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GE Proprietary Information

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Rev 1/06

Objectives

• Identify the purpose and organization of Minitab

• Use basic Minitab tools

• Create and interpret

Descriptive Statistics

Normal Probability Plot

Time Series Plot

Run Chart

Histogram

Dot Plot

Box Plot

Pareto Chart

Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone)

GE Proprietary Information

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Rev 1/06

**Minitab Basic Elements
**

Menu Bar

Tool Bar

Session

Window

Data

Window

GE Proprietary Information

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Rev 1/06

The Data Window Toolbar Open Project Insert Cells Manage Worksheets Manage Graphs Insert Rows Save Project Print Worksheet Insert Columns Move Columns Close Graphs Cancel Clear Cells Cut Previous Brushed Row Copy Help Next Brushed Row Paste Last Dialog Box Undo Session Window Current Data Window Toolbar appears when Data Window is active Data Window GE Proprietary Information 4 Rev 1/06 .

some buttons are different Session Window GE Proprietary Information 5 Rev 1/06 .The Session Window Toolbar Previous Command Next Command Find Print Session Window Find Next Toolbar appears when Session Window is active.

some buttons are different Graph Window GE Proprietary Information 6 Rev 1/06 .The Graph Window Toolbar View Mode Edit Mode Print Graph Brush Mode Toolbar appears when Graph Window is active.

Basic Element Descriptions Main Windows: Session Window: contains text output produced by analyses Data Window: contains columns of data that you input in order to analyze Other Windows: History Window: contains a list of commands used in a session Info Window: summarizes worksheets in the project Graph Window: graphical display of data More Information: Projects: information about all your analysis can be saved in a Minitab Project file. Worksheets: contain your data. it is possible to have multiple worksheets in one project GE Proprietary Information 7 Rev 1/06 .

ready for input into a Minitab data worksheet If using column titles. make sure to paste the titles into the top row of the data worksheet Each column title must be unique Special characters such as the comma as a 1000 separator (1. such as Excel.Creating a Data Worksheet Open a blank worksheet and input data into the data window — — — A worksheet is not a spreadsheet Column names are above the first row Minitab will only recognize data when it is in column format. data can be copied and pasted into Minitab — — — — GE Proprietary Information Ensure that the data is in column format.000) or $ in financial data must be removed or Minitab will treat the column of data as text 8 Rev 1/06 . data organized by row will not be recognized If data is in another software package.

but will also save your analysis.Saving Files in Minitab Saving as a Project will not only save your data in your worksheet. multiple worksheets can be saved in one Project. Minitab uses a file extension of ‘mtw’ for a Worksheet GE Proprietary Information 9 Rev 1/06 . Click File Saving as a Worksheet will only save the data in the current worksheet and does not save any of the analysis that has been generated. Minitab uses a file extension of ‘mpj’ for a Project 1. including any charts or graphs that have been generated. Also.

and.Manipulating Data in Minitab The ‘Manip’ pull down menu contains several tools for manipulating the data worksheet We will focus on Stacking and Unstacking data Stacking data will put two or more existing columns of data into a single longer column. optionally. based on a column of data tags GE Proprietary Information 10 Rev 1/06 . create a column of subscripts to identify the original column associated with the data Unstacking data will move data from a single column into separate shorter columns.

mtw” 2.Stacking Data in Minitab 1. Open Minitab Worksheet “Stack-Unstack. Click Manip>Stack/Unstack>Stack Columns GE Proprietary Information 11 Rev 1/06 .

C2.Stacking Data in Minitab 3.2.C3) 4.3 (Columns C1. Click OK GE Proprietary Information 12 Rev 1/06 . Select Subscript (Column C5) 6. Select Customer (Column C4) to store the stacked data in 5. Select Customers 1.

2 & 3 is stacked in Customer column (C4) GE Proprietary Information 13 … and the three Customers are listed in Subscript column (C5) Rev 1/06 .Stacking Data in Minitab Now the information for Customers 1.

In this example.Unstacking Data in Minitab If data has been stored in a Minitab Worksheet as stacked data. we will unstack the data that we just stacked. Click Manip>Stack/Unstack>Unstack One Column GE Proprietary Information 14 Rev 1/06 . 1. it is also possible to unstack the data.

