Translated by



of Eresus



horn about jyo bc, is the author of the
most important botanical works that have
survived from classical antiquity. He was
in turn the student, collaborator, and successor of Aristotle. Like his predecessor he

was interested in all aspects of human
knowledge and experience, especially
natural science. His writings on plants



counterpart to Aristotle's zoologi-










and describes varieties


trees, plants of particular regions, shrubs,

herbaceous plants, and cereals; in the last
of the nine books he focuses on plant
juices and medicinal properties of herbs.

The Loeb




two volumes; the

second contains two additional
On Odors and Weather Signs.



Theophrastus turns
Books One and Two

Causis Plantarum

to plant phvsiology.

are concerned with generation, sprouting,

{lowering and fruiting, and the effects ot
climate. In

Books Three and Four Theo-

phrastus studies cultivation and agricul-

Books Five and Six he
diseases and
other causes of death; and distincti\e
llaNors and odors.







Theoj:)hrastus' celebrated Characters^ ot a

quite different nature,

character-writing and

of contemporarv



the earliest

know n

a striking reflection

581.0901 T
Enquiry into plants*
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and the materials of which they are made Definitions of the various classes into 9 which plants may be divided 23 Exact classification impracticable: other possible bases of classification Dififerences as to appearance and habitat Characteristic differences in the parts of plants. difficulty of defining what are the essential parts of a plant. OF CLASSIFICATION Introductory How plants are to be classified . special. whether general. or seen in qualities and properties 27 29 33 Differences as to qualities and properties 37 Further 'special' differences 39 Differences in root 41 Of trees (principally) and their characteristic special differences As As : as to knots to habit to shedding of leaves 55 61 63 Differences in leaves 69 Composition of the various parts of a plant 77 Differences in seeds 79 .CONTENTS PREFACE IX INTRODUCTION xiii BOOK I OF THE PARTS OF PLANTS AND THEIR COMPOSITION. especially if plants are assumed to correspond to : ' ' animals The 3 essential parts of plants.

tendance llo Of spontaneous changes in the character of trees. stances of degeneration from seed I']ffects In10. and of certain marvels Of spontaneous and otlier changes in other plants Of methods of propagation..i 127 .") of situation. 99 II OF PROPAGATION. . with notes on cultivation Of the propagation of the date-palm of palms in . climate.CONTENTS PA OK Differences in taste So Differences in flowers 89 Differences in fruits 97 General differences (affecting the whole plant) BOOK . general 133 • Further notes on the propagation of trees Of the cultivation of trees Of remedies for the shedding of the fruit BOOK 145 145 : caprification 151 III OF WILD TKER3 Of Of Of Of the ways which in M'ild trees originate the differences between wild and cultivated trees 150 . 119 12. trees 179 Of the seasons of budding 185 Of the comparative rate of growth in trees. and of the : length of their roots 191 Of the effects of cutting down the whole or part of a tree Of other things borne by trees besides their leaves flowers and fruit Of male' and female' in trees the oak as an example of this and other differences ' vi 197 199 ' : 203 . as compared with cultivated. KSPECIALLY OF TRKEa Of the ways in which trees and plants originate.. .. I(i5 mountain trees of tlie differences found in wild trees 171 the times of budding and fruiting of wild.

etc. 405 vii . . cornel.CONTENTS Of Of Of Of the differences PAOK 211 ill firs beech. 391 . the trees and shrubs special to Libya the trees and herbs special to Asia the plants special to northern regions the aquatic plants of the Mediterranea?! the aquatic plants of the 'outer sea' (i. box. arbutus. [semyda. and of reeds in general Of rushes Of the length or shortness of the 291 361 379 life of plants. 303 309 323 329 337 345 .e.) Of the plants of rivers.. terebinth. sumach. etc. elder. bladder-senna] . and the . withy. 383 Of diseases and injuries done by weather conditions Of the effects on trees of renu)ving bark. . and of the carob 287 . . Of filbert.. especially its rccdn. bramble. [spindle tree] 283 243 249 253 259 shrubs— buckthorn. . 269 BOOK IV OF TIIK TRKES ANO PLANTS SPECIAL TO PARTICULAR DISTRICTS Of Of Of Of Of Of Of AND POSITIONS the importance of position and climate the trees special to Egypt. willow Of elm. sorb ' cedars.' medlar. lime 221 maple and ash 227 cornelian cherry.. Persian Gulf. heartwood. yew. alder. kohUea. hop-hornbeam.. and of certain other • . Of bird-cherr}'. thorns.. Of the plants peculiar to the lake of Orchomenos (Lake Copais).. of various causes of death causes . roots. 265 trees peculiar to particular localities Of the differences in various Christ's thoin. in Egypt . poplars.. ivy. marshes. smilax. especially . . .. and lakes. Atlantic. wig-tree Of cork-oak. kralahjos Of certain other oaks. kohifia. andrachne. head.

Of the core and its effects Wliich woods can best support weight Of the woods best suited for the carpenter's various purposes Of the woods used in ship-building Of the woods used in house-building Of the uses of the wood of particular trees Of the localities in which the best timber grows Of the uses of various woods in making fire charcoal.. 44. 441 differences in the texture of different differences in timber as to hardness .CONTENTS BOOK V OF THE TIMBER OF VAllIOUS TREES AND ITS USES PAOE Of Of Of Of Of Of Of the seasons of catting the wood of silver-fir 417 and 421 fir the effects on timber of climate knots and * coiling ' 427 429 in timber woods . differences in the keeping quality of timber Which kinds of wood 439 are easy and which hard to woik... .5 451 453 455 459 459 463 : fuel. fire-sticks vin 467 .. and heaviness 431 ... .

knowledge of Sir William Thiselton-Dyer came to my rescue to him I not only owe gratitude for constant help throughout the identifications in the Index of Plants are entirely his work. great grief that he did not live to see the completion If I had thought of the work which he set me. who first suggested that I should make It is a the attempt and introduced me to the book. I must have declined a task which has otherwise proved quite onerous However the kindness and the expert enough. it essential that a translator of Theophrastus should himself grapple with the difficulties of identifying the plants which he mentions.PREFACE believe. Canon EUacombe. a botanist. compared with which the compilation of the Index itself was This is^ I first of the 'Enquiry into Plants. since the translator is not. . moreover.' translation . the Greek of Theophrastus is sometimes singularly elusive. the attempt at an English That it should be found entirely satisfactory is not to be expected. I should never have undertaken such a responsibility without the encouragement of that veteran student of plant-lore the Rev. . in the present state at least of the text. as he should be.

chiefly where the plant is not either British or familiar in this country. .' ' Michaelmas must read oddly in a translation of a work that such daisy ' — ' to print Linnean have been at least equally Where an Englisii name was not incongruous. I have usually consulted Britten written 300 years before Christ binary names . i. the explanation doubtless being that he was drawing on different local authorities. I have given an English equivalent. I have either transliterated the Greek name (as arakhidnd) or given a literal rendering of it in inverted commas (as ' foxbrush ' for dXwTrtKov/aos) .e. though I am conscious but meclianical labour. would and Holland's Dictionary of Plant-names. thus Kipaao% and XuKapyj botii probably represent ' bird-cherry. but the derivation of Greek plant-names being often obscure.' the latter bein«j the Macedonian name for the tree. This seemed desirable wherever the author has ap})arently used more than one name for the same plant. my my : names as Christ's thorn.PREFACE And he has greatly increased debt and the reader's by reading the proofs of translation and of the Index. I have not used this device unless the meaning seemed to be beyond question. This is perhaps the place to add a note on the translation of the plant-names in the text where possible. In some cases it has been necessary to preserve the Greek name and to give the English name after it in brackets. Where no English equivalent could be found. obvious. although the plant is British or known in British gardens.

The textual notes are not intended as a complete apparatus criticus to provide a satisfactory apparatus it would probably . which is accordingly rendered cork-oak without commas. be necessary to collate the manuscripts afresh. cork-oak {quer- — ' cus Suher) being what Theophrastus calls ^eAXo's. As to the spelling of proper names. ing is e. p. xiv).) it necessarj'^ to give name often covers several plants. One cannot write names such as Arcadia or Alexander otherwise than as they are commonly written but I cannot bring myself to Latinise a Greek name if it can be helped. PREFACE Apart from this reason.g. Xa)T6<s hope that a reference to the Index Inverted commas . the less familiar names . the line drawn must of course be arbitrary. wherefore I have simply transliterated . cases I all clear. I have had to be content with giving Wimmer's statements this I have done wherever any as to MS. both the Greek and the English name in order to bring out some particular point.10. xi . On the other hand one Greek 3. the identification of the plant will be found in the Index. consistency without pedantry seems unattainable. authority question of interpretation depended on the reading but I have not thought it necessary to record mere . Thus (fieWoSpv^is rendered ^ cork-oak/ though ' holmoak would be the correct rendering.3. such in will make indicate that the render- a literal translation of the Greek word . in a seemed few places 3.8. The text printed is in the main that of Wimmer's second edition (see Introd.2 (as ..

Bowles for help of various kinds.. Besides those already mentioned I have to thank also my friends Professor D'Arcy Thompson. Gaza. of Dundee.B.. C. Aid. and the Rev. it is usually because 1 have there departed from Wimmer's text. Galpin for his learned exposition of a passage which otherwise would have been dark indeed to me the description of the manufacture of the reed mouthpieces of wood-wind instruments in Book IV. The references to I am Pliny will. with its references and Index of Plants. I hope.PREFACE Where the textual notes go variations of spelling. beyond bare citation of the readings of the MSS. W. was good enough to give me valuable help in matters of — bibliography. E. be found fairly complete. venture to hope that this translation. Litt. and Pliny. W.D. A. Mr. A. Mr. Xii . indebted for most of them to Schneider. Hill of Kew.. Sir John Sandys. Public Orator of Cambridge University. but I have verified these and all other references. F. may assist some I competent scholar-botanist to produce an edition worthy of the author.

— — : : INTRODUCTION Bibliography and Abbreviations used I. Codex Urbinas : in the Vatican. but evidently founded on a much See note on 9. Agree so Medicei: Codices closely that garded as a single Wimmer much they MS. only in authority to U. xiii . : siderable excerpts Contains con- evidently founded on a considered by Wimmer second . P2.. 1. but of higher . .) Second Class M (Mp M2). 8. corrupted copy. called after Pletho. may be re- considered by inferior to U. Collated by the best extant far MS. WiMMER of the Fir'st Textual Authorities divides the authorities on whicli the text TTcpi (f)VT(t)v IcrTopta is based into three classes : Class U. A. authority than Aid. (Of other collections of excerpts may be mentioned one at Munich. at Florence. Bekker and Amati. Codex Parisiensis good MS. at Paris.

and that an inferior one to those enumerated above. 1541. 1552. . Aid. Margin of the above. Editio Basiliensis A : printed at Bale.. (Bas. Codex Vindobonensis at Vienna. the editor Camotius. Contains the first five books and two chapters of the sixth. closely resembles M in style and : readings. in which a number of printer's errors are corrected and a few new ones introduced (Wimmer). Editio Camotiana (or Aldina minor.. INTRODUCTION Codex Parisiensis at Paris. and more on a level with Aid. Considered by Winimer somewhat inferior to M and V. Editio Aldina : the ediiio pnnceps. authority is much im- paired. but less carefully corrected than Bas. mP. in a few passages. printed Believed by Wimmer be founded on a single MS.. Cam. Third Class Aid. leclioiies aut eviendaliones.: . P. careful copy of Aid. : states that the marginal notes are not scholia. but vaiiae V. A note in the MS. at Venice to seem often to show signs of a deliberate attempt to produce a smooth text : hence the value of this edition as witness to an independent MS. and also to that used by Gaza. Its readings 1195-8. altera) Also copied from : printed at Venice.

XV . Wimmer has no doubt that the Tarvisian is the earliest edition. and all.^ the Greek refugee for A the time at wliich present value is due Treviso printed at first : (Tarvisium) in 1483. The Latin version of Theodore Gaza. Its to the fact that the was made from a different MS. There are several editions of Gaza's work thus G. in Wimmer's opinion See Sandys. but adopted freely Pliny's versions of Theophrastus.Par. Unfortunately however this does not seem to have been a better text than that on which the Aldine edition was based.Vo. and he gives its readings.G.Bas. authority. History of Classical Scholarship y ii.Bas. indicate readings which Schnei- der believed to have MS.) G. any now known.Cod. p. but which are really anonymous emendations from the margins of MSS. Vin. used by his predecessors. wonderful work it appeared.Cas. Moreover Gaza did not stick to his authorit}^. 62. etc. indicate respectively editions published at Paris in 1529 and at Bale in 1534 and 1550. emending where he could not follow Pliny. whereas Schneider often translation to : took those of G.INTRODUCTION altered the text accord to with Gaza's version.

is 'botanically Sir monumental and fundamental. to have had access to a critical edition and to a Heidelberg MS. printed at Amsterdam. Robertas Constantinus. op. and very carelessly printed. 1644. 313 eto. 1613 founded on Cam. Bodaei (viz. this claim appears to be entirely fictitious. only from Hofmann's so-called edition. while all follies we owe to Heinsius. he remarks that 'all the good things in it Heinsius owed : .INTRODUCTION traceable to Gaza's version. to the wit of others. p. of Joannes Bodaeus a Stapel). faults Schneider See Sandys. Schneider's Codex Casauboni he knew. The text of Heinsius is closely followed the margin contains a number of emendations taken from the margin of Bas. printed at Leyden. * xvi and calls it omnium pessima. according to editor himself. The book indeed contains what Wimmer calls a^ farrago emendationum. according to Wimmer. and Salmasius. with a few due to the The commentary. and from Scaliger.' its Editio . B.' edilio Bod. cit. Editions H. William Thiselton-Dyer. Editio Heinsii. repeating the misprints of that edition and adding many In the preface Daniel Heins ^ pretends others. .

The hits notes are short and generally of slight value. re- fifth.-iv. : contains and the fragments. It is bosity of the notes. The fifth volume also gives an account of criticisms of the earlier volumes by the eminent Greek Adamantios Koraes ^ and Kurt Sprengel. pp. 1813: edition with The Aid.INTRODUCTION St. Schneider (and Linck). Leipzig i. iii. The book is however of interest. which. Oxford. unfortunately for Codex Schneider. but sionally some an indifferent scholar. Stackhouse. written during the author's last illness. which leads to a good deal of wild emendation or rewriting of the text. and a The print of Gaza's version (corrected). though occaon a certain emendation. become known till his edition was remarkable in how many places he anticipated by acute emendation the readings of U. published in 1818. in 1821 . For the first time we find an attempt at > See Sandys. G. somewhat careless references and reproduction of the MSS. Sch. takes account of the Urbinas. and an imperfect comprehension of the compressed style of Theophrastus. op. also the Trcpt airiaiv vol. v. cit. or supplementary. 361 folL xvii . This is a monumental edition. volume. vols. readings. as being appawork on the ' Enquiry hitherto rently the only ' published in England. he a prettily printed illustrations: text founded on editor seems to have been a fair botanist. despite the ver- did not finished. J.

(1) critical fications of the (2) A An edition with introduction. Pliny. Halle. Galen. 1822.INTRODUCTION providing a critical text. 1842. the Geoponica. the Index Plantarum gives the identifications of Sprengel and Fraas (3) A . ancient full who quoted Dioscorides. Spr. xviii The notes in the edition of . and copious references. Nicander.. J. Wimmer: analysis. had been collated a few years before by W'e find also Schneider. use Athenaeus. him. note of to the prefixed Index of Plants. Kurt Sprengel. and new full Latin indices . illustrate often illuminating. etc. but on comparison of the manuthe Medicean and Viennese scripts then known . Didot Library. and Sprengel's plant-names . or adapted passages of Theophrastus. 1854. authors.d. Paris. but a copious Sprengel was a better Wimmer speaks dis- paragingly of his knowledge of Greek and the (See translation. is not an commentary edition of the text. Th. as who those to Varro. notes. reprint of this text in Teubner's series. further revised text with translation. founded not on the Aldine edition. This with German translation. identi- Breslau. Columella. made of the Plutarch.) W Fr. n. botanist than scholar . apparatus criticus. Palladius. Aelian. These three books are an indis})ensable su})plement to Schneider's great work.

in his fifth volume. but the editor's remarks on the interpretation of thorny passages are often extremely acute. (He also wrote a commentary on the Trcpt alriwy. 380) mentions translations into Latin and Italian by Bandini . Wimmer's Latin helpful. 1584.) Other Commentators J. which was edited by Robertus Gonstantinus and pub- the TTcpt (f)VTO)v : la-Topia . in numerous it slurs which it the translation difficulties appears. since edition.INTRODUCTION 1842 are in the main critical. and has a better appreciation of Theophrastus' elliptical and somewhat peculiar idiom. is is : not very the disfigured Didot with misi)rints. and always worth attention. p. had compared U with . M A Bodaeus* edition. know nothing. A collation of the Paris MSS. who. Seal. The mass of material collected by Schneider is put into an accessible form. (P and P2) was made for Wimmer for the readings of U and he relied on Schneider. C. though some of his emendations appear to rest on little basis. Scaliger Commentarii et animadversiones on posthumously published by his son Sylvius at Leyden. fresh collation of the rather exiguous manuscript authorities is perhaps required before anything like a definitive text can be provided. Wimmer is far more conservative in textual criticism than Schneider. (Sandys' History of Classical Scholarship (ii. of this work I C.

' XX . in : Historiam plantarum 1791. to see This book. Moldenhauer. also of a book on Crete.). style. Made many happy corrections of Theophrastus* text in his Exercitationes Plinianae. Jacobus (Jacques de Palmerius Paulmier). of some critical Leyden lished at Author notes on Theophrastus pubin 1640. Lyons. very valuable notes on the extremely difficult Introduction to the ' Historia (Book I. and editor of Pliny's Natural History. Johannes Meursius (Jan de Meurs). 1668) contain a certain number of acute emendations Wimmer considers that he had a good understanding of Theophrastus' .-ii. Const. J. which Theopkrasti. according to him. Mold. Salm. Jean Jacques D'A16champs the botanist. Author of Histoiia plantarum universalis. K. notes of his own. contains. Salmasius (Claude de Saumaise). Author of Tentamen Dalec. have not been able and know only from Wimmer's citations.INTRODUCriON lished at and Geneva The most accurate who has contributed to the in 1566. I Hamburg. i. His Exercitationes in optimos auctores Graecos (Leyden. J. 1587. P. Added Robertus Constantinus (see above). Talm. chaps.) brilliant scholar elucidation of Theophrastus. many of them valuable. Meurs. which are given with Scaliger's in Bodaeus' edition.

it have been for the first to the vegetable world. Such information life we as possess concerning the of Theophrastus comes mainly from Diogenes of the Philosophers. is ordinarily considered as characteristic of the teaching of his second master Aristotle. compiled at least hundred years after Theophrastus' death . him that he the * It first Characters and which is ' surmised that learnt the (if it rightly ascribed to him). it is given therefore here for what it may be worth there is no intrinsic improbabihty in most of what Laertius* Lives four Diogenes records. Whether Theophrastus gathered the principle of classification from Plato or from his fellow-pupil appears in his hands to time systematically applied Aristotle. of the ' men were ideal forms ' it But had a was by grouping things that.c. at Eresos in Lesbos . according to his later ' to arrive at an adumbration of which these kinds are the phenomenal counterpart. and which constitute the world of reality. He was born in 370 b. at an early age he went to Athens and there became a may be it was from importance of that principle of classification which runs through all his extant works.— . in Plato's own later speculations classification very important place. Throughout his botanical XXI . liMTRODUCTION Theophrastus' Life and Works II. including even the brochure known as pupil of Plato. since in their ' natural kinds metaphysic.

if the information importance . ' is its VVIiat are the characteristic features in virtue of which a plant which may be distinguished from other plants. favourite his pupil his books. well is be in tlie of these bequests. and his garden grounds of the Lyceum. first of great historical that we owe to Theophrastus the publication of some at least of And as to the his master's voluminous works. it is may The correct. provision xyii made for the Of special interest is the maintenance of the garden . What is its ' is essential nature What ? '. Diogenes has preserved his will. garden it is evident that it was here that the first systematic botanist made many of the observations which are recorded in his botanical works. but.. and there is nothing in the terms of this interesting document to suggest that it is not authentic. We are assured that Aristotle was deeply attached to his friend while as earnest of an equally deep attachment on the other side Theophrastus took Aristotle's son under his particular care after his father's death. viz. the difference in age not being very great. leaving to . he and his second master appear to have been on practically equal terms. INTRODUCTION works the constant implied question difference ? ' '. including the auto- graphs of his own works. Aristotle died at the age of sixty-three. and make up its own nature or essential ' character ' ? Theophrastus appears to have been only Aristotle's by fifteen years. On Plato's death he l)ecame junior Aristotle's pupil.

He is made indeed to say in the probably spurious Preface to the ' Characters that he is writing in his ninety-ninth year. while St. To Alexander indeed he was directly indebted the great conqueror had not been for . cinnamon. when we consider that he enjoyed the personal friendship of two such men as Plato and Aristotle. and that he had witnessed the whole of the careers of Philip and Alexander of Macedon. it is said that he complained that " we die just when we are beginning to live. His life must indeed have been a remarkably full and interesting one. a custodian appointed. and provision tion of various is gardeners. According to Diogenes Theophrastus died at the age of eighty-five. myrrh and xxiii . made so for the soon as is emancipathey have earned their freedom by long enough service." . we may take it that he died about 285 b. Accepting Diogenes' date. whose observations were Hence it is that at his de- scriptions of plants are not limited to the flora of Greece and the Levant. Jerome's ' Chronicle asserts that he lived to the age of 107. in it without extravagant expense. pepper. nothing the pupil of the encyclopaedic Aristotle. to the reports of Alexander's followers he owed his accounts of such plants as the cotton-plant.INTRODUCTION bequeathed to certain specified friends and to who will spend their time with tliem in learnthe testator is to be buried ing and philosophy it is those .c. banyan. He took with him to the East scientifically trained observers. the results of Theophrastus' disposal.

' the tense used Mount Ida said is ' . e. while we are told that at a later time Demetrius Phalereus assisted it financially. combats the contention of Sprengel that his observations even of the Greek flora were not made at first hand.INTRODUCTION frankincense.' forth. propriately employed in the collection of facts and observations The assumption ? 'travelling students' were so that a number employed would at of all events explain certain references in Theophrastus' He botanical works. says constantly ^The The men of Mount Ida Maced and so seems hardly probable that he is quoting from written treatises by Macedonian or It is at least a plausible suggestion Idaean writers. that in such references he is referring to reports of the districts in question contributed by students of the school. May we not hazard a guess that a number of the students were aj>. ' The men of an obvious explanation of this is . Moreover we may fairly assume that Alexander. from his connexion with Aristotle. ' Now say ' it ' told in Macedonia. In that case * The Macedonians say would mean ' This is what our representative was onians say. Kirchner. patetic Now at this period the Peri- School must have been a very important Diogenes says that under educational institution Theophrastus it numbered two thousand pupils. troversy has been a subject of some con- It whence he derived his accounts of plants whose habitat was nearer home.g. It is further noticeable that sometimes past. was interested in it. in an able tract.

99. i.' and the * intermediate. 1 * is no literary charm . of Winds. Theophrastus. covering most topics of human interest.INTRODUCTION supplied by the above conjecture. Education. as Politics. what we possess consists of notes for lectures or notes taken There of lectures. Ethics.) the It is name even possible of one of these students has been preserved. XXV . Astronomy.' the ' plain. besides a number of unassigned excerpts. that in one place (3.^ the nine books of the Enquiry into Plants. 12. of Stones. Theophrastus. of which one On Style was known to Cicero. Religion. 4. 1866. Mathematics. as in the case of Aristotle. Logic. of Odours. Thus the substance of an essay on Piety is preserved in Porphyry de The principal works still extant are Absiinentia. like his master. of Sweat. of Weather-Signs. Metaphysics.' ^ Of one or two other lost works we have some knowledge. Diogenes gives a list of 227 treatises from his pen. who adopted from it the the grand. and the these seem to be six books on the Causes of Plants complete. of Dizziness. Bernayg. suggests that. the sen- Sandys. p. Meteorology and other natural sciences. His oratorical works enjoyed . classification of styles into ' . him ten works on Rhetoric. of Weariness.i to Diogenes attributes high reputation in antiquity. We have also considerable fragments of of Sense-perception and objects treatises entitled of Sense. as of the botanical books. Rhetoric. : The — style of these works. was a very voluminous writer. of Fire.

paraphrase. He was considered an attractive and lively lecturer. stand on a quite different footing . in accordance with his own wish. which we may hope was. as with Aristotle. attributed to him. must be translation. have It is said that. Jebb's Introduction and in the more recent edition of Kdmonds and Austen. Diogenes' sketch ends with the quotation of some sayings . but the attack failed also that he was once banished from Athens for a year.' iiis grave. to the point sometimes of obscurity. as we and anuisinir commended his pupil's diligence. he handed it over to Theophrastus. are • ' . by a great assemblage of his fellow townsmen. The thirty sketches It follows that some extent to of ' Characters ' which have found many and which are well known in this country to Theophrastus. the object of this curious work is discussed in Sir R. Jebb's brilliant translation. when he retired from the headship of are assured. We are further told that the latter was once prosecuted for impiety. Well may Aristotle.INTRODUCTION tences are mostly compressed and highly elliptical. tiirough Sir R. the school. in some peaceful corner of the Lyceum garden. ascribed imitators. of which the most noteworthy Nothing costs us so dear as the waste of time.' One had better trust an unbridled horse than He was followed to an undigested harangue. it does not appear under what circumstances.

Periplaa. Paus. Arist. iScyl. Dindorf. Geoponica. Leipzig. Plut. Arrian. Diod. Schneider. Col. Leipzig. Athen. . 1895. Bekker. Hercher (Teubner). Leipzig. Nicander. Mayhoff (Teubner). de materia medica. de re rustica. 1887. Arr. Schneider. Well- Berlin. Columella. Leipzig. Pausanias. Naturalis Hii^toria. de re rustica. Beckh (Teubner). Schneider. Palladius. Historia Miraculorum. Aristotle. Amsterdam 1639.INTRODUCTION The principal references in the notes are to the following ancient authors ApoUon. 1816. :- Apollonius. 1907. 1795. (Reference b}' book and section. Pedanius Dioscurides. Plin. mann. Athenaeus. Diosc. 1881. Leipzig. Geop. 1831. Pall. Scylax.) Hercher (Teubner). Berlin. 1827. Leipzig. Nic. Diodorus. Vossius. 1794. 1872. Plinius. Schubart (Teubner). Plutarch. Theriaca.



dcpcopLo-Tai •I r}6r) tt)? tSta? ^i^crew? 6v dei orav yevi^rai. 5. evOeoypr}- Torepau exovai fcal paov<i. a more general word than Supd/nets. Trjv yevecnv Kal ra TrdOr) koi tou? ^lou<. 14. 2. ^ ndBT}. 2 .^^^^ Aid. dX

To jJiev ovv e. ^lov^. . ins.' in relation to environment. koI tov<.GEOOPASTOY nEPI a>TTnN ISTOPIAS Tcoi^ I.- ovK 6-)(ovaLV wairep ra ^coa. Koi (f)VTCt)V Kara re ra (^vanv Xrjirreov fiepij aW>]i' rrjv KaX ra TrdOrj xai yap koI Trpd^ei^ Ta<. 6. 4 . 'virtues': 8. it seems to mean here something like • behaviour. KaOaTrep yevi^aofjieva. iKavQ)<. Ta9 ^ca(popa<. 1. are ck avrXw? t) rd varepov €P T0?9 ^(ooi^ ^ Kara ra al he ra jxepo'i r) elcrl 8' avro yap rovro irpcorov ovx TTOLKiXia^.. cf. . irXrjv ei t/ Ald. 4.. om. KaXeiv. «x<'«'«^'*' ^^. H. 11 3 ixov<ri conj.H. y€V€(Tei<.)^et BoK€L Siafieveiv TO Sch. are given 4. Instances of W(i6ii 4. . irota hei ai jiev [leprj KaTo irXeiovi /Jiept] Kal firj ^epi] rivd diropiav.

Now the differences in the way in which their life originates. determined what ought and what ought not to be called * parts. Of Classification. In considering the distinctive characters of plants and tlieir nature generally one must take qualities. and the course which it follows in each case (conduct and activities : them. as we do in animals).cxdty of defining what are the essential jmrts^ of a plants especially if plants are assumed to correspond to animals. while those shewn 2 in their parts' present more comIndeed it has not even been satisfactorily |)lexity. their ways in which their life originates. Introductory: How plants are to be classified.' and some difficulty is involved in we do not find in '^ making the Now distinction. in their qualities and in their life-history are comparatively easy to observe and are simpler. diffi. we mean something which is permanent either absolutely or when once it has appeared (like those parts of animals which remain for a time undeveloped) . appears that by a ^ part.THEOPHRASTUS ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS BOOK I Or THE Parts of Plants and their Composition. ^ I.' seeing that it is something which belongs to the plant's characteristic it nature.^ the into account their ^ parts.

ai fiev ovv diropiai a)(^eB6v elaiv diravra ^rjrrjreov ovre avrai.' re olov oaa aTrXw? Kap7r6<. alel ovaiav. TrXrjOof. Kapircov toU ravra toU iv avo) /cat Kan irepl Oija-et p^eprj. ye ^ i. rekeia ylverai Kal (pauperai. to earai Kal ovheirore to avro av av/jb^'^aeTai. ^Xacrrdvovra yap a/ia rj he avro^ 6 ^Xaaro^' eVt el fiev ti<. the male inflorescence of some trees of course wider than 'catkin. Be ev ov')(^ dXXoLf. TTjv €X€iv ravra fir] OdWovra Kal elvai Kal mv fJiep-ty Kapirov h^ovra irdvra KaWlo) Kal reXetorepa Kal Bokcl Kal eanv.e. leaf. catkin. Si* firj fieprj. fruit. (pvWov dv6o<i irpo Kapirolv i7ri(f)v<rtv Ta(. olov rov<.THEOPHRASTUS Sm voaov <yr]pa<. TOt? Tjj 6/jLOL(o<^ ov0* ocra yevvoifieva ovBe yap wpa /Jiepi] Oereov rd e/x^pva o-^^ev rrjv tt/oo? rovro yevecnv. KaXXiarov. aopicxTOV royv fjLOpLcov el B^ ^pvov rwv Xafx^dvei ra BevBpa ev re ware. el . pi^a<.. twv V €V T0?9 <^f TOi? evia TOiavT ea-TLv war iirereiov rj rj yiveraL to2<. r(ov ^cocov. the term is . Tnjpwaiv airo^aXkeraL.e.. shoot. flower.' " i. Ta^a 3 ev Be avrd re rd KapiTovf. yap iviavTov 6fiOL(o<.

by i. because the plant is then in its prime. i.' But perhaps we should not expect to find in a complete correspondence with animals in regard to those things which concern reproand so duction any more than in other respects we should reckon as ' parts even those things to which the plant gives birth. ' ^ oiiSe yap ovSe seems to mean no more than ov [cf. . : . we can draw no inference from this in plants . fruit.' the result will be that things which are essential if the plant is to reach its perfection. more comely and more perfect when it makes new growth. for instance their fruits. . if such * a product seems fairest to the eye.. * iv TTJ &pa 6\l/€t tovtS ye I conj. in fact all those parts which are antecedent to the fruit or else appear along with it.' ^ leaf. neque. are nevertheless for any plant always appears to be. a 'part. Also the new shoot itself must be included with these for trees always make fresh growth every year alike in the parts above ground and in those which pertain to the roots. and which are its conspicuous features. (However. rp &pa oypei r6 ye vulg. enim = non entm) yap refers back to the beginning of the §. toCto.' the number of parts will be indeterminate and constantly changing if on the other hand these are not to be called parts. So that if one sets these ^ down as ' parts. W. flower. 2-^ disease. ' catkin. blooms. instance. Such. that is. —permanent. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.. as not ' parts indeed it is. age However some of the parts of plants are such that their existence is limited to a year. and bears fruit. flower or fruit. unless it be lost I.e. ' ' . are the difficulties involved in defining . for or mutilation. we may say. although ^ we do not so reckon the unborn young of animals.

i. €u06Tei UMVAld. KaOuTTep oi re €\a(f)oi ra Kepaja koI ra ^(joXevovja ra irrepa Koi rpbxci'i Terpdrroha' war ovSev dronov aXXco? re /cal o/jlolov ov tw (f)vX\o^o\eLV TO 7rdOo<. rr](.. VTroXriTTTeov ov fiovov et? rd vvv dXXd Kal rwv oaa ydp /jLtj olov re d(f)o/leXXovTcov ')(apLV' dpiOpo^i dopiaro'^' are Kal 7rapra)(^T] TravTa^rj ^wv. 'iva /x?) rj he Oewpiav.] de plantis 1. 3. 'yeveaew^ x^ipiv earl TeXeia<^. 6 . HoWa he koI to.THEOPHRASTUS ovSev eVel GiffjieloVy tmv koI ra evOevel ^olxdv Kuovra. aTrXco? elirelv rj KaTd ^ €v6epu conj.' in allusion to the well-known belief that animals (especially birds) which are out of sight the text is supported by in the winter are hiding in holes [Arist. rd ^(iiOL^ 7] jdp TOL ^XdaTy]aL<. 'which are in holes.e. we do not argue from the fact that animals are at their handsomest in the breeding season that the young is therefore part of ' ' the animal. KaOdirep he "OXft)? 6/jLOlco(... ouhe irdina hi' o Kal 6 jdp ^Xaarr/riKov ware ravra fxev ovr(i)<. eotfce he TrapairXrjaioo^ Kal rd irepl rrjv ^Xdari-jaLv €V Tot? e')(eiv.iyeGdai irdvTw^. . Kal iirl eiTro/jiev toov ^(ocov XrjwTeov. 'OcrauTW? ovhe rd tt^o? rrjv yeveaLV eVel Kal 8' /lev avpeKTiKTerai rd 8' diroKaOalperai KaOdirep uWoTpia t?}? (f)vaea><. . ^ Lit. Sch. the author of which had evidently read this passage but possibly some such words as ras re ipoKiSas Kal have dropped out after <pu\€vovTa. fJikp-q Kar iviavTov airo^ciWei. fiOLOvv irepiepyov to 'fK. KoX TTjv OLKeiav diro^aXXco/jiev [(TTopia Twz^ (pVTMV €(TTLv o}<.

The enquiry into plants.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.P. since even among animals those that are with young are at their best. . C. 7 . In like manner the parts concerned with reprofor even duction are not permanent in plants in animals there are things which are separated from the parent when the young is born. the embryo is not the only thing derived from the parent animal which is not a part' of it there is also the [ood-8upply produced with the young. birds which hibernate 2 their feathers. cf. 8. ^ i. . I. the growth of plants for of course growth leads up to reproduction as tlie completion of the process. and in so doing we may lose sight also of our proper subject of enquiry. especially as what thus occurs in animals and the shedding of leaves in plants are analogous processes. but in view also of those which will come before us presently for it is waste of time to take great pains to make comparisons where that is impossible. as though neither of these belonged to the animal's And so too it appears to be with essential nature. and the after-birth. not only in regard to the matters now before us. . 11. inasmuch as it Wherefore we should assume has life in all its parts. we must not assume that in all respects there is complete correspondence between plants and animals.* And in general. And that is why the number also of parts is indeterminate for a plant has the power of growth in all its parts. may : . i. to put it generally. the truth to be as I have said. 1. even as stags shed their horns. as we have said. four-footed beasts their hair so that it is not strange that the parts of plants should not be permanent. ' . and there are other things ^ which are cleansed away. 3-4 support of our argument.^) Again many plants shed their parts every year.e.

a-)(eBov rw rj ra> p.oia p. rvirw text.oioL..aTi irvKvonjrL pLavori-jn rpa)(^vrrjrL Xetorrjri Ka\ Kara rpialv. 8 Xca.e. TOiV iv <pVTOL<.r] tuttw e')(eiv rj rep 6yu.ot&>s\ opii^erai (T^7]p. rpirov dpop^oLorrj^. en Be oaat Biacpopal Be dvL(jorr]<^ hrrepoyrj Ka\ eXXeLyjrei rj p.' ' MSS. ^epearara koX reXeiorara. ArjTrreov 6 ravra koX avTwv rcov kol fiopia WGirep rrjv oKrjv fiopcj^rjv eirl rcop ^cocov ra eK Kara rj iv avTol<^ ttoIol t€ Traaiv S' v7rdp')(^€L irola iBia KaO^ e/caarov y€vo<i. irdOeatv. ro2<.r) rovrcov ')(^pd)p. op.epwv Xa^elv rd elcnv Be p^rj. royv avaroficav.ari Be p. T01<s ^Ci)Ol<^. dWoL<. 7' dvdXoyov rt ei Kar ^cocov. so W.r]B€ Bia(j)opal 7) 7rXrjOo<. . rcov ')(xjk(iov. to. ravra [lev ft)9 ovv BiwpLcrOa) rov rpoirov rovrov. wcnrep eVt tmp dva<^opav on Br]\ov 'jroiovfievov<. ev KaOdrrep p. &>? S' elirelv sentence .ev rj ^vWa tj rd 0)9 fiev Koi Kapirov. dvako'yiav Oecopyreov.THEOPHRASTUS ra e^co ivT6<^. ^ A very obscure * I. d^OfJLOLCOTeOP dv Tt? Tw en Be ttolu ofioia' Xeyco 8' olov <f)vWov pl^a ov Bel Be ovBe tovto XavOdvetv (j)\oi6<.ey66o<i. renders the 'inequality' might include unlikeness. rrjv ra ep- 7rp6<i koX dirXoi^ Be oaa TW ev d(pop. At Be rcov p.

and which of those which belong to all alike are themselves alike in all cases . so far as one can in any given case find an analogy for comparison. I. finally.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. an analogy presented by animals). The inequality is seen in excess or defect as to number or size. or in one plant they maybe unlike in appearance or size to those of another. and the other qualities and again there are the various differences of flavour. which are peculiar to some one kind. ^ and. leaves and fruit). So let these definitions stand. thirdly. to take one plant possess them and another not (for instance. or. are of three kinds: either may . Further we must consider which parts belong to plants alike. closeness of arrangement or its opposite. and the materials of tohich they are made. roughness or its opposite. 4-6 either take account of the external parts and the form of the plant generally. or else of their internal parts the latter method corresponds to the study of : animals by dissection. and in that case we must of course make the closest resemblances and the most perfectly developed examples our standard . for instance. they may be differently arranged. i. colour. all The essential parts Now of plants. ^all the above-mentioned differences too a general view. or. Now the unlikeness between them is seen in form. the ways in which the parts of plants are affected must be compared to the corresponding effects in the case of animals. the differences in regard to parts. to speak generally. . we must keep this also in view . leaves roots bark. if in some cases analogy ought to be considered (for instance. And again.

10 1. 1. evLa he Kal €k tov AlyvirTia avKuptvo'^.acjyopd'i oXt] pop(f)7] €K rovrcov Xyirreov e^ avvhyXovrai KaO' eKaarov. olov y Kal VTTO oiov ro piev ef irXaylcov.r]crapevov<. irXelarcov 6t9 rdhe. ean he irpwra pev Kal Kal p^eyiara KavXo<. 6. 1 cf. rcov KXdho'^. rd^ei- «:X&)^'69 eKarepcoOev rcov he Kal ol o^oc Kar dpiOpov Kal Xyirreov. 5. S' ol rfj '^ laoi. T>}9 Kal evia he eXdrrjf. Kal ep^et pLiG-)(ov ra puev oX6t)9 he ro tt}? Oeaeco<. hi* I'crov re Kal KaOdirep rcov rpio^wv. olov 7/79 8' viroKarw tmv 8' Kal avTou tov SevBpov ra (f)uXko)v ex€iv aKpov ra 8e to to eX/Vei-v/r^?' r) By) re apa-)(ihva Kal el ra pev ra he pt]. 2 f/. m ra pev Kar dWrjXov. ro ev AlyvTrro) KaXoupuevov oviyyov. rreipareov CKdarov Xeyeiv. T. include any succulent edible part of a plant. does not consider that KapnSs was necessarily anteceded by a flower.THEOPHRASTUS KuKelva Trnvra KaO^ 7 yap fidWov kol he kol eWei'^iv vTrepo'^^ijv i]Ttov v7r6poj(ri koI 6poiw<^ ttj Oeaet Si. ^ T.' yap irepl avrov rov Kapirov ra he aXX&)9. a hieXoir dv pu^a ri<. Koivd uKpepcov G. 9.P. Avra d irepl he ra pieprj hLapL0p. hi. ev rovTOL<i Kal ev Tot9 ^XaaroU ^La<^epeL 8 eVu^e. Kal eVt rcjv avOecov 6poiw<. . flare Ta9 pev MV Kal 7) rol<i (})vWol<.a(f)6per \e7&) fir) Tou? Kapnov^ ra pev eirdvoi ra i/c tmv o-reXe^oL'?. Kal oaa ^epeu Kapirov. extends the term KapnSs so as to 11.

There is a like difference in the floral organs in some cases they actually surround the fruit.e. ternate.^ corresponding to . 5 we wished c/. the fruit may be above or below the leaves/ and. while some plants again even bear their fruit underground. and in some cases even on and the ' ' .^ Wherefore the differences between plants must be observed in these particulars. : . 7 to . stem. the trunk. the fruit may grow on the apex of it or on the side branches.e. i. which are also common to most. i. make an anatomical division. ' i. in some it has none. while the branches of the silver-fir are arranged opposite one another and in some cases the branches are at equal distances apart. But. 6-9 ' are included under excess and defect: for the ' more ' less are the same thing as excess and defect. as to position on the tree itself. fi4\r) n^pv Aid. Or again there are differences as to symmetry * in some cases the arrangement is irregular. 1-22. I. . and correspond in number. for instance arakhidna^ and the plant called in Egypt ningon again in some plants the fruit has a stalk. regarding them as members. 1. we must make a list of the parts themselves. as in the sycamore . in others they are differently placed ^ : in fact it is in regard to the fruit. branch. 16. and the shoots that the question of position has to be considered. are these root. 2. twig these are the parts into which we might divide the plant. since taken together they shew forth the general character of each plant. Sch.: ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. — * Plin. II . whereas ' differently arranged implies a difference of position for instance. if conj. the leaves. Now the primary and most important parts. as where they are in three rows. before we attempt to speak about each.

.e. Sch. . XP°^^'^'^^P°^ Ald. KKahov he to ^XdarTj/xa to eK tovtcov e^' ev.H avaXof'iCL conj. yap ov "EcTTt Se pl^a [lev hi Kav\o^ he eh 7^9 iirl rwv ^oiwv. olov fidXiaTa TO eireTeiov. ^ ' . crreXe^^o?* iirl axi'^ofievov<. dvo/ioiov koI i^ diravTaiv tovtcov 7re^VKo<.. » i<p' ' 12 ^ Or before it begins to divide. W. yap pi^av irdvT kolvov ^cooi^ to. 7) (l)Xe/3a<i. €7reTeto£9 KaXeirai Tovrov eKaaroi o\a. rrjv KavXov he Xeyco to vTrep ev tovto yap KOivorarov oiioioi^ o c^eperai. H. he Kal itolklXov Kal '^aXeTrov to uirdp^ei. Kal 10 o he TauTa KavXo^.' conj. hevhpwv utto tol'9 KaXovaiv o^ov^. olov p. K e%e£ ovTe Kav- Xov ovT€ uKpep^ova ovts KXdhov ovts cf)vXXov ovtc av6o<i ovTe Kapirov out av <^Xolov rj p^rjTpav rj lva<. oXco^ pi^aL<i. rpo^i^v eirdyeTai. Xpoviurrcpa conj.^]hev elvat KaOdirep T0t9 dvaXoyia TavTO.VK7]<. GTopia Kal KOiXia. he p. avaKoyia UAld. dXXov Tat9 o-ijpelov he irdaiv tmv ovk del he dlOC fiev ')(povi(t)Tepa KaOoXov Xa/Belv 11 8' hevhpwv. Kul 6<Ta 'TroXv')(pvv elireXv €')(ei TO (j)VTOv o TpoTTOv. ovTe 6)^€i ttolw- eireTeiov. knots. ou? evioc rwv Be dKp€/iivva<. KoivoTepo'^' to... e'c/)' Kal o ')(popLOL<. to. tmv he ov irdvTa ovhe tovtov. pev ol/ceLOTepa wairep etprjTat. Sch.THEOPHRASTUS Mairep re Kaddirep et? fieXr]. vhvov iv tovtol^ he rj ovala Kal iv TOL^ TOiovTOi^' dXXct p^dXiaTa TavTa i. olov evia TCL ha)v.

more as has particularly been said. and together they make up the whole.. flower or fruit. but as an annual growth. these : . including some whose roots live beyond the year. core. not permanently. for that is the part which occurs most generally both in annuals and in long-lived plants .' By 'branches' I mean the parts which split off from the stem and are called by some 'boughs. for instance. i. branch.^ and especially such an annual the : in ' growth. 9-11 members of animals for eacli of these is distinct character from the rest. trees. and so it is difficult to describe in general terms in proof whereof we have the fact that we cannot here seize on any universal character which is common to all. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. merely in the sense that all have analogous ^ characters. . And by the ^ stem I mean that part which grows above ground and is single ^ . The root is that by which the plant draws its nourishment. . For not all plants have root. some herbaceous plants are stemless others again have it.'By 'twig' 1 mean the growth which springs from the branch regarded as a single whole. 13 . I. is to more general. Now these parts belong The stem however. or again bark. though not all plants possess even this. fungi and truffles and yet these and such like characters belong to a plant's essential nature. while others correspond otherwise. and in the case of trees it is called the 'trunk. as a mouth and a stomach are common to all animals whereas in plants some characters are the same in all. fibres or veins for instance.* In fact your plant is a thing various and manifold. the stem that to which it is eonducted. twig. stem. leaf. as has been said. However.

ph ravrd 11. H.g. rj dXXd iic ofioio- [iepo<^ kol rod (xreXei^ou?. were. Kal ra rrporepa Kal i^ wv ravra. olov SdKTvXo<i Kal rd jxev pieyiara p-epr) ax^^ov o^OaXpLo^.. el'prjrai. /xepia-fio's' a koX tt/oo? KaKUVwv dvac^opav rr)v TTOLelaOai hiKaiov. /jLop(pd<^ e/cdaTa^v hiacpepovcn yap TrX/jOec BLaay]/jLaLveL.. ov^ tov adp^ Kal oarovv. ' bark . 1.a rd /u-e^/. co? tmv avTMV fiev dy/ccovo^. cf. en TOVTcov Be wv ravra rravra 6' cf)XoLO<.epP].THEOPHRASTUS KaOdirep V7rdp)(ei.A. 1. dXX^ oaa p-ovoeLhr) TMv opyavLKOiV dirdvrwv yap tu>v tolovtcoi' dvd)vvp. t^9 OTLOVV ax'i'^eaOai Ka\ Be ovx Kvy]/X'r]<. 1.OLop. 6p. tm Tovrcov KOL oXiyoTrjTL Kol TTVKvoTyTL Kol fiavo- KOL rw icf €V rj et9 dWoL^. Arist. T7]TL roL(. tol'^ oijlolou. "AXXa 8e ef e^ei pir^rpav. tmv Se iroXveihoyv oivopbaap^eva KaOdirep 6/jid)pv/JL0v Se dvdjvu/jLOV' ovSe Brj to)v dXXcov ovS€vo<i KaOdrrep iroho<. each of which is.. 2. Kol Se Td<^ dWa<. vypov i? 1 There is no exact English equivalent for bfxoiofi^pfs.1. * e. ^ e.e. ^v\oi> p. which denotes a whole composed of parts. a miniature of the whole.' as ' it * i. fruit. any part taken of flesh or bone may be called flesh' or bone. c/.g.? rrj's can o/noio/iepes' ov)(^ i/c TrXcLO) avy- dX)C ov fiopiov. oaa iariv. crreXe^o? XeyeraL yap Twv avTMv pt^^. . elpTjjjievwv OTL /jL€pe<i K€LTai iv Tot9 Tcov ^d)CL>v eKaarou rwv Xe7a) Se OTLOvv fiev to XyjcfjOev /xeXcalv iariv. oiKCLOTepo'^ Tojv dWwv S^eSoi^ 12 ravra to?? Su'Spoi<. ')(^eipo<^ K6(f)aXri<.7]rpa.

'6aa conj. for the other they exhibit number or fewness of these whicli they possess.' Further there are the things which are even prior to these. 15 . as to their being single or divided.H. in treating of it is the others. "^ ' i. yet the part so taken is not itself called trunk. Nor again have subdivisions of any of those other organic parts^ which are uniform special names.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Again there are the things of which such parts are composed. wood. . r) '6<ra Ald. ^ ^vXov ' fxriTpa ' W. Trees moreover shew forth features also fairly well which distinguish plants.' The case is the same with the members of an animal's body to wit. and these are all ^ composed of like parts. any part of the leg or arm is composed of the same elements as the whole. and head. nose or eye. ii-ii. \vKa. as have those of the foot. and core (in the case of those plants which have it *^). especially classification of characters to these and . W. from which differences in the '^ ' . II. for instance. yet it does not bear the same name (as it does in the case of flesh or bone -) it has no special name. and in other like respects. the compound parts. ^vKov MSS. . i to trees^ and our belongs more particularly right to make these the standard belong characters I.' but ^a portion of a trunk. But the subdivisions of those parts which are compound have names. by which I mean that though any given part of the root or trunk is composed of the same elements as the whole. subdivisions of all such being nameless. Such then are the largest ^ parts of the plant. i. conj. namely bark. hand. from G. toe. as to the closeness or openness of their growth.e. Moreover each of the characters mentioned is not composed of like parts'^. finger. u-qTpa ^vKoy.

2 '! i6 i. fxepoiv &)? ev tvtto) aTrXco'i ev * fxev ireipaTeov eKaaTOv he dpTt elirelv tl XeyovTa^.THEOPHRASTUS adp^' dpxal yap avrar irXi^v et tl<. TavTa elprj/ievcov eaTLV To /jtev tmv ovv TavTrj htDprjadco. irepiKapTTiov.. ol<i vTrdpXGi. ' om. oaa eireTeio- hrjXov KapTTMV i) hr] Kapira koX oaa hieTi^eL. This definition is quoted by Hesych. as . (pvWou Kol en 6 KapiTo^' he [^'Xi^] /Spvop. which is mentioned below. o)? evGKa tov a7repixaT0<^ ovrcov tcov KavXcov. ol MSS. hevhpeaiv eaTiv ovtw^ hiaXa/Seiu. fiev 5' Tcbv koI rj eXi^ dfiTreXov. o)? diravTa eVeTeia* (pvcn<. t6t€ eKKavXovaiv. "AWa S' iarlv axrirep iTrereia fxeprj rd irpb^ rrjv KapiroTOKiav. fiiaxos. s. fcal inl irdai airepfxa to tov Kapirov' Kap7ro<i S* eVrt to o-uyfcev/ievov aireppa fxeTa Kaddirep Kal Tot? jxexpi rj Kr)K###BOT_TEXT###lt;. Sch.v.' many seeds as are contained in one vepiKapinov. Xeyoc avrat he Koival irdvTwv.^09* TOVTO 8' iarlv w awrjpTy^rai tt/qo? to (^vtov to (f>\€-\^ ra<. 'the compound seed. * rh crvyKiijxevov airepfxa. tcov (TTOiyeicdv Bvvd/jb€i<i. wairep kol MeveaTcop. (Tvvovotia Aid. KOL oaa he TrXeico . €'a<|. lit. ovv vypov (^avepov o hrj KaXovai Tive'i diraaiv oirov.e.j^poz/oi/ e%et. eVeretot? ydp tov irapd he TavTa evicav Ihia aTTa. hpvb<. KaOdirep aeXivov Kal dXX' aTTa. TOL'. (but he retracted it) . iv rovTOL<^. TovTOL<i diraai Kal 6 KavXo<i dKoXovOrjaei KaTa Xoyow OTav yap aTrepfiocpopelu p. rj fiev ovv ovaia koX rj oXrj <pvaL<. (?) oviria conj. olov (j)vWov dvdo^ yLttcr.€XXcoai.

