Chapter 06 - Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights

Chapter 06
Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee
Rights
True/False Questions
1. The most important influence on workers’ commitment is salary.
Answer: False
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 06-01
Topic: Ethical Issues in the Workplace: The Current Environment
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 265
Feedback: When asked about the greatest influence on their commitment, workers responded
that the most important factor is fairness at work, followed by care and concern for employees
—all key components of an ethical working environment.
2. Employees have a universal right to a “happy” workplace.
Answer: False
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 06-01
Topic: Ethical Issues in the Workplace: The Current Environment
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 265
Feedback: While no one is claiming that employees have some universal right to a “happy”
workplace, a comprehensive review of research by Jeffrey Pfeffer suggests that effective firms
are characterized by a set of common practices, all of which involve treating employees in
humane and respectful ways.
3. Rewards and compensation structures have no impact on the emotions of workers.
Answer: False
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 06-01
Topic: Ethical Issues in the Workplace: The Current Environment
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 265
Feedback: Rewards and compensation structures can clearly impact the emotions of workers,
as can the composition of teams or the power relationships within a workplace.
4. Employment security is the most significant aspect of work from the employee’s ethical
perspective.
Answer: True
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© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 06 - Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 06-02
Topic: Due Process and Just Cause
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 267
Feedback: Employment security—getting and keeping a job—is perhaps the most significant
aspect of work from the employee's ethical perspective.
5. In legal contexts, due process is the right to be protected against the arbitrary use of
authority.
Answer: False
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 06-02
Topic: Due Process and Just Cause
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 267
Feedback: Philosophically, the right of due process is the right to be protected against the
arbitrary use of authority. In legal contexts, due process refers to the procedures that police
and courts must follow in exercising their authority over citizens.
6. A mistreatment needs to be physically threatening to be termed as “bullying.”
Answer: False
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 06-02
Topic: Due Process and Just Cause
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 267-268
Feedback: “Bullying” in the workplace is defined as “the repeated, malicious, healthendangering mistreatment of one employee . . . by one or more employees.” The mistreatment
need not be physically threatening, but might simply involve a boss who is constantly yelling
dictates at workers, or a coworker who spreads rumors about another in order to sabotage his
position.
7. The doctrine of ‘employment at will’(EAW) holds that unless an agreement specifies
otherwise, employers are free to fire an employee at any time and for any reason.
Answer: True
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 06-03
Topic: Due Process and Just Cause
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 269-270
Feedback: Employment at will holds that, in the absence of a particular contractual or other

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© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 06 - Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights

legal obligation that specifies the length or conditions of employment, all employees are
employed “at will.” This means that, unless an agreement specifies otherwise, employers are
free to fire an employee at any time and for any reason.
8. When the employer is the government, constitutional limitations on government authority
are extended into the workplace to protect employees.
Answer: True
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 06-04
Topic: Due Process and Just Cause
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 270
Feedback: When the employer is the government, constitutional limitations on government
authority are extended into the workplace to protect employees.
9. If a firm decides to retain employees on the basis of longevity with the firm, and the
retained employees are mostly of the male gender, then legally, the firm will not be violating
any regulations.
Answer: False
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 06-06
Topic: Downsizing
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 275
Feedback: From a legal perspective, the decision about whom to include in a downsizing
effort must be carefully planned. If the firm's decision is based on some criterion that seems to
be neutral on its face, such as seniority, but the plan results in a different impact on one group
than another, the decision may be suspect. In this case of retention based on longevity, the
effort may violate Title VII’s prohibition against discrimination based on gender because the
termination policy has a more significant—and negative—impact on women.
10. “Sweatshops” lack even the most basic health and safety protections.
Answer: True
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 06-07
Topic: Health and Safety
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
AACSB: Analytic
Page: 276
Feedback: In some regions, employees lack even the most basic health and safety protections,
such as in working environments that are often termed “sweatshops.”
11. The life of one who dies in a workplace accident has instrumental value that can be
measured, in part, by the lost wages that would have been earned had that person lived.