Select Columns C6-C8 to store the unstacked data in 4. Select Customer (Column C4) (This is the column that contains the stacked data) 3. Select Column C5 for the column that contains the subscripts 5.Unstacking Data in Minitab 2. Click OK GE Proprietary Information 15 Rev 1/06 .

and 3 are now in separate columns in C6.Unstacking Data in Minitab The data for Customers 1.2.and C8 GE Proprietary Information 16 Rev 1/06 .C7.

Descriptive Statistics

**1. Open Minitab by double
**

clicking on the Minitab icon;

this will give you a blank

worksheet

2. Open Minitab Worksheet

“Chartdata.mtw”

GE Proprietary Information

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Rev 1/06

Descriptive Statistics

3. Click Stat>Basic Statistics>Display

Descriptive Statistics

4. Select (C1) Data

5. Click Graphs

**6. Check the box next
**

to “Graphical

summary”. Keep the

Confidence level set

at the default of 95.0.

8. Click OK

7. Click OK

GE Proprietary Information

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Rev 1/06

Descriptive Statistics

**Minitab will provide a summary of the data that looks like this.
**

We’ll break this down in pieces to explain all the information displayed in the summary.

GE Proprietary Information

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Rev 1/06

Around these points. GE Proprietary Information The “Box and Whisker plot” divides data into “quarters” 1st quartile Median 3rd quartile NOTE: Points below Q1-1.5(Q3-Q1) are considered “outliers” and appear as individual dots 20 Rev 1/06 . Minitab calculates an interval within which it is 95% certain that the population mean and median actually reside. it can only estimate what the mean and Median of the entire population is.Descriptive Statistics Histogram of the data (with Minitab’s best approximation of what normal curve fits this data best) Because we have only provided Minitab a sample of data from what it presumes is a larger population. The vertical line part way through each of the red boxes is the calculated mean (top) and median (bottom) for the sample of data entered.5(Q3-Q1) or above Q3+1.

no. GE Proprietary Information 21 Rev 1/06 . if a process is normal the mean and standard deviation can be used to predict the likelihood of values falling within certain ranges (like within specified tolerances).Descriptive Statistics Does the data “fit” a normal distribution well enough to use the assumption of normality? (If p < 0. it allows us to do a number analyses that would otherwise not be valid.05. For example.05 yes) If a set of data is normally distributed it means that when it is plotted as a histogram it has a symmetric bell shaped distribution. Normal Not Normal Not Normal If a data set is normally distributed. if p > 0. One of the the nice things about knowing a process is normal is that a number of things about it are fairly predictable.

the more skewed the data. 22 GE Proprietary Information Rev 1/06 . if calculated using all the data in the population it may be written m. The kurtosis value is approximately zero for a normal curve. (If calculated using a sample of data from a population it may be written s. Typically.) Variance: Equal to the standard deviation squared. if a distribution has a large tail at the upper end of its distribution. (If calculated using a sample of data from a population it may be written x. if calculated using all the data in the population it may be written s. For example. Skewness: A measure of asymmetry – the further from zero.Descriptive Statistics m (population) s (sample) or s (population) s (sample) or s (population) x (sample) or 2 2 Mean: The average value of all the data points.) StDev: The standard deviation of all the data points. A very positive kurtosis indicates a distribution that is flatter than usual. a very negative kurtosis indicates a distribution that is more peaked than usual. skewness will likely be positive. Kurtosis: A number reflecting how much the sample data resembles a normal distribution in shape. the skewness value will range from negative 3 to positive 3. N: Indicates how many data points were in the data used in the creation of this summary. It can be thought of as an “average distance away from the mean that the data points are” – larger standard deviations mean more variation.

Descriptive Statistics Minimum: The lowest value data point in the sample. 1st Quartile: The value which 25% of the data points fall below. 3rd Quartile: The value which 75% of the data points fall below. It does this by calculating an interval within which it is 95% certain that these parameters actually reside if the whole population were to be included. and median are. Maximum: The highest value data point in the sample. GE Proprietary Information 23 Rev 1/06 . it can only estimate what the entire population is like. Confidence Intervals: Because we have only provided Minitab a sample of data from what it presumes is a larger population. the standard deviation (Sigma). Minitab can help us to understand how good our estimates of things like the mean (Mu). Median: The value which 50% of the data points fall below.