' : ' : — with all these the stem will correspond to the length of life for plants develop a stem at whatever time they are about to bear seed. or the tendril in the vine. * A Pythagorean philosopher of Sybaris. stalk (that is. 17 . 1. Again there are other as it were annual parts^ which help towards the production of the fruit.* together with the seed-vessel. flower.2 is obvious some call it simply in all cases does Menestor^ among others others. — I.' as * c/. 1-3 they are derived sap. as leaf. those which take two years (such as celery and certain others ^) and those which have fruit on them for a longer time : — . And with those plants which bear fruit annually. while it is plain that in annual plants all the parts are annual for the end of their being is attained when the fruit is produced. giving a general and typical I)lant's : : description. 7.^ and again tendril. flesh for these are elementary substances unless one should prefer to call them the active principles of the elements and they are common to all the parts of the plant. in : : and 3. veins. Let this suffice for the definition of these parts and now we must endeavour to say what each of the parts just mentioned is. And in all cases there is the seed which belongs to the fruit by ' fruit is meant the seed or seeds. The sap 'juice. fibre. Besides these there are in some cases peculiar parts.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. ii.^ ' catkin (in those plants that have them). such as the gall in the oak. the part by which the leaf and the fruit are attached to the plant). Thus the essence^ and entire material of plants consist in these. In the case of trees we may thus distinguish the annual parts. seeing fhat the stem exists for the sake of the seed.

e. * e.. Lit. ^ Kal ^coov. ^o)OL^ KoX ak\a<i Biacf)opa^ koI Tavra kol iroXv-^ovv <yevo<.' the analogy with animals is probably imperfect. (pavfj rfj 0Xe^e? Ive^ Be koI Be i8 i. rd fiei^o) KaOdirep kol i[x- v<prjyj]Tai iiravacjiopdv yap e^ofiei' Trepl rovTcov XcKreov TMV dWcov TTyOo? Tavra fie'^pi' irocrov Kal ttw? eKaara fxeTe')(eL t>}? o/jLOLOTrjrc. the different forms which roots assume. as such. 1.ovTCO? yap djia Kal rj ovaia (j^avepd Kal i) oXrj TMV yevcov tt/jo? dXXi]Xa BidcrTacri^. 'H fiev ovv TOiV /jLeyi(TT(ov o-')(eBov etprjTar Xeyw 8' olov pi^'y]'i KavXou tmv dXXwv at yap Bvvdfi€L<. * 1. BrjXov on tVct)? to twv elpriKapLev.. ixopiwv. elXruijievcov Be TMV pbepoyv fierd Tavra XTjirreov ra? tovtcov Bia<j)opd<. i^ Kal ravTa Kal ra dX\a crvyKeiTai ireipaTeov elirelv dp^afievov^.g. avra fxev avcovvfjia vovat TMV iv tP) TOfc? ofjLOiorrjri. ^ e. . ^ is TrpcoToyv. Kal o)V MV yap xdpLV GKaaTOV vaTepov prjOrjaovTai. BaKpvov. the root.' <}>vt6!)v aXyC eVet 4 yap e^et Be o\(t)<^ loairep yvcopi/xcoTepa Be alaOyaeL. cov vTroXenrovTcov yiveTat ' iv fxev ovv rot? rrXeicTTOL^i dvco- muscles and veins..THEOPHRASTUS 6' €V fJL€v TOt? dWoL<i avcDVVfxw^ iv Se Tiaiv oirov KoX iv aX\oL<.g. diro Upcora (pVTOV e%et Tivd yrjpa<^ T0<. Kal ^Oicn^iy TeXeto)? Be xjTroXnrovTwv Odva- Kal avav(TC<. but useful so far as it goes. 10. twv vypov kol Oepfiov dirav yap vypoTrjTa Kal OepjioT^^Ta avjx- Be iaTi to (f)VT0v coairep 5 KaO"" /jLerdXa/Ji^d- Blcl tcov yvcopLficoripcov /jLeraBtcoKeiv Bel ra dyvoipiara.

but. while in some they call it 'juice/ and in others 'gum. as we have said. that is. ^ It may be however that. while. I. it is clear that it is right to speak of these things in the way indicated for then in dealing with the less known things we shall be making these better known things our standard. not only these things. However. 19 .^ we must next take the diff'erences which they exhibit. borrow the names of the corresponding parts of animals. but the world of plants generally. has a certain amount of moisture and warmth Avhich essentially belong to it and. and shall ask how far and ' : : what manner comparison is possible in each case. such parts as the their functions and the root. starting from their elementary constituents. First come moisture and warmth for every plant. age and decay. death and withering ensue. as well as the rest. these. and the rest reasons for which each of them exists will be set forth For we must endeavour to state of what presently. since it is by the help of the better known that we must pursue the unknown. Now the nature of the most important parts has been indicated already. exhibits also other differences as compared with animals for. because of the resemblance. the stem. if they fail altogether.^ for thus will their essential nature become plain. ii. the parts. Now in in And when we have taken : : . and at the same time the general differences between one kind of plant and another. are composed. 3-5 the case of some plants give it no special name. and better known are the things which are larger and plainer to our senses. like every animal. if these fall short.^ the world of plants is manifold.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.' Fibre and ' veins ^ have no special names in relation to plants.

t. KaXovac irplrois R. UMVAld. vypoTT]'. ^ 1. avTat fieL^ov. a eavTa fcaO' fiev icTTiv dvcovvfia. ^vXov Kal adp^. Be Tipe^ tovto Ald.Trapa/SXao-Toi' conj.THEOPHRASTUS vv/jio<. 6(TT0L<i Mold. fjn'^Tpa Kal Be TO ficTa^u TOV ^vXov. fiev dvaLfia rd TO /jLepo<. Fibre. eVt Be Be Ta fiev dXXa dirapd- </)\e/5a9. Be Kal ttj Ivi.' (j)av€pd Be ecFTi Be fieTa^u Be yiveTai T) cj)v(TL<.. d7rapa. . 1. . "AXXa 8' jJSt? eTepa twv ivTo^. lvo<^ dX')###BOT_TEXT###L<i (f)Xoio<i fiep ovp eVrt to ^wpLCTTov Tov viTOKet jievov ea')(^aTop acofiaTo<. ev evioL^ he aovofutcr/jLevT] T) to avro Be eiprjraL. ' e. 8' yap ev ri /lev ovv tovto evaip^a Xeyerai. <exov Aid. €\^ovaL 6 iaTi avve^e<s Kal a^t'O'Top Kal ydp /SXaaTOP Be Kal d^XaaTov.8ArjTor ^ can be split in one direction. Kal ^Xe/So?" re Kal ev rot? (f)Xoio<. yap liovTj fcal iirl tmv KaOd-nep V7rdp)^6i' ^cocov tcov evaifjbwv vypoTrj^ wPOfiaaTai. 20 W. Ta ydp puev e^^^ to fiev ^vXov crx^^Be crdp^ irdvTrj BiaipeiTai Manep yr) Ka\ Tov. elalv ofioiat cocnrep Iva^- irrifjirjKe^. Kal 7rapa^XdaTa<. * tTi 5e conj. . Const. Sid Be tt]v ofioioTrjTa direiKd^eTai T0t9 rwv t^diwv pLopioL<i. 8i /. ' 7r/(TTOjj conj. * i. aurT/? iv Tcov TrepLKapiTLcop Bep/jLacn..H. e)(ovaai Kal vypo- 'Tra')(yT€pai TrjTa. TpiTOP aTTo TOV (f)Xoiov olov €P TOi? jiiveXo^. o KoX hirjprjTaL irpo'i tovto crTeptjaer to.g. eVi crdpKa ra Be ^vXov. jiep Biopiaai. an unripe walnut. ^ o. 3. Be Kal [xrjTpa tw Xoyw XeyeTaiy Bel Be avTd Kal KvpLcof. T) oaa yrj<. Kal to tovtw avvripTif^evov Oepjiov..

but.' others 'bloodless.' and so is warmth. There are also other internal characters. 5-6 plants the moisture has no special name. its nature being clearly seen especially in the outer covering''' of . I.e. and this quasi-muscle is corresponds to muscle continuous.^ Bark then is the yet they too must be defined. flesh fissile.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. fissile. and is separable from the substance which it Core is that which forms tlie middle of the covers. Bark and core are pro})erly so called. calling some 'animals with blood. these in other respects resemble the ' muscle. being third ^ in order from the bark. ii.' others call it heart-wood ' ' ' i. some wood.' Moisture then is one essential ' part. flesh. have names analogous to those of Thus plants have what the parts of animals. and corresponding to the marrow in bones.' not by analogy with animals. long moreover no other growth starts from it either branching from the side ^ or Again * plants have veins in continuation of it. ' ' : muscle. outside. but and it has such a name. : : : : seed-vessels. which Jiiost ^ some in : : is closely connected with it.' * veins. and have side-growths and contain moisture. which in themselves have no special name. Then there are wood and Wood for some plants have flesh. wood. wherefore we distinguish animals by the presence or absence of blood.^ while flesh can be broken up in any is it is direction. because of their resemblance. Some call this some part the ' heart. like earth and things made of earth intermediate between fibre and veins. like * Reckoning inclusively. as has been said 2 for it is only the this also holds good of animals moisture of those which have blood which has received a name .' ^ but they are longer and thicker.' .

G .. aacpeaTepou Altl. . root.e. F. TrarxTj UMVAld. ol Se /iveXov. III. TL €i aWo ev rol'. popoareXe)(€^ ^ ^ •' 22 (ptWov conj. rf. (pvWov M.€va)V Ta? TOVTwv Be irdvTwv tmv popiwv w? Tveipareov Bi. branch. 1. Tr]<. koXm^ e^^L TovTO iroielv i<p^ wv evBe-x^erai. 2. conj. fieXr]. 9.. n. H.OLO<. twig cf. 6.' 6 Be rod (peWov €k tt}? jtuXlv Be eK tovtcov avvOera (TapKO<i Kal vypov. avyra varepov eV royv TTporepoiV ^v\ov ef tVo9 Kal uypov.THEOPHRASTUS KapBlav. . : (ra(p^aT4pav conj.iXr}/jLp. 1.ev ovv icm to diro pl^r)<. Be 6 fiev Ti? eK Trdvrcov olov 6 Bpvo^ KOL alyeipov Kal diriov' 6 Be Trj<i dfiTTeXov e^ vypov Kal lv6<. stem. i. TrXrjv Tft)9 ciXXa Kal irpoira BLa(j)6p(o<.a(f)opa<s elirelv ciiroBiBovai Kal Ta? oX(ov TMV BevBpcov Kal (^vroiv ovaia^. 'Evret Be avplSaivet aa(f)€arepav elvau t}]v Kara Biaipovfievcov pbaarjCTLV etBr]. BevBpov 6dpLvo<^ <ppvyavov TToa. . irpSiTa Be eari Kal p^eyiara Kal a')(eB6v vcj)' wv Trdvr rj rd TrXelara Trepicx^raL rdBe. AevBpov p. fM7]Tpa^ avTr}<s KapSuav. olov 0)]^L Kal pa(f)avLSa)V <p<. (j-)(eh6v icm roaavra. prjOevra KaOanepavel ovk eK tcjp avrcov ircivra ovBe cocrav- peyuara TO. Sch. . Koi evia aaprco^' ^yXovrai Ta fiev ovv /xopia fiev KciraL Se yap aKkrjpvvopevrj. (pvWov UVP2P3Ald. after 1. W. ol ivT€pL(ovr}v' S' evioL he to evTO<. coawep al rcor pi^af pr^rpa Be i^ vypov kol aapKO's' tmv rpcwv. here * elfSrj ^ irdvT" f] = 76Vr. (^olvl^l kol vdp- i/c^vXovTai.

and whicli may be called 'members' how^ever not all of them are made of the same constituents. as in Core is made of moisture and the roots of radishes. and in some cases of flesh also. most important classes. I. herb.' while others distinguish this as the ' marrow. for the flesh hardens and turns to wood. these constituents are made the most important parts. we may say. bark in some cases of all three constituents. shrub. ii.' and those last named are composed of the first 'parts' .2 those which I mentioned first. Having now. taken all the parts. those which comprise all or nearly all ^ plants. Now since our study becomes more illuminating 2 if we distinguish different kinds. under-shrub. for instance in palms ferula and in other })lants in which a turning to wood takes place. wood is made of fibre and sap. Definitions of the various classes into ivhich plants divided.' Here then we have a fairl}^ complete list of the 'parts. nor in the same proportion. flesh while the as in the oak black poplar and pear bark of the vine is made of sap and fibre. are tree. : as w^holes. A tree is a thing which springs from the root with 23 .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. and that Moreover out of of the cork-oak ^ of flesh and sap. we must endeavour to give the differences between them and the essential characters of trees and plants taken : .^ it is well to The first and follow this plan where it is possible. i again call only the inner part ot the core itself the 'heart. but the constituents are combined in various ways. 6-111. may be III.

Bdfxvos St airh 1)1^7)$ So also very nearly P1P2. iroKvKkaZov olov ^dros naXiovpos U. . Aid.. TTT^yavov. the definitions of 6d/iivos and (ppvyavov as given (ppvyavov h\ rh airh yL^rjs Kal TroAucrTeAexes Kal Tro\vK\aSov in U. Ael he tou? opov^ ovtclx.vos Kol iroXvKKaiov oTou Kal ydfiBpri Kal irrjyavoi'. TavTa ylveTai 6 he fivppLVo<i hevhpa' Kai tol Oa/xvajhr] ye iaTiv. tcl he kol irapd ttjv dy(oyt]V dXXoLOTepa yiveadai Kal eK^alveiv r?}? olov (fivaeo)<. hi* o 3 Kal ^aKT7]pLai<i avTal^ ^^/xwi^ra^ irXeiovo'^ he %/3ovov yivo/J-evov KaTO. but with a lacuna olov 0dTos iraxiovpos. /xaXd^V '^^ f^? i^'^o? dvayojievr] Kal dirohevhpovfJLevrj' av/bi^aLvei yap tovto Kal OVK ev TToXXfp XP^'^V <^^^' f'^ ^^ V ^'^'^ci firjaiv.' ert he fidXXov ay vol Kal 6 TraXiovpo^. olov 2 ovK evaTToXvTov.THEOPHRASTUS TToXv/cXaSoi' o^MTov avKTj ainreXo<^' KXahov. .' evta yap L<Tco<. So also M. Xd^ct-va. mctO' 6fjLoXoyov/jLeva)<. Xoyov ?. is 6d. without alteration..o(f)6po<. Kal TrXelo) (fyepeiv edv pd^hov^ Ti? ea /SeXTtft) ^ eiiivos . olov iXda Odfivo^ he to diro l3dT0<i iraXiovpo'^. AV. fiv dvaKaO aupo fxevo^ eK0afivovTaL Kal r) rjpaKXefohoKel he avTr} ye Kal tov Kapirov TLKrj Kapva. marked before (ppvyavov and a note that the definition of <ppvyaPov Se tJ> airb ^i^tjs Kal no\v(rTf\ex(s wanting. ^^ ^ Arai'Xo? airepp. Kal 6 kitt6<. G 24 .'s text transposes. MCTTe jJLrjKo^ Kcil Trd^o^i hopaTtatov yiveaOat.. gives to Qdfxvos {frntex) the definition assigned in U to Kppvyavov (eiiffnitex) and the other definition is wanting.iJ. aTrohexea-dat Kal Xa/x^dveiv &)? TVTTM Kai eiri to ttclv Xejofievov^. (f>vXXo(})6pov irpolov daTeXex^^. olov 6 crtTO? kol to. he Kal eVl tmv TevTXcov Kal yap TavTa Xafi^dvet fjLey€6o<. pi^rj^ ttoXv- (^pvyavov he to diTo pL^V'^ 'TToXvareXex^^i koX TroXvKXaBop olov irba Se to diro pi^i]^ Kal Ovfx^pa Kol ir/^yavov. dirohoai'^' ofiolw^. eiraXXdTreiv ho^eie.

So too is it with the beets they also increase in stature under cultivation.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. On the other hand the myrtle. W. and yet they belong to the class of shrubs. 3. corn and pot-herbs. /col But the Plin. mallow ^ when it grows tall and l)ecomes tree-like. olive fig vine. and the seed is borne on the stem for instance. yafx^ti-q MSS. these become trees. spear. and so does filbert indeed this last appears to bear better and more abundant fruit. rises from the root with many stems as well as many branches for instance. 1-3 iii.'s transposition gives koI force. and several branches. . For in the case of some plants it might seem that our definitions overlap and some under cultivation appear to become different and depart from their essential nature. and men accordingly use it as a walking-stick.. A herb is a thing which comes up from the root with its leaves and has no main stem. . - evjxBpa conj. "* : Note that W. 15. . turns into a shrub. . bramble An under-slu'ub is a thing which Christ's thorn. 62. and so still more do chaste-tree Christ's thorn ivy. 1. so that. 19. for instance. cf. 3 r/. W. so that in length and thickness the plant becomes as great as a it . § 4 shews that the typical (ppvyapov . . not more than six or seven months. ^A shrub is a thing which rises from the root with many branches for instance. . unless it is pruned. These definitions however must be taken and accepted as applying generally and on the whole. and after a longer period the result of cultivation is proportionately greater. view was first «ral also suggests aiav^x^piop for koL •* the proper in T. 25 . savory ^ rue. as is generally admitted.'s being yd/xfiprf. having knots and I cannot easily be uprooted for instance. meaningless. a single stem. if one leaves . For this comes to pass in no long time.

The Ionian . from G pa<pai>\s Aid. . koX UAld. Trapaipovjievojv 7roXvcTr6\€)(r) 6a/xP(i)Bov<... 66ev kol /caXoval Tive^ rd TOiavra BeyBpoXd^ava. 6/jL0La)<. conj. fiyjXea ovS^ ?} oaa irapa^Xa- dyojyfj rotavra euia Be kol iaxri rfj XeTTTorrjra.. Socradr Philosophy (Eng. rd re Xa^avdiBi] Trdvra rj rd irXelara orav iyKarafielvrj Xa/x/SdveL Tivd<^ warrep aKpepiova^ Kal yiverat ro oXov ev (TXVjxaTL BevBpd)BeL ttXyjv oXtyoxpovidyrepa.. 2.ep(ov dyplwv. (TrrjTLKa airo ovK 6\a)<i tmv pi^Mv dWa tmv ciXXcov.Bas. 2 l>a. KaOdirep poav fxrfkeav icoai Be kol Td<. 7. Aid Br] ravra Mairep Xeyofiev ovk aKpi^oXoyijreov TM optp dXXa tm tvttm XrjTrreov tov^ d(f}opt. W. kol oXiyoxpopiorrjri. * i. KapTTOCpopcov dKdpircov. philosopher.H. aiTLO^ elvai. of fresh shoots after cutting. 2. soO. See Zeller. Biaipeaei<.Cam. 6.' eireX Kal rd<. KaOdirep pd^avo<. growth so that the tree comes to look like a slirub from the 2.. eX«a? KOirdBa^ fcal Td<^ (TVKd<. 281 f. dypia Kal ypepa rrapd tj]V dycoyr^v elvai BoKer irdv ydp Kal dypiov Kal I'lixepov (f)^]<TLP "Yttttcov yiveaOai Tvyydvov t) /jLtj rvy^dvov Oepaireia'^. Bod.THEOPHRASTUS W9 TrXeiof? T>}? IJLOVoaTe\e')(e<^ /DOta OLiS' »7 5' cf)va€U)<. deixpvXXcou (pvXXo^oXcov.). Sch.<pavo% » 26 3. av ho^eiev ov8' Sea 77 ov oucr. tmv re yap (f)pv<yaP(JL>B(bv koI Xaxavf^Boyv evia fiovoaTeXexv Kal dlov BevBpov (pvcTLV e^ovra yiverai. 1. rd Be Icrx^'' '^^^^ daOeveia KoX iroXvxpoviorrjTi. 12 . 2. ^ ^ conj.a/jiov<. olov r}/j. ir^jyavov. Td-^a 8' dv Ti? (pal^j kol oXw? fieyedet kol /ilKponjTL Biaipereov elvai. cf. dvOochopcov rd filv ydp dvavOoyv. 2.?. Pre cf. trans.e. * Koi add.

for instance. but they acquire the character of a tree when the other stems are removed. For of under-shrubs and those of the pot-herb class some have only one stem and come as it were to have the character of a tree. nor indeed any of the trees which have side stems from the roots. our distinctions too on the same principle. as Ave are saying. the pomegranate and the apple. 3-5 good many of its branches untouclied. since. since it is by nature like a shrul). and in some it by comparative robustness or length of life. any plant may be either* wild or cultivated according as it receives or ^ does not receive attention.^ a Exact classification impracticable: other 2)ossible bases oj classification. we should For we must make make our definitions typical. However some trees men even leave with their numerous stems because of their slenderness. cases : 27 . though it is shorter lived than a tree. between wild and cultivated seems to be due simply to cultivation. Again neither the apple nor the pomegranate nor tlie pear would seem to be a tree of a single stem. such as cabbao'e and rue wherefore some call these Hree-herbs'. as those between wild and cultivated plants. and in fact all or most of the pot-herb class. fruitbearing and fruitless.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Indeed classify in might be suggested that we should some cases simply by size. as Hippon ^ remarks. Thus the distinction evergreen and deciduous. and they leave the stems of the olive and the fig cut short. For these reasons then. I. m. one must not make a too precise definition . and the whole plant comes to have a tree-like shape. when they have been long in the ground. flowering and flowerless. acquire a sort of branches.

o)<. (f)aat (fivWo^oXeiv. 28 ' we must take the extreme cases.e. KaX TroicohecrLV' inrep cop Kal ra? ^ orav Ti? X^yrj irepl ttcivtwv KOLvfj hrfK. rjfiepov Be Kal aypiov BiKaiov KaXelv dvacfyepovra 7r/909 re ravra Kal 6Xco<. ai Biaf^opal roiv oXa>v re Kal pLopiwv. 16.eva puyB' oXw9 he^erai Oepaireiav aXXa x^^P^ yiverai. secondary * I.o<. TOiavTa Siaipereov' 6%et yap tl t?}? cf)va€a)<. Sch.a Se Kal Kal ravra^ KOLva<. . W. KaOdirep eXdr)] irevKy] Kifkaar pov Kal dirXco^ oaa yp^v^pov'. 9. Trpo? to rj/jLepcorarov' [6 8' dvOpwTTO^ i) jxovov i) pudXtara ijpLepov. irepl yap ^K\e(f)avTLPrjv ovde Ta<i dfiTreXov^ ovSe ra<i avKd<. they are indispensable. KapvSfopa &p9r] P2Ald.e.^ IV. j^et (if we look to the caiises of different characters). olov KaTTTrapi^ Kal depjj. .€po)v.ov on XeKTeov ov')(^ opi^ovra KaO' CKaarov evXoyov Be ap. ' i. kolvov oyLtoto)? eV hevhpOL's fcal OupLvoL^ Ka\ Tot9 (^pvyaviKo2<..THEOPHRASTUS cLKapira 8e koX KapiTL^ia kol avdo(f>6pa koX avavdij irapa roi"? tottol'? kol tov aepa rov trepLe^ovTarov avTOV he rpoirov koI (fivWo^oXa koi aei^vWa. to7s av7o7s The sense seems to be : Though these distinctions are not entirely satisfactory. ^ Sch. from 2 1. alperfov ' Aid. (joaavTu><i Be Kal tmv ^pvyavtKO)V Kal iroLwBoiv. (. since they are due to causes which affect all the four classes of our 'primary' distinction. Staiperfov conj.f^ TOLavra 'COnj. (paLperai riva e-^etv ^vaLK7]v hiacpopdv evOii^ eV) Twr dypiwv Kal tcov r)p. Plin.. elirep evia firj Bvvarat t. ^AX>J 6p. olov Xeyco alTLa<i * avdocpopa koI avavOrj conj. 81. G . ^avepal Be Kal Kar avra^ rd<i /jiop(pa<. 5 .riv Mcnrep tcl yewpyovp. tottou^ (f)LXeL Kal ')(^iov(oSeL<. plants which entirely refuse cultivation.. elvai rrdvrwv.

Wherefore. is at least that to which it most applies. . seeing that some plants cannot live under the conditions of those grown in cultivated ground. and on the other that which is in the truest sense Now Man. And in fact there seems to be some natural difference from the first in the case of wild and cultivated. under-shrubs. but deteriorate under it .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.' thing to which this name is strictly appropriate. not giving separate definitions for each class^ it being reasonable to suppose that the causes too are common to all. such as caper and lupin. may be seen in * SAwj ' i 8' Trpbj rb. tI '6Xu)S TfiiJ. have bracketed this clause. IV. I which seems to be an irrelevant conj. shrubs. I. Again the differences. if he is not the only cultivated. iir. silver-fir fir holly. for instance. St. both between the plants as wholes and between their parts. 5-iv. when one mentions the causes also.2 alike in trees. and in .! flowering Elephantine neither vines nor figs lose their leaves. 6. seem to be due And to position and the climate of the district. i Again the distinctions between fruitless and fruitand flowerless. one must take account of all alike. Now in using the terms ' cultivated and ' wild * we must make these ^ on the one hand our standard. 29 . ' ' *^ "^ ' Differences as to appearance and habitat. bearing. and do not submit to cultivation at all. and herbs.€pop. gloss.vdpc>}Tros ? . Nevertheless we are bound to use such disFor there is a certain common character tinctions. general those which affect cold snowy country and the same is also true of some of the under-shrubs and herbs. Trpbs . so too with the distinction between deciduous and ^ Thus they say that in the district of evergreen.

dXXd oXft)9 eXarrovcdV ^ tols 2 ndvTwv 3 i. tmv aXXwv.. text ^tjv ovh' ^ypov'^ roirov^' rcov perhaps defective. evia he oiairepel KciOvypa Kal eXeia. wcnrep eaTL yap evia rwv cf)VT(ov a ov TTOielv ')^copi(TfjL6v. Avrai re ht] (pva-iKal rive^ wairep el'pyrai hia(jiopai. nva ivvhpwv Kal ')(epaaiwv. as to locality. fiev ev Trorapot^.ev <yap Bofcel ra dypta cf)ep€Lv. wairep a^pa<. KaOdirep Iria kol ra rrXdravo'. h' rov<. t6ttovs. ravras 30 he ouk ev hidiKOvra . Kara tol"? ttcivtcov he Xr^ineov ae\ aXXct)?. /jLaXaKOTr)-. dWo Kar ev reXfiaai ra he Kal ev (fyveaOat. vhan hwdfieva roii^i eanv a Kal Kar' avra? tols conj. 7. koX rjhiov. TrXeiw p. U . Kal ri t' auras raj MVAld. roiv vypcov. kol to 6\ov o)? elirelv evfcpdrov^ fiaWov. kotlvo^. to.. 4. ev vypfo ^rjv /xt] ra he ev \ip. KOL en hrj fidWov tmv uKapTTcov kol Kapno(f)6p(0P Kal (})vWo^6\fjL)V KOL a€i(f)vX\cL>v kol ocra aXKa TOiavTa. olov eul TCt)v hvvaraL aXXo ^(jtiwv.ev eXdrrco Kal ev Trap rjpLV ra he pel^co Trepl rrjv epvOpuv. \eL6r7)<. 1.. <p\oLou T/^a^urr/?. (T/c\r]p6rt]<i fiiKp6rri<. <f)vX\(i>i' aTrXw? evfiopcpla koI Sva/xopipLa tl<^.THEOPHRASTUS KoX /i€y€0o<. * cf. en he kol KaXkLKapiTia kol KaKOKapiria. koX\i(o he TO. to. Sch. alytaXoixi. ra? fcal ov yap ovh^ olov re al he roiavrai ho^aiev av yeviKov tottou?* i(rci)<. . p.e. rjfiepa kol TOv<i %l'Xou? he avroi)^ jXvKvrepovi. . .vaL<^ ra avTrj TTJ rfi OaXdriT] 8' hir/prjTaL he ware yevo<. Karo .

I mean difi'erences such as those in size.H. '6Xws conj. and still more so are those between fruitless and fruitful. and again these are distinguished from one another by their fondness for different kinds of wetness so that some grow in marshes. smaller ones in our own Some again. leaves. though not actually living in water. for instance. . such as the willow and the plane. 1-2 tlic appearance itself' of the plant. but seek out dry places and of the smaller sorts there are . give us a kind of division into classes. smoothness or their opposites. larger ones in the Red Sea. These then as has been said. as it were. and the like. For there are some plants which cannot live except in wet . Such ^ differences would seem to to do otherwise. Minime G. Others again cannot live at all ^ in water. some that prefer the ' *> i. others in rivers. are differences of natural character. for instance. between that of aquatic plants and that of plants of the dry land. in general. differences as to comeliness or its opposite and as to the production of good or ot For the wild kinds appear to bear inferior fruit. having even flavours which are sweeter and pleasanter and in general better blended. if one may so say. others even in the sea. as seen in bark.^ or plants of the marshes. W. the wild i)ear and wild olive. more fruit. are lovers of very wet places. and the other parts also. others in lakes. iv rSvrois Ald.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. oii5' shore. deciduous and But with all the evergreen plants..* may say. iv. differences in all these cases we must take into account the locality . I. corresponding to the division which we make in the case of animals.e. hardness. . but the cultivated plants better fruit. one sea.2 and indeed it is hardly possible .

passage seems not to belong here(W. . Sch. tJjtoi UMVAld. Td<i twv (f)uTcov ouTO) XijTTTeov.. p.7] rw dvopoiw^ rj ttjv IcTTopiav 8ia(jiopaL<. irpwrov kol (f)opd<. 3 on the shore below high-water mark. Sch. 4 Se TO. fupoi conj. evprj Aid.. . . KaOdirep fivpiKrjv Ireav Kki]9paVy ra he a/jL(l)i^ia.] V. Presumably as being sometimes found hta- koivm^.. IleipaTeov ^ "^ rd^ Kard pepo<^ dv KaOoXov XeyovTa<. (vpr) H.^et to dvayicalov. * a-nai'Ta .). ov- r. c^oivLKa ciXXd ra roiavra koI olK6La)<. el av evpoL kolvcl kol Mcnrep /jLeu 6Xci)<. to ovtco aKoirelv ovk ovSe yap ovS' earl (JKoirelv (pvai<. rrapaXap^dveiv Tr}(j6aL TTJ yfj ev taoi<i ot? diroXeXvaOaL Kal p. ex^i-v tcoi^ e^eiv. Kal rat? T(p eXdrrw. /j. Koi t€)v opoXoyov/jbivcov ')(epaai(iiv '7re<pv/c6ra irore ev rfi OaXdrrr) ^lovv. * 32 Tp6nui conj. Tco? ovh^ ev TOi? TOLOvTOi^. aKuXXav dvOepiKOv.. [aTTavTa 8' ovv Ka\ TavTa Kal ra dXXa SioiaeL KaOdirep eLprjrac Tal<^ re tmv /xev ovv SiaLpeaea oXw? fcal 6Xo)v /jLop^aL<. fle'Acj Ald.opLcov r) Ta> rrXelo) ra rj 8' oaoL rpoiroi Sirjprjvrai i) kol Tov<i tottou? avpeKaara 7re(f)VK€v r) py peydXy] yap Kal avrrj hiacpopd 7r€(f)UKe jiveaOai. Kal ov')(^ rjKKTTa OLKeta tmv ^vtcov hid to crvvr/poIkgIov he irporepov. ra uKpi^oXo- Tt<. . . Sch.H.THEOPHRASTUS Ou 3 aXXa koI tovtwv [Jir)v yelaOat OeXoi. o)? e4\oi conj. e.T] S' elirelv KaOdirep Ta ^wa. This (coa.

and that others even of those which are admitted to be plants of the dry land sometimes live But to conin the sea. ' i. or as to having a greater or less number of parts. Characteristic dijferences in the parts of plants. in general. iv.*^ and then to particular parts. as has been said. 3-v. those which divide plants into large classes evergreen and deciduous). ivhether general. or as to having them differently arranged. if one should wish ^ to be precise. tion. sider all these exceptions and. or because of other differences ^ such as we have already mentioned. or seen in qualities and properties. V. one would find ^ that even of these some are impartial and as it were am})hibious. such as tamarisk willow alder.y. to consider such a manner is not the right way to proceed.^ as palm squill asphodel. either as to having or not having certain parts. therefore and the study of plants in general must be understood accordingly. and specially characteristic of plants. because they are united to the ground and not free from in — it like animals. i However. [e.e. ^ To return these plants as well as all others will be found to differ. Next we must try to give the differences as in the first instance speaking broadly of those of a general character. special. 33 . I. For in such matters too nature certainly does not Our distinctions thus go by any hard and fast law. both in the shape of the whole and in the differences between the parts. And it is perhaps also proper to take into account the situation in which each plant naturally grows or For this is an important distincdoes not grow.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.

from G . . Kal ev avroL^ rovrot^.THEOPHRASTUS €LTa read' e/caarov. I'ilJ. 16.ivcov.f crreXe. eart he Kal rcov puev aapKcohyj^i 6 (fiXoio^. olov dphpd')(Xt] prjXea K6piapo<. KaOdirep Sd(f)vr] en KaOdrrrep Spv<i.e. the ' i. 2 ravrh conj.\. .. evia he Kal f)t]^i(f)Xoia. KaOdrrep rd 8e rpaxi'<j)Xoia. . KaOdirep dypia irdvra he vea pcev ovra (fyoivi^. Se "EcTTt ra pbh varepov iirl irXelov waTTcp opdocpvrj Kal p^aKpoareXexv KvirdpLTTO^. olov taking account of differences in qualities. Spv<. 'naxv<p. 4. the third begins at 5. KaOdirep dpiTreXo'.^09 i) 2 roiavra<^ T«<> (f)Xoia. UMAM. avaO€(opovvra<i. ra he gkoXicorepa Kal /9/3a.. avrh conj. rd puev XeiocpXoia. Xeio^Xotorepa. rd he Kal &)? rrepLTTLTrreiv. olov (f)€XXou hpvo<. dpLireXov Xlvo- airdprov Kpo /.)^?/ olov irea avKrj poid. ' ' § 4. pLev Xeirro- (piXvpa.. opLOLco^i olov dpLireXov KaXdpov irvpov. Sch. See but the order in which the three kinds of differences the second is discussed is not tliat which is here given are taken first and resumed at 6. alyeupov' rwv he lvcoh^]<. diro'yyipdaKovra he rpa')(y<^Xoi6repa. pLijXea dUKj). Kal Kara 7ra. en Kara ia')(yv rj 7ra. olov avK)}^ TToXuXoTTO?. first at 14. rwv he pLovoXo7ro<^. ' Tpaxv(p\ot6Tepa rf. etc. 34 Plin. ra rrdXiv hia(^opd<^. H. rd Se 7ra'XV(f)Xoia. Kal rcjv puev (^iXvpa^i eXdrr)^. 4. (f)eXX6<. 1. d(TapKO<. UMVPAld.)^o? Be Kal XeTrronira Kal TToXiv rd pLev pLOvoareXexv '^^ ^^ woXvareXe^V touto Se ravro rpoirov nvd Kal rw Ka\ Trapa/SXacrrt-jriKd t] dirapd^Xaara eJvar KaOciTrep iXdrr] Trev/crf TToXvKXaSrj Kal oXcyoKXaSa KaOdirep 6 cfiotvL^. Kal hevhpwv Kal OdpLVcov Kal eirereiwv. ofioiwi.

e. . some are by comparison as silver-fir fir cypress crooked and have short stems. Plin. G cf. Plin. smooth bark. Steph. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 2. for instance to vines reeds and wheat. And again of some the bark is fleshy. others many stems and this difference corresponds ^ more or less to that between those which have sidegrowths and those which have none. v. Again some have a single stem. vi]Xeiu I.. '^ * pr)^l(p\oia (pxoia ' liirjXea l\V. 15. .. as in lime silver-fir vine Spanish broom ® onions . Again in some the bark has more than one layer. as in andrachne apple ^ and arbutus.. such as bay and lime And again some have bark. (?) U V7)\ela piii^Xoia P.Co- . ' cf. . However all plants when young have smoother bark. and we must take a wider range. I. as willow fig pomegranate . conj. such as the date-palm.. And in these very instances we have also differences in strength Again some have thin thickness and tlie like. 4. St. 5. I. .^ as the vine and in some cases it readily dro})s off. conj. while in others it is as in cork-oak oak poplar and this applies alike to trees fibrous and not fleshy shrubs and annual plants. . others have a thick bark. 1-2 of special differences between individual kinds . (nraprov. and there are like differences as to degree of thickness. UMPAld. . which gets rougher ^ as they get older . as ap])le and fig others rough bark. ^. or that between those which have many branches and those which have few. as 'wild oak' (Valonia oak) cork-oak and date-palm. such as the oak.^ Some plants grow straight up and have tall stems..e. making as it were a fresh survey. 1 6. while in some it consists of only after that . and some have cracked bark. cf. appears to have read Klvov. piCi(poia H. 35 . * PgAld. etc.

7 .d(ppa/CTa /cal opaXr)..H. <yXi(TXpoT7]<.. i) Be 7rv^o<. Se fiavd AM. etc. » 8c &iva 0^ W. Son Pg . olov aKXyeXeloiv rj Kaddirep p6rr)<i paXaKOT'y]'. 1. Aid..U Kojviov from G. Se . v\rifxaTa conj. .. M. 4. Kvrai pev Bjj Bo^aiev dv e'f wv r] avvOecri^. /cdXa/jiO<. 1. ra <ydp ivciihei's' t?}9 eX-axi. Be y) Trepl oXw? rd ySaro? vXi]- 6 /xev Bia<f)opd<. Spvo<. including shrubs. OafivcoB)] /cal yovarcoBe^. Ti? yap 5' dv Xd^8oi TraXiovpo'^ d/cavdcoBr]. ^ernl 10. T^9> Kpavpory^. Kal ?} ejSevo^ ovBe avavdevra. Ald. KaOdirep rd rr}? pd/ixvov conj.. 6. KovcpoTT]^ ^apvTi)^ kol\ 6(xa roiavra' rj pev ydp Irea Kal ')(Xwpov dXXa ev()v KOv<pov. BaKavov Akl. kol ol [lev Kal 6 Kal evia rcov TU(f)i] Xtpvaiwv opoiw^ dBi. 6) . cr^oFi'o?. eXaTTovwv pdfivov revrXov Kwveiov' ol he KaOdrrep KeBpov Xcotov KvirapiTTOv. elcTi fiev olov gvktj^. cf. . 6. * . Sch.? /cal Toiavra' ra Be diva. . at hLa<^opaL 'YCiv twv KavXwv ol kol twv he ^v\(ov avTcov kol oXco'i (rapKcoSei^. Kwviiov conj. (a general r/. ^Iva U . al Be Kard rd irdOj] Kal Td<. (corrected to Kwvdou). Khv^iara.VK7]T0^.' Be 6 coaav- d(j)Xe^a. ^vXa tt)? avKr]<.THEOPHRASTUS KoXdfiov Kara aipa<. 36 Bdfivov Sch. Mairep 6 <^eXX6<^. KaOdirep T&)9 Be Be KOL rd rd ^pvyavLKd Kai /juara /cal dXXa<. BvvdpeL<. rod ^oivlko<. o Be rov Kvireipov Kal /Soutofxov KavXo<i opaXorrjrd riva e%ei irapd rovrov^' en Be pdXXov co-w^ 6 rod p. va conj. Kal rd pev a^l^eTai. ^ '^ . <7rvKv6- pavoTT)^. rd fxev cpXe/ScoBr] daapKoi. under-shrubs. 7. tov^ ^Xoiov^i eV St) /jl€V TovroL<.

<rx«o'To H. closeness or openness of texture. 1 n.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. fissilea 1. W. find other differences while the bramble and Christ's thorn have thorns on Bulrush and some of the marsh or pond the wood. In like manner some are full of ' veins. sense doubtful dfiwyv/xuv conj. ' axK^Tai conj. • irden. among lesser plants.^ such ' bfioiws. : . 1. For willow-wood is light from the and the like. respects in which bark differs. for instance. and so is that of the cork-oak but box and ebony are not light even when dried.^ as in the fig. first. and.. These then would seem to be the differences in Those which the parts which make up the plant. even when it is green. in buckthorn beet hemlock ^ u hile some are not fleshy. prickly cedar Again some are fibrous. this character is the wood of the silver-fir and the date-palm while some are not fibrous. 2-4 Such are the one coat. I. 37 . for of nettle-tree cypress. plants are in like manner"* Avithout joints and smooth. as in oak and fig. ^ . . cf. . lightness or heaviness. toughness or brittleness. as in fig reed darnel. W. and the stem of galingale and sedge like the rush has a certain smoothness beyond those just menand still more perhaps has that of the tioned . mushroom. Differences as to qiialities and properties. v. <rx"''^«''^« UMVAld. Some woods again can be split. belong to the qualities ^ and properties are such as liardness or softness. : G. Next of the woods themselves and of stems generally some are fleshy. shrubs and in woody plants ^ in general one might thus the reed is jointed.' others Further in shrubby plants and imderveinless.. .

5. TTjv fiev el evia e'X^et dXXa TOL^ Be Be rcov d/nreXou olov ydp ian avKfj^i Be rti^e? (paaiv Kal ev avroU eTreira aapKcoBt]^. y Be Bpv^ on a)(TavTco<. KaOdirep e^^ef. T. kol t/}? irevKi]'.?. cf. TTopeiv. rovTcov en aKXriporepau Kal irvKvorepaL Kpav€La<i S* TTpLVOV BpVO^ KVTLaOV (TVKaflLVOV i^eVOU XCOTOV.fra(jilis{}. Kal t^9 Bpv6<i. olov ra tt)*^ do^a. Kal v/x€vcoBt]<. elvai. 2.e. Kal tol^. 2 iLo(a avral t?}? ejBevov cf. Ael Be Kal Ta^. ^v\d}B7](. VI.. Be Kal rd dWa irdvra irpo's ^vatv TTO)? dvdyeTac. olov ra t^? a^rf.THEOPHRASTUS ra 8e eXaa9. 38 conj. vdp9i)K0<. 1. i. olov 5 evOpavara /xaXXor. appears not to agree as to elder see below. •* : . 'X^pcofiaar fjv KaXovai diraaai Be (TKXy]p6T€paL Kal Kpavpo- VVk\a. i\drr)<. koI to... Be Aia(})epovai 2 fieXaivau ydp fieXdvBpvov. Bid TO euKa/jLTTTOv Bt yXiaxpav e^eiv Kal fiev TTu^o? e^evo<. iiiroXa^^dveLV •/?}? eva^Larov fiev yap rj iXciTrj r& ev6v(f>vaeo)<. 16. rj 1] (f)L\upa Kal Trjv vyporrjTa. on oaa dWa ^apv Be 7} irvKvd. across the grain. from G . Kal fidXiara avrrj Bid rb €vBaBo<. roiavTa<. ' ^ break across the grain. ra Be iXdrrj^. 6. fiev ra o^coSr}. Plin Ao|a ivdpavcrTa mP . ' i. UPAld ^ rj..?. 5.. 5. 5. fir) rcov fiev ex^ovar ^v\(t)Bi]<i fiev rj re Kal ryjv dKTr}V' fi7]\ea<. Aiacpepovac Be Kal ral^ ixrjTpai.e. evOpavarov Be rj iXda Blci to aKoXiov Kal (TKXypov.4.^' irpoiTOv jecoBe^.. i^Opavara 186. rcov aapKoyBi)^ poid<i ttituo? eXar??? a/CTvyv Trei^/c?. Palm.

as those of fir and silver-fir.* and ebony are heavy because the grain is close. Again there are differences in the ^core' the first place according as plants have any or have none. uutt. . and in all these the core is harder and more brittle than the ordinary . Again some without knots/ as the stems of elder. Harder again and closer than these is the core of dog. while others are rather break- wood of the oHve.. UAld. I. v. 2 as that of the silver-fir_.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Now such differences also must be ascribed to the for the reason why essential character of the plant the wood of silver-fir is easily split is that the grain is straight. woody. able. and in the second place there are differences between those which have it. auTTjs 1*. while the reason why olive-wood is Limeeasily broken^ is that it is crooked and hard. as in Aleppo pine silver-fir fir in the lastnamed ^ especially so. 39 . The cores in themselves also differ in colour for of ebony and oak is black.^. as some say ^ is the case with elder among other things .^ In like manner the other peculiarities too can in some way be referred to the essential character.. tree. because it is resinous. Sch. in VI. wood and some other woods on the other hand are Boxwood easily bent because their sap is viscid. others have knots. or membranous fleshy. and in fact in the oak it is called 'oak-black'.^ sucli as tlie are : Further ' special ' differences. 4-vi. that ' aZrr] conj. and oak because it contains mineral matter. since in different plants it is respectively fleshy. as in vine fig apple pomegranate elder ferula : . uut^ MV .wood kermes-oak oak laburnum mulberry ebony nettle. woody.

4 5 cf. KaOdirep eXdir) TvevKiy p. Sci? 8' ev /uL€V Tot? SevSpoi. olov eXda 7Tv^o<i' ov ovtm Xa^etv.evov(jL vjievoofxaiorepaL 5e ai jiev al 8 ov. Aiacpepovai Be Kal ral's pl^ais. : seems to give a different account. Bta<f>epov(Ti Be Kal XetorrjrL Kal rpax^ryri Kal itukvorrjri. 3. 23. C. €)(^ovai Be Kal TMV pi] povoppi^wv evta Trjv €k rov peaov peyiarn^v Kal Kard ^dOov<i. KaOdirep Bd(f)vi]<. KaOdirep dpireXov.<.eydX7]p ti]v eiV ^dOo<. €^€i Be rrjv /irjrpau ra fiev /j. rd piev yap TToXvppi^d Kal paKpoppL^a. IG.P. €')(ei pLKpd^ Be d-no ravryfi TrA-etou?. TCL 5' d(^aveaTepai'. 21. * ^avciTepai '^ clear. 40 . e^' oaovovi' rd Be oXtyoppL^a. vXy^fxaaLV olov KaXdfjLO) re koI }'dp0)]KL Koi rol^i TOiovTOL<i repat rcov Kafiin]v.dXXov rcov Be dv(i3paXel<i. ax? nrplvo^ Bpv<i koX TuXXa irpoeiprjp. 6. i. and KapKivd^^-qs C. 12.vyBaX7]' eXda Be piKpdv ravrrjv ra? Be dXXa'i pLel^ov^ Kal 4 KeKapKLV(typeva<^. homogeneous. KaOdirep crvKfj Bpv^ irXdravo^. is .eydXr]p kol elaiv. 5.edv yap e)(U)aL tottov. ft)? en Be rwv pev TTa-)(elai p. • 3. oiairep dp. iXda^. 3 .ov6ppL^a Be ouTO)?.THEOPHRASTUS ^vXcov Be o koI oh\ vTTop. irdvrwv yap al pi^ai p^avorepai rcov dvo)...eva. 1.P. but sense of/ ^ Plin. 3. KaOdirep poid 'Trpoep)(ovTaL. otl pLiav p. text can liardly be sound. pirjXia' rd Be povoppi^a. ev he Toi<i Oap-vooheai koI o\oi<i tol<. dXXd kul ov Kara to jxeaov dXXa Kara ro irav e^eiv codTG fi^] elvai roirov oipiafievov Bl o Kal evia ovB^ av Bo^eiev oXo)? e^civ' eVet Kal rov yap eaTiv d(pcopL(r/xeu7]v (f)aaL TLve'i (f)0iVLK0<^ i ovBcfiia (^aiverai Bia(f)opd Kar ovBev. 5. (pavepdv. ovk elalv rj ottuvlol. 127.' rcov Be Trdaai Xeirrai.e.

and a number of small ones branching from this. Even in some of those which have more than a single root the middle root is the largest and goes deep. in the almond in the olive this central root is small. wood and . as in olive and box. and of some they are all slender. for instance. in fact in the date-palm the alike throughout.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. others are larger and. of wise.^ in trees. Again in some the core is large and conspicuous. Roots also differ in degree as those of the vine. For the roots of all 41 . while the 5 many long differ in their roots. being diffused throughout. others a single root. as in kermes-oak oak and the other trees mentioned above while in others it is less conspicuous. if vi. as those of bay and olive . it is not found in the middle of the stem. run to any length. . Others again have few roots.^ Differences Again plants wood is m root. as some say. is found and woody plants generally. some having oak plane for the roots of these. so that it has no separate place and for this reason some trees might be thought to have no in shrubl>y plants . of texture. if they have room. as silver-fir and fir these have a single root in the sense that they have one long one ^ which runs deep. as in reed ferula and the like. 2-4 for this reason the core of tliese trees can not be bent. as pomegranate and apple. . roots. but. of smoothness and in density. as fig . spread out crabAgain the roots of some are mostly stout. core at all . . Again the core A differs in closeness membranous core indeed it is found at all common not but it is .^ some of various degrees of stoutness. For in these trees one cannot find it isolated. I. as it were.