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any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

forwarded. Standards prevent employees from having to face the fundamentally coercive choice between job and safety. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. duplicated. 14. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety as Market Controlled Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 Feedback: Standards can be set according to the best available scientific knowledge and thus overcome market failures that result from insufficient information. Standards also address the first generation problem by focusing on prevention rather than compensation after the fact. in whole or part. The “feasibility” approach to standards allows OSHA to make tradeoffs between health and economics. 12. Finally. scanned. by the lost wages that would have been earned had that person lived. in part. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: “Risks” can be defined as the probability of harm. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic 6-4 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education.Chapter 06 . 13. “Relative risks” is determined by comparing the probabilities of harm involved in various activities. This document may not be copied. distributed. . and we determine “relative risks” by comparing the probabilities of harm involved in various activities.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-07 Topic: Health and Safety Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: The life of one who dies in a workplace accident has instrumental value that can be measured. standards are fundamentally a social approach that can address public policy questions ignored by markets. Standards are fundamentally a social approach that can address public policy questions ignored by markets. or posted on a website. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.

Kantian Answer: b Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-01 Topic: Ethical Issues in the Workplace: The Current Environment Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 265 Feedback: There are two very distinct. and sometimes competing. Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-13 Topic: Diversity Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 296 Feedback: It is not discriminatory to refuse to hire someone about whom you simply have a “bad feeling. forwarded.” even if that bad feeling is not based on their difference in race or gender. Some employers might decide to treat employees well as a means to produce greater workplace harmony and productivity.” Identify the ethical approach for this perspective. 15. or posted on a website. Classicism Answer: c 6-5 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. Prescriptive ethics b. This document may not be copied. a. perspectives on the ethics of workplace relationships. Some employers might decide to treat employees well as a means to produce greater workplace harmony and productivity. . This “feasibility” approach allows OSHA to make tradeoffs between health and economics. scanned.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Page: 282 Feedback: When OSHA was first established. utilitarian c.Chapter 06 . distributed. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. regulations were aimed at achieving the safest feasible standards. duplicated. This approach is reminiscent of _____ ethics. 17.” unless that bad feeling is based on their difference in race or gender. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Some employers emphasize the rights and duties of all employees. Multiple Choice Questions 16. Deontological ethics d. a. in whole or part. normative d. This consequentialist approach could be reminiscent of the utilitarian ethics. deontological b. Utilitarianism c. and treat employees well simply because “it is the right thing to do. It is discriminatory to refuse to hire someone about whom you simply have a “bad feeling.

due process refers to the procedures that police and courts must follow in exercising their authority over citizens. or posted on a website. and treating employees well simply because “it is the right thing to do. in whole or part. c. Due process in the workplace acknowledges employees’ authority over an employer. Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-02 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 267 Feedback: Philosophically. the right of due process is the right to be protected against the arbitrary use of authority. due process refers to the unlimited authority that police and courts have over citizens. self-determination Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-02 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 267 Feedback: Philosophically. This document may not be copied. the right of due process is the right to be protected against the arbitrary use of authority. d. forwarded. In legal contexts. duplicated. freedom of association c. to create a safe and orderly society. In legal contexts. b. perspectives on the ethics of workplace relationships. .” 18. scanned. 19. and sometimes competing. the right of _____ is the right to be protected against the arbitrary use of authority. In legal contexts. through its police and courts.Chapter 06 . Few dispute that the state. distributed. has the authority to punish citizens. a. due process d. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. regardless of the either utilitarian or self-interested productivity consequences. Philosophically. Which of the following statements is true about the right of due process? a. due process refers to the procedures that police 6-6 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. In legal contexts. due process refers to the procedures that police and courts must follow in exercising their authority over citizens. This deontological approach emphasizes the rights and duties of all employees. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. continuance b. Some employers might treat employees well out of a Kantian sense of duty and rights. This authority of the state is the right of due process.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-01 Topic: Ethical Issues in the Workplace: The Current Environment Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Remember Page: 266 Feedback: There are two very distinct.