99 Probability .95 .36687 N: 25 GE Proprietary Information Anderson-Darling Normality Test A-Squared: 0.Normal Probability Plot Purpose: To check whether observations follow a normal distribution To determine the proportion of observations above or below a specified value Normal Probability Plot .001 58 59 60 61 62 Data Average: 60.80 .58 StDev: 1.557 P-Value: 0.05 .50 .135 24 Rev 1/06 .999 .01 .20 .

Click on Stat. Click OK 4. Open Minitab Worksheet “Chartdata.mtw” 2.Normal Probability Plot 1. Leave the AndersonDarling button selected (default) 4. 3. Click the column that contains the data you want to test into the box labeled variable. 5. then on Normality Test 3. then on Basic Statistics. 4. GE Proprietary Information 25 Rev 1/06 .

unless the data can be proven to be non-normal. “Proving” it to be nonnormal (with 95% confidence) is achieved by reading a p-value (in bold) of 0.557 P-value: 0.05 or less.36687 N: 25 Anderson-Darling Normality Test A-squared: 0.Normal Probability Plot Average: 60.135 The assumption (called the null hypothesis) is that.58 StDev: 1. GE Proprietary Information 26 Rev 1/06 . it is assumed to be normal.

50 59. and relationships Communicate with team members and sponsors GE Proprietary Information 27 Length 59.75 61.25 61.00 60.25 62.25 60.50 61.00 62. variation.50 58.00 58.25 62.75 61.00 62.75 58.25 61.Graphs in Minitab A “Good” Picture is Worth a Thousand Words! 63 62 Data 61 _ > 60 59 58 Index 5 10 15 20 25 ShotNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Make graphs from columns of data Display means.25 60.50 60.25 61.25 59.75 60.50 62. trends.25 62.75 58.25 58.75 Rev 1/06 .

or identify changes in the process. assess variation.Time Series Plot Purpose: To display data in time order sequence Why: To track process performance over time. to discover trends. Establish a historical baseline to compare process improvements 63 62 Data 61 60 59 58 Index GE Proprietary Information 5 10 15 28 20 25 Rev 1/06 .

Time Series Plot 1.mtw” 3. Open Minitab Worksheet “Chartdata. Click Graph> Time Series Plot 5. Select (C1) Data 4. Click OK GE Proprietary Information 29 Rev 1/06 . Select Index for Time Scale (default) 2.

Time Series Plot GE Proprietary Information 30 Rev 1/06 .

Select N (none). Click on the graph and drag an ellipse around some points 4. 1. Select Editor>Edit Note: A graph must be active 2. Select the Ellipse icon from the Tool Palette 3. Text tool etc. so ellipse is unfilled Select: Editor > View from the menu when finished GE Proprietary Information 31 Rev 1/06 . Try this on the Time Series Plot. Select the Pattern icon from the Attribute Palette Try Line tool. Try to click and drag a feature to move it Try to click a feature to select it then drag one end to stretch it 5.Annotating Minitab Graphs Minitab’s drawing Tool and Attribute Palettes may be used to annotate your graphs.

A small window. Select Editor>Brush Note: A graph must be active 3. Point the flying finger at a data point and click 2. The “worksheet row” for that point appears in the Brushing Palette 1. the Brushing Palette. appears on the screen GE Proprietary Information 32 Rev 1/06 .Brushing Graph Data Minitab’s brushing tool allows you to highlight data points and view the row number and up to ten other column values for that worksheet row in a floating window referred to as the Brushing Palette 4.

It is also possible to view a group of points by dragging the finger to enclose the points of interest in a box. Select columns C1 C2 With the Brush mode active… 1.Brushing Graph Data When the Brush mode is active. Select Editor>Set ID Variables 3. Click OK GE Proprietary Information 33 Rev 1/06 . We will now combine these two techniques… 2. you can expand the window and show up to ten other column values for that worksheet row by setting ID variables.

Brushing Graph Data 5. Click and drag a box around a group of data points GE Proprietary Information 34 Rev 1/06 . The expanded Brushing Palette is now shown 4.