.. Kal TroXXa?. ctl Be al fiev evOecai Kal 6fia\ei<. ttoWcl^ €')(ovaL Kal aOpoa^' eirel Traaai ye KaX ravra^. Juv. Sell. fxaXkov. olov pd(^avo^ al Be cTKoktai 5 6 ^ TT((is Kepavviov from Athen. 117.'»s conj. 5. KaOdirep vBvov fivKr/^.. Kal TrapaWdrrovaaL' tovto yap ov iiovov orvpi^aivei Bta tou? tottol'? tw p. KaOdirep eiVarr. kol dvaavwhei'^. '^ UMVAlcl.THEOPHRASTUS iTVKvorepai he ciWai aWo)v kol ^vXcoSearepaiKoi al fiev IvcoSei^. al he olov 6^a)Sei<. eariv. 3. cf. Tre^i? KspavvLOV. TO. 7re(.. : ttv^os Kpdviov . 5' e-TTiiroXaLoppL^a. flKuCovjais : W. KaOdirep d/jL7reXov p6a<. KaOdirep e\da poid pajXea KV7rdpiTT0<.. dirocfyvouaiv o-tto tmv /xeyaXcov dX)C ov^ ofMOico'. elal Be Kal al fiev 7rapa/3\aar)]TiKal et? to dvco. uyarrep al r?}? hpv6<. K€pavi^iov conj. rij)r) KpiO)]. irdv to roLOVTO. "EcTTf Be Kal ra fiev jSadvppL^a. 3 42 2. a^eBou Be Kal rwv Xa'^avwBmv tcl TrXelara fxovoppil^a.rd 5' oXiyoppi^a KaOdirep rd ^(eBpoird. d6p6a<. 98.. word corrupt. KaX fiLKpa<. al avral Be Biacpopal Kal tmp (fypvyaviKcov Kal tmv ttoicoBcov Kal Tcov dXXcov irXt-jV el oXcy? hvia fir) e^ei. al Se aapKcoBeK. rd fiev iroXvppL^a KaOdirep irvpb<.y evoBelv dXXa Kal tt)? (pvaeco^.i) Be avKrj Kal rd Toiavra (t KoXiovrai Bia rb fir] evoBelv. o6 and 37. co? ai t?}? iXdnjs^. KaOdirep elKa^ovaai^. avTr)<. . al Be dirapd^XacnoL. (oairep ai t% ekda^TOVTO Be on ra? Xeina^. coavep eVt tt}? Bd^vrj'^ Kal rrj^ eXda^. 19. 59 riin. " Kiraaav 8' efi/xrjrpoi KaOdirep Kal rd crreXe^j] Kal ol uKpefiove'^' Kal evXoyov diro Trj<^ dp-)(rjs. Plin. KaOdirep Bpv^. so UMVAld.? KUTraptTTOv TrevKr}<^.

some fleshier. and some have surface roots.' Others have numerous roots. uniform.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. for .. as wheat barley and plants all wheat one-seeded of like nature. as also does Some are fibrous. as truffle mushroom bullfist^ 'thunder-truffle. it may also belong to the natural character of the while the fig and plant. 4-6 plants are less dense than the parts above ground. others crooked and crossing one another. as those of the oak. as olive pomegranate Again some roots are straight and apple cypress. All roots have core. The same differences are found in under-shrubs and herbaceous j)lants and the rest. Again some plants are deep-rooting. except that some have no roots at all. as those of silver-fir cypress and fir. which is to be expected. a straight course. vi. I. as all these parts are made of the same materials. For this comes to pass not merely on account of the situation because they cannot find a straight course . Some roots again have side-growths shooting upwards. 2 And in general most of the potherbs have single roots. Some have few roots. silver-fir.^ 43 . in others. . but they are not so closely matted nor so numerous in some cases as . as the oak. as those of the olive and this is because they have a large number of fine small roots close together for all in fact produce these from their large roots. but the density varies in different kinds. as leguminous plants. as those of the the woodiness.. as in the bay and the olive such like become crooked because they can not find . as cabbage beet celery instance. as those of the vine and pomegranate. while some have no side-growth. some are as it were branched and tassel-like. just as the stems and branches do..

i) (f)XoLd)hei<.' oiairep yap KoXap^oi elcnv eppi^wjievoL ral^. 44 e')(eLv' 2 pii^. Kal rov o/jlolcov. aXXfov pbiav Tcou Se 07 hvo rd<. he to. fieyiara^. KaOdirep irvpov avrrj KaXov/jL€V7]<.. tol<.aaL Kal Xaxavco^eaiv twv pc^MV ev yap al jxev elal ^vXd)Bei<.. to evia Kal aTrn- koX creXivov lo revTXov Kal o)? av Kara Xoyov ravra ^aOvppi^orepa tmv hevhpwv. al hia<^opa\ Kal dXXa<i dlTO TOVT(t)V. Mcirep al tmv KaXdfiwv Kal dypcocTTecov Kal et tl KaXap(hhe<.. coairep at tmv pacpavlhcov Kal yoyyvXihcov al he yovarcohei^. olov ev^cofiov coAri/xof Kal tmv dypicov he tmv irXeiaT wv oawv fii] €vOv<. Ke(f)aXo/3apl} Kal Kardppi^a irdvra' rijv re aapKOihrj ravrrjv pi^ayv ^ The same term being applied general. "OXa)<. elcrl he tmv fiev aapKooheL^. ovaa<^ Kal opaXel^i. he TrXetof? vXrjp. TrXetou? ..THEOPHRASTUS revrXov aeXivov XdiraOo'i' ttXijv fieyaka'^y olov €)(€L (f>vdSa<.. UdvTa tovtoi*. Tol<. Kal axi'^ofJLevat. XeTrrat?. a'Xi^eaOai TrXelov. TOiavra hoKcl Kaddirep hvo yevi) T0t9 he Kal oXo)? to. olov a'i re tt}? cr/ctW?. uicyirep al rod wKipLov al he aapKcohet^. iv roL<i TTOicoSeaiv fjiev 7) yap Sia(f)opd ev Kal rr}? eVeretot? Ka\ Kpid7]<. wairep al tov tgvtXov Kal en hr) fidXXov rov dpov Kal dacpoheXov Kal KpoKov al he wairep €K (pXoiov Kal aapKo^.. 7r6a<. Kaddirep pac^avlho^i joyyvXLSo<i dpov KpuKov Tcov Be ^vXcoSeif. to ' herbaceous ' plants in . Kal povat hr) avrat 1) /udXiaO^ op^oiai rol^i vrrep yP]<. tmp pu^wv cocxTe ra? €vOv<. al he XcTTupcoheif. 19 93.? ^oX^ov Kal en Kpo/jLvov Kal tcov alel yap eaTi irepiaipelv avrcov.

as those of reeds and turnips dog's tooth grass and of anything of a reedy character and these roots alone. some fleshy. this is true generally of all plants which have a solid Miead'* and send out roots from it downwards. the main root above ground. ' i. except those whose roots are to start with numerous and much divided. in the opinion of some. as those of and purse-tassels. and also of onion and things In all these it is possible to strip off like these. . . rhizome. of bark and flesh.e. of fleshy. These have. Now all such plants. and still more those of cuckoo-pint some again are made. as in rocket and basil. resemble the parts above ground they are in fact like ^ reeds fastened in the ground by their fine roots. vi. . as celery and beet. 45 . * is i. and in proportion to their size these Again of some the roots are root deeper than trees.' Some are more the difference between the roots numerous and uniform and much divided to start with. or more than any others.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. as those of basil. but the others have one or two specially large . . to have two kinds of root and so. 6-8 monk's rhubarb but some have large side-roots. : roots — and others springing from them. Some again have scales or a kind of bark. seem. as it asphodel and crocus were. a sort of repetition of the part bulb. as in radish turnip cuckoo-pint crocus some they are woody. I. squill a coat. as those of radishes and some have joints. corm. as those of beet. .e. And so with most wild plants. as it were. . . etc. To speak generally. the differences in roots are more numerous in shrubby plants and pot-herbs ^ for some are woody. as those of wheat barley and the plant specially ^ called * For in annual and herbaceous plants this is grass.

cf. fj Se virevavTiw^ eyovcn ra?? dWaL<^ ovK av So^aiev. TovTuv ytyfffis in Athenaeus' citation of this passage '2.- rraXiv. ' fyyiOTOKa yovres conj. a\' a\o7ov exot'tri conj. at Kara jieaov eK t/}? pL^a<. to iroppco Kal del auvo^v<.THEOPHRASTUS KaOdirep i) aKiWa. ov KaKco^. . ras conj. 7) Ti^ el pL^a^ Ta<i Toiaura^. 19. ' . 60) ' cf. rj p. ravT)]<. . ?. ttji' a. 4..ev yap pu^a Xenrorepa 7rpo<.TTOTrecpvKVLa'. Ke^aXi]^ (palvovTai. 1. ?. oA. a\' a\o7ov Ix*"''^"' ix^ .mP from G.eirl Be t6)v aXXwv TOLOVTO [xev ovBev iaTiv eVel Be TrXelov rj (jivcn^ Tavrr) dTTopiav fc'%ti. * Kal ael 3 Aid.&)? Be ye ev ravTai<..H. . rj KaTCL pltav to yap B)) irdv Xeyeiv to Kara 7/}? pl^av ovk opOov Kal yap av 6 KavXo<^ tov ^o\/3ov Kal 6 tov yrjOvov Kal rac. ^ei Kal conj. €K<j)av€aTdTT] 6' y/S/. /cat ra^ anro ov yap 'XeTrroTTjTi kol ira^vTi]rL 8ia(f)€poucrL fiovov.' 1. Sch.. 5. oOev Kal oi eyyeoTOKa Xeyovre<. ttjs Ald. . rcov iy toTSKwy cf. 46 .. pl^aL Kal Tpecpov- r)pTr]p. BcoTrep d7ropi](jeLev civ Be XeTTTT] Kal tVcoS?. aXAa Xe7ov exovres PM^' aWolov inBas.€vaL TOVTo 8' oicriTep KVfia i) Kaprro'?. Seal. Aid. 9.?.. W. ^ conj. a. St. re rod dpou kol t) rov kvireipov r) fiev yap nrayeia kcli Xela kcu aapKa)8y<. the definition of root.' ?} Be tmv aKtXXcjv Kal rwv ^oX^oiv Kal ro)v apcov dvdKol (f)\oio)S)].iroTr^<^vKv7av^. : 10. '']liTi. 99. oiaiTep al twv hevhpwv /cal rcov Xaxf^voiv. » Plin. aXV aWolov €)(^ovaL to 'yevo<i. W. OeTeov fj /xeu yap Kara yrj'i ho^aiev av. 8' al jJLev aXXai Kara to TrXdyiov d(f)idai al Be twv (tklWoov Kal twv ^oX/3mv ovk d(f)idaiv' ouBe twv aKopoBcov Kal tmv Kpofivcov.

since here the *root' has a character which goes beyond what one associates with roots. inasmuch as they are of opposite character to other roots. should be called ' roots . For it is not right to call all that which is underground M-oot.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 2 cuckoo-pint and galingale. selves underground In other kinds of plants there is nothing of this sort. (omitting toTs). but. tovto fiev MSS ^ tv 6 Kavs conj. as wherefore those who it were. W. and pot-herbs . as well these roots not only differ in degree of stoutness. *' ' U oiaaKeyones (V tc to7s ootois aKeyopres . they would not. vi.^ and this ' head is. in the other thin and Wherefore we might question if such roots fibrous. For your root gets slenderer as it gets longer and tapers continuously * to a point but the so-called root of squill purse-tassels and cuckoo-pint does just the opposite. inasmuch as they are under like those of trees ' ground they would seem to be roots. ting re) Aid. 8-9 to say. ' ' . * roiovTo ficv ovSev conj. an embryo or fruit ^plants which reproduce themcall such plants give a fair account of them. in these plants the roots which are attached to the ' head in the middle appear to be real roots and receive nourishment. For as the ^ roots wliich grow from this. they are of quite This is at once quite evident in distinct classes. avaKavXos Aid.. St. like squill. ivreocr MV (omit- 47 .' since in that case the stalk ' of purse-tassels and that of long onion and in general any part which is under. while the others send out roots at the sides. that is I.^ But a difficult question is raised. nor yet with garlic and onion. this is not the case ^ witli squill and purseIn general tassels.^ the root being in the one case thick smooth and fleshy. this fleshy or bark-like root. Again..

Kal to irepBiKLov KaXovjievov Kal yap tovto Trai^eta? re Kal irXeiov^ ex^t' ra? pL^a<. 6/xota. oaa KaXa/jicoB}] Kal TOVTOL<. 48 conj. G omits also t}> before ot'iyyov. etc. ' ». TO. yap Bel (pvaiKrj Biatpelp Tdxa 10 TjTTov Be tovto fxev 6p6oi<^ XeyeTai.THEOPHRASTUS oaa Kara ^ddov<i earlv eirjaav av pi^ai. the fleshy root (tuber. Be TrjV /3\d<TTr]<Tiv. pl^a Be ouBev eaTiv aXXa Bi.e... Sell. e. irrl dWa 11 UoWd ^adovs con]. /. Kal oaa Bt] vapOrjKcoBrj. Be Kal twv iroLCdBcov e%ei roiavTaf. & W.). * ' Koi. Ta<i yovv TMV apwv irpo tov ^Xaardveiv (TTpe^ovaL Kal yiyvovTaL /jiel^ou^ KcoXvo/JLevat Bta/3>]vai irpo^ eVel otl ye iravroiv tmv tolovro kutco /jbdWov peirei <^avep6v ol fiev yap KavXol Kal o###BOT_TEXT###amp;)? tcl dvw ^pa')(ea Ka\ dadevfj. Aid. )8a0os Aid. with considerable variation. Be Kdro) fieydXa Kal iroWa Kal l(T')(^vpa ov /lovov eirl twv elpriixei'cov Kal eirl KaXdjiov Kal dypct)aTiBo<. The passage is cited by Athen.. roaavTriv MSS. ..a(f}opd t^? avrij to)V pi^ojv. Kal 6X(o<. a(T')(lov Kal TO ovlyyov Kal et tl aXXo vTroyeiov iaTiv mv oX&)9 pl^a' Bvvdfiei ovSei^ icTTL Kal OV TOTTCO. Kal TO vSvov Be Kal o KaXovai riv€<. the fibrous root (root proper). Twv 7) (pvcTL'.. St. rj <l)vXXa' KaXelrat Be irepBiKLov Bid to tov^ 7repBiKa<: eyKvXieaOat Kal opvTTeiv.. Koi om. p^^a<. ' ToiauTTji/ * i. olov airdXa^ KpoKO^. making the three plants synonymous. after U. KaiTOL Kal avTal at crapK(iiBeL<^ eoiKacnv e\Keiv. ware ttjp /xev TLva TotavT7]v eluai ti-jv Be TOiavTi]v Kal Tpe(f)€cr0aL tt)v krepav inro t?}? erepa'. Kal TOVTOiv pi'C^ai jieydXaL Kal aapKcjoBet<^.c. 6fioiw<.

9-1 round 1 would be a root. less). mBas.1 ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. but in reeds dog's-tooth grass and in general in all plants of a reedy character and Those too which resemble ferula those like them. 12. is a root . oots of cuckoo-pint before it shoots. not only in the instances given. and that. ^Many herbaceous plants likewise have such roots.e. ^^ (It is called the partridge-plant because partridges roll in it and grub it up. 19. However it may be that this is a true account and yet that such things are roots no less but in that case we distinguish two different kinds of root. • "^ have large fleshy roots. as colchicum 1° crocus and the plant called ' parfor this too has thick roots which are tridge-plant more numerous than its leaves. ' ' ^ (rTp4(pov(n conj. : perhaps corrupt. while the underground parts are large numerous and strong. " i. MVAld. . more or » Plin. <> . for the stems and the upper parts generally are short and weak.. and so they become larger by being prevented from pushing'^ through to make a shoot. and so would the trufHe. the plant which 2 some call puff-ball. have a hollow stem (umbelliferous plants. 1** 11 W. 21. 102. vi.. and Whereas none of these all other underground plants. 7. for we must base our definition on natural function and not on position. I. UMV. one being of this character ^ and the other of the other. and the one * getting its nourishment from the other ^ . rpapovaL Siade7vai c/. 2. 49 . ^ dia^rjvai conj. For it is evident that the nature of all such plants is to turn downwards for choice .) So too with the plant called in Egyj)t ' . oKTTraAal UMV. 99. ffvd\a^ Plin. though the fleshy roots too themselves seem At all events men invert^ the to draw nourishment. Sch. the uingon.

ra? S' dXXa<i i(f o)v 6 KapTTu^ Xeirrorepa^ Kal eV uKprp [^kuX] a^i^opbeva^ rro\Xa^rj' (piXel he pdXicrra y^Mpia ra vcpafi/xa' (f)vXXov he ovherepov e^et rovrwv ovh^ o/xoia roU (pvXXoL<. 1. fj.rjp dXXd ')(ihvri^ d/j. ar-T(<povris ^o>ixovs . "^viaL he roiv pc^cov rrXeiw ho^aiev av ex^iv hia(popdv irapd ra? elprjixeva^' olov aX re rrj<. roaavra<^ ej(ovaL hLa(^opd'^. ^coXov. Aii^dveaOai he rrdvrcov hoKovaip al pl^ai irporepov roiv duw Kal yap (pveraL et? /3d0o<. pcoTara he ravry Xfjirrea. VII.). Coraes .. Sch.).ev ovv ev ral^ f)L^ai<i /xdWov t) (j)v(Ti<. Ta<. 7 .. ov'irov Aid.THEOPHRASTUS KOL TO €v AlyvirTw KaXovfxevov ovlyyov yap (pvWa jxeydXa koX he 7) pi^a fiaKpa 6 kul eariv wairep 6 BiacpepcL re kol eaOierai. (^ave- dWa /cal 7rXeiaT7]v e^^ovra 7rpo<. . '^ * aTpe(povTei ray ffuKovs UMVAld. avWejouai orav Se o 7roTafio<i arro^f) aTp6(j)0VT6<. mBas. 1.. 8S {oetum). iv ina.H.(f)6repaL ' oij'iyyou I'lin. dpa- KOL rov o/jlolov too dpaKW. dXX^ (oairep dpi<\)iKapira pdXXov earLV' v at jiev ovv ^vaet^ Kal (palveruL Oavpidaiov. kol 12 ra /xh> ^Xaaro^ avrov ^paxv^> Kap'Tr6<i.eyd\a: text doubtful (W.ovhe/jbca he Ka6)]KeL rrXeov i) oaov 6 ijXio^ i<pLKuelrar rb yap BeppLov ro yevvdv ov p. KOL hvvdpei<. ' Siacpipei: text doubtful (Sch. ra hiacpopdv ro (tlK^lov Kal i) KaXov jxevi] iiayvhapL<=. ' conj.ev pl^av ro apa/cwSe? rovro irax^lav e'^ec rrjp Kara ^ddov^.. cf.' d/jL(porepci)v yap rovrcov Kal diravrcov rMv roLovrwv ravra p. 21. oH'Ctov MV.(pepouaL yap Kapirov ovk eXdrro) rod dvw Kal fiiav /j.

anything resembling a leaf.G. 3. (1).^^h. 12.e^ plant has one thick root. while the others which bear are slenderer and branch ^^ in many the ' fruit It is s})ecially fond of sandy directions at the tip. I. App. 1. 21. Aid. Nevertheless the nature of the soil. which seems surSo many then are the diflferences shewn prising. 5^- . which is as large as the fruit above ground. 1.t.. the one which runs deep. the character of both of these and of all iiingon 1. See Index. Neither of these plants has a leaf nor ground. vi. " to be even more abnormal 7 Plin. namely. the fruit. 3. G. from G.. i. Sch. (cited by Varro. two kinds of fruit instead. ' VII. ota<popa\ ** " 10 " apa/fiSes conj. those of arakhidna^ and of a plant ^ which resembles For both of these bear a fruit underground arakos. The roots of all plants seem to grow earlier than the parts above ground (for growth does take But no root goes down further j)lace downwards ^^). i and its shoots short. in the characters and functions of roots. (f. than the sun reaches. Siacpopav . 1. crapwiiSej Ald. Again some roots would seem to shew a greater difference ^ than those mentioned.^^^. Such is the account to be given of these plants. It is an excellent thing ^ and is eaten . for instance. and this arakos-\\i. since it is the heat which induces growth. as it were. tine-tare. 3). 7. but they bear.P. ii-vii. as it were. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. while the root is long and is. men gather it when the river goes down by turning the clods. 45. Kol before ax'C. 89. Sell.'* But the plants which afford the most conspicuous instances and shew the greatest difference as compared with others are silphium and the plant called magydaris .- conj. for its leaves are large ^ such plants is especially shewn in ^ their roots.

Kal ylverai irepl ro BevBpov kvkXo) avvex^'i to tmv pt^cov ov)(^ dirro(TVKrjf. Quoted by Varro.^Ald.uKdjBei'^' Mcnrep al ev(oBei<. rnj-epaiTOLTcov UP. elirelv. inetSau conj. t/}? ^co/aa? <f>vaL<. Sch.. 8. C. irepl Aid. Ao^eie Be oo? elirelv r) avKTJ /juaKpoppi^orai ov elvai Kal 6\co(. au/jicpOivouai. Kal eviwv iriKpal Kapirol y\vKeL<. Sch. Koi Trdvrcov Be o/jlolco^ ol %i^A. avfx<p(»vov(Ti COnj. * MSS. -ndvra Be rd vecorepa royv TraXaicov.P. ?. idv fj Kovcpr) Kal fiavt) kol evhioho<^' ev ydp TaL<i TOLavTaL<. 'ISta Be pl^'t]'^ mv ol eviat B rrj<i ipiBot. irapa Pg : . iroppcoTepcd kol fiei^ov^ ai av^i](pavepov Be eVt tmv rj/nepco/idrcov e^opra aei^. 6. idv el<. from G.THEOPHRASTUS TavTU fieydXa av/u^dWerai tt/jo? ^aOvppi^lav en jjidWov 7rp6<i fia/cpoppi^lav.' at Be Kal (pap/j. yap vScop oTTOvovv hleicnv (jo<. yap Kal ai pi^at rw dWco craypaTi. in quantum UMVPAld. rjBr) ^advppt^orepa Kal /xaKpoppi^orepa. (pvaL'i Kal BvvapL<^ y r^? 'lvBiKp]<y ydp rcov /BXaarMV dcpnja-t. * .' diTO fievov TOV crreXe'^oi'? aXX' ^ ravra before fxtyaha om. inel K^y ' 1.. uK/jLyv ijKcoaiv. btrovovv libeat.. kol p. ^ T]fxepci)/xdTci>v conj. conj. . St. ev Tft) AvK€L(p 7) TrXurai'Oii rj /card tov 6-)(eTov en via ovaa eirl r/jet? Kal rpidKovTa 7r7j-)(^€L<^ dcprjKev e')(ov(ja TOTTov re d/xa Kal rpo(f)/jV. P'e^pi ov av avvdylrrj ttj yy Kal pil^codrj. Sch. 5. Be fidWov rd p^avd Kal evOvppL^a. : rf..'7]8€v to dvTiararovi^. iireiBav 6 i^yovu roTTO^ y Kevo<. ' iirl ^ avjxcpQlvovfn 52 W. 5. W. 37.. d(f)eaT7]K6^.o) T0i9 Be o)? eirlirav o Bt tol^ c^vtoI^ Beivorepoi. 6-noaovo\n> coiij.

and still more to the formation of long roots for in such soils growth goes further and is more vigorous. provided that they have water.^. The character and function of the roots of the Indian fig' (banyan) are peculiar. from G. from G : text pro- l>ably defective. TO?? <pvTo7s Aid. contributes greatly to deep rooting. and in general plants which have wood of loose texture and straight roots would seem to have these longer. For. to have the longest roots. The fig would seem. if it is light open and porous. one may say. tois ^l(ais conj.^Ald. This is evident in cultivated plants. the plane-tree by the watercourse in the Lyceum when it was still young sent out its roots a distance of*^ thirty-three cubits. • . And in all cases alike the juices of plants ^ are more powerful in the roots than in other parts. Also young plants. ovk^ U . for this plant sends out roots from the shoots till it has a hold on the ground^ and roots again and so there comes to be a continuous circle of roots round the tree.^ whenever* the ground * For instance is unoccupied and there is no obstacle. as those of the iris. " TT) 7fj conj. 1-3 I. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. and some are fragi-ant. W. wherever it may be. ttj avKfi P. . from ^ it. while in some cases wherefore the roots they are extremely jiowerful are bitter in some plants whose fruits are sweet some roots again are medicinal. iScal. vii. they run on. provided that they have reached their prime. . nourishment. one may say. root deeper and have longer roots than old ones for the roots decay along with " the rest of the plant's body. not connected with the main stem but at a distance . having both room and ^ . 53 .

tovtw jxaWov

Ilapa7r\t](TL0P Se






hieipeL Tr)v


to yap av tcov Oepficov


av ev v\y ^aOeia airapf]

tt/oo? rr]v yrjp

Kal ^Xaardvei Sia

Ta9 pev rwv pc^wv Bia^o-

CK TOVTcov Oewpifjeov.


Twy oevhpwv

ra? TOiavra^ av

eaTL yap rd pev o^wSr) rd



Kal ^ixret kol tottm Kara to

uvo^a Be Xeyco


yap TOiovTO Bevhpov,





olov a^o2vo<; Tixpij KUTreipo^




rT]V la')(yv.

Be rponrov tlvcl


iroidpLov eivai, o kul

(paab TTepX ^OirovvTa

iaOLeaOai iariv


ti ck TUiv

— dX}C

wcTTe oXiyouf;


uKTij Bd(j)vyj cruKi] 6Xo)<; irdvTa






Ta pev




tmv dWcov
tcov \ip,vcop,ev


\€i6(f)\oLa kuI

o^wSe? Be eXda

oaa KoTka Kal pavd.


Kal 7]ttov.







oXw? tVi






Be ev €V7]\iot<; Kal



KOL irievpLaTOiBecn Kal XeTrrow Kal

Ta pev yap uvo^oTepa, Ta





' Plin. 21. 104.
T.s MSS.
Plin. 18. 133 and 134.
* Sidpet conj. Sch.
Sm.per P,,Ald.; c/. C.P. 2. 17. 7.
^ u(os is the knot and the bough starting
from it :
Arist. de iuv. tt sen. 3.
^ 4x\ Twv conj. Coraiis ; r] rwv

T< conj.


cf. 8.






Twv inarg. )


tittov Aid.





I. vii.

similar to this, but even





occurs in those plants which ^ emit roots from their
leaves, as they say does a certain herb - which grows
about Opus, which is also sweet to taste.
j)eculiarity again of lupins ^ is less surprising, namely
that, if the seed is dropped where the ground is
thickly overgrown, it pushes * its root through to the
earth and germinates because of its vigour.
we have said enough for study of the differences



Of trees {principally) and their characteristic special differences:
as to knots.

VIII. One may take it that the following are
Some have knots,^
the differences between trees
more or less, others are more or less without them,
whether from their natural character or because of
But, when I say ^without knots,' I
their position.
do not mean that they have no knots at all (there is
no tree like that, but, if it is true of any plants, it is
only of*^ other kinds, such as rush bulrush^ galingale
and plants of the lake side ^ generally) but that they
have few knots. Now this is the natural character
of elder bay fig and all smooth-barked trees, and
in general of those whose wood is hollow or of a
Olive fir and wild olive have knots
loose texture.
and some of these grow in thickly shaded windless
and wet places, some in sunny positions exposed to
storms and winds,^ where the soil is light and dry
for the number of knots varies between trees of the


rwv conj. W.


Tv(pr} coiij.









et Tt inl




cf. 1. 5. 3.

tuv Aid.




oXco? Be o^coBecrrepa


ra opecva tmv

ra ^VP^ '^^^ eXelwv.
"Ert Be Kara rrjv ^vreiav ra fiev irvKva dvo^a
KOL opdd, ra Be /lava o^wBearepa kol (TKokLOirepa'
(TVfi/SaiveL yap Mcrre ra p,ev iv iraXiaKiw elvai ra
Kal ra dppeva Be rcov drjXeLOiv
Be iv evrjXiO).
ireBeLvwv kol

o^coBecrrepa iv ol? iariv dfxcfxo, olov KvirdpLrro^

KaXovac yap



drjXvKpaveiav' Kal ra dypia Be rwv




ravrb yevo^, olov


iXda^; Kal iptveo<;



Kal dxpd<; diriov.






yap ravra o^coBearepa' Kal co? eVt to ttoXv
irdvra ra ttukvcl rcov fiavMV' Kal yap ra dppeva
TTVKVorepa Kal ra dypia' ttXtjv ei n Blo, ttvkvoTrai^reXw?



oXiyo^ov, olov rrv^O'^



draKroi Kal

E/crt Be roiv fiev







ravra KaXovaLV.
Be fiel^ov alel ro




roov /lev



Kal ol fiev Kar


Plin. 16. 125.

ra^io^wTa conj.




yap olov

Kal ra)




Kal rovro Kara

oirep /idXiara evBrjXov Kal iv roL<i Korl-


10. 8.



voL^ Kal iv rol<; KaXd/ioi<;'

co? erv')(ev ol o^oi,






to yap yovv KaOdirep

dXXyjXouf;, loairep ol


a^ioXoywrara Aid.;

Plin. 16. 122.








same kind. And in general mountain trees have
more knots than those of the plain, and those that
grow in dry spots than those that grow in marshes.
Again the way in which they are planted makes a
difference in this respect those trees that grow close
together are knotless and erect, those that grow far
apart have more knots and a more crooked growth
for it happens that the one class are in shade, the
Again the ^ male trees have
others in full sun.
more knots than the female in those trees in which





both forms are found, as cypress silver-fir hop-hornbeam cornelian cherry for there is a kind called
' female
and wild trees
cornelian cherry (cornel)
have more knots than trees in cultivation this is
true both in general and when we compare those of
the same kind, as the wild and cultivated forms of
All these have more knots in the
olive fig and pear.
and in general those of closer growth
wild state
have this character more than those of open growth
for in fact the 'male' plants are of closer growth,
and so are the wild ones except that in some cases,
as in box and nettle-tree, owing to the closer growth
there are no knots at all, or only a few.
^ Again the knots of some
trees are irregular and
set at haphazard, while those of others are regular,






alike in their distance apart and in their number, as
has been said-; wherefore also they are called 'trees

with regular knots.' ^ ^ For of some the knots are,
it were, at even distances, while in others the
distance between them is greater at the thick end of
the stem.
And this proportion holds throughout.
This is especially evident in the wild olive and in
reeds in which the joint corresponds to the knot in
Again some knots are opposite one another,





Koiivwv, 01 S' o)? erv')(ev. ecrri he ra fih> Slo^a, ra
Be TpLo^a, ra Be 7rLOV<; e^ovra' evia Be rrevTao^d
koI tt}? fiev eXar?;? opOol kol ol o^ot koI o'l
kKclBoi oiairep €/j,7re7rr]y6r€<;, tmv Be aXXcov ov. Bi'
o Kol la^vpov 7) eXdryj.
lBta)raTOi Be ol t^9
Ofioioi <yap Oyjpicov 7Tpocr(07roi<;, el? /xev 6





tmv o^wv









rvc^Xoi, ol Be yovLfioi.

Xejo) Be Tfc/jXou? ckJ) wv /jLrjBe\(; ^\acn6<;.
Be KoX (pvaei koI TTijpcoaet yu-oi>Tai, orav rj fiy
\v6fj KOI eK^id^7]TaL rj koI diToicoTTfj kol olov
eiTLKavOel'^ TrtjpwOfj'

lyivovrai Be /laXXov ev ro2<^

evicov Be kol iv rot?
6X(o<i Be kol tov <jT€Xe)(OV^ koI tov
kXuBov KaO^ o av eTnKo^jrrj r) iTriTe/nrj Tf9, o^o^
jLveraL Kadanepavel Biaipcov to ei> kol ttolmv
erepav dpyj]v, ecTe Bia TrjV jnjpcoaLV eiTe Bi aXXrjv
alTiav ov yap Br) Kara (fivcriv ro vtto tt}?





Alel Be iv airaaiv ol KXaBoi (paupovTai ttoXvo-


^oTcpoL Bia TO


Tava fxeaov


KadaTrep Kal t?}? avK7]<; ol veojSXacrTOi Tpa')(yTaTOi Kal T?}? dfiTreXov ra aKpa tcov KXrjfiaTwv.





cj. 4. 4. 12.



iv tol^ aX\oL<; ovtq) fcal 6(f)0aX/iio';

pijn^ 16


primary and secondary branches.


cf. 5. 2. 2.






Plin. 16. 124.
Arist. de iuv. et sen. 3 ; Plin. 16. 125.
TrrjpccOri conj. W. ; rj %Tav r) fj.r) \vdri koI iK0id(T)Tai




orav fj fi^ \vdfi Kol iK$td^r}Tai fj avoKOTri)
Srau XvOfi Ka\ CKfitd^TjTai fj awoKoirr] Ka\ ol nv Pj OTav j)
\vdfi Kal iK^id^7]Tai Kol % ctTTOKOTrp Koi Ald.H. ; G differs






atroKonri Kal






of the wild olive, while others are set at
Again some trees have double knots, some
treble,^ some more at the same point
some have as
many as five. ^ In the silver-fir both the knots and
the smaller branches ^ are set at right angles, as if
they were stuck in, but in other trees they are not
And that is why the silver-fir is such a strong
Most peculiar ^ are the knots of the apple, for
they are like the faces of wild animals there is one
large knot, and a number of small ones round it.
Again some knots are blind,'' others productive by
M)lind I mean those from whicii tliere is no growtli.
These come to be so either by nature or by mutilation,
according as either the knot^ is not free and so the
shoot does not make its way out, or, a bough having
been cut off, the place is mutilated, for example by
Such knots occur more commonly in the
thicker boughs, and in some cases in the stem also.
And in general, wherever one chops or cuts part of
the stem or bough, a knot is formed, as though one
thing were made thereby into two and a fresh
growing point produced, the cause being the mutilation or some other such reason for the effect of such
a blow cannot of course be ascribed to nature.
Again in all trees the branches always seem to
have more knots, because the intermediate parts ^
have not yet developed, just as the newly formed
branches of the fig are the roughest,'-^ and in the
vine the highest ^*^ shoots. ^^ (For to the knot in other
as those







^ i.e. the internodes
till the branch is fully grown its
knots are closer together, and so seem more numerous firiiru
Tctva jxeffov irpoff'qv^riadai conj. Sell.; iJ.r}nci) Tava /j.4aov irpoaKv;






ava fxeaov

rrpoff-nv^riaeai Pg.










have most knots.

Plin. 16. 125.


KaXd/xw jovv
ivioL^ he
Kol olov KpdhaL ^ivovrai, Kaddirep ineXea koi
Bpu'i KOL /idXiCTTa iv TrXardvco- eciv Se iv Tpa-)(i<jL
Koi dvvBpoi<i Kol irvevfiaroiSeai kol iravreXo)'^.
7rdvTco(; Be Trpo? rfj yfj koI olov rfj KCcpaXfj rov
areXexpy^ d-no'y^ipaaKovTwv to irdOo'; tovto
eV dfiTreXw fcau iv





"Rvia Be Koi Xayei tov<; KaXovfievov<^ v-no tivmi'
yoyypovf; rj to dvdXoyov, olov rj iXda' Kupicorarov yap eVt TavTt]<; tovto tovvo/jLU kol 7Td(j)(eiv
BoKCL jidXiaTa to elpf^fievov' /caXovai 3' evioi
tovto Trpe/Jivov oi Be KpoT(i)vr)v ol Be aXXo 6vo/ia.
TOt? Be evOeat fcal piovoppi^oi^ koX dirapa^Xd
(TTOf? ov yiveTai tovO^ oAw? rj t^ttov [^^oIvl^ 8t
irapa^XacTTTjTLKov'] r) Be iXda kol 6 k6tivo<s
KoX Ta<; ovXoTTjTaf; IBla^; e^ovai xa? iv toU

IX. "EcTTi








6t9 jirjKOf; av^ij-

oloV ikUTr] (pOLI'L^ KVird-


Kal oXfo? TO, jJLOVoaTeXex^ kol oaa /X7]
TToXvppt^a /jLTjBe iroXvKXaBa' <r) Be (jyoivi^ dirapa^Xa(JTi-}TLK6v> TCL Be ofiola tovtol<; dva Xoyov
evia S' evdv^ cr^/^eTat, olov y
fcal ek ^ddo<;.

^ The opening of
the description of the diseases of trees
seems to have heen lost.
cf. G.P. 5. 1. 3.
' Tiavruis
yivfrai COnj. W. itavrcos St 6 irp))! rrj y^ Ka\
80 U
oTov T. K, <TT. anoyr]pd(TKCA>u rwv traxvTfpccv ytverai Aid.
except iraxvTepov, and
except iraxvTfpos.
* 'yypous
cf. Hesych., s.vv. yoyypoSy Kporuvt).










The word









otherwise unknown.

be i\a.a conj.






80 Aid.



8e <po7vi^ irdpa^Kaa-

except irapa^\aariK6p,







trees correspond the ' eye in the vine, the joint ni
the reed)
In some trees again tliere occurs,
as it were, a diseased formation of small shoots,- as
in elm oak and especially in the plane
and this is
universal if they grow in rough waterless or windy
Apart from an}^ such cause ^ this affection
occurs near the ground in what one may call the
' head
of the trunk, when the tree is getting old.
Some trees again have what are called by some
excrescences * (or something corresponding), as the
olive ; for this name belongs most properly to tiiat
tree, and it seems most liable to the affection
some call it ' stump,' some krotojie,^ others have a
different name for it.
It does not occur, or only
occurs to a less extent, in straight young trees, which
have a single root and no side-growths.
To the
olive ^ also, both wild and cultivated, are peculiar
certain thickenings ^ in the stem.







to habit.

IX. ^ Now those trees which grow chiefly or only^
in the direction of their height are such as silver-fir
date-palm cypress, and in general those which have
a single stem and not many roots or branches (the
date-palm, it may be added, has no side-growths at
alP^). And trees like^^ these have also similar growth
downwards. Some however divide from the first,
note about the pahn

{(poivi^ 5e iTapa^Ka(Trr)riK6v) I

have omitted

possibly with airapa$a. for
as untrue as well as irrelevant
irapaBa. it belongs to the next section.
' ovrr]Tas conj. W.; KoiXorrjTas MSS.
(?) Aid.


Plin. 16. 125.

' jxaKiffT

^ iJLOvov conj.




2/io»o conj.



(xaKiara /xava Ald.H.

3. 8. 6. u.





Sense hardly satisfactory.




iroXvicXaha kuI



tov oyKov

ex^L TOV civo), KaOdirep poa- ov fxi^v aXhJ ovv
fieyiaTa je avfi/SdWerai irpo^ eKuarov rj djcoyr]
Kol 6 TOTTO? Kal 7) Tpo(f)y.
(TrjfjLelov 8' OTt ravrd


TTVKva fiev ovra fxaKpa Kal Xeirra jiveTaL, pLava
he Tra-^vTepa Kal ^pa^vrepw Kal eav piev evOix;
ri<; dip if) Tou? 6l^ov<; ^payea, eav he dvaKaOa'ipr]
fiaKpd, KaOdirep t) a/^TreXo?.
'\Kavov he Kd/cecvo irpo^ TTiariv ore Kal tcov
Xax^vcov evia \afxl3dv6L hevhpou a^Vpia, KaOdirep
etiTopiev T)]v piaXdxyjv kol to revrXov diravja
8' iv TOi? OLKeuoL^; roTroi^; evav^Pj
Kal to avTo
eirel Kal TOiv op-oyevoiv dvo^orepa
Kal pL€L^(o Kal KaXXiw rd ev Tol<i oiKeloL^, olov
eXdrrj 7; MaKehoviKt) tt)? T[apva(TLa<; Kal twv dXdiravTa he ravTU Kal oXw? y vXrj 7) dypia
KaXXlcDV Kal irXelwv tov 6pov<=; ev toI^ irpoajSo.




TOiv pev



ev rot? Trpo? pea7]p./3pLav.






deL<pvXXa Ta he (pvXXod€L<pvXXa eXda (f)OLvi^


hd(pvr] pivppivo<; irevKi-j^i rt <yevo<^ KVTrdpiTro^-


dypLcov eXdjT] irevKT) dpKev6o<i paXo'; Ovia Kal
rjv ^ApKdhe<i KaXovcn (peXXuhpvv (jicXvpea Kehpo<;












TOV "OXvp.TTov, dvhpd-vX^j KopLapo^ TeppbLv6o<;


as doubtful in U.
'1.3. 2.
The first part of the sentence to
rb avrh KaWiaroy.
which these words belong is apparently lost (W.).
* i.e. the fir and other trees mentioned in the lost words.





Plin. 16. 80.
nl\os conj. Sch.; afiiXa^ PgAld.;



c/. 3. 3. 3.





some have many branches, and theii
greater mass of growth high up, as the pomegranate
however^ training position and cultivation chiefly
In proof of
contribute to all of these characters.
which we have the fact that the same trees which,
when growing close together, are tall and slender,
when grown farther apart become stouter and
and if we from the first let the branches
grow freely, the tree becomes short, whereas, if we
prune them, it becomes tall, for instance, the vine.
This too is enough for proof that even some potherbs acquire the form of a tree, as we said ^ of
mallow and beet. Indeed all things grow well in
For even among those of the
congenial places.
same kind those which grow in congenial places have
thus the
less knots, and are taller and more comely
silver-fir in Macedon is superior to other silver-firs,
such as that of Parnassus. Not only is this true of
all these,^ but in general the wild woodland is more
beautiful and vigorous on the north side of the
mountain than on the south.
such as apple







Again some


shedding of haven.

trees are evergreen, some deciduous.
cultivated trees, olive date-palm bay myrtle a
kind of fir and cypress are evergreen, and among
wild trees silver-fir fir Phoenician cedar yew ^ odorous
cedar the tree which the Arcadians call ' cork-oak
(holm-oak) mock-privet prickly cedar ' wild pine
tamarisk box kermes-oak holly alaternus cotoneaster
hybrid arbutus^ (all of which grow about Olympus)





o7pio after virvs conj. Sch.;






3. 3. 3.

KSfiapos conj. Bod.; aivapos


oivapos Aid.; avvaposV^-


riva elvai ev (j)vXXo^oXeL' irdvv ev rfj Voprvvaia puvOoXoyovac epiiyri rfj JLvpcoTrrj 6 <f)vXXo^oXeLV. iire] . * 1. Plin. Varro. Bayv ydp TV pLiKpov fcal ttoicoBmv pdp. .o<i tmv pd(f)avo<. fcdro) uKpepLovcdv S' 97 avhpd'x}^^) koI 6 KOfxapos (jivWo^oXelv rd Be ea^ara twv dei(^vWa e^efz^. avvoiTTo^ €K Be ev T?}? Xeyerai Be vtto co? Be Xv^dpec TToXew? Tj Bpv^. rd Be dWa diTO^dWeL olov opiyavov aeXivov . 16. 11 . ev<f)aal explaii . 16. opuyavov aekivov ImrocreXLvov pn'^KOiv kol tmv dypiwv eiBrj ir'Keico.vo<. 80.) which would two dei tt^o? Trrjyfj rivi ^ ov ' 5 ptr] nXdravov ^ the next ev rfo S' BiaXeiTrei rov ')(^p6vov lxpr]Tr] rwv 7J'€pL ev 'FiXecpaPTLVT] Kal Me/x^ei* Karwrepco ' Plin. eanv OV (pvXXo/SoXel' riin. Ilwv p. 82. 4 /ftTTO? ^dTO<. 5 Yldvra Be Kal tmv dWcov rd dei^vWa arevokol e^ovrd riva XiTraporrjra Kal evia 8' ov/c ovra rfj (fyvaei irapd rov evcoBuav. 3. 1. /caOdirep eXex^V AeXra puKpov /SXaardveiv. (fyvWorepa roTTOV earlv deL(f)vWa. ravr)] Zey?" Ta? Be irXijala^ ndcras Some words probably missing (W.THEOPHRASTUS aypla 8ok€i Bd(f)vrj. 12.ev ovv BevBpcdv ravra. 7. Biapbevet Be kol rovrcov evia to?? UKpoi^. ov BevBpovrai. piev TO. 64 clauses. Be del rov^ 6'ttl(^v6lv uKpepiova^. Kol TO TT^yavov Kafcovrai kol dWdrTeraL. 5. irrj'yavov rcov Be dapLVw- /cd\ap. €(tt( KcBpl'^' Be (ppvyaviKCov iwvia poBcovia d^poTovov dpidpaKOV epTrvWo^.

while all the other plants in the neighbourhood shed their leaves.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. but to keep those at the end of the twigs perennially. from G cr/cTji/p . UM VAld. k()T]pv laBas. 65 . ^ Of shrubby plants these are evergreen ivy bramble buckthorn reed kedris (juniper) for there is a small kind of kedros so called which does not grow into a tree. shed 2 their other leaves. 3 And all the evergreen plants in the other classes too have narrower leaves and a certain glossiness and fragrance. ix. cttI Aid. 81. ' vTtl conj. . H. It is said that in Crete ^ in the district of Gortyna there is a plane near a certain spring ^ which does not lose its leaves (indeed the story is that it was under ^ this tree that Zeus lay with Europa). These are the trees which are evergreen. 3-5 aiidiachne arbutus terebinth * wild bay' (oleander). ^ Trrj7p conj. 16. Among under-shrubs and herbaceous plants there are rue cabbage rose gilliflower southernwood sweet marjoram tufted thyme marjoram celery alexanders poppy. while evergreen as to their top growths. Andrachne and arbutus seem to cast their lower leaves. and a good many However some of these more kinds of wild plants : — — too. K7]vr) V^. Some moreover which are not evergreen by nature become so because of their position. as marjoram and celery for rue too is injuriously affected and changes its character. while lower down the Nile in the Delta but a very short period in which they are not leaves. I. « Plin. Hemsterhuis . ^ At Sybaris there is an oak within sight of the city which does not shed there is making new . and to be always adding leafy twigs. as was said ^ about the plants at Elephantine and Memphis.

wairep y avKd/xivo^. cpvXXo^oXel Kal rd and 83. Bokcl Be Kol ij 'X^ypa av/i/SdXXeaOai Kal 6 totto? o eviKjJio^. KaOd- rreirdvai rbv Kapirbv dirojBdXXeL avKal Kal irep at oyjriaL 'Ymv Kara rd S' dei(f)vXXo)u /iepo<.afij3dveiv. rd yap irpo^ rb Biaiieveiv. 82 dXXd rovro el Be Kal Kar dXXrjv a>pav irepL ^'%et. TOLavTif. /idXiara yiverau OepLvd<i. aWa Xeyerai Se Kal ev KvTrpoy irXdravo's jxerh }Lvva. 16. ryv (pvXXo- . 7) diro/SoXr) Kal ov yap By ravrd alel eTTijBXaardveL rd B' 1) avavai<. dXXd nvwv koX rrporepei KaOdirep Ta rj Be varepel. TrXrjp rb repov axrre kuI tov fjiev Occttov to Be ^paBv- ')(^eLp.coi'0'i ovic eTrL\. ^vWojSoXel Be iravra rov /leroTrcopov koX fierci TO /leroTTCopov. dfivyBaXi]. elvai. ^oXlav ovra)^ ra fj fiev riiu. coare ra irporepov ^\aaTy]cravra irporepov (pvXXo^oXecv. etna Be Kal Trpb rov rd (pvXXa. 1 66 Kal ^TjpoL<. Biafjuevei. dudXoyoL Be at ^vWo^o\iaL Tal<i ^\a(TT7Jaeaiv. nvcov Kal fjier ^KpKrovpov Kal eTTLaKeirreov. dXX' evua irpwl^Xacrrel fiev ovBev Be twv dXXwv.' fiev d'^pdBe'. o^lri^Xaarel ovBev /neu Be o)? elirelv varepel rcou dXXcov. irporepa XeTTToyeloL^ o\a)9 irpea^vrepa Be tmv vewv.. ev tol<. Be rrepl rpo7rd<.THEOPHRASTUS Be ov fi\aardp€LV avrrjv a/xa Tal<i aWai<. dcj^avaiverai.

but fresh ones are growing while the old ones wither away.. but it occurs later in some trees than in others. but are even comparatively late. as the late kinds of fig and pear. come into than the others in shedding their leaves. In those which are evergreen the shedding and withering of leaves take place by degrees for it is not the same ^ leaves w^hich always persist. I. varepov 3 Plin. ^ The fall of the leaves in all cases takes place in autumn or later. Whether in some cases it occurs even after the rising of Arcturus or at a quite different season is matter for enquiry. and the older trees earlier than young ones. ravra Aid. So much for the shedding of leaves. sucli as leaf late. UMVPAld. . shed their leaves earlier. 84. conj. . and in general where the soil is light. .2 the mulberry. This happens chiefly about the summer solstice. but some (such as the almond) which are early in coming into leaf are not earlier than the rest in losing their leaves. It is said that in Cyprus too there a plane which has the same peculiarity. However the fall of the leaf does not correspond to the growth of new leaves (in which case those that is come into leaf earlier would lose their leaves earlier). but are hardly at all later . but only after the rising of the dog-star. ^ Others again. 5-7 its leaves. * ravTO. * vffrepe? con]. and they say that it does not come into leaf along with the others. Sch. H. ix. Some even cast their leaves before the fruit is ripe. It appears also that position and a moist situation conduce to keeping the leaves late for those which grow in dry places. and even extends into the winter.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 16.

Kal BoKel Troteiv to ^ovXeTat to Blcl Bl o tw kXmvl fidXXov tov ijXiov' vittlov. from Plin. yap Bo/covaiv aTpe(p€Li' vd<i. Kal tmv fxev aXXcov Trpavrj. W. /laXXoi' (j)uaL<i 1) )]Xloi'' ov-^ tjttov dvdKXaai<.. cf. Tpoird^ 6epi- tcl cf)vXXa Bia(f)epeL /cutcl tcl vivTia /cal to. cf. . 88.ev oVto? eyycovKOTepa irpea^VTepov Be TrepicfyepeaTepa' fiCTU^dWcL yap Kal ovto<.. /cal et? tovto 7) fMeTdaTaai<.e. I. * This seems to contradict what has just been said. Xeiorepa' Ta<i yap Iva^ Kal Ta<^ (f)Xe^a^ iv XevKOTepa eXda^i B' vTTTLa Kal Kal aTpe(p€TaL ov pdBiov iariv f) 7rpave<i. coairep t. kikIov TOV Koi coMJ. 1) Kal virTioTt}*. tt)? Be SevSpcov Xev/cr)<. Sch. II. tcl yap Be aXXco^i re Kal <Ta apOpa>- Br) rj ra ye irXelaTa eK(^avrj TavTa yiveTai iw ifxlw c^avepd. TOVTCp yvoipi^ovaiv otl yeyevipnac TpoiraL TOt? irpaveaiv exovaiv. * TO.c. o/jioia kol tov KLTTOV Kol TOV KOkoVfJieVOV KpOTCOVO^ dvOflOlU KoX irepoax'j/J'Ova' ra piev yap vea irepL^eprj ra Be TTaXaLorepa ycdvoeLBr). 274) renders &pdpa incisuraa. /cal 2 irdvTa Be virTia /xeTO. where Plin. 16.P. ttoXXcl tt/qo? tov oiroTepov 7rpo9 elirelv fiev rj ')(elp rJTTOV Xela evioTe irdvTa TCL vTTTta. 164.. 85. incisu7-as. TO. 2.THEOPHRASTUS Ta X.A.' ' Young leaves = leaves of the young tree. 4. 1. ^ I. TOV Be klttov avdiraXiv veov p. 15. Arist. Hipp.'}? Kal e^eL virTia iroicoBeaTepa to. 1 ^ Koi TOV ' 68 . Lex. c/. &pdpa add. (11. Kol TOV KiTTOv Kol TOV MSS. Galen. 4. DlOSC. not 'entire. 16. Pliii. 16. gives kIkiov as a name for the root of KpoTwv. G. iBol B' Plin. Be (pvWa avra iravTcov aWoiv rcov fiev eavTOL<. /cal to. lBiov Be kuI to tt) eXda Kal TT) (piXvpa /cal T7J TTTeXea /cal TfjXevKr] avp^jSaLvov iravTOiv.

while the leaves of all other trees are alike in each tree. ivlore Ka\ ra MSS. even as the human hand has its ' lines. and it is these surfaces which Again most leaves turn are exposed to the light. Now. cf. while the way in which the upper surface is presented seems rather to make the under surface closer to it. all this men know leaves that the as to their differ upper and under surfaces and in most trees the upper surfaces are greener and smoother. peculiarity special to the olive lime elm and abele their leaves appear to invert the upper surface after it : the summer solstice is solstice. is the under one. I. and by Now past. the leaves are somewhat angular. ^ all young leaves in these are round. Plin. The X. they become rounder There is a too a change of form takes place. ^ i.e.^ towards the sun wherefore also it is not easy to say which surface is next to the twig^. and this is specially seen in the turning back ^ of the leaf towards the sun. Whereby the under surface is exposed to it see above. when it is form.' ^ but even the upper surface of the leaf of the olive is sometimes whiter and less smooth. for. yet nature desires equally that the upper surface should be the nearer.*^ So all or most leaves display their upper surfaces. 1-2 Differences in leaves. those of the abele ivy ^ and of the plant called kroton (castor-oil plant) are unhke one another and of different forms.^ and eventually all the leaves assume that On the other hand^ in the ivy. One . the old ones angular.: ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.e. I. . as they have the fibres and veins in the under surfaces. AeFa Se Kol ra rod kittov makeshift correction of an obscure passage. ^ ® . W. ® vnTia conj. but when for in this plant is older. x. young. A : 6q .

THEOPHRASTUS dv Ti? oaa irvKva Kal Kar aWifK. 8. conj. TpixcxpvWa: Plin. . fjivpLKrj firjXea. I. rd Se rd (f)vWa kol yap TrXetocri Sia- 7rXarv(pvXXa. capillata pino cedro. ' 70 fxr]\fa probably corrupt . av6(pv\Ka P2 cj. 9. firjSe (3d6o^ Sl ov' dWd irepl fiev Tpo(j)i]<.. Si^ wu U. fiev t'cro)? avp^aivei %&>/9t9 t?}? tSta? (/)ucre&)? kol dWa Sid TO ofjLOico^ fir] 7]\tov(Tdai. Plin. 3 5i' ov I conj. Xeyovref. 7] Se Tpo(f)r} Sid rwv (pXe^MV Tj IvMv 6/ioLO)<. KaOdirep TrevKij ttitl'? KeSpo^.(o<. from . KaOdirep iXda poa fjivppLVo^' rd S' Mdirep aKavOo(f)vXXa. whence Sch. G 5e iic darepou els with conj. 3. rd Se arevoc^vXXa. KaOdirep a/xTTcXo? avKTi 7rXdravo<.. KaOdirep ra TOiV fJLVppiVWV.. ev rols Ipbarioi^ dyaOow] rd ydp av rwv revrXiwv Tj pacpdvcov dXXov rpoirov crapKcoSy Kal rd tmv irriyaviwv KaXovfievwv ev irXdreu ydp Kal ovk ev Kal royv OapvcoSwv (TrpoyyvXorrjri ro aapKchSe^. Sid rivwv X0709. 10. W. Sch. OiOVTaL he TLve<^ kcli ttjv rpo(f)T)v tm vittIw Bia rov Trpavov^. rCov Se (puXXov.a.. has ^ 4k daTfpov S* els . 92. * CLKapdScpuWa COnj. 8 .rd 5' olop aapK6<puXXa' rovro S' on aapxcoSe^i eyovau ro <f)opaL<. d/jL(l)OTepoL<i' ck Oarepov K et? ddrepov ovk euXoyov yCtr.e. 5.. ov Ka\. » cf. stop at Ipwv Aid. 1. 1. ey^ovai 7r6pov<. aTrav6<pv\Xa UMAld.e. . rov<. omitted by Plin. elvai.' [lev ecrri olov KV7rdpLrro<. I. Si a to evLKfjcov ael rovro kcli rovro ^j^i/ocoSe? elvaL. h^ia^epovdL €T€po<. 3 . 16. (ppvyaviKMV Kvewpo'^ aroijSi] Kal ttolcoSmv del^wov ttoXlov [rovro Se kol 7Tpo<i rov<i aT)ra<. evia Se Se 7) pvpLKTj aapKcoSe^ rb (pvXXov e%6i.

beet and cabbage are fleshy in another way. 8 ijLupiKri among H. ipilK-ri ' 9. as olive pomegranate Some have. though the nourishment convej-ed through the veins or fibres That it should be conis the same in botli cases. veyed from one side to the other ^ is improbable. so to two dimensions.A. probably corrupt trees . x. Some think that the nourishment too is conveyed to the upper surface through the under surface. as cypress tamarisk apple. as it were. I. ix.^ . It may be that this is not but they are mistaken. when there are no f)assages for it nor thickness for it to pass through.' gloss. Again there are various other differences between leaves some trees are broad-leaved. some. such leaves being regarded as having. and not set' in Arist. 2-5 may observe this in trees whose leaves are crowded such as those of myrtle. as are those of the various plants called rue for their fleshy character is seen in the flat instead of in the round. three. " Probably a 7 Or ' solid.^ among under-shrubs kneorofi and s/oihe.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. . because this surface always contains moisture and is downy. . due to the trees' special character. 44. conj. myrtle. but to their not getting an equal amount of sunshine. some narrow-leaved.'' Among shrubby plants the tamarisk ^ has fleshy iiid opposite. . crTp(^7'yi. 71 . Dalec. was mentioned just above. as fir Aleppo pine prickly cedar fleshy leaves and this is because their leaves are of fleshy substance.Aos = thick- speak. 3 However it belongs to another part of the enquiry to discuss the means by whicli nourishment is conveyed. as it were. . For the leaves of is good against moth in clothes. as vine fig and plane. and among herba^ This plant ceous plants house-leek and hulwort. spinous * leaves.