unless an agreement specifies otherwise. b. Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-02 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 269 Feedback: The issue of workplace bullying is more predominant in the service sector because that work relies significantly on interpersonal relationships and interaction. forwarded. that work relies significantly on interpersonal relationships and interaction. b.Chapter 06 . he is not regarded as bullying as he is not higher than the other employee in the hierarchy of authority. intimidation. The issue of workplace bullying is more predominant in the service sector because: a. c. 22. c. of its strong hierarchy of authority. malicious. distributed. Identify the doctrine which holds that employers are free to fire an employee at any time and for any reason. This document may not be copied.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights and courts must follow in exercising their authority over citizens. but might simply involve a boss who is constantly yelling dictates at workers. 21. These behaviors lead not only to emotional abuse but a complete loss of personal dignity.” The mistreatment need not be physically threatening. d. intimidation. Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-02 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 268 Feedback: “Bullying” in the workplace is defined as “the repeated. and fear. d. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.” a. The mistreatment of an employee needs to be physically threatening to be termed as bullying. The doctrine of constructive dismissal d. a. Identify the correct statement about “bullying. duplicated. The doctrine of estoppel b. The doctrine of employment at will Answer: d 6-7 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. healthendangering mistreatment of one employee by one or more employees. The doctrine of constructive notice c. it lacks the right of due process. Bullying does not involve a boss who is constantly yelling dictates at workers because that is his job. . This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Bullying can lead to a complete loss of personal dignity. 20. or posted on a website. or a coworker who spreads rumors about another in order to sabotage his position. in whole or part. When a coworker spreads rumors about another in order to sabotage his position. most of the organizations in this sector are decentralized. scanned. and fear.

but have to provide them with a valid reason. The freedom to terminate the employer-employee relationship is mutual.Chapter 06 . b. Which of the following statements about the doctrine of employment at will (EAW) is true? a.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-03 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 269-270 Feedback: Employment at will (EAW) holds that. c. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. in whole or part. Terminated workers may interpret early notice as an effort to get the most out of them before departure. This document may not be copied. 23. scanned. or posted on a website. Employment at will holds that employers can fire an employee at any time. Civil rights laws are not an exception to the EAW because it prohibits firing someone on the basis of membership in certain prohibited classes. has both utilitarian and deontological elements. d. absent a particular contractual or other legal obligation that specifies the length or conditions of employment. During the process of downsizing. b. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-03 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 270 Feedback: The ethical rationale for EAW. a. . c. both theoretically and practically. forwarded. both historically and among contemporary defenders. which might result in lost revenues. d. employers are free to fire an employee at any time and for any reason. Identify the correct justification for this statement. Terminated workers will not be inclined to put their best effort. Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-06 Topic: Downsizing Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand 6-8 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. duplicated. Workers will interpret early notice as an effort to allow them time to come to grips with the loss of their jobs. distributed.” This means that. allowing a worker to remain in a position for a period of time once she or he has been notified of impending termination might not be the best option. The ethical rationale for EAW has both utilitarian and deontological elements. Workers who are not terminated will have a bad impression about the organization for terminating their coworkers. all employees are employed “at will. 24. unless an agreement specifies otherwise.

a. forwarded. something that financial compensation simply cannot replace. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. consider how one might respond to the question of how much her or his life is worth. such as in working environments that are often termed “sweatshops. or posted on a website.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights AACSB: Analytic Page: 273 Feedback: Allowing a worker to remain in a position for a period of time once she or he has been notified of impending termination might not be the best option. In some other regions. Such work environments are termed as _____. holes-in-the-walls c. This document may not be copied. In some regions. instrumental c. a. The _____ value of the life is something that financial compensation cannot replace. Workers may interpret early notice as an effort to get the most out of them before departure rather than an effort to allow them time to come to grips with the loss of their jobs. haberdasheries d. But these lost wages do not measure the intrinsic value of the life. . duplicated. absolute b. The life of one who dies in a workplace accident has _____ value that can be measured. in part. They have intrinsic value in addition to their instrumental value. intrinsic d. extrinsic Answer: b Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-07 Topic: Health and Safety Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: Health and safety are also valuable in and of themselves. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. sweatshops Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-06 Topic: Health and Safety Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: Within the United States and throughout many other countries with developed economies. op shops b.Chapter 06 . employees lack even the most basic health and safety protections. 27. in whole or part. employees lack even the most basic health and safety protections in their workplaces.” 26. a. To understand this distinction. absolute 6-9 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. there is a wide consensus that employees have a fundamental right to a safe and healthy workplace. distributed. scanned. 25. by the lost wages that would have been earned had that person lived.

