Landslide

1

Landslide
This article is about the geological phenomenon. For other uses, see Landslide (disambiguation).
A landslide, also known as a landslip
(see also mudslide), is a geological
phenomenon which includes a wide
range of ground movements, such as
rockfalls, deep failure of slopes and
shallow debris flows, which can occur
in offshore, coastal and onshore
environments. Although the action of
gravity is the primary driving force for
a landslide to occur, there are other
contributing factors affecting the
original slope stability. Typically,
pre-conditional factors build up
specific sub-surface conditions that
make the area/slope prone to failure,
whereas the actual landslide often
requires a trigger before being
released.

Causes
Main article: Causes of landslides

Computer simulation of a "slump" landslide in San Mateo County, California (USA) in
January 1997

Landslides occur when the stability of the slope changes from a stable
to an unstable condition. A change in the stability of a slope can be
caused by a number of factors, acting together or alone. Natural causes
of landslides include:
• groundwater (pore water) pressure acting to destabilize the slope
• Loss or absence of vertical vegetative structure, soil nutrients, and
soil structure (e.g. after a wildfire - a fire in forests lasting for 3–4
days)
• erosion of the toe of a slope by rivers or ocean waves
• weakening of a slope through saturation by snow melt, glaciers
melting, or heavy rains
• earthquakes adding loads to barely stable slope

The Mameyes Landslide, in the Mameyes
neighborhood of barrio Portugués Urbano in
Ponce, Puerto Rico, which buried more than 100
homes, was caused by extensive accumulation of
rains and, according to some sources, lightning.

• earthquake-caused liquefaction destabilizing slopes
• volcanic eruptions
Landslides are aggravated by human activities, such as
• deforestation, cultivation and construction, which destabilize the already fragile slopes.
• vibrations from machinery or traffic
• blasting
• earthwork which alters the shape of a slope, or which imposes new loads on an existing slope

The resulting slurry of rock and mud may pick up trees. The event killed 39 people. These processes normally cause the first severe road interruptions. Types Main article: Landslide classification Debris flow Slope material that becomes saturated with water may develop into a debris flow or mud flow. Muddy-debris flows can start as a result of slope-related factors and shallow landslides can dam stream beds. Muddy-debris flows in alpine areas cause severe damage to structures and infrastructure and often claim human lives. houses and cars. for example. due not only to deposits accumulated on the road (from several cubic metres to hundreds of cubic metres). Chiarle and Luino (1998)Wikipedia:Citation needed estimated a peak discharge of 750 m3/s for a section located in the middle stretch of the main channel. The solid-liquid mixture can reach densities of up to 2 tons/m³ and velocities of up to 14 m/s (Chiarle and Luino.76 km²) affected by a debris flow. Debris flow is often mistaken for flash flood. Arattano. but they are entirely different processes. India. At the same cross section. 2003). but in Amboori debris flow. As the impoundments fail. Damage usually derives from a common underestimation of mud-debris flows: in the alpine valleys. a "domino effect" may be created. resulting in temporary water blockage. thus blocking bridges and tributaries causing flooding along its path. crossing the stream channel.Landslide • in shallow soils. was 19 m³/s. agricultural or forestry activities (logging) which change the amount of water which infiltrates the soil. 1998. which takes up the debris in the stream channel. a value about 40 times lower than that calculated for the debris flow that occurred. For a small basin in the Italian Alps (area = 1. 2 . occurred on 9 November some cases to the complete removal of bridges or roadways or railways 2001 in Kerala. bridges are frequently destroyed by the impact force of the flow because their span is usually calculated only for a water discharge. the maximum foreseeable water discharge (by HEC-1). with a remarkable growth in the volume of the flowing mass. the removal of deep-rooted vegetation that binds colluvium to bedrock • Construction.