Ix. ov ev rot? ciWoi^ /leyas 7r6po<. irapaywj'f^oi'Ta UMVAld.K7]<.. Sell..' wairep yap (f)vXXov ecrrlv /. Kal 6 dKavo<i Kal cr^eBov dirav ro rcov rj uKavcdBoiV yevo<. olov i] re aKopva Kal Bpv7rl<. and 13. e^ovra. Kal ra tt}? Bpvo^. 30. KaOdirep ra tt}? rpoirov Be riva €Xdr^j<i Kal ra t?}9 irrepuBo^. Kal p. Be Trpo/jLTjKearepa. BevBpoL<^ h ' ^ ol conj. crvKrj^ Be oiairep av etiroi rt? KopayvoTToBdiBri. irapaKavBi^ovTa con].ayiard koI ra rr}<^ dfjureXov. * TO 5f (TX'fTa add. I'a/xev.' ra Be 6i9 o^u Tvpoi'jKovra Kal TrapaKavOi^ovra. KaOdirep ra t?}? irreXea^ Kal ra T?}? 'HpaKX€cori.. 6 /jL€ao<. Kal ra rfj(.LXaKo<i Kal /3arov Kal rraXiovpov Kal rd roiv dXXwv. Be eK ro}v uKpcov Kal to rfj^ 7TevKV(. . SiacfiepovaL Be Kal roi<i a-)(p]iiaor ra [lev yap Trepicpepf]. olov rd rrj<i Trplvov Kal rd rr}<i Bpv6<. rod pikaKo<i. Plin. ra Be Kal TrapaKavOi^ovra Kal eV rov aKpov Kal eK rcov irXayiwv.THEOPHRASTUS 6 Kol KaXafjL6(pvXXa. Kal 7TLrvo<. KaOairep 6 (jiolvi^ kol 6 kol^ KoX 6<ja Toiavra' ravra Se co? Ka6' 6\ov elirelv ycovLocpvWa' kol yap o Ka\a[xo<i kol 6 Kvireipos KOL 6 ySoUTO/XO? Kal TuWa Be TMV Xl/jLvcoSmi' Toiavra' iravra Se coairep €k Svolv avvdera Kal TO fxecrov olov rpoTrt?. Kaddrrep ra tt}? cIttlov. (f)vXXdKai'Oov Be oXw? ev fiev rol<. KaOdirep Kal ravra fxev da)(^ifjra' <rd Bt TO. aKavOa Trdaiv el Be fir] <^vXXa ri<i ravra Oi^aei. aKavO o)Be<.. H. evia Be Kal ivro/jia<. Ubv Aid. to. 1 72 W. W. ovK eariv ovBev mv 7]/jl€l<. KaOdirep ra tt}? uyXea^. ev Be rol<i dXXoi<. vXrjpaaiv eariv. Kal eXdr7)<. en Be KeBpov ko] KeBpiBo<. (T)(iara> Kal olov TrpiovcoBrj.

90. and the middle is like a keel. and.. 3. some rather oblong. the leaves of these end in a point for reeds galin. n . take the place of leaves. x. undivided leaves but some are divided * and like a saw. 1. 16.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS." elm filbert and oak.^ For in all these spines. as akorna drypis pinethistle and almost all the plants which belong to that class. Gesner. 13. KedpiSos conj. Plin. 3 . pounded of tw^o parts. but it is so with other woody plants. I. oak oak smilax bramble Christ's thorn and others. orac. while those of the fig one might compare to a crow's ^ Some leaves again have notches. shapes some are round. . W.. . as date-palm doum-palm and such like. cf. as those of smilax. Dalec.e. But. aKoXoirwdrj Aid. as those of pear. I. de defect. The fig-leaf is compared to a crow's foot. who seems to have read aypias. word is applied to thorns by Diosc. To a certain extent those of the vine are also divided. as those of foot. know which has spines for leaves altogether. ** . Plut. 8 aKauuSwv conj. The leaf of fir Aleppo pine silver-fir and also of prickly cedar and kedris (juniper) ^ has a spinous point at Among other trees there is none that we the tip. as those of kermes. uKavOwSciv MSS. olkuj/. as those of silver-fir and of fern. if one is not to reckon these 5 Kopwvorro^w^t] conj. as it were. 5-6 leaves. as those of the apple some come to a sharp point and have spinous projections^ at the So far J have spoken ot side. Some again have reedy leaves. gale sedge and the leaves of otlier marsh plants are ^ The leaves of all these are comof this character. generally speaking. others have spinous projections both at the tip and at the edges. cf. placed where in^ other leaves is a large passage Leaves differ also in their dividing the two halves. which Plin. ^ KeSpias MSS..

KaOdirep pLvppivo^.. 7 WoXlv 8' OTL TCI fiev d^ucr^a. e')(^ei S* evia TOVTMV kol tov kuvXov elr aKavOli^ovTa. KaOdirep ekda fcal ovx Mcnrep eirl t/)9 irXardvov kol dpureKov irpoai-jpryifievov. ttoXXoa? evdv<.THEOPHRASTUS (TVfi^aivoi av 6\o)<. tt}? hpvo<.. W. explains fective. : text probably de- . axpvWa elvai. . Ta h' €7rl hevhpMV kul iroXixfivXXa ra 8' oXljoto irdv ra irXaTixjivXXa Ta^ifiev Ta 8' draKTa Kal ws" KaOdirep a^ehov Ta irXelara tmv uXXmv (f)vXXa. CTVX. 16. iviOL<^ he anavdav (jyuWov Se 0X0)9 ov/c eyeiv.H.. Kol rd fiev [xaKpov. rd he ^pa-xvv koI olov efinrecpvKoTa. 74 . oTav yevijrai. he toi<. 1 Plin. dcfyvXXov. . KaOdirep ra t?)s Kol Tov ^oXfSou. (pvXXa el/co'^. hLa(f)opd he koI to pLrj eV twv a/clX}<i avTMV elvai rrjv 7rpua(f)vaiv. TMV ^oX/3MhMV' KOL TOVTMV he OVX V T^pdiTt] fiovov eKCJiuai^ dXXd Kat 6Xo<. olov 1) d/nTveXo'i kol 6 /t^tto?. rd S' e)(0VTa fiia-)(ov. €K rf/? CTKOphoV Ki)(^OpLOV. €TL he pi^T]^. aLavpi'y')(lov dcr(j)ohe\ov cr/ctXXry? /SoX/Sov kol 6XC0<. ^^1 conj. 2 ' Mwv So Sch. fhc6s. CO? rj OpLhaKLvq /cal rd (pvXXdKavda iruvTa kcu ivLMV S' mkl/jLOV Twr/ Oa/xvMhcbv he kol fiuXXov. KaOdirep [lev elvat a(T<^dpa<yo<. aeXivov koI Tcof criTijpMV ofxoLM^. Koivy he 8 Twt' dXXMV hia(f)opd irdvTMV 6fiOLM<. OTL CO? (f)vXXa. TMV IcXdhfOV €K 7T\eiaT0l<i dWa Tol'i dKpejiovoyv. olov 6 pihaKivri^. t? Ald. he kol €k TMV \ay(avwh6)v olov KpOflVOV he tov rot? /Jtev KOL CK ruiv (TTe\e)(ov'^.^. . olov /Saros' eTi 7raXLovpo<. 91. o KavXo<.

some few leaves. ^ vXaTvcpvWa one of the * UVP . differences ' no\v(pv\a conj. as it is in^ plane and vine. and also in asphodel squill purse-tassels Barbary-nut. 6-8 they would be entirely leaHess. x. while others have a leaf-stalk. as vine and ivy. In some. as in onion garlic chicory. And some of the latter have a long leaf-stalk. as asparagus. and in the oak from the stem as well in most pot-herbs they grow directly from the root. as in most other as leaves. as myrtle. a short one which grows. some. but. in some they grow also from the twigs. as those of squill and pursetassels. ^ . * Another difference which is found in all trees alike and in other plants as well is that some have many. and generally in plants of the same class as purse-tassels and in these not merely the original growth but the whole stalk is leafless. * Plin. 92. whereas in most trees they grow from the branches. In some of these the stalk presently becomes spinous. and in like manner in cereals. . 16. as bramble and Christ's thorn. and some would have spines but no leaves at all. as in lettuce and the whole class of plants with spinous leaves. when the stalk is produced. while in other instances the leaves are in no particular order. I.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Again there is the difference that some leaves have no leaf-stalk. as olive. and still more in shrubby plants.^ as in lettuce basil celery. is 75 . Another difference is that the leaves do not in all cases grow from the same part. And in general those that have flat leaves^ have them in a regular series. but ir\aTvTijs given in the summary below. into the stem and is not simply attached to it. but set at random. as it were. . W. the leaves may be expected to grow.

^09 dvOo<. kXciBov r. rot? eVeretots [yLitcr. Tuv notuSan' conj. sessile. airo piev tw irap- irpoac^va-iv rtjv pi^rj(.<v areuSTTjTi MSS. vypov uTrdvTcov kolvov ciTraaL yap evvTrdpxj^L Kal TOVTOL^ Kal rot? ciXXoL<. petiolate. 19.THEOPHRASTUS tmv lSiop Be irrl [Ty^*]. olov (^vWwv oyeBov elaiv ev piev e^ Ivb^ to. to. olov TO Be Tol<s piy eireTeioL'i' Be Kal TMV aOai.. Kavkov r} aKpepbovo^. rj loairep y 'AXe^avBpeua Bdcpvy iTTKpvWuKapTro'^. Kap7ro<^ et tl dXXo\ puaXXov Be Kal (ocnrep i^ tVo? piovov. G fi aTev6Tr]Ti ^ i. * ' MSS. ej 5?j conj. * Bokcl i^ Ivcov puovov avyKel- i.e.yu. . * f} koiXSttjti W. t?}? avKi]<.to Be Bi ov. ^y. ov' to en \€l6t)]tl kol rj Kara Be 66 ev.La)(^ov rj Bl avTOv Kal el Sr. Tcov avTcov. TO K0l(f)v\0P. piev pbla')((ov tcl to. noWa etc rod avrov. 100. wairep 01 KavXol. : is a .e. tov cjitov Kal tov KaXdpLOV. cannot be right..e. at all ^ : Plin. rwv ?.aTi rj rj 17 Tpa')(^VTi~iTi y pur). etdv UMVAltl. At piev ovv Bia^opal tmv irdcrai el'pyvTUi Kal (^vyKGLTat Be aapKo^. Be tov KaXcipuov Kal ctltov. \a-)(av(i)ho)v. Kal KOLvorepo)^ tovtoi<. psTa^v 7r€pieL

Related Interests

i](l)6Ta tov Kapirov. Kal evia KapiTucpopa. W. olov Kpofxuov y7]T€L0V. i. Kal (pXoiou Kal tt}? dpuTreXov. KaOdirep 5' ^ e'/c ovBev yap civev tovtov. to. 76 to. &\(i. 'AttXcu? 7rXy0€L rj 8' kolX6t7]tl r] afcavOi^eiv 69 ev 7) Bl* rwv (PvWcov i) fxe'^kdei TrXarvryrL i) aTevorrjri al hiac^opai (J%>. ?iv . SO KotXorrjTi y) . events. rj Bta p. compound The passage from here to the end of the chapter digression.

''(Leaves are composed some of fibre bark and flesh. W. • • i-^^o has from 1. as those of corn and reeds. which has its fruit attached to the leaves.^ jt js peculiar to 2 leaves. ^ ixlaxo^ gloss. enclosing the fruit between them. x. To sum up. while these are young. Again it appears that some leaf-stalks are composed only of fibre. the differences between leaves are shewn in size. some of the same materials as the stalks. . I.e. no construction .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.2. and this is a fairly complete list of examples. . But moisture is common to all. according to the part from which they spring or the means by which they are attached the part from which they spring being the root or a branch or the stalk or a twig. shape. taken ^ i. Further some leaves are fruit-bearing. as in onion absence of spinous projections also as to their attachment. as those of reeds and corn. flower. while the means by which they are attached may be a leaf-stalk. for it is found both in leaves and in the other annual parts. . Compofiition 0/ the various parts of a plant.* or they may be attached directly ^ and there may be ^ several leaves attached by the same leaf-stalk. 8-9 pot-herbs to have hollow and horn-onion. hollowness. some. in fact no part is without it. as those of the fig and vine. and in the presence or })lants. These are all the differences in leaves stated somewhat generally. as it were. in breadth. probably a (correct) 1. of fibre alone.^ leaf-stalk. as the Alexandrian laurel. number. fruit and so forth but more especially in the parts which are not annual'-'. 77 .^ roughness and their opposites.

€^ tVo9 Sc Kol Sep^aTO? 'OyLtotco? Se aapKO<. tjv Tive<i KaXovai GVKyjV AlyuTTTiav. cov Kal tcov fxev Trepiey^av. evia Be KaX ev Xo^m. olov TMV /cai fxean^ apcov. olov ^olviko<.^ * i.aro<. olv om.. UMVPo . epurepi- tov (poLVLKO^. KaOdirep to. aWoi rcov avKafiiPcov kol t?}? p6a<. tovto Oep/biov. KaOdirep to. reads rb. tcl S' ev vfievi. Spoil/ oi/jo)*/ 8 MSS.ev e^co (f)\oio<^ to 8' cVto? he /car Se aap^ tmv &)? Sf /cat TTVpjJV.THEOPHRASTUS Tmv 10 8' avOoiv TO. to. ra S' iK (TapKhs preserved only in mBas. W. (Tvy/ceiprar rb Se vypov uKoXovdel fcal TouTOi?.) XI.H. Kal r) KepKl<i Kal i) KoXoLTia irepl Acirdpav ev v/xevL B' evia tmv rhU. TrXeiw e^ovTa. p. rind. TMV Be fxeTa^u aap^ Mairep e\da<^ Kal KOKKVjJiTfKea^ Kal eTepMV.. to.e.> fxovov. dXka Kal Twi/ BevBpMV evia. eavTw avfKpvTov vypov koI eicknrovTCdv ayova. evOv TO /leTa to Kapvov d/ivySd\r)i. Be Kal yvpiv oairepjxa reXetw?. j. 18. Be tovtwv to. o aXXov elirelv rpoTTov to iravrcov ixepLepiaixevoL. ol Ze Kai €K Sep/j. 53. "EcrxciTov Be e'xpv ev S' eV airaaL to aireppba.. €K aapKo^ /nev koI iVo? o twi> KOKKVfJLrjXwV Kol (TLKVCOV. Sch.. ^ ' 3 5 78 conj. ^Ev Xo/3ft) jxev ov fjLovov TCL €7reTeia. S' ev dyyeiM. Sch.. Plin. fjLev eK (pXoLOv kol (^\e^o<. KaOdirep >/ re KepMvia. CO? tcl /cat 2 (T7rep/jLa 7rvp7]v. Ald. <Trt h^ eK crapK()<. conj. koI lv6<. KOL eVl TMV KapiTwv' o'i fiev yap i/c ol Be i/c aapKO'^ fiovov.. X^Bpojra Kal eTepa TrXelw tmv dypiMv. ra ev (TapK6<^. wd. rh Aid.

there may be more than one In some cases again there is flesh and a covering). The fruit of plums and cucumbers is made of flesh and fibre.^ and the koloitia ^ In a husk are enclosed the of the Liparae islands. and. if these fail.^ as those in the middle of cuckoo-pint. as in date filbert almond (however. as the carob-tree (which some the ' Egyptian fig '). 2. 14. the inside flesh. ^ Enclosed in a pod are not ^ only the seeds ot annual plants. that of mulberries and pomegranates of fibre and skin. Some seeds again are enclosed in a pod. ' i]v * Clearly not the KepKis (aspen) described KoKonia MSS. 3. some in a husk. KoXovrea Conj. St. and of considerable numbers of wild plants. 2 I. and this in some cases includes a stone. Judas-tree. as in the case of the date. 3. This possesses in itself natural moisture and warmth.St. as leguminous plants. The materials are differently distributed in different fruits. 2 n. "^ rives conj. from G y]vrLva Ald. some of flesh alone.. some are made of flesh and fibre. x. as in olive plum and other fruits. stone between the envelope and the seed. Last in all plants comes the seed. And moisture is necessarily found in these also. Of flowers some of riesh. XI. cf.) Differences in seeds. and some of skin ^ also. some ^ are lo-xi. the seeds are sterile. like eggs in the like case. .H. some in a vessel. composed of bark veins and flesh only. 79 . 17.3 So too with fruits . but also those of call certain trees. but of nearly all the outside is bark. .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. " . and some are completely naked. In some plants the seed comes immediately inside the envelope.

4. ivayyeLocnTepfjLaTa oaa ivayyeioairepf. Key')(pa/jLtBd)B7j epcjiaveaTaTa \a-)(av7]pct)V. kol 6 Key^po^' oyaavrco^ Kal yv/jLvocTTTep/jiara. iit]kcdvi- Kara yap UMVAld.irvpriva coairep tov aXV Kal Ti? Byj OepixoTi)^ V7rdp')(eL BrjXov otl Kal tovto). Sell.tmv Be ev irvprjvL TO aapKa)Be<. kol to el pnq ti<. from G . ovBev Be evayyeiocjireppiov.iaTa fiev olov y re pn'jKwv kol TO yap (Djcrafiov fj. Be TO. ra fiev Mcrirep r) ^d\avo<. tcov (f)0iviK0<=.. . Th yap conj. 1.7]KQ)viKd' yvjivo- ISicoTepco^. e^eTat. ^ . Plin. 112. KaOdirep dprjOov Kopiavvov dvvrjcrov kv/jllvov fidpaOov kol hevhpwv ovhev yvjivoairepfiov y KeXvcpecrip. Kopiafvof iuyqa-ov conj. 19. . . AvTCL Be TO. kopivv-naov .vvT)crov UAI Aid. airep/iaTa tmv fxev evOv aapKcoBr].. r.P. ^ fxrjKwviKo. Y 8o . 15. €T6pa irXelw. tov a/jLvySdXrf ?.. dXk' roiv he aap^l 7/ S€p/naTLK:oL<. Se KoX 6 7rupo<. 6' ip. * Plin. cf. crusta teguntur glandes. Kaddirep oaa Kapvrjpd Kal /BaXavrjpd. Kapvov.THEOPHRASTUS Mairep eTrereiufV. * ^ Kf\v(p€(Tiv conj.' aTrep/jiaTa Be toov re \a)(^dvcov iroWd. KaOdrrep e\da<^ Kal Ba(f)ViBo(: Kal aXXcov. to twv ')(^copLl^ea6aL KapiTMP. Kopiii. 2 ^ 5f Kv/j-aaiy U. 15. cf. W. Sch. 113. ye iTvprjvdiBrj Kal KvrjKcoBrj Kal tcov Be ovBe yap KOiXoTTjTa e^eu tovto 6\ov ^Tjpov' ov fi7]V aXX' iroXXd Kal to. 119. Ta Kaddirep etiTOfiev.- ovBefxiav vyp6Tr)<. Kal to I^u/BoIkov. Plin. fiovov KaOdirep ^rjpd. Kcovop 7repie-)(^6fievoi' oiarrep dyyelov Oijaei Blo. ^uXcoSeaiv. C. .

.^ for they contain no cavity. with no cavity for the germ. €^oppov W. as required by the next clause . I. a P. conj. cf. and in like manner some plants have their seeds in a vessel. not but what there must be even in them some moisture and warmth. The actual seeds are in some cases fleshy in themselves. The seeds in some plants again merely consist of a stone.^ dry for instance those of plants like safHower millet and many pot-herbs. as in olive bay and others. 4.of leathery nature. ' ^Tjphv I conj.. 10. . 9 1. as wheat and millet . as the acorn and the sweet chestnut. but are throughout dry ^ . xi. 2-3 seeds of some annuals. unless one reckons a cone as a vessel.. some have them naked. whence the stone seems to be homogeneous throughout. 7 cf.e. 18. 11.^ . — ^ fiopov ^ Trvprivw^r] conj. as almond and nut. No tree has naked seeds.. as all those which resemble nuts or acorns ^ in some cases the fleshy part is contained in a stone. iv Aid. In a vessel are those of the poppy and plants of the poppy kind . 1. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. from Sch. 1. (P has -nvprjuuibri). and are.^ or at least are of stone-like character. while many pot-herbs have their seeds naked. as dill coriander 2 anise cummin fennel and many others. ^ (the case of sesame however is somewhat peculiar). 5. because it can be separated from the fruits. but either they are enclosed in flesh or in shells/ which are sometimes . e^opdov PAld. no seed can really be without moisture i/xTTvpiqva irvpTJvi fiSyoy ^ TTvprjuctiSei ® i. Moreover no tree has its seeds in a vessel. as it were. as we have said. 81 . Most obviously of this character are those of the date. Sch. The germ in the date-stone is so small as to be undiscoverable. 9. . sometimes woody.

ra? iXdaff. eVel Xafx^dvovrL rwv aTrepfidrajv irepiexovroiv IBiav re pd^ Kal dp-^^^rjv koivCo Trepiexop^eva firj firj 7Tpoa(l)vaea)<s /Jiid'^ eiri el'prjTai rd jLveadaL' eKaarov rj KaO' rcov t?}? Trpoacpua-eax. ry AM... vcf)* earat S' ^orpvcoBr) ')(^ci)pa<^ koI fxrfkea^ kol fxeT dpxv^ ^ 2 * 82 rj }]KL(Tra S' e%efc Kal cpvaiv (pavepcorara W. 6 ra coairep dOpoa yiveaOai. &)? n€pcnK)}<i /xr/Xea?. Mairep ra t% Ko\oKVVTr]<^ /cal ai/cva^ kol roiv BevSpcov. tol/? Kap7rov<. . W.. KaOdirep TLVL afnreXov koX aperrjv a6p6ov<. ev6<. Se BiecTTCOTa kol aroi'^^^TjBov. avrr] Aid. on crvp^-y^aveL re Kal rrepLeiXr^iTraL KaOaTTep vfievi. oiairep iv (f)aal /cal 'AXXa Kal fiev //. Plin. (rxeSiiv Aid. Sch. Kal ?/ dv Bo^eiev rd rwv /irjXcov Kal rd rwv aTTLCOV. koX raXka to. iv tivi Aid. 15. 15..r.. ' rh conj.' Be e-)(ea6ai eTTereiwv. kol tcop dOpowv ra fxev evi tlvl 7TepLe)(^ea0ai. 8ch... ^ cf. kii Tivi conj. KaOcnrep ra t>}? p6a<i Kot T?}? airiov ra Be crvKr}<. Be rw (TToixrihSv conj. el ovro) %vpia koI irepi- /ultj a-raj^yripa tmv ri? Oecr] rov aru'^^vv &>? 7repie')(ov koI oaa ^orpv. to.- THEOPHRASTUS 4 AiacfiepouaL Be kol tw ra jxlv aO poa fier aWjjXcov elvai. rivl Bep/jiariKrp rrepl ov ro ire pi KapiTLOV' dXX' 6/jLco<. t?]'^ aXkijXoyv fiev elvai. auTTj conj. e)(ei poa Kai irdXiv o 7rvpo<. Kal rovrcov eKaarov IBlav olov -i] KpiOrj. avrr) Bofcel Tt? elvat Biacpopd to rd €1^09 Kal filcryov Kal crra^vTjpcov <ye Be re rwv /SoTpvijpcjv ylveaOai. Bl ev^oaiav Kal 6 Brj <f>epet d(p^ aXkoOi.

as well as all those plants which on account of good feeding or excellence of soil bear their fruits massed together. In that case the grape-cluster and other clustering fruits will come under the description. outside which is the fruit-case. among annuals. I. 5. in others they are separated and arranged in rows/ as those of the gourd and bottle-gourd. .*^ or again each grain of wheat or barley. — the case of plants with clusters or ears whose seeds do not grow contained in one common case while others grow otherwise. » i. for instance each grape or pomegranate. and of some trees. Sch. if one takes each seed or case separately. that^ some grow massed together from a single stalk and a single attachment.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. ^((a. as has been said in . it has its own special point of attachment. as. Again of those that are massed together some differ in being contained in a single ^ case. 4-6 Fiirtlier seeds differ in that in some cases they are massed together. But this"* too seems to be a point of difference. such as the citron. 8. 2. B-m 17. * 7} T6 . pulp. xi. . For in these instances. 8 c/. those which are in an ear unless one regards the ear as a case. ^ Srt conj. This would seem to be least of all the case with the seeds of apples and ])ears.^ as they say the olive does in Syria and elsewhere. yet not contained in a single case. ^ re pa| fiSrpvas Bod. . . : text perhaps defective Koi TTJs poas 6 TrvpT]v conj. 83 . . as those of pomegranate pear apple vine and fig others in being closely associated together.'' However each of these too has its own peculiar point of attachment and character this is most . since ^ these touch one another ^ and are enclosed in a sort of skin-like membrane.e. oiroi PMAld.

/irj rax KvpicoTdra^. 7rXeiov<.' he ol SLoa/SaXdvov fieXLTcoSeL^. olov ol Twi^ KOKKVjXTfKewv' ol he 6^€L<i.THEOPHRASTUS KeywpiaOai ra poa^' o yap irvprju tt)? ktcaoro^ tmv avKcov dBj]\a Bia Kol yap tovtw e'X^ovat.. oiare /IT] SelaOai Xoyov 7rXi]v toctovtov y otl (7')(r)pa ovhev TTepiKdpmov €vdvypap/. Siacfiopav TrpoaTTecpvKev. Kaiirep d/xcporepa irepLey^opeva aapKwSei tlv\ kov to) TOVTO TrepieiXrjcpoTL /jLera rcov dWcov ra fiev yap to aapKa)S€<. TrtTuo? iXdT7]<. 7r€VKij<.e. Kai o)V hel rd<. ev(oBiaL<.e. e%e(. dyvoelv.' of the pulp.. Kapva<^ dfivyBaXt]<. TO)v Ze 'xyXwv ol fiev elcrcv olvcoSei^.^et irvprjva vypov. KapSdfiov i^aTTuo?' opiydvov ol Se iriKpol. dv ho^aiev.' t/}? <f>va€co<. St. XII. of the pulp. i. ' ' 84 i. KaOdnep dv Ti? fcal to yiyaprov Kal ocra top avrov e^^i aXXd rpoTTOV.^ oidirep Tj-jv vypoTJjTa. coairep €Xda<i hd(^vi]<. Thv om. hiacpepovaL KevTavpiov.LOv ovBe ywvLa<. olov dvvrjaov Kehplho^' iviwv he vhapel<. rovro to irepX EKacTTOV e. toCto Aid. : . olov Se ^o'iviko'^ Ovfx^pg.. Scli. Xd^ot /idXiara Td<. olov gvkov ol Se Spi/iel'^. ireXov (TVKafiLVOV fivprov' ol 8' wairep d/i- eXaco^et?. at Se /c67%/3a/xtSe? wairep kolvov tv iraaaL. a^eSov cpavepal irdcnv. ou.. /lev ToiavTa<^ Sia(popd<. iticnrep pocov ^ tovto} conj. At Se Kajci T0U9 xl'Xou? Kal rd a^W^'^^ Kal rd^i 6Xa<^ [jiop(^d<. the seeds are arranged in corapartment.'s Mairep dy\rLv6iov Kal ral<.

as in figs. i obvious in the separation of the pomegranate seeds. as plums . xi. 4. and form as are tolerably evident to all. I. and the connexion is not. besides olive itself. For in the pomegranate the stones have this moist fleshy substance enclosing each ^ separate stone . . as those of vine mulberry and myrtle some are like olive-oil. but in the case of fig-seeds. 109.* However one might find more such differences. 85 . a whole The differences in taste. as wormwood centaury. . » Lit.^ as some the smell would seem of others sharp.. and one should not ignore the inost important of them. obscured by the moisture. 1. .^ For here ^ too there is a difference. 19. the same pulp is common to all. although in botli cases the seeds are enclosed in a sort of flesh}substance. namely those which specially belong to the plant's natural character. watery. as anise and juniper'''. ' cf.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 186 15. * ' 8 in of in pomegranates and the fruit is not divided into compartments. Some also are .e. for the stone is attached to eacli. XII. as. as well as in that of grape-stones and other plants which have the same arrangement. i. 7r\r]u Toaovrov ^ UMAkl. as fig date chestnut some are pungent. tastes some are like wine. . Plin. Differences in taste. it\r\v % ToaovTov conj. . 6-xii. so that they do except that it should be not need explanation stated that^ the case containing the fruit is never ^ Of right-lined in shape and never has angles. bay hazel almond fir Aleppo pine silverfir some like honey. remarkably fragrant. 9. shape. to be insipid. as well as in the case which encloses this and the other parts of the fruit. W. as marjoram savory cress mustard some are bitter.

. dW^] TMV vSap)j<.' [>']h7]\ Opiha- hpipvTrjrd riva e^ovai. olov eXar?. kul al he kol evcohlav. 1 rf.irjKwt'os probably corrupt : it should be a tree. * a P. olov ctlkvov koXokvptt)'^ al he fCiV7j<. TOUTft) irepl %i'Xft)Z/ o)v fievov. re Ta? lBea<i hLapidjiov- vwep eiSecTiP' airdvrwv he /jb7)\(ov. eXex^V' hidcpopa eihrj' rj p^ev ^ydp ecTTiv oirdihrjq. ottwStjs. 86 vtto- toZ? 7rXeLcrT0L<. MGirep r/ rrj^ avKrj<. olov dpLireKov S' \a')(^avo)h(bv he. avvepcfyalve- hio aa(f)i'j<i- aXX' p. r) "E%6t Koi he hevhpwv uvtmp T(x}v r) v^/oott. KoX Tt9 eKacTTOV <^vcn<. OTToaai kol ra<i tt^o? dW'}]\ov<^ Bia(f>opa<. Tjirep irav iv op^oioT^-j^.'}? p^TjKcoro^' y coaTrep he TTiTTwS?. KaOdirep Tov Ovpou KoX OvpjSpa^' T) tmv Kwvocpopfov diriov ptfkea^. oXXol Oeriov he iv d\oi<i aTrdvrwv uKpL^earepov iv TOL<i pr]T€OVy avrd<. koX hvva[iL^. rov 6.? irevKri^.?.?. ottos is used specially of the juice of the is itself. kol t. said to have written a treatise irfpl x'^Mwt'. TOL<. coairep al rov aeXivov dv/jdou fiapddov koI tcov ToiovTcov.dXXov Karepyaalav KaOapdv kol elXt/cpivfi ?. * ryjv KaO^ 6\ov yap e^ei fcpdalv rcva KaX pl^iv irepiKapTTLOi^' Xap^^dvei Kal Kara elireZv diracrai oiKcia hfjXov Keifievoi'i KapiTol^' ral Ti9 aTrXw? e/cdarov hevhpou Ihiav <pvaLV /. 6.THEOPHRASTUS Koi ivifov ev <yevei Tft) koX tol/? 0LP(oBeL<. "^ T. /cal o)? mv on rvyxdvei ovk aKpi^y^ ovhe ireylriv tol<. o)? h elirelv (fyvrov' Ihlav. fij . 4.

as in silver-fir fir and the conifers sometimes it is insipid. when we come all speak of flavours. W.H (Uep MAld..^ reckoning up the different kinds themselves. . and what is the natural character and property of each. which ^ plainly belongs in a And in most of special sense to the fruits of each. have bracketed ^Stj ? a dittography of at mBas. omitting stop before it. : 5ih conj. which is not however exact nor obvious it is chiefly ^ in the fruitcases^ that it is seen. such as the juice of thyme and savory.e. 11. ® i. some kinds of apples."* sometimes like pitch. (?) Ald. spond to the sjiecial character of the several trees. one might almost add. yap for ^ I « ^lirep ' aW : Se.. Now the sap of the trees themselves assumes sometimes it different kinds of tastes as was said is milky. and that is why it is the character of the flavour which becomes more complete and matures into something separate and to . eV ixuWov MSS. . all saps correand the like. the pulp so G. these is seen a sort of correspondence with the character of the plant as a whole. cf. . as in vine pear and apple. 1. and stating what differences there are between them."'^ as that of the fig and poppy. to that of each plant. such as the juices of celery dill fennel To speak generally. others have a fragrance.H . pot-herbs as cucumber gourd as well as such lettuce while others'^ again have a certain pungency. For every plant has a certain temperament and composition of its own. ol' cases be called winelike^ though they differ in different kinds. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. . . 6. 87 . xii. . on which matter we must speak more precisely. 1-2 But the smells even ^ those in this class must in I.

since it is this which determines the specific character. XIII.. the flavour. 6 he Kapiro<^ ovhevl TO ye avdiraXLv ovhev OavpLaaTov. TOiv Be avd'TTa\LV to.cov Kal irepl tovtov Kal tmv ciWcov ^(ocov. he Kaprrov<. which is its . jxev yap ^pcoTCL tcl h' d/SpcoTa TV'y)(^dveL Kal ev chLCOTUTOV he TO eVt cf)v

Related Interests

\OL<i Kal TrepLKapTTLOl^. he Ti p. to. o)? ra fxev evoafia kol evcoSr] tcl 8' aoa/ia kol d)(v\a 'TravTe\(h<s elvaL twv tov avTOv popiwv. the pulp. avTCL SLa(f)opav elrrelv airavTa olov pi^a 4 vtto avTo. e-)(ei TLva OLKeioTrjTa 7rpo<..ev (fivWa dWa dWd aWia^. el kol TTapaXkcLTTeL /caTa re ra? oafia<. he Kal KaTo. oti KaTci htacpopal TroWaxo)^- eVrct) TCL p^eprj TrXetof ? elal ' i. 88 . own. Trjv oXrjv (pvacv. T7/9 (f)i\vpa<i' Kal TToWd TavTr]<i yap tcl fiev <pvWa yXvKea Tcov ^cocov ecrOUi. co? S' avrXw? fiopia twv hevhpwv kol (pvTMv.THEOPHRASTUS ')(v\ov (^V(TL^' Sel yap wairep to Xa^elv to Be elSo? koI TTepl 01 tmu ')(v\o)v. koX tou? .to. /xr) eaOleaOaL toij<.e.e.aTLKO)V' twv he ol KapTToi' Twv 3' ovheTepov evLwv S* at pl^ar twv 6fioiCL><. in the Hence the importance of the flavour (which is seen in the fruitpulp). tcl Kavko^ aKpe/acdv (fivWov Kap7r6<... TMV TOiovTMV vaTcpov iTeLpaTeov Oewpelv Trt? eTvel /3y9ft)T09' wcrre tcl p. airep/iaTa kol at p^trco^'e? "l'^%ei he 3 fxev vXtjv fiop<^i]v. tou? ')(^v\ov<. (f)vX\a paXkov Kal OL KXcove^.^l'Xou?.epo'^. ^EvLoyv jap evoajxa to. Sense P]very tree has a characteristic juice of i. '^vv he TocrovTOV irdvTa ^ ^ hrjXov. wairep twv (JTe<^avwp. : however specially recognisable in its fruit tree as a whole its character is not alwaj's apparent. Kai vtto tmv dWwv ov fiovov v(j) r)p. civ6rj /idWov t) tcl (j)vWa.

P. I. in some few cases. as root stem branch leaf fruit. as four parts have been ^ Plin 16.' cf. . as in In others again it is the those used for garlands. all parts of trees and plants. 5 . G. ^ Most peculiar is the case of the lime the leaves of this are sweet. even if* there is variation in scents and tastes. And Some leaves and some so too with the flavours. 6.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. generally. xii. For in some plants the flowers are more fragrant than the leaves. XIII. ^f. but the fruit no creature eats. 3. For the present let so much be clear. mentioned. this and other such matters we must endeavour to consider the causes on some other occasion. 6. distinct. 65. while the fruits were eaten not But concerning only by us but by other animals). Sch. but. ei Se MVAld. it would not be at all surprising that the leaves should not be eaten. U . ' ' . fruits in others it is neither ^ of these parts. to speak taining them have different flavours. 10. the 'matter. have a certain relationship to the character of the whole. that in all the parts of plants there are numerous differthe pulp of fruit in general being. so that of the parts of the same plant some are fragrant and sweet to the taste. ^ Se * ovhfTipov seems inaccurately used. : Differences in flowers. 6. in others on the contrary it is rather the leaves and twigs which are fragrant."' Again the seeds themselves and the coats conAnd. and many animals eat them.' while the flavour is 'form. (for. while others are entirely scentless and tasteless. fruit-pulps are. 2-xiii. 89 . the root or some part of it. in Aristotelian language. as to the contrary case. * 61 KoX conj. i in fact we must consider the one^ as matter/ the other ^ as ' form or specific character. and some are not good for food.

wajrep to t?}? lacncovrj'^' ov yap Ke)(^Ci)piaTai TavTi]<.THEOPHRASTUS CTTcl TO KOI TU)V avOfjiV TO. <^olvlkovv Kal dpvySaXcov TLvwv virepvO pov aXXov Be ouBevo<. and stamens. Be Kal KaTa Trjv eK(^vaiv Kal Oeaiv TCL pev yap e^CL irepl avTOv tov Kapirov.epo<.- Kal TO T/}? eXda'^ petaloid. irdvTwv Be ra fiev Si)(^poa TO. ev tm dvOeu to c^vWov eKacTTOV ovBe Brj tov Xeipiov to KdTCO p. are gamopetalous (or ganiosepalous)..e. /xev yu-eye^o? €-)(ei. Xeyco Be Bcavde^. 90 U . alrlov ' i. (f)vX\. TO Se T/}? e\da(. Mcnrep to poBov kol to Kpivov Kal to 't'ov to fieXav.MSe<i ov ci/ieyede^. - ayplcov Aid. cLTTLov ical to. aPTiuiv MV . KO/cKv/n]\€a<. corolla W. o^oion. a'^^eBov Be tolovtov iaTCv. etc.. 5e (f)vX\. A[a(f)epei. .(oh] Tt)? a/jLTTeXoV TCL . * i..e. dXXa OTL eWepov dv6o<^ ev tCo eK TMV ciKpcov diT0<^vaeL<^ yo)vi(t)BeL<s.. ^ i. twv t)pepo)v 0VT6 dvOwBe^ ovT€ Bi')(^povv.X* el' Tivo^i TOiv dypiwv. olov TO Trj<^ e\dT7]^' KpoKivov yap to TavTi]<. olov dp. Se ra jiovo^^poa. /i€V ecTTt "Xt'ooihrj. /caOdirep Kai (TVKafliVOV kol tov klttovKaOdirep dfjLvySaXrjf. TToWa fiovoxpoa Kal fxev iwv hevBpwv rd ye povov yap co? \evKav6?]' elirelv to t?}? poa^. dvOei e^ec KaTa fieaov. av6o<i' Kal ocra Bi'i (^acnv ev tjj e^co Oa\aTTj] poBwv e'^eiv t^u ^(^poav. evia Be Kal pov6(f)vX\a (f)veTai Biaypacprjv €)(^ovTa povov Twv rrXeiovcov. ^\Lv Be Tol<i e7veTeioL<s a^^Bov ra ye TrXeio) TOiavTa Kal Bl^poa Kal BiavOP]. aX. vovrlwv conj. /jLt]\ea<.e. he KOI iv TOi^ eVeretoi? Kal TroiooSecn ra fxev (f)vW(oS7] ra Be ')(you>hri.

*^ but there are angular projections from the edges. — ' Some flowers again consist of a single having merely an indication of more. while that of the olive. .' ^ as in almond apple pear ivy. something resembling separate 'leaves' (petals or sepals). 91 . Meaf. as with the flower of silverfir.' ' 4 . cf. 65. though it is ' leafy. However. narcissus. the colour of roses.. they say. 6. 9 . But there are also differences in the way of growth and the position of the flower some plants have it lily violet. as that of bindweed.e. 18. Plin. some are plum. 2. Sell. All plants again have flowers either of two colours or of one most of the flowers of trees are of one colour and white.' is inconspicuous. And the flower of the olive is nearly of the same character. i. 1-3 shewn in a variety of ways. 6. some downy. 2 and 3 5 c/. most are of this charactheir flowers are two-coloured and twofold.P. Tlius of flowers some are downy. Again it is in annual and herbaceous plants alike that we find some leafy. The flower of no other cultivated trees is reddish. gay nor of two colours.e. x^^P^^v MSS. thougli it may be so with some uncultivated^ trees. 21. G. ^ Xeiplou conj. that of the pomegranate being almost the only one which is red. among annuals. as that of the vine mulberry and leafy. in the middle.^ ter I mean by ^ twofold that the plant has another flower inside the flower. I. xiii. while that of some almonds is eiices ' . for its flower is of saflron colour and so with the flowers of those trees by the ocean which have. ^ i.^ For in the flower of this the separate leaves are not distinct nor is it so in the lower part of the narcissus. ' '^ . Again some of these flowers are conspicuous. as with rose .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.

e^ei to. KaOd-Trep to dvOe/xov ev Be roi? Xaxcivijpol^.Kavos conj. cf.. 6 . olov 6 /c^tto? Kal y crvKdpivo^' ev auTOt? fiev ydp e'.. Mairep 6 aKUVO^ KUL o Kvrjico<s Kal rrdi'Ta ra aKavooBr]' KaO^ eKaaTov yap €')(^6L TO dvdo<.aireppiaTa' (^avepdnTUTOV Be errl tov pohov Bid top oyKov. . ov ovTe err'' aKpot^ ovt eVf fJLTjV TTepLeCkyc^oai Ka6^ eKacrrov. dvdr) ttoXvv ^povov.e. 10. TroWd roiv <dvOcov> ev fiearp to irepiKup-TTLov e)(^€i. ^ ' * ' ' 92 cf. 779 koI tovto ar]/u. avvaTro/SdWei rov Kapirov koi ou rerpi^pievov yiyveTai' a')(ehov he koi to. evia Be fcal eV avTwv tmv (TirepiidTwv. conj. from G . To-xo- W. &Kapos UV. avepfxaruv conj. koXokvvttj Kal y a-iKva' TrdvTa ydp iirl tcop Kapircov e^e* Kai TTpocrav^avo/jLevcov iinpevei to.H. 4. composites. i... 3.^ei Tol<i 6Xol<. 6 re aLKVo<.. irepiKap7TL0i<.. 1. 8 uKavudr} conj. aTO(xa. 6. "Ecrri Be Kal dyova twi' dvdcov evia.. 4. Stt/os conj. Aid. Kal ?. 4. KaOwrrep poa fieXea dino^ K0KKvp7]\ea puppivo<.. . H. "AXXa Be lBi(OTep(D<. avdu>S7i Ald. KaOdirep inl TMV aiKvo)v d eic tmv aKpMV (pveTat tov kXij- ^aiverat.THEOPHRASTUS TreXo? iXda' koI dTroTTLTrTOvra hiaTeTpii^eva XafijSdvouaiv ei Ka\a)<i dTr7]V07jK€V' idv yap (TvyKavOy 7) ^pe^^Oy. after Sch.Tuv Aid. Tiva W. 6. avQQiv I conj. W. Dalec. koI tmv ye (ppvyaviKMr pohwvia Kal rd TtoXXd rwv (TTe(f)ai'coTLKMV' Kdrco yap VTTO TO dvdo<. 6poLco<. Td')(^a he Kal eV avrov rov irepiKapiTLOV.€LOv ' 2 Lacuna in text IG. Bod. ^yvos Aid. Be Kal tmv TTOicocow evLa. dXX^ iv rot? dvd peaov el firj dpa ov crvvByXa Bid to ')(V0MBe<i.

and among under-shrubs. it may be.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. . for ovTf. all these have their flowers attached on top of the fruits. . and so there is no hole through it. top of the actual seeds. . Probl. and among pot-herbs. as anikemon. with cucumber^ gourd and bottle-gourd. I. or. In some other plants the attachment is peculiar. flowers drop off. as vine and olive in the iatteiv.!*^ and the flowers persist for a long time while the fruits are developing. as in pomegranate apple pear* plum and myrtle. Sch.t' e'lrl I conj. as in ivy and mulberry in these the flower is closely attached to the whole ^^ fruit-case it is not however set above it. So too with some herbaceous plants. it sheds the fruit along with itself. In some cases ^ again the flower is on . i. For these have their seeds below. Arist. — ® ^° " " UM 8 T€ oIkvos conj.e. and this is most obvious in the rose because of the size of the seed-vessel.^ the flower is on the top of the fruit-case. 93 . owep olkvos 6 wepaiicvos Aid. W. 13 Again some flowers are sterile. close when 3-4 fruit. .H.^ and this men take for a sign whether the tree has blossomed well for if the flower is burnt up or sodden. compound. and that and . S/cpw*' Ald. cf. nor in a seed-vessel that envelops each^'separately. ^^ o(.*^ as in pine-thistle ^ safflower all thistle-like ^ plants . 3. but it occurs in the middle part of the structure except that in some cases it is not easily recognised because it is downy. for these have a flower attached to each seed. Kapirwy eonj. beneath the flower. . in the rose and in many of the coronary plants. The majority of flowers ^ have the fruit-case in the middle of them. they are seen to have a above the tlie xiii. as in cucumbers those which grow at the ends of the shoot. hole through them. 20.

5' €76/3060?- hiwro^i fiLKpo^ olo<. l>6Su>u describes the Aid. including . llU .F. 5' (Tepoi Si' iuo} for wv is ixtKphy UMVAld. Diosc.' e'^et ire^vKvlav tlvcl <^fap r7]i' koi tt}? fxrjXewi cf^aal Be a'^/ova. 1. . av6ov<i <yeP€aL<. 6 ttoXv kui TrXaTu? coajrep 6 rwv o 07/C09 oA. Plin. roiv crvfi^alveL elvai he koI el eir' avOo(f)6po)i> liyovop av6o<=.vv ovk dvOelv a\V pvdi) irpo8' rd ov. . I wiXirfp iKTfTpafXfifyos k^tlvos .i]. 2. 2. * KOiTwdev rrjv hia- .. Si rod aiKVOU ^Xaarrjcnv. . 23. 14. 2 i. (pveiv elVe fce^f^copiafievop etre aKeineov. 4. . conj.TIIEOPHRASTUS kuI d(f)aipoucnp avrd' K(d\v€l o /jtaro^. ex^" ^a X^'^'J fivx^o^V x^^^V ^i^'l eKreTpaixfxfvov : so The sentence explains incidentally why the pomegranate flower was called kutivos {cf. Bod. 2. kvtlvo<. . 7] (TlveTaL he kol to ye TTVKvov Kai tt}? p6a<. T?}? oaa Wr)SiKy)<i yXaKarrjv ^/ovLfxa. 12 also P. dWa fiexpi tov /j. 9. the adherent calyx. C.fT€Tpoa^e'j'os). ' poSwy conj. as seen from above: koI oXav corolla. KaTwdev .a)? ra %etX?> e^^coi' ^^aal he TLve^ Kai rcov ofioyevcov ra fiev dvOelv KaOdirep twv ^olvlkwv tov fiev dppeva dvOelv TOV he d?f\. 3 . 94 1. pohwv KCLTCddev oicnrep €KTeTpafi/jLevo<. but e. 9. di>Oo<. /xux«5rj the .e. ovv tm yevet Tavrd TOiavrtjv fiev the pistil. ^aiveiv tov Kapirov. 6. oaa aWov Tivo^ Mare he [ikv Tavra fieaov ravr e/c ravr fir] 6')(eL avQoiv oicnrep tw. has . eireX <^kvY] 76 evia Kai ufMireXov Ka\ p6a<. Ta ^ i. l)ooop jjLvX'J^^V (except that Aid.. 9 . dhuvarel reXeoKapTrelv. 110 .e. undeveloped ovary. .

For some kinds of vine and pomegranate certainly are unable to mature their fruit. Such ^ is the difference which we find between (The flower of the pomegranate dantly and is solid - : in general .). is produced abunappearance it is a substantial structure with a flat top. why men pluck them xiii.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. .) Some say that even of plants of the same kind ^ some specimens flower while others do not for instance that the ' male date-palm flowers but the female does not. but exhibits its fruit without any antecedent flower. chooses the particular form of jar called Siooros. because it resembled si kvtos (see LS. from roiavra ttjv . x^''^^ refers to the jar (for the plural cf. like a jar lying on its side . the use of &vTvyis).v. ^ TavTct. like the flower of the rose ^ but/ as seen from below. i. Sch. s. 4-5 they hinder tlie they say that in the citron those flowers wliich have a kind of distaff growing in the middle are fruitful^ but those that And we must consider have it not are sterile. the inferior part of the flower is different-looking. ofjLoioyevwv AXd. whether apart from the fertile flowers or not. I. for And ^ flower. because the weight of the developing fruit causes it to take up at one stage a horizontal position. This is called iKTerpaixjihos. 111). ' ' ' T. and do not produce anything beyond the is growth of the cucumber. ToiavTTfv p. off. whether it occurs also in any other flowering plants that they produce sterile flowers.. G UM . because the and indentations between the sepals suggest this : Fj. TotavT-qy I conj. 95 . yuvx«57j to the indentations in the calyx (a jar having ordinarily an unindented rim).e. * oixoyeviiov con]. being like a little two-eared jar turned on one side and having its rim indented.

XIV". iravTa yap eK ru>v evcov iav Se &pa ti MSS. they floNver. W. €/c fiev tcov viwv avfcP] a/^TreXo?* e'/c Be tmu evcov iXcia poa firfXea djuvyBaXi] cittlo^ iivppivo^ Koi (T')(eBov rd roiavra iravra' ck Be rcov vecov 8ia(f}opa<^ (j)av6p6v e'/c edv cipa tl avpu^fj Kvfjaai /cal dvOrjaai (yiverai /cal ravr evLOL<.e. TOmCra- . r) rov avOov^ Be fit] (puat. * bi(p6pcvv conj. i/CTrerrcov /cal (TV/ca (pepcov e/c rcov vecov. 4. wairep kol tco pLvppivw /cal yap ra? fjidXiad^ CO? elTreiv irepl rd<. 5.eK Sf twv yecou iav &pa rt COnj. .. 96 Sch. 3. e^e/ tmv irpoetpr^pievcov. TO/ouTO iravTa.t]Xeai. ravrrjv (paat (pepeLV eK rov crreXe^ov^' ol Be ravrrj re TMV jdp /cat yap Kal eK TovTcov (j)epei rrXyv ov ttoXvv KoXovcn Be Kepcovlav dcf)^ 7]<. Kara TrjV KapiroToiaav' ra puev ^ap eK rwv vecov ^XacjTMV (f)€p€L ra S' ck tcou evwv ra S' i^ uficporepwv.THEOPHRASTUS cpopav ex^i) Kaddirep oXw^ ocra KapTTelv. eK ^ ? i. coairep rvjv Kepcovlav avr^] have no that. from Gl . tmv fier i)iii<yevr] tmv ei'cov /cal rcov Bicpopcov r) et tl ert Be 6 6Xvv6o<. like the 'female' date-palm.^. (BXaarrjaeL^ Bvvarac reXeovv dXX^ ^Ap/CTOvpov) ov ^Oeiperar e^ d/i(j)orepcov Be /cal vecov €L dXXo Ttve^- dpa /cdpTri/jLOV /j. 2 ^ cf. ra avKa rd AlyvTma KaXov/xeva. ^La<f)6p€L Se ra BiuSpa /cal T0t9 roLovTOL<. Sia<p6pu)i' UAld.. dKpepLovcov. ev AlyvnTcp av/cajiivov €/c(f)vcri<. Be 'IBicoTdTT) odairep Tp)<i T) rov i/c cFTeXe')(pv<. hvvazai reXeo- on TrXeuov.

