to the PCEF based on time. especially important for pre-paid services.. traffic volume or chargeable events. based on billing plans and billing cycles. OCS’s can affect services in real-time. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Ltd.Charging systems are broadly either Offline (OFCS) or Online (OCS). OFCS’s work offline in the background.

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multiple vendors and multiple services in 3G and 4G make optimization that much harder. monitoring tools and users.g.. per flow) for manual intervention. not being dependent on manual intervention. macro. Measurements from various network devices. the processes taken on by SON fall under the two categories shown above. along with algorithms that react to these measurements can improve network performance. 73 . pico and femto cells). Multiple technologies. in near real-time. micro. adding of a missing neighbor) can happen fast. Ltd. Broadly.An important development in the 3GPP cellular standards is the introduction of SelfOrganizing Networks (SON’s) in R8. Such improvements (e. a costly and time consuming exercise. per user. Routine or repetitive processes such as configuration can be streamlined by automating them. Cellular networks have increased in complexity.e. SON’s address these issues.g. There may be processes that are good candidates for automation because they are too fast or too ‘fine’ (e. heterogeneous networks (i. This leads to reduced OPEX and faster deployments. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. They also Minimize Drive Testing (MDT).

Samsung eNB’s support plug-and-play with IPV6. Ltd. it connects to the LSM and gets the software image and configuration from the LSM.. the eNB now sets up two additional VLAN’s – one for the S1-Control plane connection with the MME and a second one for the S1User plane and X2 interfaces with the SAE-GW and neighboring eNB’s. 3) Once it has its configuration. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. 74 .Shown here is a high-level view of the Samsung eNodeB self-configuration mechanism. 2) Next. respectively. 1) The eNB detects an open port and acquires the eNB IP and the Samsung LTE System Manager (LSM) IP addresses from the DHCP server on the universal OAM VLAN.

4) On the VLAN for S1-C.. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. 6) If it has a Neighbor Relations Table. 5) On the S1-u and X2 VLAN. the eNB establishes an S1-C connection with the MME. it establishes the S1-U connection with the SAE-GW. Ltd. the eNB then establishes X2 connections with neighboring eNB’s on the S1-U and X2 VLAN. 75 .

76 . via the LSM. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Based on handover statistics. If such reporting is unavailable. Ltd. the eNB obtains a Neighbor Relations Table (NRT) from the LSM. the Samsung eNB also performs self-optimization. During the initial configuration. it sets up X2 connections with its defined neighbors. This can be UEbased. as discussed earlier. Once operational. the Samsung eNB can rank as well as remove neighbors. itself recommends the identity and IP address of the neighbor.. Based on this.The Samsung Automatic Neighbor Relations (ANR) functionality begins at deployment of the eNB. wherein the UE assists in obtaining neighboring cell information by reporting it to the LSM. the network.

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‘Continuity’ refers to the feature that when an LTE user on a voice call moves out of LTE coverage. The routing of voice traffic in LTE therefore requires approaches that are different from the earlier generations. As such. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Voice over LTE. or VoLTE. Ltd. however. LTE. 78 . Circuit Switched Fallback simply leans on the earlier networks (2G / 3G) to handle voice. is completely packet-based. it is a temporary fix. Another term often used in the literature is Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SR-VCC). typically used during early stages of deployment.Earlier cellular generations used circuit-switched core networks for voice. the handover to 2G / 3G should be seamless. uses the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) network to offer completely packet-switched voice to LTE users. Shown above are two approaches to voice in LTE. This is the long-term solution for voice. ‘Single radio’ refers to the VoLTE advantage that the UE doesn’t have to switch radios when making a voice call..

. I-CSCF: Interrogates the HSS for calls terminating on the UE to determine which SCSCF will cater to the UE. The signaling protocol used for VoIP is Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). S-CSCF: The Serving CSCF holds user-specific data such as details of some services etc. Ltd. Below is a brief description of each node. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co.. Being a proxy.Shown above is a view of the IP Multimedia Subsystem architecture and its interfaces with the EPC. It terminates call/session signaling from UE and interacts with the application & services area. downloaded from the HSS. BGCF: Breakout Gateway Control Function is a SIP proxy that processes routing requests from S-CSCF based on telephone numbers. 79 . it is the first point of contact for an IMS user device. P-CSCF: The Proxy Call Session Control Function handles bearer establishment and related functions.

Application Environment: The application servers consist of the Voice Call Continuity (VCC). The MGW forms the media plane while the MGCF is the signaling plane.248 protocol. 80 . Ltd.MGCF: Media Gateway Control Function controls the Media Gateway (MGW) using the H. The MGW translates from RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol) to circuit switched voice (e. MRFx: The Media Resource Function (MRF) provides media functionalities and is also split into the Media Resource Function Control (MRFC) which forms the signaling plane and the Media Resource Function Part (MRFP) which is the media plane. the Rich Communications Suite (RCS) and the Telephony Application Services (TAS) servers. The MRFC interprets signaling from the S-CSCF. The MGCF translates from SIP (packet switched) to ISUP (circuit switched) and communicates with the PSTN via a Signaling Gateway (SiGW). © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. while the MRFP processes media.g. AMR)..

.Shown above is an overview of the steps involved in UE registration with the IMS. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. Ltd. 81 .

Shown above is a step by step overview of the VoLTE call setup using IMS.. 82 . Ltd. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co.

. 84 . Ltd. This means that it enables prioritization of voice over other data by using the LTE QoS classes.A natural question about VoLTE is what are its advantages over applications that already provide VoIP services. Over the Top (OTT) VoIP treats voice like any other data stream. VoLTE being native to the handset can leverage some of its capabilities such as wideband codecs and dual microphone to enhance audio perception. © SAMSUNG Electronics Co. First. It can also use the native address book to offer Rich Communication Suite (RCS) services such as Presence. Such advantages are not available to OTT VoIP. VoLTE is more QoS aware. Secondly.

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