smaller vegetation and other debris. viscous flows of saturated. As the debris moves down the slope it generally follows stream channels leaving a v-shaped scar as it moves down the hill. This is much slower than a debris avalanche.[1] . They are different from fluid flows in that they are more rapid. rolling motion. They develop a sag at their heads and are usually derived from the slumping at the source. This is caused by a combination of saturated material. This is usually a result of lower cohesion or higher water content and commonly steeper slopes. Debris avalanches are very fast and the entire mass seems to liquefy as it slides down the slope. This thereby creates a bulging lobe which advances with a slow. Washington Movement: Debris slides generally start with big rocks that start at the top of the slide and begin to break apart as they slide towards the bottom. Another slip of this type was Storegga landslide. pyroclastic material are all susceptible to earthflows. The velocity of the earthflow is all dependent on how much water content is in the flow itself: if there is more water content in the flow. Fissures develop during the movement of clay-like material which creates the intrusion of water into the earthflows. the higher the velocity will be. which saturates the ground and adds water to the slope content. Mexico increases and the margins dry out. The bulbous variety of earthflows are not that spectacular. Clay. They are usually triggered by the saturation of thickly vegetated slopes which results in an incoherent mixture of broken timber. and steep slopes. thereby lowering the overall velocity of the flow. but they are much more common than their rapid counterparts. Though these are a lot like mudflows. This process causes the flow to thicken. Water then increases the pore-water pressure and reduces the shearing strength of the material. they can move at speeds from 0. Steep coastal cliffs can be caused by catastrophic debris avalanches.1 to 12. These flows usually begin when the pore pressures in a fine-grained mass increase until enough of the weight of the material is supported by pore water to significantly decrease the internal shearing strength of the material. fine sand and silt. As these lobes spread out. fine-grained materials.17 to 20 km/h (0. Goodell Creek Debris Avalanche.4 mph). Typically. and fine-grained. These have been common on the submerged flanks of ocean island volcanos such as the Hawaiian Islands and the Cape Verde Islands. Debris avalanches differ from debris slides because their movement is much more rapid.Landslide 3 Earthflows Earthflows are downslope. This differs from the more U-shaped scar of a slump. drainage of the mass A rock slide in Guerrero. which move at any speed from slow to fast. Debris avalanches can also travel well past the foot of the slope due to their tremendous speed. Debris landslide A debris slide is a type of slide characterized by the chaotic movement of rocks soil and debris mixed with water or ice (or both). overall they are slower moving and are covered with solid material carried along by flow from within. Earthflows occur much more during periods of high precipitation.

As the topsoil becomes saturated and heavy. See also: Slump (geology) Blockade of Hunza river Shallow landslide Landslide in which the sliding surface is located within the soil mantle or weathered bedrock (typically to a depth from few decimetres to some metres)is called a shallow landslide. During an intense rainstorm. the bedrock will keep the rain trapped in the top soils of silt and sand. it can start to slide over the bedrock and become a shallow landslide. Often very large. flat. slopes can become very hill. H. these slides are unusually mobile. The upper block detached permeable soils creating high water pressure in the top soils. a perched water table may develop in soils at intense precipitation. typically with a long run-out. Say there is a the slide. When pore water pressures are sufficient to reduce effective normal stress to a critical level. Shallow landslides can often happen in areas that have slopes with high permeable soils on top of low permeable bottom soils. flowing very far over a low angle. slope with silt and sand as its top soil and bedrock as its bottom soil. As the top along a bedding plane and is sliding down the soils are filled with water and become heavy. Campbell did a study on shallow landslides on Santa Cruz Island California. and failures of road cut-slopes. The low Hotel Limone at the Lake Garda. He notes that if permeability decreases with depth. bottom soils trap the water in the shallower. or even slightly uphill terrain.Landslide 4 Sturzstrom A sturzstrom is a rare. forming a dip-slope. They usually include debris slides. failure occurs. R. high Devonian shale was removed to make the road. Landslides occurring as single large blocks of rock moving slowly down slope are sometimes called block glides. . forming a jumbled pile of rock at the toe of unstable and slide over the low permeable bottom soils. poorly understood type of landslide. debris flow. Part of a hill of permeable.