J ' : (TuKV 4. I. 2 same kind and the like may be said which cannot mature their fruit. • TcuTTj T6 Ka) Sk conj. on last year's wood olive pomegranate apple almond pear myrtle and almost all such trees. 5-xiv. some on both. xiii. Some apples again of the twice-bearing ^ kinds and certain other fruit-trees bear both on last year's wood and on the new shoots and so does the olynlhos. and especially. as with myrtle. in general of those And it is shew many differences of character. XIV. <•/. though not abundantly (the name carob is given to the tree which produces what are called ' Egyptian shoots^ last year's Fig and vine bear on their new shoots . if any of these does happen to conceive and to produce flowers on its new shoots. . (for this does occur in some cases. 97 . they say. TauTTjs uiv 4k UMVAld. in the growth which is made after the rising of Arcturus) ^ it can not bring them to perfection." ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Some bear on their as some on wood. . Most peculiar is the growth of fruit direct from the stem. . one may say. Differences tn fruits. : 6\vvdos is not elsewhere used for a kind of fig (ti 5e Tovs oKvvQovs iKTTeTTovffti Koi (TVKa (pfpovffa eonj. 2. plain from what has been said that flowers plants of the ' . Others say that it bears both in this way and ^ also on the branches. Sch. somewhat drastically. W. 4.^ which ripens its fruit as well as bearing figs on the new shoots. as in the sycamore for this. like the carob for the latter bears on the branches too. bears fruit on the stem. And. differ in new Agam to the production of fruit trees the following respects. but they perish halfformed.

112.THEOPHRASTUS cLKpoKapira to)i> hevhpwv tcai ra Be TrXayioKapTra ra 5' afKpoT€yoa)9. tovtov M. Sch. riadd. dXX! €K€lv^] IhLWTdTrj Kal Tpoirov TLva /neytaTT] hLdaTaai<i. 1. tcl TCL 8' aypia' /cal to. 8' oXw? dcpvXXa' Kal to. olov ^Xltov aSpd<f)a^v<i pd<^avo<i' eirel koI ekda irotel ttw? tovto. TrXe/o) S' aKpoKapira tcov aX\(ov r) tmv SevSpcov. TOVTO conj. irpoiLKap'TTa to. ^vtwv . fieu fcdpTiipu deLcpvWa Kal (f)vXXo^o\a. olov Twv re aiTijpcov ra (Tra)(^u(o87] kol TMV 0a/jLvcL>BMv epeLKT] Kol cnreLpaia kol dyvo'i Koi liXX' ciTTa Kal tmv \a^avci)8a)i/ ra K€<pappi. he 'xepaala- Plin 16. he o-yjn^XaaT)] coaavT(o<i he /lev evvhpa » ^ ' 98 to..^a. ^aivovTar hijXov 8' OTi TO. elvai. W. 13. t^9 6\r]<. fiev rjfiepa to. Kai TTU)^ ra ye TOiavTa ev TOL<i pcepeaLv i) ovk dvev tmv fiepuyv ecTTLV. TO. Ttt? fieV <Ta> OVV KaTCL hia(^opa^ ireipaTeov €k tovtcov dewpelv. cf. Kal yap tmv tovtov UAld. fiev (f)VT(Jjv Kapiro^ he kol 6 (j)Oivi^' rrXi-jV tovto ye Kal KOL cLKpo^XaaTOV 6\(i)<^ yap ev tm ttco? uKpo^vWov tivQ) TTCLV TO ^COTIKOV. 8' cLKapira' KaOdirep dvOrjTLKa eXe')(drj. P'eprj At he TOiavTat. otl to. fxev /cal dvavOr)' Kal irpw'ijBXacrTrj he Kal Kal oy^iKapTra' Kal oaa TrapaTrXyaia tovtoi<^. 1. . yirep Kal eVl tmv ^wwv. aKpo- KoX €(TTt he o###BOT_TEXT###amp;)9 T(ov TO. . kul (f)aaiv orav uKpov eveyKT) crrj/jLeiov ev^opia<. e^ afi(f)OT€p(i)P Se koI t6)v BevBpcov evia koI tmv \a')(av(jL>h6)V. ovaia<.

But bearing fruit at the top is less common in trees than in other plants. when it bears at the top. . while some again have no leaves at all some are flowering plants. or at least that But the particular parts are concerned in them.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. . 2-3 ^ Again some trees. Sch. Koi rd. and in a way the most important distinction one which may be seen in animals is that * too. some barren some vated. among shrubby plants in heath privet chaste tree and certain others. yt ToiavTo 99 . others at the sides. light of the instances mentioned the differences seen in the ^ various parts of the plant. in a sense. figs '). But there appear to be the following differences which affect the plant's whole being some are cultisome fruitful. . For land. but this 2 tree also has its leaves and shoots at the top. others in both ways. some are early. the olive does this too in a way. xiv. rd y^ ravra U . indeed it is in the top that its whole activity is Thus we must endeavour to study in the seen. some are of the water. some wild evergreen. produce fruit at the top. I. as among grains in those which have an ear. as was said. it is a sign of fruitfulness. and some plants in general. some flowerless. since blite orach cabbage. and at the sides are certain trees and certain pot- I say trees. as General differences {affecting the whole plant). special. some of the Kal TTois TO 7€ Toiavra conj. herbs. koI ttuv namely. differences are seen in the parts. The date-palm too bears at the top. : . Aid. and they say that.some late in producing their shoots and fruits and there are other differences Now it may be said that^ such similar to these. some deciduous. and among pot-herbs in those witli a bulbous Among plants which bear both on the top root. .

olov avKr) eKaTepw rovrwv rol^ KapiroU ts oXiyoi' aWa aypia Xeyerat ravrrjv cfKpave- koX Twv </jirj> Be rcov hevBpwv o)? airXod^. dXXcov rj yap j^prjcn^ Xeyw 8' Bdcpvi)'^ ovaa rd irXeiw olov djjLTTeXov /xvppLVT}<i kolvtj tmv avuOewpeLV TTOiel rd<i BLa(f)opd<. fiev ydp fidXiara ecrri paov Xa/3e2v Kal BiapiO/iyaat rd Be eiBrj.. fcai re koI roi? pboploi^. Be 7]pepcov koI oivojiaapbeva ataOyjcrif. /iop(f)ac<. elprffievoL^i earLV. o/ioia Se jap ovBev iariv airXovv clXX oaa koX rjfjLepa /j. KoX TMV (puTcbu 4 yevo<:' a'X^eBov fiev ^verau Be TO. ov^ eiSrj TrXeuo) Tvy')(^dvei ipcveo^.. "IBlop 5 dypca B^ Kal Tft> Biaipovat. irepl Be TMV yeveaecov fierd ravra XeKreov tovto ydp ioairep e^e^ri<i rol<. Twv 8' ev fcal (pvXXoL^. Be ')(aXeTT(OTepov Bid ttjv TToXv)(otav..THEOPHRASTUS ecTTt TL TotovTOV yevo<. KOLvorepa' p6a<^ [itfXea^ diTLOV avKi]<. Kol dWai<i U7no<. elirelv aroLTrjv raL<. 'AX\a Brj ra? fiev tmv fiopiwv Bia(f)opd<i Kal tmv dXXwv ovaioiv eK tovtcov ireipareov Oecopecv. . Twv Twv fiev Tovr dppevi Kal rd ecf)* tw eKaTepwv rd O^jXeL rj [xovol^ rj Be rjjiepa irXeioaiv lBeai<. oaa d'yjpd<^' dWd dypicov dvcovvfia rd irXelaTa koI efiTreipoi fiev 7] Ka6^ eKacTTOv [leyiarrjv e^eL Bia(f)opdv. iXda kotlvo^. o ov hvvarai <f)veadai ev vypcp' 'jTcivroiv '^(eipoi.ev.

one might almost say. ' numerous. while most of the cultivated kinds have received names ^ and they are more commonly observed I mean such plants as vine fig pomegranate apple pear bay myrtle and so forth for. but they lose their character and are Again of all trees. while others will indeed grow on dry land. However we have differences characters.* while in the cultivated sorts they recognise a number of distinguishing features. for instance the cultivated and wild forms of fig olive and pear. growth. But the plants which are called respectively cultivated and wild shew this difference in the clearest and most emphatic way. But most of the wild kinds have no names and few know about them. they are led also to study the differences. . W. . add.^ * iivoukaauiva ra irKeiw conj. as many people make use of them. . inferior. and in their forms and parts generally. Sch. In each of these pairs there are differences in fruit and leaves. . I. . for said enough for study of the between parts and between general We must now speak of the methods of this subject comes naturally after what has been said. » ^. But there is this peculiarity as to the two classes respectively in the wild kinds men find only or chiefly the distinction of ' male and ' female. and of all plants there are several forms to each kind for hardly any kind contains but a single form. 3-5 of plants too there is a class which cannot grow except ^ in moisture. in the latter it is harder because the points of difference are . In the former case it is easy to mark and count up the different forms.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. wuouaffufyuv irAe/w Aid. xiv.



rov dXXd ri]^ rporrov^i . irayeiarj^i koI KiTTOV avfx^LOiaai kol 77 avKi] Kairoi cfiaal 7rp6<i yeveaOat BevBpov airdvLov tl to toiovtov Odrepa Be rd iroXXd avKr} (fivaeo)(.? 17 Br] TTpoaLpecrew^. yap BvvaraL T/)? KpdBt]'^ ye Tive^ KaTa7rr]yvv/ievr]. evLa oXw? koI a7repfiaT0<i pt^rjf. dXXov(. Kal rjBr] diro rov kXcovo^' ov irXr^v (fyverai 7] poa KaOdirep pd^Bov. virdp'^ovaLv al Be dXkai rep^t'?.. Sch. ^ 104 (ua Be tov<. fxev . avTai' Bl diro rj royv diro rj avrov rov crreXe^^oy? ^v\ov KaraKonevTO^ ovTa)<. (pv^rai conj.B At I. ^vac- (oanep yap avrofiarai kol kol rot? d<ypiOL<. CLTTO avTOfiarai hevhpwv airo i) TrapaarrdBo^^ airo rj K\a)vo<i €Ti Tov tmv <yevecTei<^ rj ttTr' rj aKpe/novo^. (fyVTMV pi^'q<. et? /xiKpd' tovtcov Be 1) KcoTaraL Bo^aiev o dv elaiv. tt}? kol 'X^dpaKO<. rd Be TroWd Kara irXeiov^' eXda fiev lydp 7rdvT(o<. ava<pv(Tai Aid. rj 7) kol <ydp avr6^aT0<^ [xev al Be diro aiTepfiaTo^ koI TTpcoTi] Ti9. (pverac. " Kiravra Be ^XaardveL Kard riva rcov rpoircov TOVTCdv.

one may say. The ways in which trees and plants in general — spontaneous growth. as a fig or pomegranate will grow from their young shoots. while the other methods of growth are in most cases the natural The fig grows in all the ways mentioned. especially of Trees! Of and plants originate.BOOK II Of Propagation. and most of them in more than one. when a stake of olive-wood was planted to support ivy. . degeneration from seed. it actually but such lived along with it and became a tree an instance is a rare exception. from a piece torn off. Instances of the ivays in lohich trees I. while the remaining methods depend on human skill or at least on human choice. Not but what some say that cases have been known in which. ones. from a branch or twig. However all plants start in one or other of these Thus the ways. olive is grown in all the ways mentioned. from the trunk itself. from a root. 105 . Of these methods spontaneous growth comes first. except from a twig for an olive-twig will not grow if it is set in the ground. . growth originate are these from seed. . but growth from seed or root would seem most natural indeed these methods too may be called spontaneous wherefore they are found even in wild kinds. . or again from small pieces into which the wood is cut up (for some : trees can be produced ^ even in this manner).

Mcrirep BoKel TO re Tr/jyavov kol tj Iwvia kol to (tlctvix- ^piov Koi 6 €p7rvXXo<. (fyverac. airo oe tcop Trpe^vwv koX tmv ov (pverar ixTJXea Be fcal a7Tio<^ koI (itto ciKpe/jiovcov GTTaviw^.aT0? yiveTai' diro Be irapaaTrdBo^i Kol TTjv Bd(f)vr]v (paalv. St.THEOPHRASTUS 7rdvTa<. Trpcopaf. koI el Byj &)? Ti roLovTov erepov rj BevBpov tj (fypvyavcoBe^. fjL€v KaTCL TTXeiaTOv^ rpoTrou? Be ^XaaTdver Kal yap &)? elireiv 77 eXda diro tov (TTeX€^ov<. KaOdirep d/nreXo^ diTO Tcov KXTj/jidrcov avTTj yap ovk dizo rrj^. kol diTO (T7rep/xaT0<.. "OX&)9 yap oXiya ra dTTo twv av(o fidWov ^Xaardvovra koX yevvco/ieva. koI to eXevLov...Kal coairep elprjTaL.. KoipoTdT)] ovv ecrTL irdcriv rj re diro tt}? 7rapaa7rdBo<. . aXV dTTO rov /cXij/iarof. yap ovTO? diro tcou ^vXwv Kal tcop Trpe/xvcov [/cat rd ye iroWa ^ woWa Tf 2 ^ Trdud' Trdud' conj. UMVAld. H conj. dWa cfyvcnfccorepai tto)? eKelvar ro Be ivBeyoixevov Bvvarov XrjTrreov. ov firjv dXXd Kai dvev TOVTov OeXei ^XaaTuveiv Kal poa kuI pirjXea eapivry iSXaaTavet Be Kal dfivyBaXr} (puTevopevt]. OVK I conj. av^fis MSS. to . edv Tf? Ta epvrj irapeXoov (pvTevar}. Kal diro Tov Trpefivov KaTaKoiTTop^evov Kal diro t?}? pt^^/? diro tov ^vXov^ Kal diro pd^Bov Kal ')(^dpaK0<i tmv S' dXXoyv 6 fjLvppivo<. ov fxy]P rd ye (f)veTaL ^v\(i)v T03V dWa TToWd rj 7rdv0' &)? evZe-)(eG9aL elirelv Bokcl kuI diTo Tovrwv.. ovS' fLa###BOT_TEXT###gt;^e~is 106 Sch. f) before vduB' Aid. idv XetOL kol veoi koI evav^el<i oicnv.. ins. diravTa yap oaa e')(^ei a-nepiJiaTa KOL diro cr7re/?yu. Bel Be viroppi^ov elvat f^dXiard ye to Trapaa-TTCofievov rj vTroTrpefjUVOV.

a gloss on anh toC wpf/xpov KaraK. 3. if one takes off the young shoots and plants them but it is necessary that the piece torn off should have part of the root or stock ^ attached to it.^ trees may grow from branches. one may say. 2. . 7 cf. 2. .F. cf.P. as the vine is grown from branches though it cannot^ be grown from the ^lead. for instance. i. caput vitis VOCat irpupav. cf. restores the word. 3. as has been said. In fact there are quite few plants which grow and are brought into being more easily from the upper for this. However the pomegranate and ' spring apple will grow even without this. and we must reckon what may occasionally occur as a mere possibility. as it appears. And they say that the bay too grows ^ from a piece torn off. 10. 1.2 But the other methods. 3. Col. 39. more ways than any other plant it grows from a piece of the trunk or of the stock. rue gilliflower bergamot-mint tufted thyme calamint. G. * C. 6 1. in if it is planted. Athen. 6 * Kol iirh rov ^v\ou om. * ig a 'heel' (Lsit. "^ ' .^ from the root. it appears that most. G. perna).ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. So the commonest ways of growth with all j)lants are from a piece torn off or from seed for all plants that have seeds grow also from seed.P. 10. but rarely. one may say. 3. . . Geop.'* yet can be grown from the branch. Sell.^^ Of other plants the myrtle also can be propagated in several ways for this too grows from pieces of wood . and from a stake. 9. and a slip of almond ^ grows The olive grows. as can all similar trees and under-shrubs. 1. ^^ 2. from a twig. are more natural. irpwpas. 11. 3 : 107 . parts. 14. 23. 7. 3. « cf. 2. 11. Julius Pontedeva on Varro 1. if not practically all. if these are smooth young and vigorous. . 2-4 except from root-stock and cleft wood apple and However pear grow also from branches.

cf. ffi(puTf7ai f/j. ' R. . 24.' evia Be Kal diro rwv /SXaarcov. IBl(o<. orav ^rjpavOfj ro dwoppvev. riOfj Kal KaraKpvyjrrj Koirpw Kal yfj. edv Ti9 Biare/ii'cov to. 6 . a-nh P^Ald. f/jL(pv\eai (with erasures) U. 3. Tcov Be (ppvyavwBcov Kai ttolcoBmv ra fiev irXelara (itto cnrep/iaTO'i rj pi^r]^ ra Be Kai d/i(f)orepa)'=. bulbil. (fyverar evia Be diro a7rep/iaro<.P. . Const. after Sch. G. 8 eVlconj.. Biaipeiu /x?. iix(pv\f7ai . 1. Plin. Trepiat-pelv. Kal KdXa/io<.^w9 Be ri]<. cf. ev TrXeioai rpoiroi^.. 6. wcnrep poBwvia Be fcal Kpivcovla KaraKoirevroiv eiprjraL. Mcrirep Kal 7) dypu>arL<. wairep eXexOy irporepov. 4 C. ovrco BoKel ro Kpivov (f)vea6ai. Ta ovv BevBpa ^Xaardvei kol jiveraL Kara al <yap €/i(f)VTelaL Kal Tii^e? elaiv ol evo(j)Oa\/iia/iol KaOdirep /xt^et? /lev TOi)? elpTifievov^ rpoirov^' Kar aXXov rpoTrov Tf y€ve(Tei<. 2. ov(Tt]<i Bvvdfiew^ ra fiev TToXXa rcop BevBpoiv. Be diTO pt^"^? [tw] <f)V6crdaL Kal ra Ke<pa- Xoppi^a. irepl wv varepov Xe/creov. 4. 4. 9. W. 6. W. tjj om. conj. IT. i. Aid.THEOPHRASTUS fir] tovtov kol t?}? e\da<i ra ^vXn iXaTTO) aTriOa/iiaioyv Koi rov (l)\oiop Bel Be koI (f)V€rai. 1.. 21.. 4 and 6. To(7afTa.(i>vk(lai ' ^ * * 108 V.. 1. 8e' TJj Koi Aid. 1.e. Kptvcovla Kal y poBwvia Kal oXov rov KavXov rf IBicordrr) Be rj diro BaKpvov Kal yap re6evro<. (fyveraL Be ro)v KavXcop.. (^aal Be Kal eirl rov liTiTOcjeXivov' (f)veraL Be ris Kal yap rovro d(pLy](Ti BdKpvov. P..? r}XaKdra<i 7r\ayLa<.

to cut up the wood into pieces not less than a span long and not to strip off the bark. as has been said. ?. . .e. 1. 17.. say that plants which have a bulbous root are peculiar in their way of growing^ from the root. as also does dog's-tooth grass. when the exudation that has been produced has dried up. 1. » 2.^ originate in several ways but some come^ only from seed. . 4 6 c/. irapaylverai conj. as it were. They say the same of"* alexanders. Aid. Trees then grow and come into being in the abovementioned ways for as to methods of grafting ^ and . exudation ^ . as silverII. Lilies and roses also grow when the whole stem is Most peculiar is the method of growth from an set. 109 . these are. inoculation. 32. 4-11. cf. Of under-shrubs and herbaceous plants the greater part grow from seed or a root.. 1. and some in both ways some of them also grow from cuttings. combinations of different kinds of trees or at all events these are methods of growth of a quite different class and . G. us <paaiv 1. Text probably defective. It is necessary however with this. as was said before. Th . Col. Aid. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. ?flT?. 4. 145 offset bulbs. U. (pTiaiv inriv or (paaiv icTTiv iffTiv ndii conj. for it appears that the lily grows in this way too. Plin. most trees. burying it in dung and soil. UMV. 1. ' by i. (pvfTai I conj. i. 4. 2 and also from pieces of the stock. 2 . MSS.^ while roses and lihes grow from pieces of the stems. as with the olive.. 11.P.. 4. The capacity for growth being shewn in so many ways. must be treated of at a later stage. Sch. for this too produces an exudation. There is a certain ^ reed also which grows if one cuts it in lengths from joint to joint and sets them ^ Again they sideways. W. ^ ry .

i) (^acn (T7repfiaT6<i dypia <TVKrj. /xccXveiv But 1). /xoAfveiv. R.. edv dirb pt^^? ?. 141. d-TTO cnreppaTO'^. 7re(f)UTev/uLeva irdvTa hoKel tou? Kapirov'^ i^o/xoLOvv.P.v. i-jfiepov.. fiocrxfvfiv conj.. W. G7TaViCjd<s he.' ainif he diro r) ^Xaardvei Trdvra rpoTTOv refjLi'Ofievrj Kal aTTO rov fieaov Kot diro tov dvcorepco' ^Xacndvei he iviaxov fcal diro tmv pt^MV teal aTTo jrj(.. iTapa<^vd<^ KoX TCL fiev outcl><.p7]rr) Se koI d-no rov areXe^ou9. ' cf. dfi(f)ia^rjrov(TiV' ol /xev yap diro kol diro pi^7]<. jiovov. diravd' co? elirelv ^et/^o).j rh UMVAld. C. IIO ol Sch. 2 MSS. e^idTaTaL tov yevov^. ev Tdppa' irapa rovTOi<^ ydp icTTLV rri<. dXX^ 77 epLveo<. 'AirdvTcov he ocroiv irXelov^ al yevecrei'. Hesych. kol ctc [xdXXov rj diro iTapa(f)vdho<i Ta^tcTTT? Kol €vav^i]<. TOfir]'i KOupc^o/xei'T] KV7rdpLTT0<. koi 1. Plin. Kal yap eK ^ 2 (r/. irav TO KWVO^OpOV 6TL ^6 KOl <holl>L^. t) diro irapaairdho^. Const. XevKrj jxoKiveLV conj.THEOPHllASTUS (f)U€TaL /lovov. Wepl he hpuo<. rj oXw? diro (^UTeuTijpLcov 77. ev K. TtXtJV el CipU €V ^aj3v)VL KOL aiTO Tcov pd^hcov [w?] (^a<Ti rive^ KVirdpiTTO'^ he irapa [lev toI<. olop eirl t/}? opeLa<. olov a/^TreXo? pLrjXea (TVKri poid aiTLo^' eK re yap t>}9 Keyx^papLiha ovhev ylveTai yevo^ 6Xco<. 16. oaa 3' aTTO TOV /capirov tcov hvva/jLevcov kol ovtco^ ^XacTTaveLV. s.. diro irapaairdho^ he Koi pt^'tj'i ovhev (pveTai TCOV /mr} irapajSXacTTavovTcov. 'y\iaxp(*)'i' ol he koI dii avjov tov (TTe\e)(ov<^ K07revT0<. olov iXdrr} irevKr) TTiTU? 6\(o<. tcl he kol 6Xa)<. . eVi conj. ttj '^poia' Kal eK XevKri<^ /leXatva /leXalvrjf. he hiacfiepovaa iroXXdKi<. aXXoi? fioXeveLV.

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. from the ground. ii. The cypress in most regions grows from seed. and in general all those that bear cones also the date-palm. as some say. from the part which has been cut. some from the root also. 9. or still better from a sucker. from the middle. as vine apple fig pomegranate pear. where this method of growing is also possible. . However in all the trees which have several methods of originating the quickest method and that which promotes the most vigorous growth is from a piece torn off. but in Crete ^ from the trunk also. while all the trees which are propagated thus or by some kind of slip ^ seem to be alike in their fruits to the original tree. it shoots from the roots also. if this is taken from the root. but rarely. 2-4 fir fir Aleppo pine. Ill . are nearly all inferior. " c/.^ no cultivated kind is raised from its seed. they take cuttings ^ from it. . * (pvTfVT-qpiov : a general term including Trapa(pvds and irapaairds. for instance in ^ for there grows the the hill country about Tarra cypress which they clip. and when cut it shoots in every possible way. except that in Babylon it may be that. w^hen this is cut. while some quite lose the character of their kind. a p. but not vigorously. And. but either the ordinary wild fig or some wild kind is the result. those raised from the fruit. and from the upper parts and occasionally. About the oak accounts differ some say it only grows from seed. . 1. II. others again that it grows from the trunk But no tree grows from a itself. As for the fig. and this often differs in colour from the parent a black fig gives a : . piece torn off or from a root except those which make side-growths.

C. 5 ev Be rjfiep(ouevoL<. ov/c eBvvavO^ ofioiav iroielv. (pvtrai Vo. Bd^vr)v Be Kal fivpplvrjv BLa<^epeiv irore (f)aaLV. el Be fir] TO /loa^evpa fieracjiVTeueiv 7roXXdKL<^. . erepov yevo^. 9.diro yovv rr}? ev Ylvppa iToXXol ^vT€vcravTe<.P.. Kal TrtVu? rj (^OetpoTTOLo'^. ^vovrai Be koI €k tcop t% eXda^ irvprjvwv aypte\aLo<.P. COnj. 7AaLiK/a)»' Athen..Cas. 9.ore Be oXto^ ovBev i]fiepov aX\! aypcov evlore kol tolovtov coare fir) iKirerreiv tov Kapirdv al 5' (wcrre /jLijSe ahpvveiv fiexpi' tov avOrjaai jxovov a^LKveladai. 1. 9.H. G. 'xelpwv Be koI rj d/xvyBaXtj KOL Tft> %i^^9> Kal Tw a/cXypa e/c [MiXaKri^.vB(t)VLO^. a<yevvri<i' TToWuKif. co? eirl TO TToXv 5' e^iaTacrOat. . 20 and 23. 1. eV Be rcov puyfXewv 7] T€ Tw yevei kol ck yXvK€ia<..Bl o Kol av^rjOetaav eyKevrpH^eiv KeXeuovaiv. KOL €K Twv d'TTiwv KCLi eic TMv firjXecoi/' €K fi€v ydp fcal aWa TMV d')(^pd<. . wcnrep Kal rrjv ev 'AvrdvBpo)' TroXXaVt? Be Kal rrjp Kvirdprnov €k OrfXeia^. St. « cf. tmu diro a7repfiaT0<.cod. tol<s 1. aXV e^ epvOpov Kapirov yiveadai fieXaLvav.. » In Lesbos 112 W. : cf. p6a<i kokkcov tmv yXvKecov dyevvel<. koI €k (TTpovOiOV l\. ' 7Air>c6'a)J' » rf. 3. o^eta. UMVAld. top avrov Be rpoirov TToXXa/ct? Be kol o^etai. dppeva. kol i/c rwv diTvpvvcov aKXrjpal. ^ rj. 2. TvevK^I rj K(t)vo(f)6po<... ^ureuovTai Ald. Kal uTTLcov fJboyOiipa ')(^eLp(ov ravra ovv ev TOi? fiev ^ (pvovrai con]. 3.THEOPHRASTUS 'yiverar €K re t/}? ufnriXov t?}? y€vraLa<. fidXicTTa Be tovtwv 6 (^o2vi^ BoKel Biafieveiv wairep elirelv TeXeLO)<. kol eK roiv rr]<. y^eipwv Be koX rj Bpv'i. kol ovBe to ypcojia Biaaco^eiv.

16. among wild kinds it is plain that more in proportion wliite. ' ' ' ^ c/. or. Again the seed of an excelvine produces a degenerate result. even when it is fully grown. at least many persons having raised trees from acorns of the oak at Pyrrha^ could not produce one like the parent tree.''' So much for degeneration in cultivated trees. "3 . So also is it with seedlings of pears and apples pears give a poor sort of wild pears. with others again the result is that the seedlings do not even mature fruit. frequently plant the offsets. Again the stones of the olive give ^ a \yild olive. 4-6 and conversely. and the seeds of a sweet pomegranate" give a degenerate kind. when raised from seed. The oak also deteriorates from seed . . while the stoneless kind gives a hard sort and often an acid fruit. lent . ii. and also the * conebearing pine ^ (stone-pine) and the ' lice-bearing pine. 4.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. The datepalm seems to be about the most constant of these trees. 49. Theocr. but a wild one of such a character that it does not ripen its fruit . though usually they degenerate and do not even keep their colour. (pdeipoTpayeova-t . On the other hand they say that bay and myrtle sometimes improve by seeding. failing that. Plin. . 49. — . Hdt. 109. but only get as far as flowering. which is often of quite a different kind and at times this is not a cultivated kind at all. and this is why men ^ bid us graft on to the almond. II. but red fruit gives black as happened with and frequently seed of a uie tree in Antandros * female cypress produces a ' male tree.^ Almond again raised from seed is inferior in taste and in being hard instead of soft . 5. The ' lice ' are the seeds which were eaten. apples produce an inferior kind which is acid instead of sweet quince produces wild quince.

\.' on Kara Xoyov ivXeico eVel Odrepov ye koX citottov.e. cf. ov rj fJiaxv tt/QO? ^apelov iyevero. trees are produced only from seed. E^yXoyov he Kal 8 el t^? tov irap i)pLOiv (jyolvLKa (pvTCvoi iv Ba/3vX(x)vi.THEOPHRASTUS aypioL^ hifkov repoi<. Aia(f)€pov(n Be kol tottol tottcov koI di^p depo^' \ iiHaxov yap €/c(f)epeiv r.ev iv AlyvTTTM fcal iv K. 1. iraaaL yivovrai dirvpTjvoL. Whereas wild : tt)p . 2. » aTT\u>s 1 om.et Kapirov totto)- ipyaala^. arj/xeiov Mera/^aWet ^ tov avrov Be rpoirov Kal erepa irpocrdXXtfXov Be Kal rfj Tpocpf] Kal Bid that they should improve from seed. KaOdirep /cat eV ^lXlttttol'.etyooz^09 aTrXco? ^eXrtov TOVTO yap eirl tt)^ poa^ iibvov aKriKoap. Svpavrac fiera- ^dWeiv.LXi/CLa<i irepl TTora/jLov ruv irepl 8e Yllvapov.(. Kal i^OfioLovadai T0t9 iKel. ware e/c airipyuaT09 dyp'iov iroielv i^jdepov q e'/c . i. oLKapira 9 yap ovro^ ^ ' * 114 rr)? e.LXtKLa av/jL/SaLveiv iv AlyvTTTO) fjiev yap ttjv o^ecav Kal airapelaav fcal (pvTevOetaav yXvKelav yiveadai ttco? r) olvcoSi]X6Xov<. i. tt}? K.' uvdrraXLV oXiya kol oXiyaxov Xapb^dveiv fxeTa^oXi]v. x^P^ SoKel ra ofiota. 9.w? eV fiovov el TL fit] rf) roL<i depaireia oo? ia')(ypo' el 8r) %et/3&) utto a7rep/iaro<. Kdp7rip.e. Kal r?}? Oepa- 3' on /xeracpepofieva raKeWev ra Be Kal oXw? d/SXaari] yiverat. €L T£9 KpeiTTcov Treta?.6v re ylveaOai. improve a degenerate seedling. Sch. C. Kol iv eKeivoL<i kol oA.F.

so that wild seed gives a cultivated form. since the parent trees are iiitronger. as at Philippi. Tp Tpo<p^ conj. it is reasonable to expect that it would become fruitful and like the palms of that country. W. though men may in some cases effect a change ^ by cultivation). For the contrary^ would be very strange.* We have heard that this occurs. tendance.'' . II. Hist. . In some places. y Again differences in situation and climate affect the result. W. There are also modifications due to feeding s ^ " Or ^ and wine-like.. or a poor form one actually better. A proof of this is the fact that things transplanted . avrhs Aid. (As a general rule these are degenerate. . but only with the pomegranate.' Cited by Apollon. thence become unfruitful. while about Soli in Cilicia near the river Pinaros (where the battle with Darius was fought) all thosr {)omegranates raised from seed are witliout stones. If anyone were to plant our palm at Babylon.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 6-9 degenerate from seed. in Egypt ^ and Cilicia in Egypt a tree of the acid kind both from seeds and from cuttings produces one whose fruit has a sort of sweet taste. the soil seems to produce plants which resemble their parent on the other hand a few kinds in some few places seem to undergo a change. ' 115 . seeing that degenerate forms are found even in cultivated trees. ii. ovToi conj. Effects of situation climate. TT}S Tpo<t>jii UMVAld. and in some cases refuse to grow altogether. And so would it be with any other country which has fruits that are congenial to that particular locality for the locality ^ is more important than cultivation and tendance. 43.^ and among these only in those which are raised from seed. Mir.

TavTa fiev ovv Bel Be-^^eaOai. W. Plin. * 4. ^6a cultivation has nothing to do with 3 ' ii6 conj.. Kal to BdKpvov d(f)aipr} TO iirippeov TrXeioi y^povov Kal Tip dXXrjv diroBtBa) <f)VTev6fjieva. 3.. * » cf. Kal KaTa /jlcv ra? ')((t)pa<.ev Koirpov veiav Xa^ovcra Kal vBaTO<. jjLiav OepaTreiav. al TOLavTai fi6Ta/3oXaL. 2. KaOdirep to nepaiov to e^ AIjvtttov kul 6 (f)OLVL^ ev T^ '^XkdBi Kal el Byj t^? KOfiiaeLe tyjv evioc Be <f)aac Kal ev Kp7]Tr) \eyo/jLevr)v a'iyeipov. it. TTjv Kara 11 Be (pvTelav Ta diro tcov aTrep/iidTcov ti-jv KaOdirep eXe')(6r]. 17. 242. . .aavTco<^ Be yiveTai. Mairep ev KlyvirTW Kal YLiXiKLa Trepl twv pocov eLTro/Ltev.THEOPHRASTUS aWt^v 10 i-TTi^eXeiav. tottov. 3. 7. ovBe Bid /jLvOcoBearepa ft)<? ovv TO. 2. Ka. 2. fiera^dWeL 8' /lera^dWovra tov Tpoirov tovtov avTO/xaTO)?. irXrjOo'i pvTOV' dfivyBaXrj Be OTav irdjTaXov tl<^ evOfj. evXoyov Be dfKpoTepa avfx^aiveLv KaTa ra? evavTidiaei^. improve.TravTolau yap al e^aXXayal Kal tovtwv.i^aWayfj Be ')(<jopa<. ttj depaTrela Be /xeTa^dXXei poa kol d/ivyBaXi]' poa p. airaypiovrai olov Ka\ anopfi * i. eyia ra ^6a M . UV.\ Ka\ avoppel to. 7]Sr] Se rive<i kol ck Kpidoyv dva^viai <pacn irvpov'i koI eK irvpwv Kpi9a<^ Kal eVt Tov avTov 7rvd/jLeuo<. orjv edv eh dXeeivov eXOrj a<p6Bpa tottov aKaprrov yivecrOar <f)vaeL yap -^jrv^pov. Ta /cdpinfia dKapira kol ottov 'D. afi(})co. 4. avop^ re ^6a Aid. Kuia 2. cf. eiTrep yw-'^/S' oXco? evLa ^veaOai OeXec jieTa^dXXovTa Tov<.e. 4.e. 6 ad fin. oh fcal to dypiov i^tj/j^epovrai KOi avTOiv Se tcou ijfiepcov evia dTraypiovrai. olov poa Kol d/jLvySaXrj. i.

^ such as pomegranate and almond. 259. which cause the wild to some cultivated cultivated. Such are the modifications due to should transplant position. Col.P.P. 7 and 8 cf. the almond if one inserts a peg and ^ removes for some time the gum which exudes and gives the other . 1. C. say that wheat has been known to be produced from barley. and not to any particular method of cultivation. and barley from wheat. 17. 14. So too is it when fruit-bearing trees become unfruitful.^ and the alteration is due to a change of position (as we said ^ Some . As to those due to method of culture. or again cause kinds to go wild. 16. happens with pomegranates in Egypt and Cilicia). Under cultivation the pomegranate and the almond change character. 15 . cj\ 2. Plin.1 ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. or the tree which is called 'poplar' in Crete. 10. seeing that some things entirely refuse to grow when their place is changed. 2. 7. 6 . 17. attention of other become II. 3. since it is by nature cold-loving. It is reasonable to suppose that both results follow because the natural circumstances are reversed. Plin. Anyhow those things which do change in this manner do so spontaneously. again say that the sorb becomes unfruitful if it comes into a very warm position. 17. for instance the persio/i when moved from Egypt.^ if anyone ^ Some it. the date-palm when planted in Hellas. 3. ii. 9-1 kinds. the changes which occur in things grown from seed are as was said (for with things so grown also the changes are of all kinds). 1 . 2. 252. 14. 9. C. 5. or again both growing on the same stool but these accounts should be taken as fabulous.^ the poinegranate if it receives pig-manure ^ and a great deal of river water. 10. 2.

<. jxera^aWei' Xiyot ttXtju ec rt? aXk' eTTiBoaLV yap olov re rov kotlvov tcaX 'yelpov ov ekdav ovBe d'^^pdBa TTOLeli' cittcov ouSe top epiveov (TvkPjv. Salin. MSS.P. de odor. ore puev Koi oXct)? ^ovaiv avTMV ol e^eveyKelv rcov BevSpcov. ^aal 8' ovv avTOfidrijv TOLOvTcou fiera^oXijv. biit were valued 16.THEOPHRASTUS 12 Oepairelav. These olives produced little oil. . kclI TO. 6. cocrr edv irepvKoirel^ Tr)V OaXiav 6\co<. 15. Be epiveov kotlvov rovro. yap rcor /xera/SoXr/Z' /xtjSe •noie'lv oaa dOepairevcrca S' to ^eXriov elvai et? kol aTraypiouTat rj yap depaTreia ra TO. 6d\os Aid. for perfumery : see C. irepiKSnTris Aid. ii8 add. /xeTacpvTevOfj (j>6p€iv iirl ^av\La<. (pavKovs . eXdav Kal Kal eK i^ r^Kiara crvKr)'^ eXda<. Xa^elv ovOev av hia^epoi.' tlvcl yiveadat tmv tmv Kapiroiv ore 5t a kol ar]fx€la vopi- yXvfcelav o^elav Kal TrdXiv uTrXux.6TaKLvr](TL<i ovv fiev yiverat t£9 oiroTepco'^ Set ov /aeydXi]. cf.H.. SevSpa /lera^dXXeiv. oiXTavTa)^. (pavXlas conj. om. 6^eia<: ')(^e2pov yelpov Kal irdXiv Be he eK to eK kotlvov (tvktjv €k W. ' irepiKOirf\s conj. vepiaKOTrre?! \J . Plin. jiev iffjiepoiV' on BrjXov Se u'ypiwv Tojv €^7]/xepovTat rrjv o rov kotlvov (jyacrl avfi/Saiveiv. 8. . U * » oi. wcne ef yXvKelav ycveaOai Kal eK yXv/cela^i o^elav avrd Kal e^ epiveov he TO 619 yXv/celav /jLera^dXXeiv.. 244. (TVKrjV cFVKr###BOT_TEXT###lt;i. (?) Ald. III.. Salm.. 3 and 5 . poav o^elav yXvKsiav olov fidvTet. ravra p.

an acid pomegranate. . : — . sometimes of the fruit. So again a white fig * i. the other to neglect however it might be said that this is not a change but a natural development towards a better or an inferior form (for that it is not possible to make a wild olive pear or fig into a cultivated olive pear or fig). Again a wild fig may turn into a cultivated one. Sch. i. brackets i^ h^ilas . but the latter change is rare. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. III.. in general. all the fruit is now acid instead of sweet. II.' ^ this is no ^ very great change. the tree itself sometimes undergoes a change. change. may produce sweet fruit. . or the reverse. So again a culti. ^Apart from these changes it is said that in such plants there is a spontaneous kind of change. and of certain marvels. 17. sometimes of the tree itself as a whole. 242. whether nature or man is * said to cause the admitted Plin. And the change to sweet is considered a worse portent. . •* . that if the tree is transplanted with its topgrowth entirely cut off. or conversely.e. For instance. vated olive may turn into a wild one. it is said. i attention required. As to that indeed which is said to occur in the case of the wild olive. However it can make no difference which way * one takes this. or the contrary change take place and the latter is a worse portent. Of spontaneous changes in the character of trees. and conversely and again.^ it produces ^ coarse olives. In like manner plainly some wild things become cultivated and some cultivated things become wild for the one kind of change is due to cultivation. and soothsayers call such changes portents. so that it becomes sweet ^ instead of acid. ii. ii-iii.e. o^^lav. or the reverse happens.

6/jLol(o<. 151. Sch.ev cpvXXa dire^aXe tov he Kapirov e^ijveyKev o Kal SeTTaXw to5 Heiaiavp^aivei he Kal hid (XTpaTov yeveaOai XeyeTat' dXXa<i alTua^ evia tmv ')(eipo)va<i TOVTO kol hi hoKovvTcov elvac irapd Xoyov ovk ovtcov he. Sch. aTa^ca ylveTai irepX tov<.H.7reXo<. avKa ecpvaev i/c Tov oTTLaOev TMV OpLcov Kal poa he Kal dp. 4. * 6 Ald. dXXd to iuTavOa Trepl Tt)^ poa^ ev Alyinrro)' OavpacTTov. . 4 ' 2. 5. . Vesp. Const. iirl a/jLTriXov. 3.olov iXda ttot diroKavOelaa TeXew^ dvel3XdaT7]aev oXrj.P. 2. Sid to p^'iav povov rj Svo. 3. eiKhs has perhaps dropped out. and 2 Arist. 'Evrel Kal ToiavTTj ti<. Kat ravra fiev co? repara kol irapa (pvaiv viroXa/bL^dvovaiv oaa he avvrjOrj ro)v tolovtwv ovSe 6avfid^ov(TLv oXw^' olov to ttjv Kairveiov a/jLireXov KaXovixevrjv koI ifc ixeXavo<i ^orpvo^.v. Kal avTt) Kal rj OaXia. G. Toh BevSpoi<. 1. cf. ov p}]v dXX' etirep ev T(p TravTL ')(^p6v(i> (JTravia^. 5. XevKov Koi €K XevKOV /iieXava (pepeiv ovSe yap ol fidvTeL<.^^?. ev he Tjj Boicorta KaTa^pcodevTcov tcov epvwv vn uTTeXe^cov irdXiv .THEOPHRASTUS XevKrj^i fjueXatvav Be TOVTo Kol koX €k fiekaivri^ \evK7]v.ireXo<^ Ik Toiv (TTeXe)(wv kol dp. PjAld.. 5. eXda he ra p. . R. cf. avpjBaivei.. 1 cf.y conj. rd Toiavra Kpivovaiv iirel ovSe €K€Lva. 1 2 s. ad Ar. nap' oh 7r6(f)VK€V t) %<w/0<x /nera^aXXeiv. an. 7. ifitvfwv I20 G. pbdXXov ev rot? KapTrol^i yiveaOai ti]v TrapaXXay-qv rj ev 6Xol(. 7 and 8 fVl conj. dvev (f)vXXcov KapTTov r)veyKev. 0piu. 2.- olov rjhr] iroTe avKrj to. de gen. also Athen. kol TauTa<. e'l . 11.P. Schol. 2. Hes^ch. KapTTOVf. Ka-rrvias. oiairep eXe...

1-3 into a black one. this is said to have happened to Thettalos.e. 8. /cAaSwi/ mU. after being completely burnt down. "^ : « c/. which seem to be abnormal. 121 . . if such changes occur. fruit .^ as it is called. it is natural ^ that the variation should be rather in the fruit than in the tree as a whole. sprang up again entire. Hdt. when the ' smoky ' vine. . are due to other accidental causes ^ for instance. because there are only one or two instances and these separated by wide intervals of time. while the vine has been known to bear fruit without leaves.^ pomegranate and vines from the stem. as the tree itself had not been destroyed. . produces alike white grapes instead of black or black grapes instead of white. The olive again has been known to lose its leaves and yet produce its . . as was said ^ of the pomegranate in Egypt. Sch.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 241. the portent was not so great as in the other case quoted. there was an olive that. the tree and all its branches. But it is surprising when such a change occurs in our own countr}^. Plin. . However. . 7 epvu)v conj. for instance. 17. may change II. and conversely similar changes occur in^ the vine. and Now these changes they interpret as miraculous and contrary to nature but they do not even feel any surprise at the ordinary changes. In fact the following irregularity also occurs in fruits a fig-tree has been known to produce its figs from behind the leaves. And in Boeotia an olive whose young shoots had been eaten off by locusts grew again in this case however ^ the son of Pisistratus. 55 ipyuv PoAld. in. This may be due to inclement weather and some changes. . * i. but are not really so. any more than they do of those instances in which the soil produces a natural change. Of such changes the soothsayers take no account.

176. rjKLGja 8' icrco? TO. ^i ing^ cf. 3.H.. et? alpav.. which cultivated soil induces.? 77 ^eta jiera- rfo <ye rd aTrep/nara Kara fiera^dWeiv fxera^dWei ravra KaO^ eKdari^v XpovM Kal rj ri(^r).?] Kai rjj jive- drepdp^ova ^pl^avra KeXevovaiv iv vurpco olKelovs' Kal I conj.' jSaWovoriv olov Be 7rapa7r\i]aiov tovto ^ftj/9a. Kal 6 7rvpo<. 7. rd Be Oepaireia fiovov olov aOat ^ * tt/jo? W.eTa/3o]. ravra fiev ovv ev roL<.^co/)a^' pLera^dWovcri at Kal <ydp Kal a^cBov iv ru) Ictm Kal Be Kara rov Xaov ^povov. to prevent the change ' i. . olKtius Ald. crx^Bov et? irvpov Kal TTvpol i^7]/jL€pov/xevaL Kal ravra . etwep yiverat. conj. at'T0yLtaTft)9. roiavra aroira Sia to (f)av€pa<. 1. dypLoc kol dWa Kal tout' ovk evOv<.THEOPHRASTUS av€^\dar7]ae' ra S' olov aireirecrev. 19. Plin. iav /mt) KarexyTai rf] depaireia. fiev eoiKe ^co/^a? re p-era^oXfi Oepaireia jivea-Oar Kal evia dpL(^orepoL<. 2. Ta? TL<f)r) 77 iav TrricrOelaaL cnreipoyvjai. jjLoXkov ro (fyepcLV TOL'9 KapTTov'^ tmv ck otVetof?" olfceicov tottcov Kai /laXiara h' oX?/? <pvcr€(o<i 'yiverav /j. IV. . hC o kol /i€Ta(pVT€vovai. olKdovrai Sch. 2 . 122 to rd ocrTrpia p. e')(€iv ra^ aXXa aiTLa^. dav T(x)v Be dWo)v TO T€ ataujui/Bpiop eh fiiv- fieTa^dWeiv.6. oi KpiOal OepaTrevo/jLCvat Kal UM V. tco Tplrw erei. 7roWdKi<. ra 8' iv T0t9 eVeTetof? Bo/cel Bia 7rapa(TKevf]<. BevSpoi<. KaOdirep T?}? el jjL7] rj fiii eKex^V' irepl ra ovv fjuev BepBpa Toiavrai Tiv€<i elai /jL€Ta/3o\aL.e. eoiKoras ^ 2.

see G. IV.. if bruised before they are sown this does not happen at once. 2 reff. * Of other plants it appears that bergamot-mint turns into cultivated mint. . under ' 12 . only been shed. 8.H. or else fruit which does not belong to the character^ of the tree. . This change resembles that produced in the seeds by difference of soil ^ for these grains vary according to the soil. 2 But after shoots had. and in some cases the change is due for instance.: ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. UAld. But ' cf. such changes. 93. 35. II.® for instance. to both. Again wild wheats and barleys also with tendance and cultivation change in a like period. but in the third year. and this is why men frequently transplant ^ Now in trees it . . unless it is fixed by special attention. a P. W. * arepdfxova conj. cf. &pav Ald. These changes appear to be due to change of soil and cultivation. Geop. 3-iv. 7. 2 .^ as has been said/ there is a change in the entire character of the Such are the changes which occur in trees. 4. 2. tree. rather is it since the cause in each case is obvious strange that trees should bear fruit not at the places all . . if they occur. it naturally forms. 6.wheat change and into wheat. And most surprising of all is it when. 8. 18. . ^ so too wheat turns into darnel. such phenomena are perhaps far from strange. 8 xt^pai/ conj. in others to cultivation alone in order that pulses may not become uncookable. 41. 2. iii. 5. Plin. so to speak. and the change takes about the same time as that which occurs in one-seeded wheat. St.P. where Oj apontantous and other changes in other plants. aXpa in Index. are spontaneous. 6 and 7 . 1 aTepajuva and 8 . 4. 123 . but in annual plants they are deliberately brought about '' one-seeded wheat and rice. 12.

iapivov<i (TTTeipr] TpiadXvTTOL jLVOvrai. to Be ytjpa^. kolvt] TL'^ (pdopd irdcfLv. coairep o lepa^ Kal eTroyJr Kal dXXa tmv op. 18.(jyaKov'^ ware iv ^oXlrrp' toi/? (fyvrevovcriv epel3ii>6ov<s he.oi^ 4 rj cocTTrep 6 vBpo<i et? ^ vvKTa I conj. ^ fv ^oKircp Aid. UM

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. 198. 2.P. 5.oiwv Kal Kara Ta? tmv tottcov dXXoid)aeLs\ opvecov. wcrre p. Be koI rod airopou 7rpo<.THEOPHRASTUS vcrrepaia cnrelpeiv ev ^rjpa. on conj. 124 e-)(^iv .eyd\ov<. KaOdirep Kai jdXXa. 6.. a . 3. idv arrapev KaTairarridfj Kal KvXivBpwOfj..epov<^ BevBpov dyovov yiverai. 6. el Be Kard riva TrrjpwaLv i) dcpalpeaiv p. tixBoXov Plin. a\V r) aTroXXvraL to Btapevov Kap7ro(f)ope2. 5*' a\vniay Aid.Kal yap Kara Ta? w/oa? evia Bokcl pera^dXXeiv. * aKviriay conj. Milas. ^d)oi<i at roiavrai fiera^oXal <f>vaiKal Kal 7rXei0u<.. Kal ov^ co? ol fierora<^ o)pa<. 8 Vlverat Be Kal iv to?? \axdvoi<. avrol^ rot? Ke\v- vvKra Trj dSpoij^i lylveadat /Bpe^auTa <f>6crL Kara /xera^dWovai (JTrelpeLV.. 3 cj. 3. KOV(f)uTi]Ta Kal aXvniav olov edv rt? tol'9 6p6/3ov<. 2. (fiepeiv oA. Sch. Geop. Kal rd pev roLavra KOLvd irdvrcov iarlv. 5 6. 11 Col. tmv Xc^d- 27 . dvac^veaOai ^aaiv ovXov. tovto aKeiTTeov ovBev yovv (pavepov Kard <ye TrjV BiacpeaLV et? to irXeico Kal eXdrro) coarrep KaKovpevov. wktI MSS. KaOdrrep rd ^aya. cf. G. TTcopLVol /Sapel*. "ATOTrot' S' dv Bo^eie p^dXXov el ev roL<. 15 P. 5«' aAvnias M . /jLera^oXyj Bid Tt-jV OepaTTeiav olov to aeXivov. fiera^dXXeL Be Kal ttjv ')((opav e^aXXdrTovra. ^r^paivop^evoiv G'eop. 10. . 11.