3333 5. It displays the median and other statistics about the data series.0000 13.9497 Rev 1/06 .4800 11.9997 Number of runs up or down: Expected number of runs: Longest run up or down: Approx P-Value for Trends: Approx P-Value for Oscillation: 35 13.0000 0.0000 0.Purpose: Run Chart Chart To display data inRun time order sequence (alternative to Time Series Plot).0503 0.0000 16. Run Chart for Data 62 Data 61 60 59 58 5 15 25 Observation Number of runs about median: Expected number of runs: Longest run about median: Approx P-Value for Clustering: Approx P-Value for Mixtures: GE Proprietary Information 5.0003 0.

Run Chart 1. Select (C1) Data 4. Open Minitab Worksheet “Chartdata.mtw” 3. Enter 1 for Subgroup size 2. Click OK GE Proprietary Information 36 Rev 1/06 . Click Stat>Quality Tools>Run Chart 5.

Run Chart Overall median GE Proprietary Information 37 Rev 1/06 .

0 61. variation.0 62.5 62.5 61.Histogram Purpose: To display central tendency. and distribution of a process Why: Summarizes large data sets into frequency intervals 5 Frequency 4 3 2 1 0 58.5 Data GE Proprietary Information 38 Rev 1/06 .0 59.0 58.5 59.5 60.0 60.

Open Minitab Worksheet “Chartdata.mtw” 2. Select (C1) Data 4. Click OK GE Proprietary Information 39 Rev 1/06 .Histogram 3b. Select Edit Attributes to change shading and colors (optional) 1. Click Graph>Histogram 3a.

Histogram GE Proprietary Information 40 Rev 1/06 .

Dot Plot Purpose: To display the distribution of a column of data To gain insight about the center and spread of the data To visually represent all data points GE Proprietary Information 41 Rev 1/06 .

mtw” 3. Select (C1) Data 2. Click Graph>Dotplot 4. Click OK GE Proprietary Information 42 Rev 1/06 . Open Minitab Worksheet “Chartdata.Dot Plot 1.

Dot Plot GE Proprietary Information 43 Rev 1/06 .

Box Plot Purpose: To display the center (median) and spread for a column of data 63 62 Data 61 60 59 58 GE Proprietary Information 44 Rev 1/06 .

Box Plot 1. Select (C1) Data 2.mtw” 3. Open Minitab Worksheet “Chartdata. Click OK GE Proprietary Information 45 Rev 1/06 . Click Graph>Boxplot 4.

5 x IQR below 25th) 58 1.Box Plot 63 Maximum Observation (within 1.5 x IQR above 75th) 62 75th Percentile Data 61 * IQR Median (50th Percentile) 60 25th Percentile 59 Minimum Observation (within 1.5 x IQR below 25th Percentile. Outlier or >1.5 x IQR above 75th Percentile) * Note: This outlier data point was added manually to demonstrate how an outlier is illustrated on a Boxplot * IQR represents the interquartile range GE Proprietary Information 46 Rev 1/06 .5 x IQR (>1.

Pareto Chart Purpose: To compare how frequently different causes occur or how much each cause costs your organization Pareto Principle: 20% of causes account for 80% of the problem Why: Prioritize data to determine where to focus improvements Choose which cause to eliminate first GE Proprietary Information 47 Rev 1/06 .

Pareto Chart Suppose the items listed at the left were found (in total) to be the most costly problems faced. Click on Stat > Quality Tools > Pareto Chart A Pareto chart could help to separate the vital few from the trivial many by comparing how frequently different causes occur or how much each cause costs your organization. (NOTE: all data is hypothetical). 1. GE Proprietary Information 48 Rev 1/06 .

Pareto Chart 2a 2b 2c 2d 2a. Click OK GE Proprietary Information 49 Rev 1/06 . 2c. Click the button next to Chart defects table 2b. The higher you make this number. Click the columns containing your labels and the variable with the actual data in it into the appropriate boxes (NOTE: the Pareto does not NECESSARILY have defects on the y-axis it could be hours or (in as in this case) dollars. the more of the population you’ll see discriminated on the chart 2d.

Pareto Chart Units of Measure Cumulative percent Categories GE Proprietary Information 50 Rev 1/06 .

Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone) Purpose: To Identify possible causes (Xs) for a particular effect (Y) To display and document current knowledge of a process or problem To select key causes (Xs) to investigate Measurements Reading Scale Recording Length Materials People Golf Ball Energy Rubber Bands Concentration Tape Experience Target Sheet Carbon Paper Time Pressure Angle Posture HVAC Temperature Variation in Shot Length Release Humidity Computer Rubber Bands Lighting Catapult Tape Measure Category Cause Subcause Environment GE Proprietary Information Methods Equipment 51 Effect Rev 1/06 .

process outcome. rearrangements (the medium and small bones) Brainstorm • develop a list of causes or factors • determine relationships among causes or factors • arrange causes or factors into appropriate categories • structure in fishbone format Share the diagram with others for comment and/or modification Determine (and circle) the three to five most likely causes or factors Affinitization Extend a centerline (the fish backbone) GE Proprietary Information • write possible causes or factors on index cards or Post-it™ notes • sort notes/cards into natural groups and subgroups • identify categories • structure in fishbone format 52 Validate likely causes with data Rev 1/06 . omitted items.Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone) Constructing a Cause and Effect Diagram Clarify the problem or issue being addressed Write a specific description of the quality characteristic. or effect being investigated Draw a box around the description (the fish head) Identify contributing causes or influential factors (the fish bones) Category Expansion • choose suitable categories • extend and label a branch line for each category from the centerline (the large bones) • record causes or factors on the diagram in the appropriate category Methods People Effect Materials Machine s Review and revise the diagram—look for duplications.

validate the choices with data GE Proprietary Information 53 Rev 1/06 .Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone) Notes on the Cause and Effect Diagram An effective diagram will capture many potential causes It is not necessary to have an equal number of causes under each category A category with many causes may be a good place to start your search for significant Xs The diagram is an excellent source of data “tags” Some suggested categories may end up without any entries A sparse diagram or empty branches may indicate the problem is not well understood or the appropriate team may not be assembled A review of the process map may help identify potential Xs and their origin Once the fishbone is drawn and the team has selected the most likely causes (Xs).

Enter your data by column 3. Assign column data to graph labels 2.Reference Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone) Minitab Commands 1. Select: Stat> Quality Tools> Cause and Effect 4. Click OK Rev 1/06 . Define the effect GE Proprietary Information 54 5.

Reference Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone) Cause-and-Effect Diagram Measurements Materials Men Odometer Gender Octane Rating Tire Pressure Age Gas Quality Gas Gage Experience Gas Mileage Traffic Level Tire Pressure Speed Road Surface Engine Towing Season Windy Environment GE Proprietary Information Air Conditioning Open Windows Methods Gas Filter Machines 55 Rev 1/06 .

Introduction to Minitab . histograms. run charts.Summary • This chapter has provided you with some basic Minitab skills that you may be using in the Measure Phase • You now can create and interpret time series plots. and Pareto charts • You will learn more about Minitab’s graphical capabilities in the Analyze Phase • The following pages contain some reference material that may help you as you begin to use Minitab GE Proprietary Information 56 Rev 1/06 .

Minitab Extras • There are many tips and tricks that can help you maneuver around Minitab • The Minitab Help windows can provide aid and background information as you work through Minitab This section provides you with some Minitab extras GE Proprietary Information 57 Rev 1/06 .

This provides a quick way to return to the menu boxes to put in different variables <Ctrl>+<D> (Window>Data) will make the data window active <Ctrl>+<M> (Window>Session) will make the session window active <F3> will reset all dialog box settings to their defaults Note: Items enclosed in < > refer to computer keys.Minitab Maneuvering Tips <Ctrl>+<E> will allow you to recall the last dialog box. GE Proprietary Information 58 Rev 1/06 . items in italics refer to menu items.

Graphing Tips Window > Manage Graph > Tile will display multiple graphs on the screen at one time (select and highlight the graphs to be shown) Edit > Copy Graph will copy a graph in order to paste it into other applications such as PowerPoint (the graph window of the graph to be copied must be active) Editor > Select Fonts > I/O Font will allow you to specify font. style and size for text in the session window. GE Proprietary Information 59 Rev 1/06 . This is helpful because some output (character graphs) is displayed in the session window Note: Items in italics refer to menu items.

Minitab Help Help is also available when entering information for most tools GE Proprietary Information 60 Rev 1/06 .

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