scanned. . in whole or part. 28. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. or posted on a website. To understand this distinction. Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-07 Topic: Health and Safety Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: Health and safety have intrinsic value in addition to their instrumental value. impediments c. Employers are responsible to provide a completely safe and healthy workplace. Financial compensation can replace the value of life lost due to lack of health and safety measures. obstacles b. consider how one might respond to the question of how much her or his life is worth.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights b. Which of the following is true of health and safety at the workplace? a. b. But these lost wages do not measure the intrinsic value of the life. Employers do not have the right to fire employees on grounds of health and safety. a. something that financial compensation simply cannot replace. c. This document may not be copied. They have intrinsic value in addition to their instrumental value. _____ can be defined as the probability of harm. But these lost wages do not measure the intrinsic value of the life. To understand this distinction. distributed. 29. consider how one might respond to the question of how much her or his life is worth. extrinsic Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-07 Topic: Health and Safety Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: Health and safety are also valuable in and of themselves. barriers Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic 6-10 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. instrumental c. intrinsic d. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. forwarded. risks d. With regard to health and safety at workplace. duplicated. d. something that financial compensation simply cannot replace. Health and safety have instrumental value and intrinsic value.Chapter 06 .

30. duplicated. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. distributed. workers’ compensation is easier to calculate. “Risks” can be defined as the probability of harm. Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: Employers cannot be responsible for providing an ideally safe and healthy workplace. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. and we determine “relative risks” by comparing the probabilities of harm involved in various activities. relative risks d. b. a. d. Instead.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Page: 276 Feedback: Employers cannot be responsible for providing an ideally safe and healthy workplace. discussions in ethics about employee health and safety will tend to focus on the relative risks workers face and the level of acceptable workplace risk. c. employers cannot be responsible for providing an ideally safe and healthy workplace. variable obstacles b. “Risks” can be defined as the probability of harm. absolute impediments c. . Instead. insurance laws mandate the focus on relative risks and acceptability of workplace risk. 31. forwarded. With regard to health and safety at workplace. 32. a. comparative barriers Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: Employers cannot be responsible for providing an ideally safe and healthy workplace. Instead. acceptable level of risks 6-11 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. Comparison of the probabilities of harm involved in various activities would determine the _____. discussions in ethics about employee health and safety will tend to focus on the relative risks workers face and the level of acceptable workplace risk. This document may not be copied. scanned. and we determine “relative risks” by comparing the probabilities of harm involved in various activities. _____ can be determined by comparing the probabilities of harm involved in various activities. it results in a completely safe and healthy workplace. discussions in ethics about employee health and safety will tend to focus on the relative risks workers face and the level of acceptable workplace risk. in whole or part. Discussions in ethics about employee health and safety tend to focus on the relative risks workers face and the level of acceptable workplace risk because: a. or posted on a website.Chapter 06 .

b.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights b. Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 278 Feedback: If it can be determined that the probability of harm involved in a specific work activity is equal to or less than the probability of harm of some more common activity. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. When can we conclude that an activity has an “acceptable level of risk?” a. forwarded. duplicated. If it can be determined that the probability of harm involved in a specific work activity is equal to or less than the probability of harm of some more common activity. in whole or part. Government-regulated ethics approach b. absolute risks c. d. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. relative risks Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: “Risks” can be defined as the probability of harm. Diversifiable risk approach c. If the probability of harm involved in a specific work activity is acceptable by insurance and workers’ compensation laws. scanned. Which of the following approaches to health and safety at the workplace can be considered paternalistic decision making which treats employees like children and makes crucial decisions for them? a.” 34. Acceptable level of risk approach d. If the employers are willing to compensate the harm caused to workers for a specific activity.Chapter 06 . This document may not be copied. 33. c. Market controlled approach Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic 6-12 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. and we determine “relative risks” by comparing the probabilities of harm involved in various activities. If it can be determined that the probability of harm involved in a specific work activity is manageable. then we can conclude that this activity faces an “acceptable level of risk. distributed. . speculative risks d. or posted on a website.