7 . '*' fl ins. for instance. II. ^ Something seems to have been lost at the end of § 3. Old age however is a ^ cause which in all plants puts an end to life It would seem more surprising if^^ the following changes occurred in animals naturally and frequently some animals do indeed seem to change according to the seasons. . like animals. 139. 23. 2-4 men bid one moisten the seed in nitre for a night ^ it in dry ground the next day. . they become quite harmless and are not indigestible like those sown in autumn.. So also changes in the nature of the ground produce changes in animals. Such variations are common to all we must now consider whether a tree. . Also the time of sowing makes differences which conduce and sow and harmlessness ^ thus. re Aid. 34. if the marshes to digestibility : . it comes up curly it also varies from change of soil. Col.. P. Sia/nivovra Aid. 10. Sch. Sch. 2. 2. Geop. 5. they say that. 12. a ' 125 . 5 c/. to make chick-peas large they bid one moisten the seed while still in the pods/ before sowing. iv. '' .' and refer to something which has been lost. At all events it does not appear that division is an injury. conj. Sch. « c/..*^ if celery seed is trodden and rolled in after sowing. the hawk the hoopoe and other similar birds.^ it bears fruit. Plin. I)roduced if it survives. To make lentils vigorous they plant the seeds in dung 2 . becomes unproductive from mutilation or removal of a part. 18. the water-snake changes into a viper. Again in pot-herbs change is produced by cultivation for instance. as it were. or else. for instance. 76 * ^lafx^vov conj.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. which affects the amount of fruit either the whole tree perishes. 6. roiavrai may however mean 'the abovementioned. if one sows vetches ^ in spring. like other things.

P. . . in the instance given the development of an insect exhibits. 1... '^vy^ij- dX)C eKelvn ^rjrov/ievov. V. ^ Whereas the metamorphoses mentioned above are independent of climatic conditions. G. 3. Trjv Mare avrofid- fiera/BXaaTdueiv fieTa^oXi)<^ rivo^ ra €K TOiV ovpavLcov TOiavrr]^. ^a9vrepov<^ alel Kal al /lev ovv ra y ')(^eipovo<. but a series of changes from one creature to another. Kal /i€Ta/3aXk€i KafiTTT)^ Kal ttXclovcov jiferaL ')(pvaaWh aXkcov iir Bta S' avfi/Saivec irepl tcl rrjv ifc eZr' e/c ravT'r]<. Xap^dveiv KcXevovaiv <yri^ et? yvpov^ rjv co? iTpoopvrreiv co? rol<^ he (f)vrd KdXXiara Kal i^ /LieXXet? (pureueiv. cf. W. fiev ovv irepl Kal pera^oXa^ ck tovtwv Oeo)p^]T6ov. Kal irpoiTov tmv irepl (pureiMV. olov earl rovro TrXecovcov. ' 5e coiij. ovS* o/xoiov ro vX-y-jV. TO X^O"''" 126 U. ovSev taw^ aroTTOV. al XeKreov Kal TVepl TOVTCOV. not one. W. rov<. * i..' TrXelcrrov 6poia<=. <y€i>€a€L<i ^cocov yLvo/jievrj'. Tax'<^Ta MVAld. Se '^povov Kal iTTLTToXaLoppL^orepoi^.^dXXovTaL. 24.e. THEOPHRASTUS ^avepcorara Se koi Kara ra? Bcov. (opaL TTporepov eipijvrai KaO' a? Set. fieydXa en Kal Kal TTOLovcn u€<ydXa<i <pVT6Lai irpojepov Sia(j)opd<. BepSpa Kal oXco? iraaav wcrirep eXe)(6ri Kal rrpoTepov. re Aid. Ta<. 'yevearei'^ evia. * Kiwiara conj. 'EttgI Se Kol at epyaa'iai Kal al OepaTrelai avp.

and should : always be deeper than the original holes. 3.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Further ^ we are told that the plants chosen should be the best possible. R. that. Of methods of propagation. even for those whose roots do not run very deep. and such changes run through a series of creatures ^ thus a caterpillar changes into a chrj^salis.P. 4-v. ivith notes on cultivation. before these. That kind of change occurs in trees and in all woodland . plants generally. also the holes should be dug 6 as long as possible beforehand. Most obvious are certain changes in regard to the way in which animals are produced. and this in turn into the perfect insect and the like occurs in a number of other cases. we have already stated at what seasons one should plant. and its effect is when a change of the required character occurs in the climatic conditions. iv. G. c/. UMVAld. But there is hardly anything abnormal in this. Const. yvpovs irpoopvTreiu conj. V. 127 . the shift should be into better soil. 4. cf. And first of methods of planting as to the seasons. or else inferior ^ . 5. and. . Since however methods of cultivation and tendance largely contribute. ttvoovs irooaopvTTeiv * i.. a spontaneous change in the way of growth ensues. analogous to it. as was said before. if possible. * 3.^ These instances must suffice for investigation of the ways in which plants are produced or modified.2. nor is the change in plants.e. C. methods of planting. of these too we must speak.P. i dry up. which is the subject of our enquiry. and cause great differences. II. 1.* and should be taken from soil resembling that in which you are going to plant them.

el ^aOvppi^ov.THEOPHRASTUS Aeyoucri Be Tive<. [ir). fM€Ta(f)VT€vcov fiefxo-)(\. exposure. vTToppL^a rd fit] ^vrd VTroirpefiva fiTjBe M ToiovTov. 16.aTos and (vhi6Zov x'^Motos refers to for ^ Koi tSttou conj. TiOevai Be kol t7]v Oeaiv Kal rd 7r/?09 6/j. dv(o e)(0VTa KeXevovcn koX tmv vTroppl^cov el'xev iirl rcov BevBpayv B* oX?. e^aLpedeiari<. » c/. Oec.? fioa')(eveiv. W. etc. G. . rd /jLr)X€a<.. 128 > . x^P°-^ T^TTou (so. eft) ov^ Be (j)VTevT7]pia iav /ueu ivBexv^at viroppL^a. rj kol %w/oa? ToiavTrj(. . but ^ K^vo^ixaros iov awp. Xen. rd Be kcito) evLoi Be /xij fiev e-)(0VTa vTTO^aXXeiv. co? Bl rpiCOl' rj/lLTTohiCOV ovSefiia KaTcorepoi huKvelrai O KOI TOt? iTTiTLflMCn €V ^ddeu (fivrevovacv ovk ioL/caat Se opOco^ Xiyeiv iirl ttoWcov aXX' iav t) ^(oiiiJLaTo^ einXd^- /jL€l^ovl rjTai ^aO€0<. PAld. 3. dirlov TTyoo? Be ivBex^raL Twv BevBpwv. iav f) fxlv ffw/xaros a\' iav SO V. 3.eviJLevriv €<I>7) pi^av exeiv fjL€L^co rrjv kol tottov. olov re viro^dXrj rd Trpoa^oppa kol rd rcov <f)VTCOv Kal irpofioa^^^eveiv d(f)aipovvTa<. Xa/i^dveiv.. . pil^a<i KaiTrep OKTUTrrj-^^^up aXX' diroppajeKir^f. TToWo) fiUKpoTepav TrevKTjv Be t^? Ta Be Xeiv /idWov Bel diro twv d/jLTreXov ttXtjv opOd ifi^dXXeiv.? twv t] rd /cat rov (puTevrtjplov oaov airidafxriv irXetov. rj coOel to rfj (pvaec fiev eV avTwv avKrj<. H ^om.. 6. oaa fiearj/x^pLav. 19.oi(o<. 129 ^ . '' . ToiovToxj) to cjuality of soil : so G. eV 'Eai/ Be fxi/cpo) rivirep olov e\da<. .P.' olov afMireXov ravTTjv jdp rd ov-^ auT?. Plin..

grafted. Sch. as the case may be. he found that it had a root more than eight cubits long. as in that of the vine. 129 . v. from the lower ^ rather than from the higher parts of the tree. 5. 3. shoots from the boughs should also.^ a man once said that when he was transplanting a fir which he had uprooted with levers. 2. Xen. If the slips cannot be taken with root or stock * * « c/. they must be set separately. G. grafted on itself. and that the position ^ should be the same as that of the tree from which the slip was taken. 2-4 Some say that no root goes down further than a half. 3.P. or. though the whole of it had not been removed. they say.^ In fact. oaov conj. However there are many instances in which it appears that what they say does not hold good a plant which is naturally deep-rooting pushes much deeper if it finds either a deep mass of soil or a position which favours such growth or again the kind of ground which favours it. 9. planting should be taken. except in the case of the vine those that have roots should be set upright. Some say that part even of those which have roots should be buried. G.P. some being set on the trees themselves. 6. ' i. olov PgAld. for that the vine cannot be slips for .* while in the case of those which have none about ^ a handsbreadth or rather more ot the slip should be buried. 4.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. II. c/.e. if possible. facing north or east or south. with roots attached. but in other cases. be planted. Oec. With those plants with which it is possible. and accordingly they blame those who plant deeper..''' as with olive pear apple and fig. failing that. broken The off. but it was foot and a . 19.

Plin.. Be KoX tP)<. G. 6. ^ ' ?} . /xdXi- 70V . kol twv dXXcov. 1. ara tt}? TV^ovGrj^. 5 . 12. 4 mentioned as being put to the same use) . Odrrov irapayiveraL Kal rjTTOu vtto (JkwXi^kwv KaTeaOUraL. 13. aj^icravTd re to ^vXov KaTwdev kol \i6ov i/n^aXovra ^vreveiv 6fxoiOi<. idv iv aKiXXrj cf)VT€v07j. orav diro TrarrdXov' irpoohoiroLel <ydp 6 TrdrTaXo^ €K€Lvw rep KXy/xan Sid rrjv daOeveiav <pvrevovauv ovrco kol poav kclI dXXa twv BevBpcov. /cdro) rpeirovja rrjv TO/jiTjv Bel (pvreveiv. at B^ dXXac KOLvoTepai irdaLv. (pvreveraL Se ira^^elav G(pvpa dTToXLTTTj fiLKpop vTTep /SaXoov dvoiOev Tr]<^ kol idv rt? Kpd8i]i> d^pi' ov av irair]. so W. W. 17. 87. 3. "ApLCTTOv Be Kal pi^cocraaOaL Kal (f)VT€La<. axlvos.P. kol avKr)<. iXda^ IBla kol tov fMvppLvov. BiaKoineiv Be /jlt) eXdrro) aTriOa/jiiaLcov. wairep eXexO)]. t6 tc MVP. om. A then.P. ' iKaas (f)VT6vetv Be p6a<i /nev re rh conj. 7^9. WapairXi'iaia koX tcov dfMTreXwv. i\da<. 130 . 17. 3. oaa Be ifc rod aTeXe^pv^ Kal BiaKOTTTOfieva (fivreverai. i) avKrj Be. koI tov <f)Xotbv IT poaelvau' (^verac S' e'/c TOiv toiovtcov epvr]' ySXaaravovTcov 5' del it poaxeovvveiv d'^pi' ov dv yerr)rat dpriov avT7] fxev ovv Trj<. . 10 (where another bulb.THEOPHRASTUS Xa/x^dvew. KaOdirep Tt]<i iXua<i. 6X(o<. 123. diro^vva^ ylveaOuL (f)VTd. before rrjs 7} Ka\ rris f\a(as U avKrj. 13 * Plin. MVP W. is cf. f^^XP^ 8/] ^^ (f)acn ^^ V vka. Be irdv iv crKiXXy (^vrevopievov ev^Xaare^ KOL OuTTOv av^dverat. 5. . 7. cix' avTrj^ dfl/XOP /cat eirL')((jL>ar)' ravra ra KaXXico KOL av/crj ?. cf. « G. .

] 7. corrohoreturG &pTiT€uy 3. * 2.^ The fig * is also propagated by sharpening a stout shoot and driving it in with a hammer.^ they say that one must ~ split the wood at the lower end and plant with a and the fig and other trees must stone on top be treated in like manner with the olive.^ and the pieces cut off should not be less than a handsbreadth in length. The fig is better than any other tree at striking . i« rimv MV. v. W. 9. 11. All those trees which are propagated by pieces cut from the stem should be planted with the cut part downwards. . where however the method of propagation is different. cf. roots.^ This kind of propagation is peculiar to the olive and myrtle. 3. From such pieces new shoots grow. 5.. 7. till only a small piece of it is left above ground. ..ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Geop. U . ^^ We are told that. and as they grow.^ and the bark should be left on. more than any other tree. ' . * &pTiov Aid. &pTi . The fig progresses more quickly and is less eaten by grubs. . Similar is the method used with vineSj when they are propagated by the ' peg ^ method for the peg makes a passage for that sort of shoot on account of its weakness and in the same manner men plant the pomegranate and other trees. 4-6 attached. as was said. . if the cutting is set in a squill-bulb ^ in fact anything so planted is vigorous and grows faster. till the tree becomes strong. {quoad donee robur planta capiat Plin. apriTeXii conj.P. 7 cf. and then piling sand above so as to earth it up and they say that the plants thus raised grow finer up to a certain age. one should keep on heaping uj) earth about them. and will. grow by any method of propagation. 8. as with the olive. II. while the others are more or less common to all trees. «/>Ti t(wv P. satis 124) G. .

eK(f)vat. rdXXa Be t^t09 (f)oivLKa)v rj CLKapira. (pVTeia irapd ravra Oepairela. iiTL^ev^ei twv aXX' ck tcov XvTTTeiv Ta9 dpxd<i oOev 1 i\day conj. KeXevouai. irXeov. . olKeia^. B' . Be Travra^. Sch. air <tt da ei^' iv yap tol'^ opeivol^ eXdra'Triov<^ TOi/? rj eVt 6<y')(i'a^' ttoWw a/jLvySa\d<i Be kol avKa<. (purevovcri ydp 7rA. iroielaOai Be koX iTpo<^ rov TOTTov rd<. apples pears plums. Bl' o Kal iTTLTiOepevcov ov Bel irepLKa- {cf. 17. a>aavTW^ Be KOL rr)v eXdav.r) Be Kal iv Td<. tiUTOt? TOi? 6p. ra^ v7r(opeLa<. he fiLfcpo) 7r6Sa<. fiev ^vaiv dyad a yiveaOai irapd (pvaiv Be ravra jnev ovv wairep kolvcl irdvrwv.ev evOevel Ka\ avKrj (paatv oiKeiOTaT'rjv elvai. . fcal irkeov hiear(jL)aa<^ /laKporepov.. etc. TTpavel<=. 3 i... rrjv ireBeLvqv Tot9 Be dKpoBpvoi<. 7rvKva<. iv roL<i TreBeLVOL^. Bd<f)va<.6tOL'9 et9 ravTO riOevre^ Bug Kdrco Kal Bvo ti-jv ydp dvcoOev eTTiBovvref. rj eKc^vai'^' Plin.o THEOPHRASTUS kul fivppLPOvf.. fxaWov. t) evvea he Koi /xt] in\£a<. d/jLTreXcov ovv KaTo.oyevecn Trpoa^opov tyjv Tore ')(pri dyvoeiv p. iv ra tmv d/iTreXcov roaavrd rivi'^ (paai TrXelarr] Be 009 elirelv Btacjiopa oca ydp iajL 7^9 iarlv' Kal etBrj. Tmv VI. 132 dvco. Kul dfiTrekw to elirelv co? 'X^copav a7rXw9 eiTrelv yap iXda p. ' (###BOT_TEXT###lt;iTTovi conj. Meyiarov eKd/jT(i) Be dTvoBiBovar co? 5' /xdXiaTa. Bod. ^oiiiy (pavepal UAld.v ovK iK tcov vtttIwv Kal kolXwv iroielTai. fcal KaOdirep iv TTj 7) jierd TLve<^ (j>aaLV.e.H. 88) eKarroy Aid. ^vrevofieva eivai.

^ Nor should one fail to note what soil suits each variety even of those closely related. They plant several seeds together. they turn out well. which are fastened on . • it. they say that low ground is most suitable for the olive fig and vine. almonds and figs further still. they are unfruitful. : Of the propagation of the date-palm . . ' i. the with the grooved side downwards. Speaking generally. 6-vi. i in planting the pomegranate myrtle or bay.e. of palms in general. pears and wild pears still further. II. If they are planted as their nature requires. putting two below and two above.e. being less ^ In hilly parts than in low ground.^ but from the part ^ wliich is uppermost . VI. one may say. as also is their subsequent cultivation. between the different kinds of vine for they say that there are as many kinds of vine as there are of soil. * The method of propagating date-palms is peculiar and exceptional. 32. . And these remarks apply almost equally to all trees. and in like manner the olive. Most important of all. apples a little further. 13. one may say. not further than nine feet apart. There is the greatest difference.^ Again the distance apart must be regulated by the nature of the ground. wherefore in joining on the seeds which are placed above one must not cover up the points from which the growth not. one should set two trees close together. is it to assign to each the suitable soil for then is the tree most vigorous. but all face downwards. from the ' reverse or hollow side. and the lower slopes of hills for fruit trees. the round side. grooved side. * i.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.^ For germination starts some say. v. if otherwise. as ' * Plin.

. vypSv I have inserted Se. t) rovro)V Se ai re pi^ai tt/jo? aXki'fK. Kal ev Ai/Surj he /cal ev Alyvirrfo Kal ^OLViKY} Kal rr]<. at TrpcoraL /SXacrr^a-eL^. ^ ' "^ . he hel TToielv [ii] rrepl avrd<i rd<. cj.H. elvac cabbage. 36.' i.VLKcov d\/jLcoh€L<. . d/x/jLuS-q PjAld.. (piXel he Kal iihpeiav a(^6hpa ro hevhpov rrepl he Koirpov hiap^^ia^rirovaLV ol /xev yap ov <f)aai dXX! ivavncorarov elvai. (TvixirXeKovTai kol evOv<. ^ a\iuiw5T} 134 . pt^cr? aXV uTToOer diroarrjcravra TrepLirdrreLv oaov rjfiieKrov' on ht roiavrrjv ^>]reL ')((i}pav KdKelvo iroiovvrau atj/Jielov Tvavra'xpv yap oirov irXrjOo^ (f)Ot. Kal KaravaXiaKeiv ovrco. oirov oi ')(^ct)par (f)OLViKe<.a<i (f)vi€ia. otherwise retaining TovTo the reading of Aid. %vpia<^ he rrj<. the cut end. 8' yhec'. Kaddirep ol ev rov^ ev roL<i h' ')(\(opov<. ev fj y 01 ifKelcyroL rvy^dvovcnv. he rovro Kurco rideacrt. ev rpcarl /jl6voi<. orav cKpeXwai. ')(^prj(70ai vhpevecv ev fidXa Kara r^? Koirpov. Plin. 7r6(l)VKa<Tt. 13. ol he Kai ')(aipeiv helv h' Kal eirihocnv rroWrjv rroielv.W. rl vyp6v.e. 'H fjL€V ovv diro TO)v KapiTOiv <f)VT6La TOiavry Tt9* rj 3' a(/)' avTov. TiOiaaiv on airo rov €vo<. . Koi\r)<^. a'l Kol yap ev ^a(3v\o)vi (fiaaiv. to avw ev wirep 6 iyKe(f)a\o<i' cK^aLpovcn he oaov Sltttj-^v Gr')(icravre<... : W. Mcrre eu ylveaOaL to areXexo^. tovtov kcltw ndeaai S* twypov conj . conj. roiroi's a\/jAfjheaiv elvai rov'^ hvvaiievov<^ Orjcravpi^eaOar dWoL<.THEOPHRASTUS 8ia rovro 3' et? to ai)To ifiTrelpoL^. ov hiajieveLV dWd aijTrecrOai. viz. ro vypov (^iXel o Kal ottou /xt] roiavT)j he 'X^copau dX/jbcohrj' ht rvy)(^di'€i TrepLTrdrrovdiv dXa<^ oi yewpyoL' rovro Gicrt TOt? 7r\€Lov<. aa6€vri<.

Such is the method of growing from the fruits.\/j. and this must not be done about the actual roots one must keep the salt some way off and sprinkle about a gallon. come II. wherever date-palms grow abundantly. they say. they say. reason why they set several together is that a plant that grows from one only is weak. Koi xp^f^a* conj. To shew that it seeks such a soil they offer the folloAving proof. "l^^oi MVAld.. vi. 28. the growers sprinkle salt about it . which contains the 'head. conj. W.^ both in Babylon. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. is oi V 135 . The roots which grow from these seeds become entangled together and so do the first shoots from the very start.. likewise very fond of irrigation as a difference of opinion some say that the date-palm does not like it. but rot. W. by taking off the top. Kcxp^o-flai Aid. Sch. set the moist end. h' "Ivdoi U. where are ^ most palms. stage. a/x/^wSeis Ald. ? Kexapvc^^^- * ' .. Plin. and.. But propagation is also possible from the tree itself. where the soil is salt. but that it is most injurious. where the tree is indigenous.c!)S€ts = iy^y' 7 * : conj. . KarapaXiaKeadai conj. 1-3 and tliese can be recognised by experts. splitting it. the soil is salt.. are dates produced which can be stored those that grow in other districts do not keep. in Libya in Egypt and in Phoenicia while in Coele-Syria. 13.H. only in three districts. And the : . so that they combine to make a single stem. where such soil is not available. but plenty of water should be Tlie tree '' to is dung there a. though when fresh they are sweet and men use ^ them at that is to . others that it gladly accepts ^ it and makes good growth thereby. KaTauaKiffKetv Aid. W.'^ They take off about two cubits' length.^ It likes a soil which contains salt ^ . wherefore.

from UAld.THEOPHRASTUS ovv eTTLCTKeTneov' Tcra)? yap ol Oepairevovaiv. b-irorav dBpo<. "AXXoL Be riV6<i Xeyovaiv &>? ol ye Kara "Zvplav ovBepiav TTpoa-dyovacv epyaalav aXX^ rj BiaKaOaipovai Kal e7n^pe')(pv(7Lv. rov avXcova Be rovrov Xeyeiv rovfy Xvpov<. ottco^. koI iraXiv orav 8l€t^<. fiev Tovro ovTQ)^ ol ^Xa^epd. Plin. ^(^dypa^. &>? koI rrapayivopevov kol av^avopevov Odrrov. 6pOo(f)vrj t' KOL al pd^BoL pt) diraprwvrai. veov pev ovro^ ov)(^ dirrovev rai. ttXtjv dvaBovai rrjv Koprjv. repw<. ixev S' eVetVft)? orav he eviavaio'^ 'yevrjrai. 13. avynTapafiaKKovcTi conj. Sch.' ol Be Vta^uXwvi irepl ro acrrpov. 5.. pe^pt Kal rroXXoij<^ (jidaKeiv T?}? epu6pa(.. rb vapariaLov vBcop rj to ck rov Aio?* elvat Be TToXv roiovrov ev rw avXoiVL ev <p Kal ra (poivLK6(f)vra rvyxdvet. 37. TrepLrepvovaiv. ore koX 6Xco<. cf. avfivapa\afi$dvov<r. (^0LVLKa<. ol ye TToXXol (j)urevovaLV. pera ijByj Be y ravra yevrjrat Kal drroXeiirova-L Be oaov cnnOaprjV rwv Be eo)? pev y vec^ dirvprjvovrov (^iepei civ pera Be rovro TrvptjvcoBr]. 7. ird^o'^ €XV' pdjSBwv. . jxera- (pvrevovai koX tmv oXmv avfiTrapa^dWovcn. koX /xera fiev rod vBaTO<^ oi^eXifJiov rj /coTTyoo? avev Be tovtov *V6S(i). 38. wairep Kal ^ Plin. 1. eTrc^rjretv Be pdXXov Kapirov. cj. 1 ' 136 G . 9a\d<j(7ri<^ iXyjXvOevaL' rovrov Be ev ray KoiXordro) 7re(f)uravra pev ovv rd^' dpcpoKevaL rov<. ore BtareiveL Blcl t/}? ^Apa^La<. MeTa(j)VT€vovaL Be ol pev aWot rod rjpo<.' %at/o^^ 7^P <^^oBpa rij /lera(pvTeia. av etr)' Kara yap ra^. 13.

and that dung. the Arabian Gulf. SieXrjXvdiyai CODJ. leaving the slender branches only about a handsbreadth long. Now both accounts may be true. W. . So long as it is young. However some say that the people of Syria use no cultivation.*^ At a later stage they prune it. Diod. except that theji tie up the foliage.^ is beneficial. they do not touch it. given. also that the date-palm requires spring water rather than water from the skies and that such water is abundant in the valley in which are the palm-groves. if accompanied ])y watering. . 3-5 II. Most transplant Babylon in the spring.e. '' ^ ' 7 ' * 6pdo<pvr) t' ^ conj. except cutting out wood and watering. old. As long as it is young.. R.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. as the Rhodians use. 2 When the tree is a year and give plenty ^ of salt. . after manuring. i\T]\vd4vai Aid. but the people of about the rising of the dog-star. when it is more vigorous and has become a stout tree. avapTwvTai conj. airopdcivTai PaMAld. Const. it produces its fruit without a stone. for it is not strange that . since it then germinates and grows more quickly. and repeated when it is two years old. but later on the fruit has a stone. 3. though then without it it is harmful.^ and that it is in the lowest part of it that the date-palms grow.^ and that many profess to have visited it. And they add that the Syrians say that this valley extends through Arabia to the Red Sea. This is matter for enquiry . c/. vi. so that it may grow straight ^ and the slender branches may not hang down. and this is the time when most people propagate it. W. tliey transplant it this treatment is for it delights greatly in ^ being transplanted. it may be that there arctwo distinct methods of cultivation. 41. opdocpvrjrai PjAld. i.

Const.' ol p. vpwTov conj. 13. UMVAld. K^puTiaTOV Be Kol tmp XevKcov Kal tmp pLeXdvcov TO j^acnXiKov KaXovpevov yevo^ ev eKarepw Kal peyeOei Kal dpeTj}' airdvia B' elvai TavTaXeyovar a)(eBov yap ev p. dXX^ oj/xo? wv r}Bv<. nrixvv conj. cf.ev jdp dTrvprjvot ol Be piaXatcoTT u pt-jvoi' ra? ')(^poia<i ol pbev XevKol ol Be p.6vfp tm V>aycpov KrJTTcp tov ev K. Plin. R..Biacpepeiv Be kol KaTO. p.. tov Kapirov. TCL pLe'^/Wrj KOL KaTCL TO.. rj Be 0/jXeia Kapirov ev6h pLLKpov. ecTTL' Tyv evtoi 8' ov p.6vov BuaBe yXvKVT7]Ta IBlav e^ei. 45. a')(^)]iiara' kol yap a(f)aipoeiBel'^ ev[ov<. 53 * . Be iroXv Bia(f)epovTa<. CTreiTa TOiv Kaprrip^wv ol p. Siacfyepeiv fcal Ta<. cr^oBpa Kal yXvKv<. yevo^ (f^oivLKCDV iaTlv o ov Trerraivei. ep'yaala^ ovk droTTOv. from Plin. dtaavel pirjka kol to. i^ a)v ol irepl lia/3v\(t)va Td<.v7rpa) Be lBiov tl rraXaiov irepl Vta^vXoiva.aTd (^aaiv elvai twv (TVKcov ovB^ dirXa)^ tu yevr]. crdxvy eiTTo Ka\ 138 and O. iScvdov^. » 2 ' 2.h' appev€<^ at Be dtjXeiar Biac^epovcn Be dW/]\cov. TevT] Be Tcou (^olvlkcov icrrl irXeiw Trpayrov jxev Kot oidirep ev peyiarr) hia(^opa to pev Kap-rripiov TO he cLKapTTOv.THEOPHRASTUS avra to. ol Be ^avdoi TO 3' oXov OVK eXaTTO) ')(^p(£>p. Kud' a 6 pev dpprjv uvOo^ TrpcoTov (jyepet eVl t?}? aTrdOrj^. t€ K\iva^ Kol TOiWa aKevrj iroiovvTai. TeTTapa<^ ei? tov irrjynjv eh'ai. 39. avruiv Be tmv KapirMV Biacpopal TrXeLOV^. 13. Sch. di<. Be puKpov^ rfXiKov^ ipeKOL TOL<.eyeOr] ttjXiK0VT0v<.eXav€<. eviroSovs VMV : the words perhaps conceal a .. irpuTos UMVAld. Diod. BevBpa. [eirTa ical et'TToSoL'?]* dXXov<. ')(^vXoX<.

and these differ from one another in that the ' male first ^ bears a flower on the spathe. ' ' . is that which in either form is called ' the royal palm .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. * while others are and that there is small. Some palms again ® differ not merely ' '' G gloss on TT^x'"'* ^-Q. . soft stones . much difference in flavour. is rare .^ near Babylon. Plin. 13. methods of cultivation should the trees themselves. like .f^s tr'qx^s Suo TrcJSej (Salm. Again of the fruitful trees some are 'male. in general they say that there is not less variety of colour and even of kind than in also that they differ in size and shape. : 139 . some black. . 13. whether of the white or black variety. rov iraKalov apparently distinguishes this Bagoas from some more recent wearer of the name.. from Plin. and some are white. — . while the ' female at once bears a small fruit.' others 'female'. W. In Cyprus there is a peculiar kind of palm which does not ripen its fruit. The best kind alike in size and also in quality. Again there are various differences in the fruits themselves some have no stones. . when it is unripe.) . corr. they say. it grows hardly anywhere except in the park of the ancient Bagoas. but this. 28. Ka\ iirl i:6ba conj.^ no bigger than chick-peas . some being figs round like apples and of such a size that four of them make up a cubit ^ in length. vi. " Baydov BarToy MSS. 13. cm.. 13. it is very sweet and luscious. Const. though. > « Plin. 33. 41. and this lusciousness is of a peculiar kind. To begin with. by R. 5-7 II. ivlore * Plin. . some to take first the most important difference are fruitful and some not and it is from this latter kind that the people of Babylon make their beds and other furniture. some yellow as to colour. ^ There are several kinds of palm. others in different soils the differ. 42.

cf. {KovKi6<popov) of .THEOPHRASTUS dWa kol avTW tm BevSpo) (pepovaL rot<.6vov<. 'EcTTt Be 6 (polvL^ fxev aTrXw? elirelv fiovo(7TeA. Se KOL TTepl l^vplav kol irepl AtyvTrTOv ^oivLKe^ fxaorepoi o'l ran' (f)€povaL r€Tpa€T€L<. 2. 38 . * 140 UMVAld. wairep etprjTaL. bfjLolws Plin. dWct BLa/iaarjaapevovf. Mairep ev AlyvTTTcp. irXelov^ elvai tou? Bi<pveL<. Tou? 8' ev AlytiTTTO) kol KuTrpo) koi irapd rot? aXXoi^ ')(\copov<i dvakiaKeaOai. poa tw (txi]fxaTL he ITpo iir)Kri<^ ov/c €V)(^u\o<.. iroWd. o koX to (f)vX\ov TrXaTurepov e%6i /cal top /capirop /xeu^co ttoWw Koi lBi6/jL0p(f)0V' fxeyeOei fiev ij\lko(. eviov<. Bod. OycravpL^eaOat Be p. hvvacrdai (paai tmv ev Xvpca tou? eV tm avXcovi. 7. CK^dWeiv. kol ttjv aW'y]v fiopcfi^jv ov yap ^pa')(ei<. ev Kp7]T)j TTW? lad^ovTU. §5. Toiavra koi to oXov Be to.. y^ciipaL^ irXeiui yiveaOai to. eiBrj irXeico Koi Td<^ Bia^opd^.ev Be Trj Aairaia tlvcl koI 7revTafce(f)aXov' ovk dXoyov yovv ev rat? evTpo(j)coT€paL<. 4. dWd » ifxoios conj. €vOv<^ elal TpteT€L<s' TToXXol Se KOL ouroL TTepl Kvirpov. Be Mcrirep dXkoL dXX' ofiOLO'i Tat? f)6at<.6%69 Koi p. kol iTevraere2<^ dvSpofi7]Kei<i "F^Tepov 6' eTL yevo<i ev J^inrpw. yevrj fiev ovv. (JL><. Kara re to /x7]ko<.. Be koX rpK^vel^. wcrre fir) KUTahexecrOai . Kapiroi'. eVt he Kapiri/xeydXoi /cal [xaKpol dWd ciWcov kov Kap7ro(f)opovvTe<. where the name ^ cf. this tree is given. 13..ovo^ve<^' ov fjL7]v ylvovTai Tive<i KOL BtcfiveU. KaOdirep BiKpoav exovT€<i' to B' avdanj/Jia tou areXexov'i dcf)* ov t) o-X}(7i'^ i^clI irevrdTTTj^v 7rpo9 dX\r)Xa Be ^aal Be koX tov<.

vi. there are many kinds. and tliat some of them have three stems . as it were the length of the stem up to the point where it divides is as much as five cubits. * ovK &\oyov yovv conj. but chew it and then spit it out. they say. 5* Sch.MU (marked doubtful). . {ovk &\oyoy yovy Ald. The palm. . speaking generally. as soon as they are three years old this kind too is Syria and Egypt there are palms which bear when they are four or five years old.) . The only dates that will keep. and in general that more kinds and more variation should be found under such conditions. They say that the palms in Crete more often than not have this double stem. in shape it is long it is not however juicy like others. 7-9 but in the character of the tree itself and general shape for instead of being large and tall they are low growing but these are more fruitful than the others^ and they begin to bear as to stature . in their fruits II. as in Egypt. ov KaXws 14J . . has a single and however there are some with two simple stem stems. at which age they are the height of common a in Cyprus. so that men do not swallow it. while those that grow in Egypt Cyprus and elsewhere are used when fresh. Again . but like ^ a pomegranate. and that in Lapaia one with five heads It is after all not surprising^ has been known.^ which make a fork. and tho two branches of the fork are about equal in length. . as has been said. which has broader leaves and a much larger fruit of peculiar shape in size it is as large as a pomegranate. W.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. There is yet another kind in Cyprus. in man. Thus. that in more fertile soils such instances should be commoner. are those which grow in the Valley ^ of Syria. .

yuveaOai (paai 6 AWioirLav. in Plin. ' 142 c/. ov 669 €U. 5.€POV eXa^^aTOiv. fxari KOL Tw /jieyedei kol too (TrpoyyvXcorepov yap kol rjTTOV Be yXvKvv. ov')^l irXeio) ev to crreXe^o? dXXd irTj^valaf. e^ avruiv del cocrr irepl fiev Ot 11 Kapirov ovv tovtcov eTrLa/ceirreov.e. fxev tmv Xe/a?.THEOPHRASTUS "A Wo 10 Se TL irXelarov irepX ovTOL 8e dWa yei'O^ iarlv da/jLi'(oS€L<. 13. W. e^acpedevTOf. K6ii(as conj. 47. Kprjrrj ylvovrai Kal ravra juev ovv eirl irXelov el'p-qrat tt}? viroOeaeo)^. aXX' oaov ciKpcov rrjv e^pvai he koX to (fivWov TrXarv kol coaKaXol Be irep ix BvoLu avyK€L/J. Salm. Bl o Kal irXeKovatv e^ avrou rd<.SXaardvovcn. (Ti/i'TjpTTj^eVa yUf'xp* Ti^bi 6JS iv con j . Kol rfj oy^ei (f)aLVOVTaL' rov Be Kapirov koI tm (TXVKojir^v.' irXarv yap Kal fxaXaKOv exovcrc rb (f)iiXXov. Be Kal TM Kap7T(p Kal roL<. . earlv coaTrep o/jLCovvfiov kul yap rod iyxecpdXov ^oicTL Kal Koirevre^i Biacj^epovaL 7rapa. 10. re a-TTvpiBa^ Kal rov<. iirl he tlvo<. j ffvvr]pTr]iu(ias fj-fi . 1.' en pitoyv TToXXol Be Kal ev rfj fidXXov ev %LKeXia. Be ^ayLtatppi0€t9 KaXov/ievoL rcov (poivLKCov erepov tl yevo<. o KaXoucn t7]i> fjLaKpd<. (f)vXXoL<. diro ro)v (popfiovf. koI evLore avvrjpTtjfMiva f^^XP^ Ta? Be pd^hov<. and the probable readint I. X^^V /xeL^o) Bid(f)opov exovar kol evaroficoTepov ireiTaivovcn Be ev rpicrlv erecriv eiriKaraXapl^dvovTO^ ex^^v.. rov veov tov evov iroiovcn Be Kal ciprov. » * Plin. icoiKa^' €)(^ovt€<.

3. II. and so they weave It is common in their baskets and mats out of it. 10. 3. now abundant at Selinunte 3. having nothing but its name ^ in common with other For if the head is removed. 39. so that there is always fruit on the tree. for roots. not having a single several.(XP^ •* ^ i. broad and. Elh. it shoots again from the It differs too in the fruit and leaves . leaflets.^ only the length of a cubit. but they are plain. However in Crete and still more so in Sicily. palmosa Sdinua. eAax^ffrwv U. called the doum-palm ^ this stem but is a shrubby tree. as it were. W. being rounder larger and pleasanter to the taste.^ and The leaf is the leafage is borne only at the tip. 13.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. as it is called. 4\axi<TToiv Bas. These reports then call for bread out of it. which sometimes are joined together up to a certain point". /xev ins. made up of at least ^ two . 9. is a distinct kind. " dwarf palm is 705. though not so luscious. as the new And they make fruit overtakes that of last year. vi. lo-ii 1 There is said to be is another kind which abundant in Ethiopia. leaflets. and. N".^ these matters we have said more than our purpose required. in enquiry. Verg. after Sch. : cf. and its fruit shape size and flavour differs from the date. the leaf is broad and flexible. avvrjpTrj/JLivas filf TJvbs elei' MV. 1 n. palms. awripT-nixiva fx^XP*^ tiv6s elfft Aid. 5. U . ^ The dwarf-palm. without e'v 7 Plin. 143 . it survives.e. except at the tip. and the leaf-stalks are not long. « . fls %v IJ. Arist. i\axl<TTOis Sualy. • A Aen. This tree is fair to look upon. It ripens in three years. if it is cut down. cf.ov cf. (omitted above).. For 6fxd>vv(j.

tvttw irepCka^elv VII. €tl B* ev^arwrepav yiveaQai' ovk uTTo/BdWeiv 8e ovS* edv Tf? diroKXdcrri evdv<. 17.. Plin. vBpevo/jLevr] rov Be AaKcoviK7]<i' avTrj Be (f)LXvBpo<. 3. H.e. poa Be kol d/j. v. olov y KVirdpLTTO^. 2.<. ^ 144 . 84. avKyj^' ov yap aTTO^dWeiv avdirakLv (^vrevOeXaav. (plXvBpa. reff. TO oLKpov. ere Be (TVKrj Be Kapirov ev^Xaarorepa iO'')(^6L %€t/96) irXrjv jxev rrj<. Oeop. €v0ara)T€pav {i.). 9. ovv ovOev 8ia(f)€p€iv (pacrlv ijKiara Se eVt 01 fiev TMP cifiirekwv' eviOL he poav haavveaOai fcal aKid^ew /jidWov top Kapnov en Be t^ttov diro^dXkeiv Tou? KVTLVOv. ^ avdiraXiv conj. BiaKdOapai. 2.. 10.P. 4 . 9. 'more manageable'). Tlepl Be T^9 €pya(TLa<. 8. 77 Bia^epovai Be rw /xaWov koi ^ttov. has * cf.THEOPHRASTUS Se 'Ej/ 12 T(ov Tal<^ aXKwv ^vreiai^ avdiraXiv TiOevraL ra (pvreurrjpLa. " oZv ins. "tjnep ov ^CkoKoirpov ovBe <^i\vBpov. kolvcl rd 01/ rpoirov e'Lprjvrac.a KOL diroWvaOaL ^aaiv edv <ye veav ovaav i(f)vBpev(oai. KaOdnep rcbu KXojfidrcoi^. cf. koi d(^aipeaL<.. At fiev ovv koi (f)UT€Lac exovcTv (T'X^eSov o)? <yevea€L<.7r€\o<. t?}? depaireia^ Be IBia Ka6* eKaarov.e. Plin. I. T€ (TKairdvrj koI t) vBpeia kol 77 kolvcl KOTrpwai^. Saavvfffdat see LS. The reference is to a method of keeping the tree dwarf (Bod. C. avixjSaLveiv he tovto (f)aaL Koi eirX T7]<. ' : P. KaX ean TCL /lev fiev rj ^voiJLevri<... ravdvaXiv Aid. dW. rd fiev <f)iXvBpa Kol ^ikoKOTT pa rd S' ou% 6/jLolco<. Saavs. tcov aucov. 45. ttoWm. G. Sch.

' rh 6. they say.F. But different trees differ in the degree. : . 9 Tfintp conj. i« c/.Kpov conj. The fig grows more vigorously if it is watered. which seems to be a rendering of eujSar. R. . 17. Some love moisture and manure. C. II. and of the ways in which these trees are reproduced. Const.^ which ^ is fond VII. To return — to the other trees in propagating them they set the cuttings upside down/ as with vine-shoots. This also occurs. from G . work watering and manuring. with the fig when it is set upside down. Some however"^ say that that makes no difference. W. if it is 1*^ scansilem (so also G). after G rhv napirhv UMVP«Ald. which is water-loving. overwatered when young. M5 . and moreover pruning and removal of dead wood. ' Plin. even if one breaks off the top ^ as it begins to grow. but actually dies.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. and tendance some requirements apply equally to all trees. 3. i Further notes on the projmgation of trees. and it makes a more accessible ^ tree and it does not shed its fruit. . » Plin. vi. some not so much. But the pomegranate and vine are water-loving. '' neither of cultivation manure nor of water. ivBaroTfpav U. 246. except in the case of the Laconian variety. it does not shed its fruit. and also that it is then ^ less apt to shed the flower. as the cypress. 6. but then its fruit is inferior. Zairep Aid. and least of all in propagating the vine while others contend that tlie pomegranate thus propagated has a bushier growth 3 and shades the fruit better. Of the As to cultivation 0/ trees. 12-vii. 17. 247. Thus we have given a general sketch of what we find about methods of propagation. 6. . they say. some are peculiar to Tliose which apply equally to all are spadeone.

7rpo/3dTov.. 17. oXo)? kotttovgiv <yepdvhpvov yap ?. TroXvxpovLcoTepa Kal la')(yp6TaTa Tavra piev ovv errLcrKe^an' elvau Kal iXdav. 3. via jiverai. 248. hLaKaOdpa€a)<. C. ovO' rj avTrj Trdaiv appLoTTer tcl puev yap hpi/jb€La<i hecTai. of tree missing. to. . Sch. hpipiVTdTii he t) TOV Kaddirep dvOpcoTTOV dpicTTrjv fiev Tai>Tr)v elvai veiav. Plin. OTav ^ Kal iXdav oaw yap av eXuTTw KaTa\i7ryj<^.vppivov <f>a(Ti. touttjj Aid.v eKdarco iroirjreov. el Kal /jlt] irdvTa dXXa nepl ye t?. cf. epbTTohi^ei. eXdav Kal /xvppivov Kal poav ov yap ex^iv fi'^rpav ovhe voarj/xa Kara 77}? ovhiv dXX^ iirethdv iraXaLOV y to hivhpov. Oepaovtco he ireveiv coairepav e^ dp')(r}^ (j^VTevOiv p.? /jL'^Tpa<. Tpo(f)a<. hevTipav he ttjv TCTdpTrjv he ' Name * TouTp conj. Kal 7rXeLaTrj<i vhpeia<. (j^yjaiv AvhpoTiwv helaOat fivpptvov av^rjcT€L<. (f)r](Ti. . W.? hiaKaOdpaeco^. . apLeiVOv ^Xaarrjcrei Kal tov Kapirov oiacL irXeioi' ttXtjv d/jLTTeXov hrjXov Taviy yap dvayKaiorepov orr Kal 7r/)09 /3Xd(TTijcnv Kal tt/jo? evKapiriav. tov SevSpov. airXMs he Kal ravTTjv Kal ti^v aXXt]v Oepairelav tt/jo? ri]v Ihiav (f)uai. wairep Kal Tf...P. . aTTorifiveiv helv Tou? dKpe/ii6va<. 4. av Tt9. Kal XapT6hpa<. fi rrXela-Trj^ he ^\d(TTT]aL<. 10. eircLTa to aTiXe'^o<. TpiTTjv * » 146 he alyo^.THEOPHRASTUS AiaKaOalpeaOai 5e irdvra ^tirel' ra)v avcov cK^aipov [Jbevwv coairep Ta9 Koi ^eXjiw yap oKKoTpiwv. ^AvhpoTLCOv Kal Kowpov AelcrOat hi (firjcriv hpipLVTdT7](. 5' rjTTOV TCL he jravTeXo)^ Kov(^rj<. a Kat o hi Kol Ta<.. 'H he Konpo^ 0VT€ iraaiv 6p^OLoo<.

for the smaller you leave them. which is. vii. fourth that of sheep. the better they will grow. some less so. sap-wood. pig-manure being second to it. speaking generally. they cut for then the tree breaks afresh. some need it quite light. Wherefore when the (tree) 2 becomes old. botli fruitfulness. W. 2-4 1 All trees require pruning for they are improved by removal of the dead wood. Some need it pungent. ol Aid.e. effete ® ovrw conj.. * pruning even more for it is in the case of this tree more necessary for promoting both growth and However. if not all of them. Androtion further says that the olive the myrtle and the pomegranate require the most pungent manure and the heaviest watering. and they will But the vine of course needs bear better fruit. goat-manure third. or. : . is stated of the 'softwood. The most pungent is human dung: thus Chartodras'^ says is the best.' Manure does not suit all alike. fifth that of that this ' i. as it were. nor is the same manure equally good for all. II. off all its boughs Androtion ^ says that the myrtle and olive need more pruning than any other trees. a foreign body. as well as the most thorough pruning. for that then they do not get 'softwood' ^ nor any disease underground. but when the tree is old. 147 . this and other kinds of tendance must be suited to the particular natural character in each case. ' Name perhaps corrupt. at least what . for further enquiry. and prevents growth and nourishment. and then attend to the stem as though it were a tree just planted.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. one should cut off' the boughs. Thus ^ treated they say that the myrtle and olive are longer lived and These statements might be a subject very robust. he adds.

e. tovto /mev ovv 6/jio\oyov/xevov.. W. Be Kal edv ris rwv pi^Mv nvas irepire/irj. Kal ^aai (pepeiv.P. . hi'iv ^ viroKivnlv ou$' o\ws 6 Plin.] viroKovieLv ovB' oXw? dineadai irepKa^ovro^ rov ^orpvo^. ol Be to oX-oi^ fitjBe Tore ttXtjv oaov virorlXai rrjv ^OTdvrjv virep fjuev ovv Tovrcov d/jL^La/3r)Tovaiv. but keeping Seiy ^ vttoko[^] after h^'iv) . Be yap aaOeve- Be Kpelrrcov. viroaKaiTrovaiv evOa tovtov Bel. 'Edv Be TL fzr} <^epr} Kapirov aXX* els fiXdarrjaiv TpeTr'}]rai. 16.' rj fiev r. aKaWovTe^ KOVLoprovcn Kal ovTco y\vKUTepov<. Be ' (JKaTrdvrjv bushy C.. oTav ol errjalaL iTvevawcn. iraaiv oIovtul avjKpepetv. 253 and 254. aXX eiirep orav dirofieXavOfj. v-KOKovUiv ohV oAwj conj. Si' o Kal tcop d/nTreXcov orav rpaywcn iwv Be crvKwv TOVTO iroLovGL Ta? eTmroXrjf. riflf f) '6\a.. TavTt]<. Tr]v ' Lit. wairep koX rrjv ocrKokaiv tol^ eXdrToaiv evrpa^earepayapyLvea-daL. BC o Kol vTTOKOvlovcn TToWaKL^. * hi'iv 3. TrefiTTTrjv Be crvp/jiaTLTL^ arepa aXX. €Kry]v Be tyjv Xo(f)Oup(ov.s Aid. 3. Kal diraXwrepov^ rroiovaiv ovx vBpevovre<. 5er ins. » cf. rj kul aWa)<. = horses asses mules. ^^(ii^ovaL rov crTeXe^^ou? to Kara yrjv Kal \i6ov evTiOeaaLV ottw? dv payy. 6fiOLa)<. tails. so apparently H G read. Meyapol Be KOL TO 1)9 (TLKVOV^ KoX Ta? Ko\oKvvTa<.' i.?. 17. 148 .' ol Be Kol ra? avKa^. (so Sch. UMV..THEOPHRASTUS ^o6<. rpecpeiv BeBo/cel /cat 6 kovlopro^ evia koI ddWeiv iroLelv. Trjv B' dpLTreXov ou (paal Tive<i Belv [r. olov top ^orpvv.. 7r/?o9 Tw TrepiTefJLveLV Kal Tec^pav TrepLirdTTovai Kal KaTaa^d^ovai tcl aTeXe^T] Kal <^aai (pepeiv d/jLvyBaXfj Be Kal irdTTaXov iyKoyfravTC's fidXXov.

^ Into the almond tree they drive an iron peg. ' .^ Litter manure is of different kinds and is applied in various ways some kinds are weaker. Snov. as they then become more vigorous. they split that part of the stem which is underground and insert a stone corresponding ^ to the crack thus made. II. ? Plin. » ^ayri c/.*^ they also sprinkle ashes about the tree. 1. vii. they cover the cucumber and gourd plants with dust by raking. and also hoeing for the smaller ones. and. and sixth that of beasts of burden. 149 . 7.P. when the etesian winds are past. they say. 2. in addition to root-pruning. oirojs 1 . c/. or. But some say that dust should not be put to the vine. 10.: SO ' 5.* and that it should not be meddled with at all when the grape is turning. and make gashes in the stems. U. and then. ^ If a tree does not bear fruit but inclines to a leafy growth. of figs. for instance the grape wherefore they often put dust to Some also dig in dust about the roots of the vine. some stronger. G . if one cuts off some of the roots. it will bear. it bears better. Spade-work is held to be beneficial to all trees. 11 Aid. 2. W. and so make the fruits sweeter and tenderer by not On this point there is general agreement. Plin. 4-6 oxen.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. So on this point there is a difference of opinion. if at all. they say. having thus made : .e. I. aredyrj conj. only when it has turned black. ' oTTcos tiv Geop. watering. Even dust ^ is thought to fertilise some things and make them flourish. 17. The same result follows. 35. 2. and then. the figs in places where it is deficient/* In Megara. and accordingly they thus treat the surface In the case roots of the vine when it runs to leaf. Some again say that even then nothing should be done except to pluck up the weeds. 253. C.

VIII.. 2. edv ti<. 14. CK 7riKpd<. parently G. Ta? piev pLt] (pepovcra'. W. 9. (pepeiv ra? Be fir] dfjLvyBaXrjv Be Kal TreTTOUcra? eKireTTeiv AraXw?. baov re TTaXaicrTiacoi' TO TravTa^oOev diroppeov BdKpvov eirl TavTo ea KaTappelv. . SO ap^ §7. : . c/. a P. yap twv eKBvofievot KaTe- aOiovai Kal maivovai Ta? Kopv(pd<i. rh iravTaxoOev conj. 4. Sch. 5.. 2. ^ TTfii/ai * e/ifi (TTiKpf/xaufywy 4piywv conj. iaTi. iKTTtTTdv conj. tovto fiev ovv dv elrj tt/jo? Kal 7r/)o? to evKapirelv. 17. tt/jo? oOev ^i]Tovat' Kal 6 Treyjrai a Kal Ta? epivacrpLO^.' CKel Kpep-avvvpievwv epLvoiV -y^rjve'^ top Kap- Kal jidXiaTa By eK ^o7]0eLa<. C. TrdvTcov crvKr] Kal (polvt^. . but the present partic. jLyveaOaL yXvKelav. Tavrov Be tovto koX cttI t?^? uttlov Kal iir* ev ^ApKahia he koX dXXwv rive<. KpiixavvvfjLfiVujv epivcou I conj. TravraxoOef rh MSS.P. 252. is used . 3 • The operation being performed at the hcase of the tree. Bl o ovB* epi' cf. Plin.ia TTOV d/jLvyBaXrj pirfKea poa dirio'. 'ATToySaXXei Be irpo tov re to cj)epeiv d/. irtnypai Aid. Biacfyepovai Be Kal at 'X^wpai tt/jo? Ta? diro/SoXas' irepl yap ^iTaXiav ov (paaiv diro^dXXeiv. Const. ^la-nimiv UMAld. conj. eKf7 Kpe/xavvvufvuv Aid. (Tihripovv Spvivov KOI oav €v6vv€iv KoKovcTL TYjV jdp TO SevBpov TToXv TOVTO Trap* avTOi<.: THEOPHRASTUS orav rerpavcocriv aXkov avrefi^aWovai T7J <yf) KpyTTTovaiv o kol KoKovai Tive^ KoXd^€LV ft)? v^pL^ov ro BhSpov. W. R. irepiopv^a^ TO crreXe^o? Kal TLTpdi'a<. Kai (paacv. ttolovctiv. oTav irdOr) TOVTO.

instead of bitter. * is 5. And they say that under this treatment those trees that Avould not bear do so. having bored a hole about a palmsbreadth. 2. reason for the process called ' caprification . </.H. of this would be alike to make the tree bear and to improve the fruit. 'ripen. C. Of remedies for the shedding of the fruit : caprification. the 5 and . 5. 'Italy' means South Italy. In Arcadia they have a similar process which is called 'correcting' the sorb (for that tree is common in that country).*' eat the tops of the cultivated figs and so make them swell. II. since its luxuriance is thus chastened. hieipovai conj. and so they do not use caprification. 15.' 9. Trees which are apt to shed their fruit before ripening^ it are almond apple pomegranate pear and.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 6-vin. and some call this punishing ' ' the tree. becomes sweet. if one digs round the stem and. ipivovcriv Ald. object of the process being to cause the figs to dry.W. 81. 8 Plin. vii. P. 8. which 6 . fig and date-palm . VIII. . the word used in the parallel pass. gallinsects come out of the wild figs which are hanging there. insert in its place a peg of oak-wood and bury it^ in the earth. ipivd^ovaiv conj. 6.''' The shedding of the fruit differs according to the soil in Italy ^ they say that it does not occur. ^ Treira(vov<Ti. i a hole. and men try to This is the the suitable remedies for this. Some do the same with the pear and with other trees.^ find ' : ' TTiaivovffi MVAld. above all. allows the gum which exudes from all The object sides * to flow down into it and collect. 4.. and those that Avould not ripen their fruit now ^ It is also said that the almond ripen 2 tliem well. Bod. 1.