Causing tsunamis Deep-seated landslide on mountain in Sehara. which are usually hundreds of meters high. only several meters per year. The factors that have been used for landslide hazard analysis can usually be grouped into geomorphology. Landslide of soil and regolith in Pakistan • A pyroclastic flow is caused by a collapsing cloud of hot ash. Using satellite imagery in combination with GIS and on-the-ground studies. and to predict the landslide hazard in the future based on such a relationship. gas and rocks from a volcanic explosion that moves rapidly down an erupting volcano. geology.Landslide 5 Deep-seated landslide Landslides in which the sliding surface is mostly deeply located below the maximum rooting depth of trees (typically to depths greater than ten meters). like distribution and classification. but occasionally move faster. In general. Massive landslides can also generate megatsunamis. They tend to be larger than shallow landslides and form along a plane of weakness such as a fault or bedding plane. The analysis is used to identify the factors that are related to landslides. . Remote sensing techniques are also highly employed for landslide hazard assessment and analysis. estimate the relative contribution of factors causing slope failures. storage. Kihō. and shows the process of regeneration and recovery. similar in mechanism to a landslide. rotational. and hydrogeology. Landslide prediction mapping Landslide hazard analysis and mapping can provide useful information for catastrophic loss reduction. or have impact into water. and factors like slope.[2] Related phenomena • An avalanche. can generate tsunamis. land use/land cover. lithology. beside of Kumano river between Wakayama and Mie Japan caused by torrential rain of Tropical Storm Talas (2011) See also: Tsunami § Tsunami generated by landslides Landslides that occur undersea. it is possible to generate maps of likely occurrences of future landslides. Such maps should show the locations of previous events as well as clearly indicate the probable locations of future events. Since many factors are considered for landslide hazard mapping. display. Before and after imagery also helps to reveal how the landscape changed after an event. Deep-seated landslides usually involve deep regolith. and assist in the development of guidelines for sustainable land use planning. and analysis of large amounts of spatially referenced data which can be handled fast and effectively. They can be visually identified by concave scarps at the top and steep areas at the toe. and that future landslides will occur under the same conditions as past events. what may have triggered the landslide. These typically move slowly. snow and rock falling quickly down the side of a mountain. establish a relation between the factors and landslides. one must assume that their occurrence is determined by certain geologic factors. to predict landslides. weathered rock. involves a large amount of ice. and/or bedrock and include large slope failure associated with translational. manipulation. In 1958. and land use/land cover to be used to help predict future events. GIS is an appropriate tool because it has functions of collection. one such tsunami occurred in Lituya Bay in Alaska. or complex movement. Before and after aerial photographs and satellite imagery are used to gather landslide characteristics.

GIS offers a superior method for landslide analysis because it allows one to capture. Sustainable land management and development is an essential key to reducing the negative impacts felt by landslides. CA Prehistoric landslides • Landslide which moved Heart Mountain to its current location. Using GIS. where a large block of the Ngamoko Range slid and dammed a gorge of Waikaretaheke River. Early predictions and warnings are essential for the reduction of property damage and loss of life. property. Switzerland • Cheekye Fan. forming a natural reservoir up to 248 metres deep. Researchers need to know which variables are the most important factors that trigger landslides in any given location.[3] • The landslide around 200BC which formed Lake Waikaremoana on the North Island of New Zealand. some 10000 years ago in post-glacial Pleistocene/Holocene. erosion has removed most of the portion of the slide. it is necessary to establish a relationship between the geomorphologic conditions in which the past events took place and the expected future conditions. and money. Rhine cutting through Flims Rockslide debris. manipulate. store. Switzerland. analyze. it is imperative to have a good understanding as to what causes them and how people can either help prevent them from occurring or simply avoid them when they do occur.9 cu mi). 12 km3 (2. the largest so far described in the alps and on dry land that can be easily identified in a modestly eroded state. Because landslides occur frequently and can represent some of the most destructive forces on earth. Natural disasters are a dramatic example of people living in conflict with the environment. British Columbia. extremely detailed maps can be generated to show past events and likely future events which have the potential to save lives. the largest ever discovered on land.7 sq mi).Landslide 6 Therefore. and display large amounts of data quickly and effectively. Because so many variables are involved. In the 48 million years since the slide occurred. 25 km2 (9. Canada. • Flims Rockslide. it is important to be able to overlay the many layers of data to develop a full and accurate portrayal of what is taking place on the Earth's surface. Global landslide risks Ferguson Slide on California State Route 140 in June 2006 Trackside rock slide detector on the UPRR Sierra grade near Colfax. Late Pleistocene in age. ca. ca. .