ignoring their role in the decision-making process. Which of the following is true of the acceptable risk approach to health and safety? a. Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 278 Feedback: One of the challenges to the acceptable risk approach to health and safety is that it treats employees disrespectfully by ignoring their input as stakeholders. Which of the following statements is true about the market controlled approach to health and safety? 6-13 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. 37. It involves the determination of “relative risks. c.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Page: 278-279 Feedback: Acceptable level of risk approach treats employees disrespectfully by ignoring their input as stakeholders. It ignores the fundamental deontological right an employee might have to a safe and healthy working environment. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. d.” the calculation of which is a complicated process and not always reliable. Such paternalistic decision making effectively treats employees like children and makes crucial decisions for them. It is a liberal approach to health and safety that allows employees to recognize the risk they are likely to face. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. c. in whole or part. d. 35. It treats employees disrespectfully by ignoring their input as stakeholders. b. Identify the challenge faced by the acceptable risk approach to health and safety. It assumes differences between workplace risks and other types of risks when there are significant similarities between them. or posted on a website. a. . It is a liberal approach to health and safety that allows employees to recognize the risk they are likely to face. distributed.” the calculation of which is a complicated process and not always reliable. It involves the determination of “relative risks. This document may not be copied. 36. duplicated. scanned.Chapter 06 . forwarded. b. It assumes differences between workplace risks and other types of risks when there are significant similarities between them. Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 279 Feedback: One of the challenges to the acceptable risk approach to health and safety is that it ignores the fundamental deontological right an employee might have to a safe and healthy working environment.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. Labor markets are not perfectly competitive and free. acceptable risk d. b. It ignores the fundamental deontological right an employee might have to a safe and healthy working environment. Employees do not have the kinds of free choices that the free market theory would require in order to attain optimal satisfactions—though enlightened selfinterest would be a valuable theory to introduce and apply in this environment. c. .Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights a. Enlightened self-interest would be a valuable theory to introduce and apply in the _____ approach to health and safety. This document may not be copied. integrative c. or posted on a website. market controlled b. d. government-regulated Answer: a Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety as Market Controlled Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 281 Feedback: The free market approach has a number of serious problems. a. duplicated. It assumes an equivalency between workplace risks and other types of risks when there are significant differences between them. c. It assumes an equivalency between workplace risks and other types of risks when there are significant differences between them. In this approach. Employees do not know the risks involved in a job and therefore are not in a position to freely bargain for appropriate wages. 39. b. distributed. employees would be free to choose the risks they are willing to face by bargaining with employers. 38. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. it is unrealistic to presume employees always have the choices available to them that make it possible. forwarded. Which of the following problems are associated with the market controlled approach to health and safety? a. It treats employees disrespectfully by ignoring their input as stakeholders. Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety as Market Controlled Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 279 Feedback: Defenders of the free market and the classical model of corporate social responsibility would favor individual bargaining between employers and employees as the approach to workplace health and safety. It calls for the determination of comparison of probabilities of harm involved in various activities. On this account. in whole or part. employees are free to choose the risks they are willing to face by bargaining with employers. 6-14 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education.Chapter 06 . scanned.

Standards call for the determination of comparison of probabilities of harm involved in various activities. 41. This document may not be copied. a. Integrative approach c. or posted on a website. . Identify the correct statement about government standards in the government-regulated ethics approach to health and safety. Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 Feedback: Mandatory government standards address most of the problems raised against market strategies. scanned. d. Market controlled approach d. Standards would favor individual bargaining between employers and employees as the approach to workplace health and safety. c. standards cannot address the “first generation” problem of the market controlled approach to health and safety. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. they will not be in a position to freely bargain for appropriate wages and therefore they will not be in a position to effectively protect their rights or ensure the most ethical consequences. a. duplicated. 40. Standards can be set according to the best available scientific knowledge and thus overcome market failures that result from insufficient information. Standards can overcome market failures that result from insufficient information.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights d. Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety as Market Controlled Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 281 Feedback: Employees seldom possess the kind of complete information efficient markets require. Identify the approach that allows the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to make tradeoffs between health and economics.Chapter 06 . Feasibility approach Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 6-15 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. Due to its focus on prevention rather than compensation. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. b. It treats employees disrespectfully by ignoring their input as stakeholders. forwarded. distributed. in whole or part. Sustainability approach b. If employees do not know the risks involved in a job.