TMv TTvevfidrcov KaTdcrra(JL<. rexvoTtpa koI rexPOTcpa koI irKdw U. yiyvdiaKerai he TO epLvaapLevov tw epvOpov elvai Kal ttolklKov Kal la)(ypov' TO 8* dvepLvaarov XevKov Kal daOepe^' TTpocn-iOeaai he rot? heopiei'Oi^ orav vcrj. kol toI<^ yevecri kol rrj Karaardaei rod depo<. eTTaivovai he pLdXiara rwv epivwv ra pueXava ra eK rcov Trerpoohcov ')(o}pLcov' TroXXa? yap e. 17.^6i ravra Keyxpapiha^. <Tr]p.. ' * . TO)v I cf. Sch. Sch.H.' koI tov<. npara Ald.. 11. ^oKvkw yap diro^dWei. ifXeiw <yevt]Tat pdXkov en 8' avrcov rcov SepSpcov vd^ovaiv' >yeiOL<^. he Keyy^papihe^. from G .' ^opeiOL<..ov8e rr}<^ Oiaavrco^ he kol rj Kopti'Oia<. elahvoerepwv Kreivovatv avrol he evairo6vr)aKov(TLv. 2. KaOdirep r) AaKcovcKT) kol at dWai. Plin. eveiai iyKaTa\t7r6vT6'i rj Kol erepov ecrrt rwv n yjrrjvcbv. ' ipuxp'^T^fja Kol iT\(iw conj.. <yap pLoXkov rj diTO^dWovaif kclv 'y^v')(^p6T€pa koI voTLOL'. Tavra pev ovv ev T€ TOL^ TorroLf.' 7] ovh^ €v olov inl 8' oyjna ovK €K(3dWei. otl eireihav eKhvcoaiv ov/c CKhvovraL Be ol ttoWoI iroha rj inepov. Si o KOL OVK epivd^ovai ravra^.. ivravOa TrXelara Kal he ovTOL 5' p. Trpcola <j)vaL<. Trpcofa conj. 8. KaOdirep etprfrar jivovraL 8' eV rcov K6y)(papLi8u)v. Aid. rol^ Kara^opeiotf. ra TO. ev tlctl roiroi^i. €)(^eL Ta9 SLa(f)opd<. ttAc/cdv MV . KOVcopT6<. ottov 7rX€i(7T0<.elov he Xeyovaw. Ot Se '\rrjve<^ cKSvoprat puev €k tov epiveov.THEOPHRASTUS kol XeTrrot^? MeyapLSo<. yevo<. o Kokovai Kevrplva^' dpyol KaOdirep Kr)(j)7]ve<.evov<. ^52 255 and 256.

^ Moreover the character of the tree itself makes a difference for some kinds. There is another kind of gall-insect which is called kentiines) these insects are sluggish. such as the Laconian and otlier such kinds. II. conditions. ' i. The wild figs are most plentiful and most potent * of the wild . while one which has not been so treated is pale and sickly. they kill those of the other kind who are entering the figs. the fruit is shed more with northerly than ence with southerly winds. . and they themselves die in the fruit. Such are the changes to which tlie fig is subject in respect of locality kind and climatic . out fig.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. The black kind of wild fig which grows in rocky places is most commended for caprification. nor in certain parts of the district of Also conditions as to wind make a differCorinth. produced by putrefac- . 1-3 nor is it practised in places which face north nor in those with hglit soils. as has been said. as these figs contain numerous seeds.P. after rain. Now the gall-insects come. and they are engendered from the seeds.e. and this also happens more if the winds are cold and frequent. and so should produce more implied that the insect tion of the seeds of the wild tig. The treatment is applied to the trees which need it. 9. 2. when they come out. shed their early ^ figs but not tlie later Wherefore ca})rification is not practised with ones. as at Phalykos ^ in the Megarid.^ A fig which has been subject to caprification is known by being red and parti-coloured and stout. these. like drones. viii. The proof given of this is that. there are no seeds left in the fruit and most of them in coming out leave a leg or a wing behind. 6 it is is gall-insects: in G.

. U adds kuI before SiroTav.THEOPHRASTUS layvpoTaja ra ipiva ylverai. . dvGfi elaiv KaXovcrL 6K7reTT€i. aXka Kvlira^. oTTorav . (paal Be ipivd^eiv Kol TO TToXiov. . oXvvOd^etv. piev olov pu^L<=i' TOV KapTTov Kal ovfc Be r) ^ Kar dXXov ottSt' Jicat Ti)<i .' arra. SiaTrjpel S' dpcpclv avro tov dppevo<i TOi? 6)]Xeai jSorjOeia ylveaOar OrjXv yap KaXovaL TO Kap7ro(j)6pov' aXV ?. 7ro\v9. ttoXvs from G. S)] ral'^ fiev avfcac^.KwpvKovi I conj. TOVTOi<. fi i^-^lveTai yjrfjva'. 7. 14..v. cum copiose fructiMSS. TO ol eirifieveiv TLve<i eK t?)? 7rpo<i diroTeiJivovcn ofiOLori-jTO'^ a-TrdOr^v ttjv tous" 7rocovPTe<. 1. the elm is said to bear these growths KuDVKideT which contain gnat-like creatures and in 3. alyiirvpos fj W. KaX tov KOviopTOV KaTacreiovat KaTa kuv tovto TrdOp. orav e(f)' ^9 TO dvOo<. yiverai he rovSe rov rpoiTOv. oiTorav avTw KapiTO'^ rov<. avrai.(BorjOeiai. (patveTai TpoTTov. tov tg 'xyovv fcal TO dv9o<=. Ka\ yap koI aKO'i he tovtov (paalv eli'at toi)? /capKLVov^ irpoaTrepovav yap yap Tpeneadai tou? TovTOV<. Kol yap ovTOL tmv appevwv appev. OifKela'^' uTTO^dWei. irpo^. the are called KcvpvKu^rj riva Ko1\a 3. 15. 3. . Uv . troXvs conj. 154 . 4 . tt}? TrreA-enr? ic(opvKOV<. evOv^ Mcnrep ex^t. In 3. Tots" Se (jjoLvi^iv al airo OrfKei'^' ev Tal<i avKal<. Orjplhi orav ev kvItts'^ yivcovraL KaTeaOlovai roy<.

certain little creatures are engendered in these also. if this is done to it. and shake the bloom with the flower and the dust over the fruit of the female. 10.' for the fruit-bearing tree is called 'female' but while in the latter case there is a union of the two sexes. where there ' . from ipivSs.(eiy. trees. helpful to bring the male to the the male which causes the fruit to persist and ripen. 'o\vvda. 3. where tovto where Sch. 1. 28. is most hulwort also. a kind of wild fig. ^S5 . Kvirtpovs from uKvudoi. II. 'the use of the wild fruit. KVTjdpovs conj. also Kwpvicovs Kvirepiv ^ . the wild MV. It is to prevent this. it retains the fruit and does not shed In the case both of the fig and of the date it it. same thing is referred to as rh = *the well-known'. When the knips is found in figs. viii. 3-4 And they say that dust. restores OuKaKojdss tovto. and this process some call. 1. . when it fruits freely. Pall. that they nail up for the knips then turns its attention to the crabs Such are the ways of assisting the figthese. by analogy. cf. it eats the gall-insects.' ^ The process when the male palm is in flower.^ and the * gallFor bags 2 of the elm are used for caprification. is : ' — somewhat differently. 18. C. Kviraipous (?) U . appears that the ' male renders aid to tlie ' female. as fig used for caprification. 2. it is said. and. fpiudCeiv. cf. 9. cf. just as it is.— ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. W. in the former the result is brought about With dates female it is for it . 4.F. AM. is thus performed they at once cut off the spathe on which the flower is.



€l rt ri ovv yeveaei^. /lev irdvra yap rovTO hevhpwv tCov yfiipwv kuI irepl t'repop e)(ovcn rol^ i)[iepoL^ el 6^ o\(o<i ravTov KOi iSiov irepl 6fioL(ji)<. Xeyco TCI LTeav TavTa Kol S' irTeXeav alyeipov XevKTjv olov irXdTavov diravTa yap ToiavTa (f}vr€v6peva /SXaaTdvec kol TaxicfTa KOL /cdXXcaTa utto tmv Trapaairdhcov. KOi Oepaiveiav tijv dp/xuTTOvaav oicnrep kol vvv aXacoBr] kol (f)L\vBpa. dv T^? TCL fieTaOfi Bia/xeveiv (pVTeveTac Be ra TroXXd avTOiv Kal KaTairrjyvv/jieva. eipijrai. TovTcov * 158 fiev ovv pi^MV Kal diTO TUiv iK<pvoiTo irpo'^ cony W. . \eKjeov Afc T7]<i i(Ta)<. dyplcou. koX ciXXox. dW' /nijhe (fivreveiv Xufi/Sdvoieu tottoi.. KaOdirep y XevKi] Kal 7/ al'yeipo<. airXal riva avTcop elar diro cnrepjiaTO'^ rj ov^ S' tmv ^vaeco^.^e 'Evret I. aireppaTLKfj Kal Trj yeveaU eaTr tmv Be Tjj avT'i) ivicpvoiTo VMVAid.. Sia to eK(f)voLTO 8' ovfc <^? /jL)/ dv rj dnro epS€')(ujii€VOV TTeipdaOaL fiy]Bepa el pL^rj^j (Pverai..? e7nTt]SeLov<. odGTe Kal fi€ydXa<i ovaa<i ^]hT] kol laoSevSpov.

all these and other similar trees grow very quickly and well when they are planted from pieces torn off. UM . we must . whereas they might grow ^ from slips. 159 . so that they survive. and whether in any respects their character is altogether peculiar to themselves. the abele and the black poplar. noting in what respects they agree with or differ from cultivated trees. coiij. Of the ways Now in which ivild trees originate. ' ^ey. Such is the way in which these originate as well as from seed or from roots . such as plane willow abele black poplar and elm . the others grow only I.BOOK III Of Wild Trees. Sch. wffT6 Koi fity. Now the ways in which they come into being are fairly simple they all grow either from seed or from a root. But the reason of this is not that they could not possibly grow in any other way. that we have spoken in like manner speak of cultivated trees. simply planted by being set firmly. but merely jierhaps that no one even tries to plant them otherwise .j Kol were Ka\ fity. if they were provided with a suitable position and received the fitting kind of tendance. for instance. even if at the time of shifting they are Most of these are already tall and as big as trees. of wild ones. Ka\ Hare PA Id. as may be said even now of the trees of woodland and marsh.

4. ^veaOai ^aai. ocra 8e ex^i (pveTai. avp. pp. Frazer. kuv utto pi^t)^ yivrjrai. 109 . kol Kapirov. TTapaTrXjjaLov Be eoiKev elvai ro avfi^alvov o KOL eVl rcov (ppvyaviKcov Kal ttokoBcov nvuiv iartv ovK i^ovrcov yap (nrepfxa ^avepov. &)? i^eppdyi-j to avvaO poLcrOev vScop ev (Tirepfia ciTTo Tovrwv dWa Bepedpoiv ottov fiev rod /caraTrodevTo^. TOTTOv. Kai iirel kov ra SoKovura UKapira elvai yevvdp (paaiv. cj. 1 6 c/..(3aivovra 6€u>povj/T€<.€L0V Be Xeyoucrtv ov /xoi'ov ore (fiverai ttoWcl twv pi^cov Koi rd ciTniprrifieva KaO^ ov<. 14 . 6. Kaic(o<i rrpo rov Kapnrov irpoaayopeveiv avri]v oiXeaiKapTTov. TrreXea?.THEOPHRASTUS aWayv ifcelvar ttXtjv oaa fiovov aTro (T7repuaTo<=.' see Lawsoa. olov iTTekeav Ireav. 315 foil. wanep fjn/iov/jievcoi' (j)pa)(6evT0)v tcop TreSto) TO) iyyyi. dXXd exofievov^i r ottov. ' Katavothra' (now called * the devil's holes. Catull. ' 160 . av 17 tottov^. 8. KaOciTrep eXdrrj TrevKi] ttitl'?. Lawson. T7}9 Be irreXea^ KdKelvo vovaiv orav yap aTro a-rfiielov iiTToXafi^d- rojv TTvevfidrcov et? roini KapTTO^ direvexPfl. Modem Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion^ p. cited below) . Pau^anias and other Greek Sketches. 85.r]ry]v ov TTeyjrat. TO) var6p(p erei fierd ttjv dva^rjpavcnv ivrauOa avdi^ dva<^vvai (paaiv Ireav ottov Be TTTeXeaL av9i<. Plat. Paus. . 36 . a7]/j. KaOdrrep koI ottov TTevfcai Kul eXarac TrevKa^ kol eXdra^. 557 c : Plin. 'AXXd rov Tr)v T6Xetft)9 Kal rov Bl Ireav raxv irpoKara^dXXetv dBpvvau Kal 7T0t. rjcTav LTeai Tre^VKvlai KdKeivcdV. olov iv ^ei^ew t?}? 'AyOATaSta?. 5. 68. de itra numinis vindicta. 31.

i. TrreXeas clvtI ireAsaj . and so the poet^ not unfittingly calls it "the willow which loses — its fruit. appears to be what happens in the case of certain under-shrubs and herbaceous plants though they have no visible seed. distance from the roots of the original tree. cf. 110. the next year after it had dried up they say that willows grew again . » Homer. appear For proof to have no fruit reproduce themselves. 10.e. they have observed a thing which occasionally happens for in. as conifers normall}' do. stance. 16. TrreAeas aZdis irreXias Pj -nreXfa irreXeoj ovtI nreXtas aZdii TTTeAeas Aid. St. All those that have seed and fruit. 2-3 — two ways while some of them. Plin.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 510. Od. elms ^ grew. before it is completely matured and ripened. even as. III.. where there had been firs and silveras if the former trees firs. whatever the position may be . even if they grow from a root. when at Pheneos ^ in Arcadia the water which had collected in the plain since the underground channels 2 were blocked burst forth. but some of them only a sort of is . will grow from seed too for they say that even those which. they give the fact that many such trees come up at a in these silver-fir fir . U ' TTTeXf'as aZdis -nreXias conj. 161 . and where there had been elms. * i." That the elm also reproduces itself the following taken to be a proof: when the fruit is carried by the winds to neighbouring spots. like elm and willow. such as and Aleppo pine grow only from seed. by growing from seed. where there were willows growing near the inundated region. these trees reappeared followed the example ^ of the latter. they say that young Something similar to this trees grow from it. MV. But the willow is said to shed its fruit early. and further.

ev rpliToSL ')(a\K(p. a. peTa^aivei. ev ttj ^A^B)]pltlBi '7ToXXdKL<.I. T/}? yeveaewiJ] At. tt/oo? ryjv yrjv KX€LSrjpo<. ^coof?. kuI tol/v i^et?. eoLKe Be 7) puev tmv iroTapoiv €(j)oBo^ eirdyeiv aireppaTa kuI Kap7rov<. 10. tottol'. 9. ' 77 3' eiropLJSpia philosopher..oyevr)<.P. Kol irdXiv otup eiropLJSpiai kutuaywai irXeiai yjiovov koX yap ev TavTai<. kol p.THEOPHRASTUS yvovv tmv S' av6o<.L^iv Tivd Xap^dvovTO<. 1. ^XaaTi]<ret9 ylvovTat (pvTcov.. Mtteor. rd tmv G.. (pacri. 3. 2. 5 'Aw' avTT] aLa07](7€(i)<. vTroXrjTrriov elpai TMV dypioiv Kol en ra? avrofJidrov^y a? KaX oi (^vaLoXoyoi Xiyovaiv ^Ava^ay6pa<i pev top depa irdvTwv (jyacrKcov e-^eiv aireppara koX ravra avyKaracpepopeva rw vBart yevvav rd (fivrd' Se arjiropevov tov v8aTo<. of Apollonia. MGirep to Ou/jor. S^ avvea-rdvai pev €K tmv avrwv tol<. ecrTi T'^s Be opoXoyovfxevai kol epcpa- olov OTav e^oBo^ yevrjTac iroTapov irapeK^dvTO? TO pelOpov rj Koi 6X(i3<i eTepoidi Troiriaapevov. tVet ry ye TrXaraj/o? e%et (pavepco^. 2. 3 . 1 .. Tovro 6' i^ aXXcov re SijXov KaKeivo fieyicTTov arifielov uxpd^j yap IjBt] irore TrecpVKvca nXdravo'^ r6)V /lev OLOV CLTTO 6fjict)<. TOVTCOV fSXaardvouaiv. koX cltto tovtcov (pverai.ev dirripTi^pLevri aXXac 7rco<. ox^Tov^ 1 162 c/. ttoicoBcov "^ 8c. 4 Tavra^ re Brj Ta<. 5. oao) he doXepcoTepcov Kalylrvxporepcov roaovrov aTrexeiv \Xeyovai Be TLve^ kol dXXoi irepl TOV ^(oa elvai. the 'Ionian » cj. 23. . Arist. p. wcrre tS> TpuTco eTei avv7]pe(peLP. KaX dpa t?) peTa/Sdaei ToaavTrjv vXijv avyyevva tol<. P. KaOdirep c Ne(TO<. yeveaeL^.

such as thyme. and. and here is a very strong proof a plane-tree has before now been seen which came up in a brass pot. young As for the nevertheless grow from these. The same result ensues when heavy rains prevail for a long time during . and observable kinds. W. i6i . irrigation channels convey the ^ seeds of herbaceous plants. of the same elements as animals.). produce the plants while Diogenes ^ says that this happens when water decomposes and mixes in some sort with ^ Kleidemos maintains that plants are made earth. . flooding of a river. .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. and in so doing causes such a growth of forest in that region that by the thiid year it casts a thick shade. so heavy ^ * Xeyovai Tct conj. and that thc^se. but that they fall short of being animals in proportion as their com* And jiosition is less pure and as they are colder. plane. as the these too many plants shoot up. there are other philosophers also who speak of spontaneous generation. it obviously has seeds. . plants — . conveys seeds and fruits of trees. yeveadcos apparently a gloss (W. T-qv MAld. and seedHngs grow from them. Now. This is evident in various ways. i. Such we must suppose are the ways in which wild trees originate. . carried down by the rain. it would appear. and others only a flower. as they say. apart from the spontaneous ways ^ Anaxagoras of which natural philosophers tell. says that the air contains the seeds of all things. as when a river in flood gets over its banks or has altogether changed its course. 3-5 down. III. even as the Nesos in the district of Abdera often alters its course. But this kind of generation is somehow beyond There are other admitted the ken of our senses.

eu^u? dva/SXaaTave!ra ol/C€ia t?}? x^P^^> wairep ev Kpyjrjj KvirdpLTTOi. . W. ^ S' dvavOrj' KOival toCt' av inolfi ravrS iw.' 6 iirel yap (TvyKara^epei Tcov (TTTepfJidTwv. a5 Aid.c. ev Be Tot9 7)/jii^p6xoi<. . irXrjOo'^^ loairep ev J^upyvrj TTLTrcoBovi tivo<. fiev rj irXrjaiov vXij (paal Be Kal to ye al###BOT_TEXT###lt;pLov ovv tlvo<. is released by working the ground. yrj^. 1. Tidvja Be KdpiTLjxa rj dKapira. (pavi]- tolovtol rcov roiovTcov yevecrewv. 143. 142. 5. elre y^cap'^^ anepfidroyv evvTrapxovTcov eTTLyivofievcdv r?}? Tcro)? /xev koI etre Kal ovk dronov eyKara- vypwv eviaxov auT?}? 7rft)9 Be Kal vBdrcov IBicorepov dvarelXai vXrjf. II. * . elatv. ^ i. 1. marked doubtful 2 and a 164 tj in S' U) iir.e. tovt' avrh inoid piin_ 16. alrla<. who gives c/. Tamh conj. OVK bv Trporepov eK TOiavrrj^ rpoTTOi vai. Bok€L ripa yevvav vXrjv. ivLa')(ov he. yap dve/3XdaTt](Tev irpoTepov OVK ovcra. yevo/xevov Kal 7ra%eo9. P.u. 16. tt)? ttoXXcl t?}? 7/}? Kal AlyvTrria^. Kol a/xa kol r) riva (rrj-slrli/ avry tjLL^i<. yiverat rt. tovtw kol iv roi? yap KLVovjievq^ dva^Xaardvei irapaTrXijaLov Se ekdrrocnv' dfia TToa Ti? iv €KdaTOL^. Kal dvOovvra rj ^ ri UMV S* . (palveadai (paai ovv ev fjLeja^dXfj rfj oirep Biari6e/ievr]<.THEOPHRASTUS TOVTO ravTO' TTOiel Tov vSaTo<. edv v7rov€da7]<.ovrax.' KXeio/iievcov d/iarcov avTai rpi^oXov. A. av fiovov vwepydacovTai kol Kivijacocnv. cf. 19. Plin. (5' . rj the date . Kal deicpvXXa (pvXXo^oXa. 130. 41.

whether there were seeds in it already. i. though till then it did not exist They say also that silphium ^ has been known to appear from some such cause.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 3. Now these ways of origination are due to the change which takes place in the soil. occurs even in smaller plants .^ Again. 5-11. ' c/. And in some places. And the latter explanation is perhaps not strange. or whether the soil itself somehow produces the result. at Cyrene. break up the ground. seeing that the moist ele- acts rain . if the ground is merely lightly worked and stirred. the district immediately spring up And something similar to this cypress in Crete. the plants native to the ^ for instance. III. All trees are either fruit-bearing or without fruit. either evergreen or deciduous. either flowering II. where there was none ^ Such are the ways in which these kinds before. 6. In fact. the mere mixture of earth with water in Egypt seems to produce a kind of vegetation. i for it brings down in the same way ^ of the seeds with it. in some they say that after rain a more singular abundance of vegetation has been known to spring up for instance. is places . if you comes up. 165 . . and at the same time causes a sort of decomposition of the earth and of the water. they say that caltrop appears. wherever it may be. ment also locked up in the soil. after a heavy pitchy shower had fallen for it was under these circum stances that there sprang up the wood * which is near the town. a sort of vegetation And in partly saturated soil. of generation come about. many . Toaovroi conj. : Of the differences between wild and cultivated trees. W. as soon as the earth is stirred. • Toiovroi MSS.

roiv Kal irpoc^aiveL (Pvaer 8' co? ye rd opoyevP]. el fi^ etprjrai. Kpaveiwv Kal roiv (pacn ireiraLrepa Kal rjEvrepa wairep oucov ravra yap Si] ra dypia rcov rjpbepcop elvar Kal dypia koa rjTTOv. ')(eipov yiverrai dWo Kdirirapci Kal Kal dypiov elvai. . K o Bt] vjixepa XeKreov. 5n. €L TV (jirdvLOv. Kal diriov Kal k6tlvo<^ rj} Kapirov iKTrirreL irXelco fiev 2 elaXv Travrcov tSia Se 7r/309 divaypiovrai. 3. cf. a P. W.H. ru)i> tovto dypiov Kal tPj dirav Kal ypepoi> fiev I'jpepov Xeywv yap dirav jiev 6pOa)<i rfj e^apeXovpevov opOo)'. Kal rd pev dypia rd ouoyevri conj.' » . 1. Sr] rj Oeppo<i. KaiTot. ypepcoaiv. Tol<i ^t]alv ''Ittttcov Oepairevopevov Be dypiov. 1. . 4. rjixepwv T€ oyLtotw? ra ij/xepa dyplcop oy^LKapiria re fcal tcr^i)? Kal ttoXv- Kapirla tu) Trpo^aiveLV TreTTaiveL re <yap 6^\rLai- repuv Kal to 6\ov dvOeZ kol ^Xaajdvei eVt to rrav koX lax^ipoiepa dWd irdvTa eirl TrpoaSe^f^eraL yecopylav 6 el hevhpov rj r) ^cooi^. TMV eirl KOL dypLwv.e. koI rrivra rh. irXrjv to)v iXaTTovcou. el prj diravTa yap dxpd<i. kiiuls. ovK he rfi Be drrav ovx^ ')((i)pi(TTeov ^ ra el fi}] . olov i\da<. terms 'cultivated' and 'wild' do uot denote 3. i. coairep ev (pvaei. olov to aL\(f)iov Kal )(eh poiT o)v ovto)?. 6ixoioyei>^ "^ * cf.r) ri Kal tl a Kal pdXLar dv Tt9 rb yap prj irpoaSe^opepov T7)v (jyvaiv etiroL. yur.THEOPHRASTUS tydp hiaipeaeL^ TLve<.. Oepairevopevov iocnrep fieXriov. distinct i66 the ' . &\a Ka) UAJVAld. Kal depaiTevop.evov p.

at least it holds good of the wild olive and pear as compared with the cultivated forms of these trees. It is true that any plant deteriorates by neglect and so becomes wild but it is not true that every plant may be improved by attention. However Hippon ^ declares that of every plant there exists both a cultivated and a wild form. do not submit to domestication. while ' wild means that it has not . as compared with cultivated ones. he is partly wrong. . greater vigour. whether it be a tree or one of the smaller plants. of produced if not matured for they ripen their fruit later. ^ And the rule also does not hold good of anything which does not admit of cultivation. ripen their fruit better. " % Vq and so become cultivated. but though he is partly right. Sch.t. others cultiessential character. To wild trees. they say. from G. among leguminous plants. 1-2 ii. . and so. and that 'cultivated' simply means* that the plant has received attention. and it is sweeter than in the cultivated forms. as with animals which wild in their character. ' . belong the special alike. as silphium caper and. though they produce more fruit.. tliey ripen it less if ^ this is not universally true. . whether cultivated or wild. properties of fruiting of late. .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. so a plant which does not submit to cultivation may be called wild in its abundance of fruit. the lupin these one might say are specially For. ' l. for certain distinctions apply to all trees . or flowerless III.^ as has been said. Wherefore** we must make our distinction and call some things wild. as in the cornelian cherry and sorb for the wild forms of these. hih conj. . This is generally true with few exceptions. and in general their time of flowering and making growth is later also they are more vigorous in growth.' MSS. ' 167 .

ovhev dp To-o)? hieveyKOL Trpo? rd vvv eKelvo he dXiiOh.6<i eW oi/to)? rj Kal aXXft)? XrjTrrea... tmv rj/xepcov St' o Kal oaa rdv Kal TOiV aypLcov yLVOjuevrj^i. KapiToh X^lpov jLverac koI avro /SpaxvTepov KoX (j)vWoi<. rj 6Xa)<. opecriv. hexofieva TcOaaelav. ovv ro)v dyplwv d<popLap. ov jjirjv dXX ev ye rol^ jieyaXoL^.THEOPHRASTUS 3 4 wairep tcov ^cocov ra avvavO poiTTevofieva koX to. Koi K\o}al kol (f)\oLa> KaX rrj oXrj KOi yap irvKVorepa KaX ovXoTcpa kol fiop(f)fj' afcXrjpoTepa Kal ravra koI oXtj rj (f)vai<f yiverai. FoL 2G4 . t) rr)v dppeva. on fiaXXov opeivd rd dypca kol evOevel rd rrXelw Kal jxaXXov ev rovroa rot? roTTOL^. Plat. . edv fMij rL<i Xaji^avr) rd (^iXvhpa kol ravra ydp Kal rd TrapaTTordfiLa Kal dXacohrj.W. fidXtara tt}? Siacpopd'. roiavra rvyxdveL.vXXTi]vr) Kal 'OXvjjLtto) rw UiepiKfp re Kal M-valo) Kal €i TTOV TOLOvrov erepov. hiaf^epet Trore/oct)? airav he to e^aypiovfjievov rol^ re prjTeov. TOVTO fiev ovSei' ia(i)<. w? 76 rw rvirw Kal aTrXco? elrrelv. 168 cf. roiavra rvyxdvei ireheiva pidXXov. Kal rrjv Kapvav he Kal rrjv hioa^dXavov. "Ert re rw ^iXo^^vxpa Kal opeiva fiaXXov elvar Kal yap rouro Xa/i0dv€rac 7rpo9 r))v dypLortjra ro)v hevhpwv Kal oXco^ rcJov (pvrayp. KaOdirep rrjv irevKrjv Kal rrjv Kuirdpirrov. ravra dypid rjfiepov/jievcov (paatv elvai. T^edaiuv UMAId. olov Ilapvi]aa) re Kal K. diravra Tft) » fiev ridaaday conj. etr ovv Ka6* AWa avro 'O 6 Xafx(3av6/jLevov elre Kara avfx^e/StjKOf. &)? eV rovTOL<.

- ovXorepa conj. ' CCS 7e conj. Sch. that the wild trees are more to be found in hilly country. as as the whole cultivation these growth of the tree^ become closer. So the definition of wild kinds. cj. «j cV Ald. ii. ware UM . spissiora a. whether it is so regarded in itself or as being only incidentally a distinguishing mark. perhaps makes no But it is certainly difference for our present purpose. III. 2-5 corresponding to those animals be tamed. and that the greater part of them flourish more in such regions.': ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Moreover these wild forms are distinguished by having greater liking for cold and for hilly country for that too is regarded as a means of recognising wild trees and wild plants generally. with But perhaps should l3e put. characteristics under cultivation they say are really wild. or at least the * male . 169 .H. for under well parts. and such regions anywhere . more compact ^ and harder which indicates that the difference between cultivated and wild is chiefly shown in these And so those trees which show these respects. 8. with the exception of those which love water or grow by river sides or in woods these and such-like trees However on great are rather trees of the plain. 6. true. . opdSrepa MSS. from G. speaking ^ broadly and generally. . such as Parnassus Cyllene the Pierian and the Mysian Olympus. hazel and chestnut.^ it does not matter which way this Any tree which runs wild deteriorates class man and can and itself becomes dwarfed in leaves branches bark and appearance generally . vated —the latter which live in its fruits. whether it should be thus made or otherwise. W. kind. 11. for instance fir cypress. P. mountains.

»«/)/ re tV Ma/c. rov^ 8e peredypov. . ra iu) . P. re om. 7rehi0i<^ ov (^veraL.ioss . rd TOtuSe rcov opeivMV.' Be KOiXov.. MaK. TOL'9 /lev Kal 7rpoa7]vepov<. d(j)dpKri (fjiXiiKT] dpKevOo<. OvSev 3' aroTTov ouS' el evia pr) ovrco 7rdp<^opa rcov npoiv. [irepl rrjv ^laKeSoviav] eXdri] 7revK7] TTLTv. tlvo^ vXr}<.) . UAld. . TracrT. prjXea oarpva KijXaarpov peXia ira- pr) tw Xiovpo'i 6^vdKavdo<^ <<7(^evBapvo^.e. olov ev rfj K. irv^o^ (f)7]yo<i reppLvOo'.py]Tr] yap hia^opal t^? x^P^'^ riXV etpijraL to III. 7rX6L(TT7](. tmv tottcov iToXveihlav Ti-jV \L/jLV(oS€i<. KOL axeSov oaai Siacpopal /jbcji'a^ exovai Kal ^t'ipov<. h ai ot? Kehpo<^' evLa^pv he r/}? ^vpia^ TeppLv9o<.. not meant that a who conj. a ev rol<.? rj rj t% ra ^ISaia' KundpLTTO'^ yap CKer Kal ra irepl KcXiKiav Kal ^vpiav.. ava pecrov Xa- en t?}? yP]<.g. it is Mount Ida ^ 170 Ttfpl rrjv tree which is ' special occurs only there. enl ttciv. Be Kal ev rot? TreStot? pvpuKr] irreXea XevKrj irea a'iyeipo'i Kpaveia OrfXvKpavela KXrjOpa Bpv<. to ' to KpT}Tri TT) 'iSa^a ' i.l a <. XaKd- dxpd<. aXX^ l8i(orepa<.THEOPHRASTUS Bia <f>U6TaL yap Koi kol evvypov^ Kal TrerpcoSei? kol roifi koi y€(oSeL<. 'l5a?o conj. (after Sch. . {e. W. koX evhieivoix.' coare hvvaaOai iravrola Kal ra ev TOt? TreStoi? (pepeiv.> rjv ev pev ^ 61' iv . dvSpdxXr} dypia (piXvpa ^uyua plXo<. Kapva Sioal3dXavo<i €piv€o<i rd Trplvo^i. "Ihia he lSloi' oo? "^V^ IhLory-jTa iroLovaiv. MPgAld.

there. o^vaKapra UPAld. ii. i kinds grow. Palm. extent if not entirely for instance the range of Ida or the hills for there the cypress grows in Crete ^ of Cilicia and Syria. wet. Silver-fir fir ' wild pine' lime zi/gia Valonia oak box andrachne yew Phoenician cedar terebinth wild fig alaternus hybrid arbutus hazel chestnut kermes-oak. on which the Syrian cedar grows. because of the diversity of* For such mountains offer positions afforded them.) rocky . and . the word ^special' is used here in a somewhat extended sense. The following grow also in the plain tamarisk elm abele willow black poplar cornelian cherry cornel alder oak lakare (bird-cherry) wild pear apple hop-hornbeam holly manna-ash Christ's thorn cotoneaster maple. positions which are marshy. of the The following trees are peculiar to mountain country and do not grow in the plains . . ^ let us take Macedonia as an example. Yet it is not strange that there should be some mountains which do not thus bear all things.^ which III. else. a<pivZaiivos atiai-Qos 171 . as well as others which are lofty and exposed so that they can bear all sorts. ^ (However a special character to the vegetation. dry. trees : differences found in wild trees. 5-111.j ^KavOos Pj. all III. deep-soiled or they have also their meadow land here and in fact almost every variety of soil again they present positions which lie low and are sheltered. .Bas. in view of what follows . .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Of mountain . : * add. where the terebinth For it is the differences of soil which give grows. even those to wind which belong to the plains. but have a more special kind of vegetation to a grea*. or certain parts of Syria.

yivovrar irdvTa he Kal iv rot? opeaiv. Kal KaXXiO) (fyverai Kal evOevel pLoXXov co? he aTrXw? elirelv ra iv rot^ ofiaXeai rcov opwv Kal fidXtara. KpeuTrco he rfj xpeta rrj re ra)i' ^vXcov Kol rfj T(ov KapiTOiv TO. Kal Tot? ^vXoi<. 9.. Kdrco Kal ko'lXol<. raW ali riva * 1.e..' avrat S* iv TOts~ TreSiOLf. 172 . evrpoc^o'^. . opeivd' irXrjv cij^pdho^ KOL aTTLOV KOL /jLr}\€a<. rrXrjV et T7J<. from G h' al Aid. eXdrrj irevKrf Trtri. elpr]fieva<.' iv yap toi<. fiei^co fiev Kal KaWioy rfj oyfrec ra iv roU yXeii'ov. 1 5' * i. iXAws conj. OTav iinXd/ScovTai rayv oiKeicov roirayv. W. tcov tottcov. hia- AelcfyvXXa fiev ovv iari rcov dypicov a Kal rrporepov iXe^Or}. KpeirTovi ou /lovov to?? Kapnolf. iv n ^eXXohpv^ KtjXaarpov o^vdKavdo^ rd he dXXa iravra (j)vXXo ^oXel' Trepirrov iviaxov. 77. 3. 16. Sch. 7re8tot9 yiverai.THEOPHRASTUS 6p€i 7r€(j)VKu7av ^vyiav KoKovaiv. twv opSiv koX rcov " Kiravra Be oaa kolvcl irehiwv. " Plin. dpKev6o<s reppLvdo<^ (JuXvktj dcpdpKT] hdc^vT) /xvpiKT)' 7rpLVo<. KaOdirep eXe^Orj rrepl rfi Yiprjrr) irXardvov Kal hpvb<: Kal et rrov T07ro9 TLS 6Xco<. virep oiv vcrrepov XcKTeov vvv he hiatpereov eKaarov Kara ^opd^ Td<. Tcov he dXXcov rd iv TOi<. Tavra aitruv Ald. are not always of the poorest quality. conj. opeai puKpal Kal o^coSet^ Kal dKav6d)Sei<. irXrjv et ri rfj <f)va€i (f)iX6yjrvxpov' ex^c he Kal ravr av riva hiacpopdv dWa 3 TOi? iv dvofjLOioc<. rd<.' rd h' iirl ra)v aKpcov ')(eipi(TTa. iv he ol 3' 2 tw irehiw aWw? Siaipovai Kal erepov ttolovaiv €iho<^ a<^evhd[ivov koX ^vyLa<.H.? dypia ttv^o^ dvhpd^Xv plXo<..

we must in our case take account only of the for the present distinctions in each differences already mentioned.. and. 5. . unless it be that in certain places they keep them exceptionally. for in the hills they grow small with many knots and much spinous wood. 9. Now among wild trees those are evergreen which were mentioned before.^ classify and make maple and zygia distinct trees. Bod.. as was said** of the plane and oak in Crete and in any other place which ' . But even these shew some variation 3 in different positions. 5 <f. All those trees which are common to both hill and plain are taller and finer in appeaiance when they grow in the plain but the mountain forms are better as to producing serviceable timber and fruits. to speak generally. tlie in the plain. But even on the mountains all trees grow fairer and are more vigorous when they have secured a suitable position .^ silver-fir fir ^ wild pine box andrachne yew Phoenician cedar terebinth alaternus hybrid arbutus bay phellodrys^ (holm-oak) holly cotoneaster kermes-oak tamarisk but all the others shed their leaves. . however. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 9. 1-3 mountains. must speak later . « 1. 3 . with the exception of wild pear pear and apple these are in the plain better in fruit and also in timber . when when it grows in III. c/.iK^pvs conj. 1. of which we differently "^ . gleinos : is called zygiUy others. except any that are naturally cold-loving. (pfWhs hpvs UMV(?)AId. iii. those which grow on the level parts of the mountains are specially fair and vigorous next to these come those which grow on the lower parts and in the hollows while those that grow on the heights are of the poorest quality. is altogether favourable to luxuriant growth.

Sch.THEOPHRASTUS aXka KapTTi/ia Se ra fiev irdvra' irepl he tVea? alyeipov kol TrreXea?. 2. ev co ra Be fiLKpd TrXrjCTiov' dnrcoTepco Be fidXiaTa BcoBeKa aTaSiov<. perpetuated ' rov iv Tj) "15?. 1] roiv roTTCDv ex€L Kol TMV tt/jo? (pvcTi<i. ev ii'Loi<. Diosc. OavfiaaTo^i. vov iv t^ ''iZri U. nap* Kapirov kol dKapTrlav coairep iirl re r?}? vre/jcrea? 7] fiev iv AlyvTrrcp Kapiro- TrXrjalov tottcov. 81. It appears that the buds of the poplar were 10. conj. MV 174 . wairep i\€)(dt}. 'O/iotcy? Be KaX eTepa TrXetco ToiavT iaTiv eirel Koi TMV eXaTTovMV tToapiMV KOL vXrjiidTMV ev 1 Tjj 2. ev KdXoufiev(p KOI Trepl Upaiaiav Be iv ol Be fiovov elval (paai. oyairep koX ol iv ^ApKahla. TMV TOiovTcov ry-jv TTTeXeav KdpTrifiov KaOdnep ol irepX M.). hiajKpLcr- Aral /SyjTovaiv. 10.aKeBovlav. iv TOV dvOelv povov Trepl fiev KivBpiO) roL<. Trdvra rd ev rot? opeai KapTro^opelv. dva9)]/jLara rfj "iSr/. opei tt}? "lBrj<. fV TJj WSj? *Ald. Ba^uXcova ovBe 7T67raLvei. . irepl riva KpviVTjv ^avpcv ev irXTjcriov ru> KaXov/iievrjv TroXXai. Later writers the error by calling thcni kokkoi. evLOi he rijv atyeipov fi6pi]v aKapirelv (f)aaLv. tov iv ry "'iSrjj 2 cf. 1. cf. yieydXrj Be BiaKfyopd Kol elal Be kol ro) d(f)LKveLTai.H. (f)Oivl/co)V' (popec KOL et TTov fiey^pi TMV opeacv.. iv Kp/jTy he KOL atyeipoi KapTn/jcot TrXeiof? elar /nia fiev ev arofiUp rod dvrpou tov ev TO) dWr] dvdKetrat. 2. dXXa Be to. 6 tt) 'PoBm Be Be (pocvi^ 'EXXdBi Be Be oXo)? ovBe TrpocpaiveL Kapirov. mistaken for fruit (8ch. 2.

The same may be said of various other trees in fact even of smaller herbaceous plants and bushes some are fruitful. The date-palm in the neighbourliood of Babylon is marvellously fruitful . Const.U ..ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Meurs.^ in which the dedicatory offerings are hung. ^ conj. . 5. fSch. 2. ind Si Ka\ Aid. but that all the However in Crete other mountain trees bear fruit. in Hellas it does not even ripen its fruit. from G . so too Plin. as the Macedonians. 13. but in Rhodes ^ it only gets as far as flowering. there are a number of black poplars which bear fruit ^ there is one at the mouth of the cave on mount Ida. . f. bears fruit. from G. some in the hill-country of Ida in the same neighbourhood. Again the character of the position makes a great difference as to fruit-bearing. and in some plices it does not even produce any. COnj. III. as in the case of the The persea of Egypt persea ^ and the date-palm. npaaiav UMVAld. although the latter are . as was said ^ and some. 1. as the Arcadians. R. Greta ® cj.^ Others again. 4-6 Most trees are fruit-bearing. ^ '?6Sep Aid. R. 16. : '^ * Upaiaiav conj. and there is another small one not far off. in the district called Kindria and in the mountains about Praisia. say that the elm is the only tree of this class which bears fruit. cf. irepaias Aid. irepcreai . Const. and there are quite a number about a spring called the Lizard's There are also S})ring about twelve furlongs off. and so it does wherever it grows in the neighbouring districts. Trepaelas U. eTrel «aJ conj. 5. m. Ill for a similar corruption. but about willow black poplar and elm men hold different opinions. say that only the black poplar is without fruit. 4. others not.

TOVTOiV. I COIlj. * i. ov pitjv a/VX' dno ye Tcov dvOoiV (jiveadat tu BevBpa.THEOPHRASTUS ^ y ra avTT] %w/3a KaL avvopo) %ct>/3a 5' Kupin/ia ra fiev d/capTTa jiverai' KaOdirep kol to Kevravpiov ev 'HXeta. 8 * tmv civOmv evioiv. fj koI conj.e. S' avOelv oXct)? ovB^ Kal a^eBov dpcpw.oyevMV koX ev fiia iTpoarfyopla to p.e. Trjv BvvaaOai ov ev dp. pi€V TO. TrfV eTi Be Be Kal nepl ol pcev Kal ttItvv irevKi^v dXXd Tov LOvXov ol 5' ovBev Tov iv rai? Kapvai<.e. Kol TOl'TWV TCt piiV TToWo. (a) in those trees whose 'male' form is sterile. ' .' avOel 8' B' aKapiro^- oaa KoKovcTLv dppeva tmv opLoyevMV TOVTWv 8' TO. yap Kal Bpvv dvOelv ^HpaKXecoTiv Kapvav Kal Bioa- Ap^cfyia-firfTeiTaL wairep eliropbev. KoX ovv dWcov Ta)!/ TOiv 8' eV ev rot? Bo/ceX S' 6p. ' ? i. to. TOVTUV TO iroWo. fXiV Aid. whether it bears flowers or not. 6 olov 7 KXijOpa Be (i)aavTco<. TO.kol oLvdelv (f)acn TO. to pLovov dvOel. TToWd tcl Be cLKapTra. the flowers of the female tree.(f)oiv ouro)? €/c(f)vaiv Biievai. oXljov Be avdiraKiv.€V aKapirov elvau to he Kapiripov. St. . Kal TO ^pVOV TO BpvlvOV Kal TOV KVTrapOV TOV TTITV^ X<^pa Kol Aid. Kaddirep /cat diro Twv fcapTTMV ei'LOTC oaa Kapin/ia' Kal elvai TTVKvrjv 6p€OTV7rov<.er dppeva pova Kapiro^opelv. p. to rfj /jlcv ev tjj opeLvfj aXXd TO) TreBiG) d/capTTOv Kapiri/iov. (6) in those whose 'male' ' i. ' 176 . irplvo^ o piev KapTTipiO'. MaTe purj tou? oBottoltj- (TapLevov<. oiovTai Kal ^dXavov.. to S* KoiXoL<^ TOTTOi^i ouS' dvOeZ 7rXr]v KaKoo^. the 'males' are sterile whether they flower or not.

cj. and that though ^ some of these.W. eK<pv(riv. gives but the fruit up the is infertile. Any way it appears that. On the other hand they say that in some cases it is only the ' males that bear fruit. some none at all. one kermes-oak will be fruitful. while another bears fruit for instance. — none of these has a flower. but that. as we said.^ the crop . all those of any given kind which are called ' male trees are without fruit. . but only flowers and where it grows in deep valleys. 7.. 7. 3. 5. generally speaking. but that. 3. ' ' of seedlings ^ which comes up is sometimes so thick that the woodmen cannot get through except bv clearing a way. another not and the same is true of the alder. There is also a doubt about the flower of some trees. the fir and also the filbert the chestnut and even and Aleppo pine some however think that . it bears no fruit. o^ojoj/ fruit. 6-8 iii.'^ in the form alone bears is obscure ^ ^ : W. we have in the nuts the catkin. 5. bfxoiav UAkl. Some think that the oak bears flowers. where it grows in hill-country. resembling*^ and corresponding to the wild figs which drop off" prematurely. 3. some few. . in the same place as the former. in spite of this. .ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. though both produce flowers. 177 . c/. unless it be scantily. or ^ quite Take for instance the centaury in Elea. even of other plants which are of the same kind and all go by the same name. And they add that in both cases. the trees grow from the flowers. cf. III. they say. 4. it does not even flower. conj. it is fruitful where it grows in the plain. 3. produce many flowers.^ (just as in the case of fruit-bearing trees they grow from the fruit). The passage text. one will be growing near it. without fruit. And.

Aid. 3. Avrcov 2 Be roiv ev rol<. 17.inel Kai rSiv 6^LKapiTorep(ov. he 01 elvau evioi Be ra? dpKevdov<^ Svo fiev cLKapirov erepav ovk dvOelv jueu Kapirov Be Trpocpaifofievou. 16. . 3. eXeaiv. cf. ravra fxev ovv eTTtaKeineov. 4.. &i6<Ppa(nos Kvplcvs Xijei nvrrapov rrju irpocii'Oriaiv ttJs ttItvos but no explanation of such a use of the word suggests itself.e. 7. 8' erepav dvOetv fxev dpiav cf)aaiv civOelv apfcevOov o^vrjv Ba/jLvov. fiev ' the male flower. rrjv Be (fyepetu evOv^ rd epivd. irpoairo- tol<. Be iroXv Biacjiepouo-ip. 3. 3. ou Kara Ta? /SXacrr/jaei^ i]By] at TrXeov.. axTTTtp /cal avfi/3aLveL S' e')(eLV fJLovov tcl^. 4. Schol. ea-x^ara Be 7reB'i0L<. '* 'A. tpLvoL<i.. d S?. 1111. Sell. (Tvrcd<i ovv coare inl Bvo ery rov Kapirov tovto rdv BevBpwv. o/io)? at ri'jaei^ tov r)po<=. avrd S' ^Xaa- aurcov rd 6/ioyevr} rw TTporepov Kal varepov BiatpepeL Kara tou? tottou?irpoija fiev yap ^Xacndveu rd ol irepl yiaKeBovlav Xeyovai. apiai' conj. 8.78 2. olov dpKevOov koI irpLvov. 8 . MuKeSovlav ovSe irepi a(f>€P- Kot tt)v elvai. Vesp. 3. o^vyiiv ayplav . 'II tmv Be ^\daTrjcn<^ TOiV l)lXepOOV. i. on Ar. uXXd T(ov KaprroiV t) TrapaWayrj irXelcov odairep Be KOL TTporepou CLTTOfieu. IV. TMP fiev d/xa ylverat. dirdvTCdV uXXd ireirdvaeL^.THEOPHRASTUS LVOV ravrd avdXoyov Kol Ofioiov TTTcoToi<. rive^i ^aaiv epiavro- ^opelv. cf. Bevrepa Be rd ev rd ev toI^ opeaiv. Ka6' exaara BevBpcov rd co? roI<. elvai. 1 . /cal Be fXlKpOV e7n\€L7T0/jL€PTJ. : cf. TOiV B' Kaid rr}v rjpLvrjv oypav.

but in some cases somewhat. while the other. second to them those in the plains. some say take a year to ripen their fruit such as . according to the locality the marshes bud earliest.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. the times of ripening do not correspond to those of budding. 3 i. oak the oak-moss. 2 iii. Now the budding of wild trees occurs in some cases at the same time as that of the cultivated forms. but in all cases it is during the springseason. Others distinguish two kinds of I^hoenician cedar.^ it is a fact that this which kee})s its fruit matters then need enquiry. budding and fruiting of wild. * The — ever that may be. Again of particular trees some wild ones bud . 179 . oZv conj. as compared with cidtivated. but there are wide difl'erences. IV. of which one bears flowers but bears no fruit. 8-iv. in the pine the flowering tuft. W. tiiough it has no flower. «rxf S^.e. III. and latest those in the mountains. and in some a good deal later. But there is greater diversity in tlie time of fruiting as we said before. as the Macedonians say. For even in the case of those which trees which are somewhat late in fruiting./ UM V Aid. are differences of time between individual trees of those in the same kind. bears a fruit which shows itself at once ^— Howjust as wild figs produce their abortive fruit. — — Phoenician cedar and kermes-oak.' ^ peo])le of Macedonia say that these trees also produce no flowers Phoenician cedar beecli aria^ (holm-oak) maple. trees. * 5" without antecedent flower. tree 0/ the times of for two is the only These years. the budding Again there nevertheless takes place in the spring. .