an ongoing landslide in San Mateo County. New Zealand on August 8. 170. 1965. Khait. Alberta.000 years ago. Turtle Mountain. ca. Soviet Union. a catastrophic impact on the contemporary coastal Mesolithic population • The Agulhas slide.000 km3 (4. Brazil on January 11. 1963 • Hope Slide landslide (46 million cubic metres) near Hope. 8. off South Africa. 2008. • 2008 Cairo landslide on September 6. destroyed hostel. • Devil's Slide. 1949 • Monte Toc landslide (260 millions cubic metres) falling into the Vajont Dam basin in Italy. 2011. on October 9. Historical landslides Main article: List of landslides • • • • The Goldau on September 2. due to heavy rains in Vargas State.[4] • Catastrophic debris avalanches have been common on the submerged flanks of ocean island volcanos such as the Hawaiian Islands and the Cape Verde Islands. post-Pliocene in age. Dunedin. Tajikistan. 1977. in Chittagong. on July 10. • Vargas mudslides. causing tens of thousands of deaths. China on August 8. the largest so far described • The Ruatoria Debris Avalanche. on 29 April 1903 Khait landslide. 20. causing 610 deaths. 3. California • 2011 Rio de Janeiro landslide in Rio de Janeiro. • Zhouqu county mudslide in Gansu. Australia on 30 July 1997. causing a megatsunami and about 2000 deaths. Norway.000 years ago. • The 1979 Abbotsford landslip. Venezuela. ca. 3.500 km3 (840 cu mi). on December. 1889 Frank Slide. 7 . 1806 The Cap Diamant Québec rockslide on September 19. • Val Pola landslide during Valtellina disaster (1987) Italy • Thredbo landslide. 1999. off North Island New Zealand. British Columbia on January 9. 1979. on June 11. Canada. 2007. • 2007 Chittagong mudslide. • The 1966 Aberfan disaster • Tuve landslide in Gothenburg. 2010. ca.800 cu mi). Bangladesh.Landslide Prehistoric submarine landslides • The Storegga Slide. Sweden on November 30.000 km³ in volume. ca. • The 2010 Uganda landslide caused over 100 deaths following heavy rain in Bududa region.

[2] Mitchell. Angewandte Geologie.europa. R.Landslide 8 Extraterrestrial landslides Evidence of past landslides has been detected on many bodies in the solar system. (1978).webforum. This newly available raster map. org/ pubs/ crossref/ 2001/ 2001JB900004.ec. Agu.ca/slide/splash. & Krizek.jrc. N.europa. but since most observations are made by probes that only observe for a limited time and most bodies in the solar system appear to be geologically inactive not many landslides are known to have happened in recent times. and land cover.ca/Mining/Geolsurv/Surficial/ landslid/) • Slide! (http://www.org. Landslides (http://eusoils. CNRS-EOST and CNR-IRPI. Durham University.v. angewandte-geologie. 108.html).agu. D. (2003) Susceptibility of mid-ocean ridge volcanic islands and seamounts to large scale landsliding. 2006 Before and after radar images of a landslide on Venus.ac. a program on B.bgs. R. Both Venus and Mars have been subject to long-term mapping by orbiting satellites. References [1] Schuster. Landslides: Analysis and Control.bc. It has been produced jointly by BGR. the new landslide. html#ELSUS). [4] The giant Ruatoria debris avalanche on the northern Hikurangi margin. New Zealand: Result of oblique seamount subduction (http:/ / www.uk/ landslides/) Landslide in progress on Mars. lithology.ec. .C.'s Knowledge Network. htm) A.info/photo_galleries/17/slopes/) • JTC1 Joint International Technical Committee on Natural Slopes and Landslides (http://www.gov. shows levels of spatial probability of landslide occurrence in EU member states and neighbouring countries at 1 km resolution. flow-like area. Department of Geography. Poschinger.J.C. UK (http://blogs. with video clips • Pictures of Slope Failure (http://www.foundationengineering. ch/ Archiv/ Volumes/ vol112.usgs. Vol.org/landslideblog/) • European Landslide Susceptibility Map (http://eusoils. JRC. Journal of Geophysical Research. External links • United States Geological Survey site (http://landslides.uk/landslides/NLD.bgs.ac. shtml). Washington. [3] Weitere Erkenntnisse und weitere Fragen zum Flimser Bergsturz (http:/ / www. can be seen extending to the left of a bright fracture.eu/library/themes/Landslides/index.knowledgenetwork. The map has been derived through spatial multicriteria evaluation based modelling using pan-European datasets on slope angle. along with over 100. 2008-02-19 • British Geological Survey National Landslide Database (http://www.gov/) • British Geological Survey landslides site (http://www. In the center of the image on the right.: National Academy of Sciences.jrc.html) • European Soil Portal. and is freely available from the European Soil Portal together with a number of ancillary spatial datasets. 1990 image. 1-23. a bright.L. Wilson Professor.com/ jtc1/) • Landslide blog written by Professor David Petley. 11/2.eu/library/themes/LandSlides/) • British Columbia government landslide information (http://www.em. and examples of landslides have been observed on both. agu.000 landslide locations. called ELSUS1000. Retrieved on 2010-12-16.

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