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**GAUSSIAN ELIMINATION PART 3 (INFINITE SOLUTIONS)
**

An inconsistent equation at any stage of reduction indicates that there is no

solution and you may stop. Else

If every column on the LHS is a leading column then the solution is unique. Else

The presence of a non-leading column on the LHS of the echelon form indicates

infinite solutions with the non-leading variables then serving as parameters.

**If a system of equations Ax = b has infinite solutions then they will take the form
**

x = xp + λ1 v1 + λ2 v2 + · · · + λk vk

where

xp is a particular solution of Ax = b and the vectors vk are solutions to the

homogeneous problem Ax = 0.

We have touched upon systems of equation with either no solution or infinite solutions.

**Recall that if a ridiculous equation pops up (for eg. [0 0 0 0 2] that is 0=2??)
**

you may stop and claim no solution.

Otherwise infinite solutions are clearly signalled by the presence of a non-leading column on the LHS of the echelon form with the non-leading variables then serving as

parameters. If infinite solutions exist you must find and describe them all.

Note that zero rows in the echelon form DO NOT imply infinite solutions.

1

**Example 1: Find the line of intersection of the two planes
**

3x + 5y + 8z = 1 and −7x − 11y − 18z = 3.

3

5

8

−7 −11 −18

1

3

.

7

Normally we would use the row operation R2 = R2 + R1 . But the fractions are a bit

3

scary so instead we use the slightly shonky R2 = 3R2 + 7R1

F

F

x

−13

−1

y = 8 + −1 t ; t ∈ R F

z

0

1

**Two planes in R3 intersecting along a common line.
**

2

F

**Gaussian Elimination ALWAYS WORKS.
**

Example 2: Solve the system of equations

2x − 4y + z = 6.

F

Example 3: Solve the following system of linear equations.

0x + 0y + 0z = 0

0x + 0y + 0z = 0

0x + 0y + 0z = 0

F

3

**Let’s take a look at a very messy problem:
**

Example 4: Solve the following system of equations:

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 − x5 = 1

2x1 + 2x2 + 2x4 − 6x5 = −4

6x1 + 6x2 + 4x3 + 3x4 − 10x5 = −3

This is 3 equations in 5 unknowns!

F

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

=

−3

0

3

1

0

+

4

−1

1

0

0

0

µ +

3

0

−2

0

1

λ ; µ, λ ∈ R F

**Let us use the previous example to introduce some new notation.
**

1 1 1 1 −1

We have been writing systems in the augmented matrix format [A| b] = 2 2 0 2 −6

6 6 4 3 −10

We can also use the matrix vector format Ax = b where

x

1

x2

1 1 1 1 −1

1

−4

A = 2 2 0 2 −6 x =

x3 and b =

x4

6 6 4 3 −10

−3

x5

A is called the coefficient matrix, x is the unknown vector and b is the RHS.

A lot of the systems we have been solving have infinite solutions. These infinite solutions always have the following structure.

FACT: If a system of equations Ax = b has infinite solutions then they will take

the form

x = xp + λ1 v1 + λ2 v2 + · · · + λk vk

where xp is a particular solution of Ax = b, the λi ’s are scalars and the vectors vi are

solutions to the homogeneous problem Ax = 0.

−3

x1

x2 0

= 3 solves Ax = b.

x

In the above example xp =

3

x4 1

x5

0

It is easily checked that

x1 + x 2 + x3 + x4 − x5 = 1

2x1 + 2x2 + 2x4 − 6x5 = −4

6x1 + 6x2 + 4x3 + 3x4 − 10x5 = −3

x1

−1

x1

x2 1

x2

= 0 and v2 = x3

x

Also v1 =

3

x4 0

x4

0

x5

x5

problem Ax = 0. That is they satisfy:

5

=

3

0

−2

0

1

solve the homogeneous

1

−4

−3

x1 + x 2 + x3 + x4 − x 5 = 0

2x1 + 2x2 + 2x4 − 6x5 = 0

6x1 + 6x2 + 4x3 + 3x4 − 10x5 = 0

**Observe how xp works hard to produce the RHS b while v1 and v2 quietly operate
**

in the background by doing nothing. Brought together, x = xp + λ1 v1 + λ2 v2 provides

the most general solution to Ax = b.

Example 5:

a) Solve the following system of equations

x + 3y + 5z = 7

x + 4y + 7z = 11

2x + 7y + 12z = 18

b) Hence find a solution to the homogeneous problem

x + 3y + 5z = 0

x + 4y + 7z = 0

2x + 7y + 12z = 0

6

a)

F

x

−5

1

y = 4 + −2 t ; t ∈ R

z

0

1

x

1

b) y = −2 t ; t ∈ R F

z

1

x

−5

Why does this work?? Consider y = 4 . This is a particular solution to

z

0

the system and it is

easily

checked

that

these

values

of x,y and z satisfy all three equations

x

1

in a) above. Now y = −2 is a solution to the homogeneous system in b). It’s

z

1

x

−4

job is to do nothing! Adding the two vectors we get y = 2 which remarkz

1

ably

also a (new) particular solution to a). Check it! The reason

is

that

the new vector

−4

1

2 is also a solution to a) is precisely because the vector −2 does nothing!

1

1

7

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