Aid. Kal fiev r) di<^ TavTr}<i rpoTrd^. ToaavTi) dfKJxo. «al 5uk. \evK7] irreXea TCL Irea irXdravo^ atyeipo'^' dWa rd he T0VT03V.THEOPHRASTUS roU (TVpava/SXaaTcii'ei. fiep fiera ^ecpvpov Se Sdcpi/rj K\rj0pa.. d^pa<. ukoXovOovctl fiev X6<yov. .7]P irXeov eirl yap dirohihwaL vepl ax'^hov wairep irpcoTov KoXovGL OrfXvKpaveiav. ov dXXd p. irpco'i/SXaaTa au/crj- (f)r)j6<i kol dKreo^' en he fiaXKov d/capTra ho/covpra fcal dXadohr}. Koi aKff..' 5' jxifXea /3XaaT0(. €(Tri he 6 4 elirelv roiv KapiTMV reXeLa)aL<.W. rk uk. tcpavela kcu drjXvKpaveLa.K. 4. Kal to TepiiLv9o<. ^€(j)vpov. depivd<. wanef) apologises for the unusual sense given i8o ^vXov hiacfyopd n. Ta UK. t/}9 nvoa^ evOv he Kol irpo ^€(f)vpou Koi fiera Kol TTpo ^e(f)vpou avSpdx^V olov r)/jL€poL<. repixivdo<. fxdXXov he to ifiar. hrj irepl fiiKpo) rj ^</k. kuI a\ij . conj. he (f)L\v/C7j 6y\riaLrepov fiiKpo) wanep rov o^vaKavOo^ iraXiOvpo^ euiarafievov Kapva hioa^dXavo<. he irepl irvpov dfirjTOV ^ irpdno'^ hi] avTo to /xeroTrcopov kol ')(avvov' MP Kpaveia r) fjv daOeve'^ * Kara TrapaXXuTTOvat. At 3 he dv6i]a€L<. SoK. t) /ler 8' o^lo^.' oyjrL^XacnoraTov he a'^ehov 6'^i- t'-v/^o? dpia al jxev ovv ^Xaanjaei'^ Terpajcovla Oveia yutXo?. Be pLiKptp varepov (i(f)dpKr)' to. olov epLveo<^ 7]po<i.. ouTft)? e')(pvcnv. TO ^ .. a. U a\a. irpo larjixepia'^ he ^vjLa fxLKpov (f)i\vpa he Koi Kapva kol hpv<. diriov. See below. Ta TLve<i Kapiro<i d^pa)T0<.

perhaps defective. conj. nor in Plin. 2-4 along with the cultivated forms. The terebinth produces its fruit about the time of wheat-harvest or . latest of all generally are ipsos^ (cork-oak) aria (holm-oak) tetragonia odorous cedar yew. becoming established.KKWS Trep* U. (TXeSbi/ &anep irpuToy not in G. ' (usually 'beginning'). . W.4uov MAld. that is what the difference between the two kinds amounts to.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS.. ri * ^ (16. Hazel ^ oak and elder are also early in budding. . See Index. The flowering times in general follow in proportion but they present some irregularity. text i8i . iv. ra Se SAAoij Trepifvi(TTafji. The fruit of this kind is inedible and its wood is weak and spongy . to 5* &\a wairep ^vktt. Some again bud both before zephyr begins to blow. The apple is late in budding. . The cornelian cherry produces its fruit about the summer solstice the early kind. Before it come cornelian cherry and cornel. The others which bud when the spring is. . as andrachne and hybrid arbutus and the wild pear is a little later than the cultivated. as it were. H. that is to say. after it bay and alder a little before the spring equinox come lime zygia Valonia oak fig.^ abele elm willow black poplar and the plane is a little later than these. 105) . * Kapva can hardly be right both here and above. III. and still more those trees which seem to have no fruit and to grow in groves. which some call 'female cornelian cherry (cornel). 6 The late form. and immediately after it has been blowing. and this tree is about the earliest of all. fruits quite at the end of autumn. 5' 6.^ are such as wild fig alaternus cotoneaster Christ's thorn terebinth hazel * chestnut. Such are the times of budding. and so in still more cases and to a greater extent do the times at which the fruit is matured.

W. * airoS.ev ovv pier pLcorepav piev e)(eL nrapaWayrjV' 7rdvT0)v Be TrXeiaTt]!' rpo<. dp)(o/j. <paal Be /cal ttjv irplvov ol irepl ^Ap/caoLuv eviavTW TeXeiovv dp. 'Vavra p. puev dpKev9o<^ yap /cal ((p.

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€vOo<. Bok€l yap ravra BiKapiTa. Tov Kaprrov /cXyjOpa Se kol Kapva kol d')(p(i8(ov TL <yevo<i fieroiroopov hpv<^ he kol Sioa^d\avo<i oy\naiTepov en irepX \\eL(iho<i hvaiv. co(Taurw? he /cal (fiiXv/cr] koI 7rpLvo<i kol TraXiovpos KoX 6^vdKav9o<s fierd IlXe/aSo? Svaiv rj 8' dpla ')(^ei/xa)vo<. eXdrrj Be fcal yLttXo? dvOovai pLLKpov iTpo tjXlov rpoTTCOv [/cal T>}9 76 eXaT)/9 TO dvdo<.o)vo<. tov /capirbv cf)aal Be ye /cal t)]v /ci^XaaTpov vrrb tov exetv. d7rc(5i5a)(ri- clear.Lev TrpCoTOv TreTraivovaLV d/xa tm ^orpvL 7repKd^ovTi. [.L(\la A)d. ovBe TreTraiveL.TO Be varepov.THEOPHRASTUS o-y^iaiTepov cnrohi^wcn kol fieXia koX crcjievSafipo^ Tov Oepov. "^ oif 182 m but sense : ? T) o^la U .. o)? Be TLve'i cl)aaii>. Be oyjria 'X^eipiMVO'i' dv8pd\r] Be KOL dc^dp/CT] TO 6 /. tou? Be Kaprrov^ diroBiBoaai fieja TiXeidBa Kara yov. KpoKivov koX dWco^ KaXov] TOV Be KapiTov dipcdai fxerd Bvatv liXeidBo^.a yap TOV evov TreTraiveL /cal tov veov viro^aiver wcTTe Tot? TOLovTOL^ avpL^aLi^ci avvexM<. /c/jXaa- )) eviavcnov tov irepv- e^eiv Bo/cel' Trepc/caraXap/BdveL yap 6 1^609 aivoi'. Bl o /cal 7rpoa<j)aipovaL /cal ')(p6vov TLvd Ty]pouaiv edv Be id « €7rl TOV BeuBpov TL^. Kol fxeXla in text. d)(pd<. Some confusion .€VOV' kol t) fiifkea fiev TOL<i Tr^coroi? <^v)(^eaiv. Kal 7) rrplvo'^' 7) r. dp^op^evov tov ')(ei p.d7ro^>]paLveTai. TTeVKl-f Be KOL TTtTf? TTpOTepOVai T7J ^\aaT1](T€l fxiKpoVy oaov TTevreKaLBefca I'lp^epai^.

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. alder hazel and a certain kind of wild pear in autumn oak and chestnut later still. wild pear late^ in Andrachne and hybrid arbutus first ripen winter. . whereas if it is left on the tree. om. Probably an early gloss. Plin. cf. and yew. . * * H and G) After varepov Aid. Plin. . adds avdovvTi (so also omits it . apple with the first cold weather. ' \-A.. about fifteen days. it does not ripen it at all men gather it unripe and keep it. a little before the solstice ^(the flower of the silverfir is yellow and otherwise pretty) . . . 183 . iv. . for Phoenician cedar appears to keep its fruit for a year. . accordwherefore ing to some. III. though proportionately earlier than silver-fir a little later. after Sch. They say also . about the setting of the and in like manner alaternus kermes-oak Pleiad Christ's-thorn cotoneaster after the setting of the Pleiad aria (holm-oak) when winter is beginning. yap Aid.. W. In these trees then the difference of time is not considerable the greatest difference is shewn in Phoenician cedar holly and kermes-oak . the new fruit overtaking that of last year and. W. W. and again ^ when winter is beginning for these trees appear to As for ^ silver-fir and yew. JOG. . they flower bear twice. they bear their Fir and Aleppo fruit after the setting of the Pleiad. The Arcadians say that the kermes-oak also takes a year to perfect its fruit for it ripens last year's fruit at the same time that the new fruit appears on it. pine are a little earlier in budding. their fruit when the grape is turning. the result of which is that such trees always have fruit on them. Se conj. 121. 16. it shrivels up. 4-6 manna-ash^ and maple in summer. but produce their fruit after the setting of the Pleiad.

fil- exovcn Bta(f)opa^ tt/jo? eavrd. .. dWd ttu^o?. dKpa<. . ev Be rfi "IBrj rrepl irevreKaiBeKa fidXtara ijfiepa'^- ravra Be fierd BiaXiirovra rrepl rpidKovra i) /xLKpw rrX€LOV<i eirL^aXXerai rrdXiv dXXov<. ov fiovov irpo^ ra V. av'bpaxXri. . (piXvpta conj. * ruv aypicov after irfnayaeis conj. rerpayu^via conj. fcal T/oei? /SXaarov^. irpoyrov fiev evOv^ lara/ievov rod ^apy^jXicovo^. 184 Hi. Sch. fiXacrrov<.. diT^ repw ^Xaarw' t% Kal Kopvvi]aea)<. apKev9o<. Sch. Apparently a gloss. Be 7revKi)V op/idf..evai. olov <y6vv * (piXvpa Aid.~\ irevKri Be koX Kapirov Se cpuXupa t^oiw Be o-y^LKapTTa Be a(f)6Spa kui [tov 7rv^o<.^6t oyjrLKapTra al \o9. ^ . d(f)i. ci^pcorov dijXv/cpaveia /c^tto? koi avBpdy(\ri. ^€Lfxo)VO<^ KOi ji'iKvpa navrl e. ^v/uL^aLvet ra dXka /lev av^rjaiv rjjiepa aKpov iroLeladai. {rerpa. rhv 5€ . ovv fiev Be ol irepX rerpaycovla twv Kapirwv TceTrdvcrei^ rcov dyplcov TOiavTa<. r/}? errl ro) rrpo- ra jiev dvw rd 5' et? rd rrXdyia kvkXw iroLelrai rip ^Xdarrjatu. rpiaXoTror irav jap BevBpov orav ^Xaardvrj Xoird' Br] Koi KpKaBiav aTro/SoXal kol dp^wvTai orav 8' ^ avve^r) r/p re ^Xdarijaiv kol ttjv Bpvv BiaXelireiv.. eapo<i cr'^eBov Oveia kol Bl* o kol koI ^XaajdveLv iXdrrjv kuI elvai kol rpelf. . W. oy^iKapiroTepa oy^Lairepa ttuvtcjov koX o)? Tovrcou €TL <f)aaLv. . 100. after i^/ifpa Aid. § 2 yuvia ywyifia U.omitted after -repo) : c/. Sch. ' MV " Pliii.THEOPHRASTUS uTTO^dWeLV..

and likewise as compared with one another. 11 cf. late fruiting 2) though. follows evidently applies only to the oak. when they have once begun budding and their growth continuously.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. rpfcrAeTrot M^Ald. 5. "^ .inie^ and box are very late in fruiting. R. still later than these and almost latest of all are Such then teiragonia^ odorous cedar and yew. 6-v. and so have cornel and Ivy Phoenician cedar fir and andrachne are box. happens in mid-spring at the very beginning of the month Thargelion. III. .. c/. iv. conj. hioos 8 About May. 1. ^ to bud. 0/ the Now most seasons of budding.^ on Mount Ida within about later. their . Sch. TpiaKonroi ' iapos conj. 1. * Tpla\oiroi cj. but with fir silver-fir and oak there are They make three fresh starts in growth intervals. Kopvvrjs cws UMV. I. and produce three separate sets of buds wherefore For every also they lose their bark thrice ^ a year. This first tree loses its bark when it is budding. Kopv<prjs conj. 15. KopwrjaeoiS '4ws Aid. and it makes its budding partly on the top of this. 4. ' What ^^ UMoV. according to the Arcadians.. are the differences as to the time of shedding and ripening their fruit between wild* as compared with cultivated trees. VAld. I. i that holly loses its fruit owing to the winter. Sch. 185 .^^ partly all round it laterally. the tree ^ puts on fresh buds which start from the head of the knobby growth i*^ which formed at the first budding-time. after an interval of fifteen days of that time about thirty days or rather more. Sch. 2. 3 . 6. Plin.e. 12 ^^ add. (lime has a fruit which no animal can eat.!'^ using the knob formed at the V. make trees. Const. 3.

rj Trepl eviai fieyeOo^. etjx^(»pos Aid. kol avav^rj<. kol av^dvovTUi kol Xafi/Sdvovaiv Tovro 2 yiverai Be vpcorr] /3XuaT^]aL<. 6 .H. to Tef-LvecrOai tcl ^vXa TO..THEOPHRASTUS too Trpcorou ^Xaarov Kopvvrjv. et? fi7]K0<i BevBpoL<. Plin. dXXd Kal TreptaipeouK evirepLaipeTO^ 6evT0<. Sia\flirov<rai Ald. 77 Hdai 3 ovv fiev ov/ceTi (TTOi')(elv wpa e%6M^. t6t6 Bid TO Xoirdv ev yap toI<^ dXXoi'^ Kaipoi^: (j:)Xoi6^. 3. 16. AiaXeLTTOVTa Be jieTO.^o? av^rjaL^i TpeTreTai. dXXd KaX ' About June. 7. e%ef. 8. ofjiOLa tovtwv 6ovao)v Be 7ra. to TrXelaTOV TJj al eXdTj] icaX rj Be irapeK- dXX' et? ^XacTTTjcreL^: Trj yovaTa KaX e^ taov irpoTe- ttcvkt] Bid toi)? 6^ov<^ Be KaX 7rpo<. eirl TO fiel^ov. kol rj \€vk7] kol rj jieXaiva' (pveTai Be ft)? iirl TO iroXv vvkt6<. tovto Trepl TrevreKaiBeKa TTokLV TO Tp'iTov eTTi^dWeTaL (SXaa-TOV's r]/jLepa<i 'EKaTOfi^aia)VO<i. /jLiJXov. i^avepaiy jidXiaTa Be TO twv 'r)/iiepa<. TTOLTjaufiepa rrjv KaX wcTTre/j rbv 'EKippo(f)opLcova Xrjyovra. eyivero yap av ixei^wv rw fieyedei. 2 c/. . fieXav to ^vXov ylveTat Kal Trj oyfret. Kara Se TavT7jv rrjV j^XdcnrjCTLV kol t) ktjkU <f)veTai iraaa. St. tol<.. SioTrep rLve<. ')(elpov' eirel xaX Trpo? ye ttjv 'x^pelav ovBev. eav vtto Tov Kav/iaro^ \r)(f)67j ^rjpaLverai. ' €7xAwpos conj. e\a')(i(TTa^ pov yap e^ Lcrcof. 3. ^XdaTrjGL^ eirTCL rj Kal tov avTOv Tpoirov. a6p6o<. ey)(\(i)p6'^ eaTL. Coraes . * 186 4 . 5mAe/7ro»'To conj. avroiv ov fiel^ov eyovai Kvdixov to rj Be jxeXaiva KaX eirl irXe'iov^ i)/jLepa'i fieyeOo^.' i(f) t)iiepav he fiiav av^TjOelaa. ttXtjv t^? Tr^rroetSoO?. 27.

cutting the timber. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. ^ AoTtav conj. ye conj. after swelling for one day except the part which is of resinous character it hardens if it is caught by^the heat. . The periods of budding can be seen in all trees. the wood turns 2 (It is . and. -> * . re Aid. . and so cannot grow any more otherwise it would have grown greater in bulk wherefore in some trees the formation is not The black gall is for several larger than a bean. both the white and the black the liquid forming them is mostly produced in quantity at night. because the joints ofthesearein a regular series and have the knots It is then the season also for at even distances. after an interval * of about fifteen days. because the bark is being shed*' for at other times the bark is not easy to strip off. 74. After this period there is no increase in length. perhaps However the formation ot for six or seven at most. the buds is as before and takes place in the same manner. — — . but the only increase is in thickness.. black and ^ utility ^ this is inferior in makes no appearance difference.) Then. but especially in fir and silver-fir. ^ About July.. the tree for the third time puts on buds in the month Hekatombaion ^ but this growth continues for fewer days than on either of the previous occasions. . \nrau Aid. if it is stripped off. for as to its though the wood UMV. This happens about the end of month Skirrophorion. 1-3 as a sort of joints just as in the case of budding.. 187 . 16. days of a pale green ^ colour then it swells and sometimes attains the size of an apple. and moreover. Sch. Xonrav cf. Plin. v. first budding the the first III.^ only at the time of this second budding that the galls also are produced.Sch.

yap Kal ey^eu clou eXdTrj Kal Kal ert (jiiXvpa Kal Kapva Kal avTai Be yivovTai Bpvi BioajBaXavo^ Kal iriTVs. T^)? Mpa<. 14. 1. KOivd. waTrepel i^ ^PX*!'^ (pvXXiKT]^ ^XaaTt]ae(o<. fiev Trpo r]pLvr]<. 98. waive ra Be irepl ra? 3iaA. BivSpa.epoi(. C. 5.' ttj Kvr]a-i<. TO?? [re] 7rpoeLpr]fievoL<.C. Kal ecrTl tov S* SevSpwv conj. 1. Plin.13. . 30. eireX koI ev ^Xaardvei AlyvnTM to. 13. ^AXXa ra fiev irepX etprjraL. Kd'^pvo'^.. 16. 3. koL tovtwv fidXiara avKrj kol afMireXw kol poid koI o\(o<..12.evai eapivi-jv tyjv iiera Trpoeiprj/juevcDv BevBpwv. 1. Bia tovB* elirelv to? alel kol puKpov riva BiaXeiireL rj Xpovov. 5. 1. 16. ySXacTTT^crect)? eaTt 5' Trj<. R. iBia TTpcoTT]^ VTrdp^ei KOL Ta9 em^Xaar^'iaeL^. 10. coart KOL TTjv /jiaXaK6T7]Ta dvpL^aXXeaOai.. * tt}? (jyvXXtKy) cf. 4. 1. €7ToiBr]ae(o<.P. 1. 11. Tavra ovv thia tcov jxev p. KvpI kol ^ApKTOvpfp jlvo- al Be ^Xa(TTrjaeL<^ al inl kolvoI iravTCdv cry^ehov fxaXkov ev T0i9 7)/J. fiGTa^v TTLTTTOvaa T'^? ^ 2 v7ro(f)aivova7]<. 6. rov aepo<^.et-v|^et? dirb t^? IBlov 5' eVtof? rwv XexPevroiv.H. cf. 13.' TrevKt] Kal Bpv<. 10. l88 » c/. Const.P. 4 . Plin. oaa Koi rrjv €VTpa<prj KOL OTTOV X^P^ roiavTT]' 8i he evhifKoL WpKTOvp(p eir raXiav irXeLaTtjv (paal <yLvea6aL irepl ^'laKeSovtav' teal afia yap Ser- au/jLJSacvei Kal TO fxeroTTwpov KaXov yiveaOau kol fiaKpov.p THEOPHRASTUS iav fiera ttjv TreiravaLV rcov Kapirwv l(T')(i)p6Tepov. 6t) 1. Kapirwv Ald. to tt)? KaXovfievr]<.

These silver-fir fir also lime hazel chestnut are found in the oak before the leaf-buds grow. v. Sch.. $71 Se Siffirep ' TTj 5' TTJ 8' op burst into leaf. and oak have them. In the sorb^ it conj. though they may be most clearly seen in cultivated trees. Kvr}ais <pv\aK^ iffrl lSl6Tr]Tl i(TTt UAld.H. to all trees alike . R.. 3-5 ripening of the fruit.^ which occurs between the first swelling of the leaf-buds and the time " when they eari . when the spring season is just beginning. etc. This growth consists of a sort of leaf-like formation. 077. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Accordingly they say that the budding at the rising is most considerable in Thessaly and Macedonia ^ for it also happens that the autumn in these countries is a fair and a long season . stronger is if it is cut after the III. among these. that in Egypt too the trees are always budding.. especially in fig vine pomegranate. . Now the facts as to the later buddings apply. and and Aleppo pine. so that the mildness of the climate also contributes. . or at least that the process is only suspended for quite a short time.' * for instance in the aboveit is mentioned trees . <pv\tK}) (c/ the description of mBas. Const. Indeed of Arcturus . as has been said. watrepel conj. one may say. ^ 2 ^^^ ^he buddings which take place at the rising of the dog-star and at that of Arcturus after the spring budding are common to nearly all. for this reason. 189 . Peculiar to some also is the growth of what are called ' winter buds. (puWiK^: . 12. 8) Aid. 3. t] conj. W. and. but those which belong to the intervals after the first period of budding are peculiar to those mentioned above. and in general in all those that are luxuriant in growth or are growing in rich soil. Now what has been said is peculiar to the abovementioned trees.

.? dficpia- Buaau^ov<i' Kal twp /capTrocjiopcop . arpolSiXcp ve(p koX fcal ax^^ov TOP '^^eifiMva' hr}. ifC dvopboiav elvai rrjv firj ')(Xcopa) (/cal d/jLa tu> rjpi tovto Se av^erai 'y^daKei to. irAeloya ?. Sch.Xvpa<.S)va y^k^pi rov ypo^. TOV pbiayov. 3.. Sell. . (rvfinecpvicoTa W. 3. fvOvs \nrapa conj.i. kol to Kal TpLSdKTvXop' fiXaaTdprj. KaOairepavel fieXKovaa ^XaardveLV. TTAe/w 677 conj. "Ecrrt Be kol to. TavT OTUP oyjriv Trpo/xrjKearepov 7rXr. (^oXl- Bcora Kol ^apOa jlpeTaL).. ware irevKT}'. catkins. VI. fiev evav^i) rd Be Bvcrav^rj. la67ra')(^6S flLKpMV fjLrJKo<. * ^ * toutt. . r) Se 'HpaKXecDTiKr) fierd rijv diro^oXrjv rov KapiTov (f)V€i TO ^OTpvcoBe^i tjXlkov (JKOiXr)^ evjxe- a KaXovcrl rives avyK€iTai KaOdirep ol arpo^iXoi yeOrj^y i^ €P0<. W. €v6vs al irapa ttjs \J. 3. *' avix^jUj-ivKuTi text 190 . . koI SLa/xei/ec top ')(eip. 8. ttiwStj UMVAld. W. ' i. fiuXo'i t*s add. U * cf. S* ip €KdaT(p Kdpvop ev. XafM/Sdvei Tov ypc. (pvfi conj. Kal Mcrnep eTTwh)}Kvla.e. Tfj<. eiridKeiTTeop. olov TrreXea TrXdravos XeuKT] alyeipos Irea' ^rjTovai TLves oo? fcau tol rrepX evav^earaTOP Be Be iXdrrj irevKri Bpv<. . to <j)vXXov diroirlirTei kol tcl tov Kapvov Se KaXvKcoBr] irepLKapTTLa jLveTac av/jL/xefivKora kuto. . c/. BloXov. koI el ti dXXo Ka)(pvo(f)6pop. ? 10.. Xiirapd Ti<. TOVTCOV CKaGTOV /jLOplcov (jjoXiScoTcbv rf] TCi^ei. (puerai Aid. . evav^T] fiev rd re TrdpvBpa. piia-)(ov irXeicd 6 lovXoVfi. TocravTa oaa Kal rjv tcl civOi]' tovtojp irepl he t?}? <pt.THEOPHRASTUS fieroTTcopov fieTct rr^v (f)vWo/3oXiav ev6v<. 4.

except that it is longer and almost of the same thickness throughout. Each of these is made up of small processes arranged like scales. and of the length of their roots. fingers. so that its appearance is not unlike that of a young green fir-cone. its fruit produces ^ its clustering growth. . but. 6. VI. : and some call them catkins. . This grows through the winter (when spring comes. and resembles the cone of the fir. the scale-like processes open and turn yellow) it grows to the length of three from one stalk.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. . . 5-vi.^ yew lakara fir oak. 111.^ which is several * of these grow as large as a good-sized grub . silver-fir . appears to be in 191 . are formed. ' offa Kal ?iv TO. Quickest growing of all are . and includes some of both classes. W.v6t) Aid. and consider it a slow grower :) and of fruit-bearing trees.). and has from the first a glistening look. some slow. The following list of trees also confusion. '6aa koI Kara. Some trees are quick-growing. ® Lacuna W.^ as though swelling had taken place. The case of the lime and of any other tree that produces winter-buds needs it falls off. just as if it were about to burst into leaves and it persists through The filbert after castingthe winter till the spring. when in spring the leaves are shooting. closed all fruit-cases of the ^ down *^ "^ . v. Quick-growing are those which grow by the waterside. further consideration. as elm plane abele black poplar willow (however some dispute about the last-named. in text (Sch. i occurs in the autumn after the shedding of tlic leaves. Of the comparatict rate of growth in trees. and the cup-like nut the stalk and corresponding in number to the flowers and in each ot these is a single nut. &v6r} conj.

Kaddrrep dirio^ poa crvfcrj fivppivo^ a^^hov TO. oxjTrep Kal to oXov crre\€%09 Kal ol dKpe/i6v€<. U MVP W. rcov fiev aWoyu araKro^ Kara rou? tottou? rdv ^Xaarwv. KOTO Tovs TpSnovs (corrected insert tovs before QXaarovs. Xd^cocriv. {opoia he Tpoirop Ttpd rj av^rjai^ Kal tov (Tltov ^ KUTCL . TrXelara' to. . t^? 8' €Xdr^<i d)ptcr/i€Pr] koX avvexv'^ x^cii varepov. St' et? ep (l)vXXov Kal €vX6ya)<.. . ovk eTn/SXaaTapeL Kal av^dperai firj e')(0PTa dp'^r)v.. S' e/c tov aKpov fieu ovK dvLTjaiv €k he twv irXayicov. . dVfxjSaivei. Kal Tr}<i 'HpaKXeo)TiKr)<. to TOTTovs) Kol $\aaTovs ' /fa) * iKfiyov UAld. BKaffTwv conj. i\das W. I W. Kal avTo TrpooiOeiTai to v7rdp')(^op. irdXiv i^ €K€ivov 77 erepa a')(^Lai<. 'H Se av^TjaL^ koI rj /3\daTr}aL<. dvSpd-^Xrj iriTv^ Kap7To<pop€L 8' oarpva Kpaveia €u6v<. iXuTT} irevKy-j TTtTf?. tov aKpov tmv ^XaaTcov Kal €k Tcop irXayicov ^verat. : . diTOTeXevTOdcnp ol jSXaaTOi. he tovto eirl TT}^ TiepaiKT}^ Kapva<. Kol rovr del ttolcI Kara irdaa^ ra<i eiruiv he roh oXXol^ ovS* 01 o^ol kut ^Xaarrjaei. iXKwv 192 . . ? . KCiv OTrrjXtKOVOvv pLeyeOo^. Kal dirdvTWV he TOiV tolovtcop dXXcov. iKflvov rj krtpa c\[^iTai to Xao . dXX7]Xou<i irX'qv eiri tlvwv oXlycov.^.. Kara conj. (T(f)evSa/jiVO^ ^rfyo'^ K\i']dpa fieXia TTV^o^ dxpd<. orav yap CK Tov (TTeXe')(ov<.THEOPHRAS'lUS XcLKapa fcal l^vyla apfceu6o<. yiverai Kara top avrov rpoTTOv. olov kotIvov KOL aXXayv e^^t he koI rfjSe Bia<popdv rj av^y-jai^ KOLvfi TrdvTcov 6poL(ii<i i)fiepa)v re fcal dyplcop' rd fiev yap koX Ik. ra Trpcora o-)(^iadfj.. suggest &\uv i\au>v.

5. In all such trees the buds end in a single leaf^. This occurs in the walnut and in the filbert as well as in other trees.e. as wild olive and is also in a regular sequence. one may say in some cases the growth is not from the top. 100. cf. 16. as is the whole trunk with the upper branches. other trees not even the knots are opposite to one another. ^ dif- 193 . grows without dividing. irXayioov : ? iK rov &Kpov kol Sk tuiv irXayluiy cf. whatever size they have attained. (To a certain extent the growth of corn is similar . for it : * iK Tov iSAaffTwv. . and so the In tree goes on with each fresh formation of buds.* as in pear pomegranate fig myrtle and the majority of trees. as they have no point of departure. but only from the sidebuds. * (pv\oy perhaps conceala some other word.^ : buds. III. vi. (of ferent trees). 1-3 n)ird-clierry) Valonia oak Phoenician cedar maple hop-hornbeam zygia manna-ash alder Aleppo pine andrachne cornelian cherry box wild pear. Here too we find a difference in the manner of growth which belongs to all trees alike. 3. . and its development afterwards For. But silver-fir fir and Aleppo pine bear fruit from the very first. . wherefore it is reasonable that they should not make fresh buds and growth from this point. both cultivated and wild in some cases the growth is from the top of the shoots and also from the side- others. 1. first divides. and the already existing part is pushed out ^ further. except in some few cases. While the growth and budding of most trees are irregular as regards the position in which the buds appear/ the growth and budding of the silver-fir follow a regular rule.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. i. when the trunk then again from the divided trunk the second division 2 takes place in like manner. Pliii.

<pco * '^ * Belv ifJi^LOivai KOKKVfjLr)Xeav. C. crvfi/SatveL Be roU dXXoi<i to2<.. 1. G 1(5.. 1. 3 piin. 6)(£iv Kal evdvppL^orepav elvai. cf. Trpoppi^OL^. Be pi^a^ Xeirra^ Kal l(T)^vpa<. Kal ovx riKLGTa iXdrrj Kal TrevKy. rr]V Be KOKKVjirfXeav iroXvppi^ov. Alil. eTrLiroXaioraTov Be OpaviraXo<. KaiTTep daOeviarepa ovra Kal ivapya)<. rd<. TToWd TOVTO TTOtel. . ' S' 8' d/j. uXiyoppL^a.6 Be Opav7raXo<. JiaOuppt^a Be ov ^aai TLve<^ elvau ra ciypia Bui TO (f)vea6aL iravra diro aireppLaro'iy ovk dyav op6o3<."lBr)<. Be rr]v a^evBafjLVOv Kal rp unap\ovaT] 127*. av elrj ^Xaar/jaecos' dfjia Kal av^/]ae(jC)<.THEOPHRASTUS 4 Kal yap ovro^ ael ry Trpoooaei rov V7rdp-^0PT0<. ol CK rr]<. 6. Kaddirep eiua rcop y^ehpo-rroiv. av^dveraiy kclv koXo^wOij ra (f)vWa.) avTTj /xev ovv Siacpopd ti<.' avrt] B' earlv ravra fiev ovv Kal cjairep dypla KOKKv/jtyXea. ipSixerac yap orav i/j-^Lcoarj TToppoi KaOcevai ra? pi^a^' €TT€l Kal rcov \a)(^dvci)p TO. (BaOvppil^urepov eXdrrjv Bpvo'^ dXX' iXdrrovi.P. 5. /jlt) Kara (3d0ov<i eyovai. BvacoXeOpov Be e7n7roXi]<i TOW vndpxoi'ros conj. 94 : W. from ovi' : -f OVK (uHiu^ai./Sadvppi^orarov Be Kal ryjv KOKKV/xijXeav Kal rrjv 'WpaKXeMrLKi]v. (pvufieva <eV> rfj yfj.TrXijv ovr6<: ye ovk ifc rov rrXayiov Trapacpvei. 2.. \€yovT€<. Kal KOKKUfjLTjXea Kal aTroBidf. irplvo'^' iXdrrj Be Kal TrevKrj pL€Tpio)(. 3. Sch.. viro rcov iTvevp^arcov eKTrlrrreLV. 5 01 /xev ovv Tvepl KpKaBiav ovrco Xeyovaw. nroXvppL^ov. . rr]v 'HpaKXea>rLK7]v. fcaOdirep ev Tol^ e'm^o(JKOfievoL<=. ^aduppi^oTaTov 6' ovp BoK€L TO)v dyptcov elvai ?.

. are liable to be rooted up b}' winds. they say. Maple. while joint-fir has many.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. So the Arcadians say. . Aen. because they all grow from seed .^ and has straighter roots. Verg. the former having many but they add that both trees must be well established to acquire these characters also that plum is very tenacious of life. very accurate statement. though these are not so strong as trees. A.) Here then we may find a difference which occurs both in the making of buds and in the making of fresh growth. Proverbial for its hold on the ground cf. but this is not a For it is possible that. though they are fewer. W. 0adoppLC6Tipov conj. when they are well established. Sch. vi.^ and especially silverfir and fir. The last two also have few roots. foil. Corn as in corn which is bitten down by animals. Also that those which have the deepest roots are plum and filbert. and are undoubtedly grown from seed planted in the ground. . . III. conj.^ The kermes-oak however seems to be the deepest rooting of wild trees silver-fir and fir are only moderately so.* they may send their roots down far in fact even most pot-herbs do this. • fvapyws y^ : so G iv add. But the people who live near Mount Ida say that the silver fir is deeper rooting'^ than the oak. as some leguminous plants do. however does not^ make side-growths. and shallowest are joint-fir plum bullace (which is a sort of wild plum).. . 2 Some say that wild trees are not deep rootijig. the latter having sti'ong slender roots. 3-5 also regularly increases by pushing forward of the already existing part/ even if the leaves are mutilated. W. .. ^aduppiCoTaioi^ UMVAld. Trees which do not root deep. * fiddovs ' " 441 . Pddos Aid. . : .

(T<p. do^ov Kal ofiaXov iKavop XovGiv 01 Xpdyp^aTL fiep ''"^^o? Xelov koI irXoiov Xcttu) viroBeeaTepov <f)V€Tat fiiKpop.e. conj.iroKOirevTO<.ov Kol Kehpov KOL K\.W. to Xelov rLvo<^ irepl P'^XP'- eh vyjro^. ir\o7oy. KpaTfjpa<i Troiouaip ol irepl ^ApKaBlap' 2 TO Be Trd^o^ olop tip tv^J] to BepBpop. '6pLoiov ac . ra TOiauT VII. Aid. pit.r]6pa<^ Xeina^ koX OfiaXel^' en S' o^vrjv koX <yap rovr iir LiroXatoppi^ov kol oXiyoppL^op. dp. Hdt. irXrjV edv jrevKr) pt^cbv avT06T€L<. ^ i. 37. Be irdvO^ w? elirelv rov aTeXexov<.. 3 cf. avp-^alpeu Be KUKelvo IBlop eV TavTw tovtw irep) KoL oXiyus conj.<pi(puap. Seal. e^ ov Tov<. /SadvppL^a pLerpla^. aXXa ovav iTniroXaLOV^ rr]V Be fxev Icrx^' KOL Tra^eta? kol SvacoXeOpovi irXyjOet Se pa<i Se ^ jxev ovv kol ov ^aOvppL^a eariv.. avaivovraL i/c avp^alvei. oawirefi dp lax^poTepov kol eyx^^OTcpop rj TraxvTepop. /car' oXlyov not very fibrous. * 'dfJLaKop * iKavhv UH. but 196 W. * (T<p. TrKoiov conj.THEOPHRASTUS oXt7a9* T7JV 5e fiekiav TrXeiou? koI elvai irvKVopeiTLTTo\rj<. K. and the proverb irhvos '((TT<f> Tp6iroy iicrplffeadat. 6. p^eXap TJj Be aKXypoTi^TC — irepL- kol xa- tw pep vTrep/SdXXop. Be tBiov KaX eav to aKpov eirLKOTrfj. . with UMVAld. % Kol riKinoy n\e7oy Aid. . irepX rrjV iXdrrjv orav jdp KOirfj rj KoXovaOfj n vTTo 7rvev/jLaT0<. ra ivywcri TTeirovr^Kvlar at pi^ai TTporepov Be KOI eXdrrj reXeo)? fiev TrapajSXaardpei. dXXov koI rj — e-^ei yap Tov (TTeXexovf. he kol dpKevdov KoX ^aOvppi^ov.(pau^ip ol Be dp.

broken off which does not however grow much vertically and this is called by some amphaiixis ^ and by others it is black in colour and exceedingly amphiphya ^ hard.v conj. W. . though not very Such are the trees which are or are numerous. a certain amount of new growth forms round it. There ^ is this or again according to its thickness. thing about the silver-fir . And there is a peculiar . but manna-ash has more and they are thickly matted and run deep Phoenician cedar and pri«kly cedar. ' Two words meaning growth about. 197 . Sorb. for this too has few roots.' 2 as also are those of beech .— ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 2 has shallow roots and few of them ^ . * * . III. 5-vii. those of alder are slender and plain.' i. olov iav Aid. and they are near the surface. 123.e. callus. they say. '6<rop tiv conj. out of it the thickness is in proportion to the tree.. if merely the top has been cut off. when it is topped or short by wind or some other cause affecting the smooth part of the trunk— for up to a certain height the trunk is smooth knotless and plain ^ (and so suitable for making a ship's mast ''). « Plin. • Of the effects of cutting down the ivhole or part of a tree. has its roots near the surface. unless the roots have previously been injured but fir and silver-fir wither away ^ completely from the roots within the year. peculiarity too in the silver-fir in the same connexion "* . 16. according as that is more or less vigorous and sappy. but they are strong and thick and hard to kill. not deep-rooting. have shallow roots. VII. and the Arcadians make their mixing-bowls . . they say. oXov h. Seal. Almost all trees shoot from the side if the trunk is cut down. . vi.

1. d/ji(j)av^i<. ^ i. 4. he BrjXov ^fi ort. For toCto cJ. 4. like other trees under like treatstrength into these. kol avKr) Kal Td epivd Td TrpoaTTOTriTTTovTa Kal oXvv9o(^opovcnv' nX)C ouTO?. and so does ment. 8.^ea)9* oTav Se rd Karcorepco rd Kard to Xelov TO KaTaXoiTTOv. qrosfii. aXV eX Tive^ Be fcrco? /irjv TLve<. cf. fi7] dXXd KaXou- TrpoaTroTTLTTTovTa kvt- Tapov.P.. elirep fiev lSiov o irepX t^9 eXaT779. 6^ov<. Kal irdaa TrXeov (TLV. tovto. G. 14. ' Tiva Kapnhs conj. 17. ^77 (jyvcTaL. 3. ti auT?)?. put its . TlXetaTa Be ttuvtcov olov TrjV T€ KrjKiBa rj Trjv irapd tov Kapirov.. 5. el tol yevo<. 11 * Lat.e. cf. THEOPHRASTUS iXdrijv orap tt. 8. Sch. fJUKpdv Kal Tr}V eTepav not. 2 kavTODV conj. 3. 7) TOV (poiviKovv kokkov (pepec fiev Kal dXXd 77 dpa twv cvkwv Tporrov Tivd Kapirov *HpaKXea>TiK7] Kapva tov lOvXov Tj 7) 1) yv Br] Kal dppevd tov irevKt] Be Bdc^vrf Kap7ro<p6po<^. 5. diroOvrjaKei Ta. from G avrhv Aid. ov dKap7T0<s. 3. Sch. tov<.P.!' airavjas fiev 'yap ri<. cf. G. 7. 4)vXXov dvOo<. » The leaf-gall. jSXaaTov Td Be Kal ^pvov rj eXiKaBe TrXeio). 1. 18. Bpv<. 198 . 1. KaOdirep ra rj re iTTeXea tov re /SoTpvv Koi TO OuXaKOjBef. Brj tw kclL 77 dipiXr}. e'y)(yXov elvai Kal dXXd ydp tovto dirapd^XaaTOV. a(p€\(ov dTTOKoyjrr} to aKpov. riva &i(apiTos UAld. 2. ra fiev dXXa tov tc Kapirov top <t>epet Be eavTMV Koi ra KaT eviavTov iinyivofxeva TavTa. ')(X(op6v. Kal T) irplvo'^ TO ^oTpvov.

5. . when one takes off the lower parts. W. leaf flower and bud. 11. 3. 11. III. ^^The oak however bears more things besides ^^ its as the small gall ^^ and its fruit than any other tree perhaps in a sense ^ "^ . 3.. what is left survives. ' » ^0 cf. and Plin. 3.' ^*^ which drops off. while other trees bear merely their own ^ and the obvious parts which form annually. the kermes gall (whence Eng. « c/. 16. c/. " c/. 120. and some but » aWd Toi conj. 28. vii. 6. why the tree survives is that it is sappy and green because it has no side-growths.ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 2-4 wherij after taking off all the branches. to wit.^ kermes-oak fruit. those about the smooth portion of the trunk.' produces it in greater quantity. 12 Traoh conj. and it is on this part And plainly the reason that the amphaiixis forms. which some call the ' male. The fir again bears its ^tuft. 8 n. 3. i. and bay its ' cluster. 2. (pfpei Aid. 199 . one cuts oH the top.' ^ its scarlet ' berry/ The fruit-bearing sort of bay also produces this. 2. 4. Of other things borne by trees besides their leaves flowers fruit.P. 16. it soon dies yet.^ Now this is peculiar to the silver-fir. 'crimson'). ^orpvov UMVAld. W. supported by G. and Now. 4. . 5. for instance the elm its cluster and the familiar baglike tiling.^ the fig both the immature figs which drop off and (in some kinds) the untimely figs * though fruit ' ' — these should be reckoned as Again filbert produces its catkin. 3. G. 3. or at all however the events ^ one kind certainly does so sterile kind. 1. . 8 .e. editors read ^pvov on the strength of 3. some bear also catkins or tendrils. § Plin. ^» cf. 3. 16. and some produce other things as well.. 5. aWa koX Aid.

f\a(a flpov(pvriu Aid. Kov au/jLTreTnXrjfievov irpofirjKe^. ^ irepl U . a^aiplov.\^et fieXava<. (TK\r]p6Tipov M .. XevKov rovro Be Kal G(j)aipiov rj' irvprji'iov W. irepl wprjyiov ffKX-qpoT-qTa Trtpn[vpr)viov For vlxos <TKK-r]p6r(pov see Index. axrwep Kol rj /jLeXacva Kr)Ki<. w ^i^^aii^Tat TTyoo? Tou? Xv^vov^' KaiSjaL 'yap Ka\co<. TeKeiovyuevov B* eri aKXypov Kara t^i^ eiravdaTaaLv kol TeTpvir-qfievov irpoaepi^epe'^ TpoTTov TLva TOVT ecTTt Kttl Tuvpov Ke(f)a]. . koX erepov alSoicoBt] ayeaiv (TK\iipov ttXtjv cnrdvLov he toOto* eyov. aWa dxpelov. rod (f)vXXov (pveL Kara Biav'ye<. vBara)Be<. rrjv pd^iv orav diraXov rvprjyos UMV . Kara Be rrjv eapLvrjv oipav eTri^airrov X^XoG fieXLTTjpo) koI Kal Kara Kara yevaiv.La-)(pv rj Kal KOiXopucryov iBlov Kal iroLKiXov rov^ fiev 'yap eTravecrrrjKora^ 6/jL(f)aXov<. Ilapa(l)V€i 8' evBorepay t/}? tmv pa^BSiv ybacrycL' \iBo<^ erepov acfyaiplov dp. irepLKaTa^vvjievov Be evBoOev ex^i irvpijvo^ e\da^ L(ro(f>ve^.. TTvp-nviov (TK\r]p6Tfpou I conj. fiev KOfirjv e-xpv. . i\ata (ipou<pvrii' TTvpr]va irtpX VAld. (f)v€L Be kol tov l/tt' eviwv KoXovfievov ttTKov rovTO S' earl a-^aipiov epicx)Be<^ fiakaKov irepl TTvpyjviov aKXriporepov 7r€<pVK6<i. Tjj /xop(f)rj en Be avKUfiLVwhe^i aXXo Kol BvaKaraKTOv.THEOPHRASTUS rrjv TTiTTcoBrj fieXaivav. <f)vei Be kol erepov a(f)aipLov TO. prints the reading of U. errl Be d<pr)v Ti-jv rr/v .. eTTtXevKov^ rj eTreariy/jievov^ e. ro B^ dva fieaov KOKKo^a<^e<i kuI Xa/jLirpov dvoLyofxevov B' earl jxeXav Kal eiricr arr pov arrdvLov Kal Xtddpiov KiacrripoeiBef. eV) Be 7rapa(f)vei en 8' aXXo rovrov (Tivaviairepov (^vXXlrrXelov.

it contains inside a thing shaped like the stone of an olive. This to a certain extent resembles also a bull's head. . which is generally useless. Again it has another growth^ like a mulberry in shape. R. * nigra varietal e dispersa. I. makes a hard prominence and has a hole through it. St. It has also another growth like the penis in shape.^ It also occasionally produces a small stone which more or less resembles pumice-stone also. vii. has apertis whence iiriniKpov conj. iuTfpiuvrjs ruv Plin.e. The oak also produces another hairy ball. ... Plin. . but hard and difficult to break this however is not common. 4-5 other black resinous gall.ua<rxaAf5os conj. Const. UAld.. it is black and rotten.e. Sch. gignunt et alae ramorum ^ ins. less commonly. powu>y fxaaxa^iSas eius pilulas. which. which is watery. which is oblong and of close texture..ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. when it is further developed. . amara inanitas est . 2 Further the oak produces right inside the axil ^ of the branches another ball with no stalk or else ^ a hollow one this is peculiar and of various colours for the knobs which arise on it are whitish or black and spotted. as does the black gall. : . . but in the spring season it is covered with a juice which is like honey both to touch and taste. when it is opened.^ while the part between these is brilliant scarlet but. I. when it is young and this sometimes con. .. . ' Plin. ^ The oak also produces what some call the 'ball this is a soft woolly spherical object enclosing a small stone which is harder. ® ^ Plin. but. Further the oak produces on the rib of the leaf a white transparent ball.e. 16. ' . . I. III. there is a leaf-like ball. iniaa-irpoy.. when split open. * ivSoTepw . 29.^ and men use it for their lamps for it burns well.

ravrrj p.ev KOLvrj Trciaiv. eloiv y) y BiaLpovai to OPjXv Kal Kapiro^opov to Be aKapirov p. 16. X(KT(»v add. pL^a<.a Kal Ta? lBia<. Toaavra Bpv<i yap ol pbVKrjTe^ (pepei tmv diro Traph rov pi^cop xal irapa ra<. 202 5' €K tov aepo<.ara irpoai^eLv. ^vop-evoL kolvoI kol erepwv elalv. p. ^ » Tive<i. 233.THEOPHRASTUS yu-ua? ivloT€ ivBou pvverai 'H 6 reXeiovfievoi' Be (Jk\i] X(T-)(eL. TIdvTcov ct)? Srj en p^aXXov Kal pLeXirra^. u)v iv to fiev oI<. elBo<s avTwv tmv avvepi^aivovTa<. Sch. &)? to erepa Be Kar op^oyevcov virep cov XeKreov dp. Xela'i rpoirov. ?. rcov [xtj . (pavepwv Kal yvwpipLWV. Xa^elv Biaipopal 7rX€Lov<. kj]kl8o<. 2 * Hes. TO appev. Be. KaXovcri yap TrapaTrXyjaia 8' 77 roiavrrj Biacpopd Kal rjpepov BtrjpTjrai irpb^. ^ev ovv KapTTov. KaraKavOfi ylveaOai Xirpov e^ pLev ovv Xhia Ka9' 'HaloSop (^aiveraL (f)aal Se Kal orav Tavra avrrj^i.eXLTQ)Sr)^ ovto<^ €7rl ')(^vXo<.op(f)d<. Op. iiTL Tivcov. Manep iXe^^V' '^^^ BevBpcov KaO^ eKaarov yevo<. 31. Plin. kol yap avrrj (fyverai l^ia' KOL iv dX\oL<. 16.dXt. Plin. to dypuov. r?)? Bpv6<. 16.' aXX. oxrirep iXe-^Ot). KaXXiKapirorepov Be dp^cpco Kap7ro<p6pa to OPjXv Kal iroXvKapiroTepov' irXi-jv oaoi ravra KaXovaiv dppeva.* ovSev r^rrov. koi Se uicravTcof. fiiKpa^. VIII. nfkeLaro^opov iariv <f)epei fieki Se ye el ovv Kal 6 p..

these occur also So too with the oak-mistletoe in other trees. the truth appears to be that this honey-like juice comes from the air and settles on this more They say also that. Hesiod^ OJ * male says. St. vii. 5-viii. ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. the former barren in some kinds. while other differences distinguish different forms of the same kind and these we must discuss.* at the same time indicating the peculiar forms. This difference is of the same character as that which distinguishes the cultivated from the wild tree. kinds in which both forms are fruit-bearing the ' female has fairer and more abundant fruit howtrees for there ever some call these the ' male are those who actually thus invert the names. apart for this grows on other trees also. Such are the growths which the oak produces as For as for the fungi 1 which grow well as its fruit. produces more things and all the more so if. from that. » /iij conj. ni]Tf Ald. the 'male' and the '^female. as than any other tree : . where these are not ^ obvious and easy to recognise.H. as was said. the oak. like a tains flies small smooth gall. it becomes bard. However. Such are oak is burnt. 203 . the things peculiar to the oak. from the roots or beside them. Common to them all is that by which men distinguish their kinds. ^Taking. i but as it develops.. VIII.. however. III. produces honey and even bees. nitre is produced from it.' the latter being fruitIn those bearing. all trees according to we find a number of differences. . as was said. ' ' — . when the than on other trees. ' and it ' ftmalt this ' and in trees : the oak as an example of other differences.

16. lit. 77 fxeyWecn Kal TOt? rcov ^aXavayv. olov rrjv Ta? KaXovvTe<i ol ol fiev rjfieplBa o/zoto)? eV Be Kal oi irepl ttjv "IB. (^7770? aXi(f)\oio^- ol Be evOv(f)Xoiov yXvKvrara KaXovacv. rdK earl ra o)? B' eiBr/' alyiXw\r 7rXaTv<pvXXo<. eVel ye Kal (pveadai TTJV Be ^7]yov fxev ovv ol t?}? fxev ^vXov BiaXXuTTOvai 6' 8' ervfjLoBpvv.7o? Kal dXi^Xoio^' dficporepai yap irapaXiOd^ovaiv iv Tj TOt? appeal KaXovfievoi^. Tj/jLepl<. Bia^epovcri cr)(^7]fj.' . Spvs and » Plin. rj/xtpls. 20.THEOPHRASTUS A/Juo? 2 Br) yevrj — ravrrjv jap fidXioTa Biaipovai' Kal evioi ye ev6v^ ttjv /xev y/xepov koXovctl ttjv aypiav ov y\vKVTar6<. Kal Bevrepov ra t>)9 yj/jLeplBo^.aai Kal IBiov Be e^ovaiv diraaai Be Tot? yj Be Kal iriKpai. 5' jXvkvttjtl tov Kap-JTOV hiaLpovvre<i' rfj aXXcov. 'cultivated oak. 17. rerrapa ravri^v (fiyyov. i^ aKpcov eKarepwOev. eireiTa rri<i irXarv<l)vXXov. 5' iv to?? ipya- e)(eLv iv tol<. tw fiaWov to Tpaxv Kal yXvKeia^ (pepovaav ovv 6 dWa aypiav iroiovcnv' (TlfjLoi<. 16 ^ See Index. al and fiev tt/jo? » Plin. Kapin/ia fiev iravra- ra t/}? (pTjyov. opeivoU ttolovctiv — yevt-j ol Be irevTe. re Kal Tot? 'X^puifiaai (/)7. evia TOt? ovofxaaLV. ovy^ yXvKetai iv T0t9 yeveaiv aXX' ivi'ore KaOdirep t) ^7770?.rjv Biaipovai. KaOdirep elprfrai. 16. 204 tw rwv /SaXdvcov KeXvcpei al Be 7rp6<.. ea^arov Be 3 Kal Be TTiKporarov alyiXwy^. Xeiorepov. Kal rerapTov rj dXic^Xoio^. vn^pls.

1 Take then the various kinds of oak . They also in some thus the kind cases vary as to the names assigned which bears sweet fruit is called by some hemeris.H. that of the Valonia oak There are also differences in the size for instance. others five. viii. and this they make the wild kind). oak. . 205 . shape and colour of the acorns. whose fruits are very bitter. * .W. these ^ given by the are the kinds : hemeris broad-leaved oak (scrub oak). Plin. ' ovx ' • . So too with other kinds. as has been said second to these those of hemeris (gall-oak). 19-21. third those of the ^broad-leaved' oak (scrub oak). for in this tree men recognise more differences than in any Some simply speak of a cultivated and a wild other. ' ' ' ..ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. 16. and last aigilops (Turkey* However the oak). in both of these kinds on what are called the ' male trees the acorns become stony at one end or the other in one kind this hardening takes place in the end which is (gall-oak). ^»'ioTc conj. call ^straight-barked but the fruits of Valonia oak are the sweetest. However. aigilops (Turkey-oak). Thus some make four kinds. while the Valonia oak has rough . which some ^^U these bear fruit. text defective in Ald. wood and grows in mountain districts. by others Hrue oak. but distinguishing the cultivated kind by its growing more commonly on tilled land and having smoother timber. Those of Valonia oak and sea-bark oak are peculiar . not recognising any distinction made by the sweetness of the fruit (for sweetest is that of the kind called Valonia oak. kind. fourth sea-bark oak. 2-3 III. sea-bark oak. to take the Mount people of classification Ida. fruit is not always sweet in the kinds specified as such ^ sometimes it is bitter. Valonia oak.' .

en to Be crreXe. Tot? ^vXoL^ kov X^cri' fcal yap kol (pvTela Kal eireaTpappevrj Kal ware o^wSr) Kal ISpax^'^CLv yive- ^vXov laxypov p. 206 ' . Be ovB' avrrj dX

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