Cost-effectiveness analysis Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 Feedback: Critics in both industry and government have argued that OSHA should be required to use cost-benefit analysis in establishing such standards. d. . 43. Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 Feedback: A commitment to cost-effectiveness would require that. a. b. in contrast. we adopt the least expensive and most efficient means available for achieving those standards. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. not cost-effectiveness. It adopts the least expensive and most efficient means available to achieve existing standards. Cost-utility analysis b. These critics argue that OSHA should aim to achieve the optimal. 44. level of safety. Cost-effectiveness uses economic criteria before setting the standards. level of safety. c. 6-16 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. It treats health and safety merely as an intrinsic value and denies its instrumental value. analysis that is ethically problematic. It requires that an economic value be placed on one’s life and bodily integrity. Cost-benefit analysis. or posted on a website. scanned. This document may not be copied.Chapter 06 . d. Cost-benefit analysis d. It is cost-benefit. duplicated. c. It uses ethical criteria in setting standards. rather than highest feasible. distributed. b. Cost-minimization analysis c.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Feedback: When OSHA was first established. forwarded. Critics in both industry and government argue that OSHA should aim to achieve the optimal. 42. once the standards are set. Which of the following can be used to achieve this goal? a. uses economic criteria in setting the standards in the first place. Identify the distinguishing feature between cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness is ethically problematic. regulations were aimed at achieving the safest feasible standards. in whole or part. rather than highest feasible. Which of the following statements is true about cost-benefit analysis? a. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. This “feasibility” approach allows OSHA to make tradeoffs between health and economics. Cost-benefit analysis is ethically problematic. Cost-benefit analysis adopts the most efficient means available to achieving a particular standard.

and the multinational enterprises involved.Chapter 06 . distributed. According to the universal principle of Kantian philosophy. 6-17 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. core customs Answer: b Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-10 Topic: Global Applications: The Global Workforce and Global Challenges Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 287 Feedback: Some scholars have argued that Kantian universal principles should govern the employment relationship and that the ethical obligation of respect for persons should guide the employment interactions. employers’ and workers’ organizations.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 282-283 Feedback: Cost-benefit analysis treats health and safety merely as an instrumental value and denies its intrinsic value. The ‘Tripartite’ part of the Tripartite Declaration of Principles Concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy refers to critical cooperation necessary from all of the following except: a. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. multinational enterprises involved. It requires that an economic value be placed on one’s life and bodily integrity. the ethical obligation of _____ should guide employment interactions. forwarded. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. a. religion d. family responsibilities b. governments. c. in whole or part. This document may not be copied. respect for people c. b. duplicated. employers’ and workers’ organizations. the suppliers and agents associated with the firm. 46. scanned. 45. d. or posted on a website. . Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-10 Topic: Global Applications: The Global Workforce and Global Challenges Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 288 Feedback: The “Tripartite” part of the title refers to the critical cooperation necessary from governments.

such as white men. Backward discrimination Answer: a Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-13 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Diversity Page: 298 Feedback: Reverse discrimination is discrimination against those traditionally considered to be in power or the majority. A female interviewer rejects a male interviewee because of gender. 48. in whole or part. The Title VII of the _____. d. International Labour Act b. United States Civil Rights Act c. Inverse discrimination d. or posted on a website. Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-13 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply AACSB: Diversity. scanned. Which of the following is an example of reverse discrimination in America? a. b. distributed. An African-American interviewer rejects another African-American based on ethnicity. 49. Affirmative action c. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. . A white interviewer rejects an African-American based on ethnicity. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. passed in 1964. c. created the prohibited classes of discrimination.Chapter 06 . forwarded. This document may not be copied. Reflective Thinking Page: 298 Feedback: Reverse discrimination is discrimination against those traditionally considered to 6-18 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. Uniform Employment Termination Act Answer: b Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-10 Topic: Discrimination Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 290 Feedback: The courts have carefully construed legal precedent in the decades since Title VII of the United States Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964 and created the prohibited classes of discrimination. Which of the following is discrimination against those traditionally considered to be in power or the majority? a.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights 47. duplicated. A female interviewer rejects another female interviewee because of gender. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Act d. a. Reverse discrimination b.

through judicial affirmative action. d. is termed as reverse discrimination. Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-13 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply AACSB: Diversity. b. Gentrification b. 51. A business that intentionally seeks to hire a candidate from an underrepresented group might be seen as discriminating against white males. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. c. in whole or part. and a few disabled people. d. scanned. A white man or a woman will file a reverse discrimination suit. in an attempt to avoid discrimination suits filed against it. Which of the following is most likely to occur? a. duplicated. Which of the following refers to a policy or a program that tries to respond to instances of past discrimination by implementing proactive measures to ensure equal opportunity today? a. Just cause d. The organization will win an award for equity. such as white men. forwarded. This document may not be copied. The performance of the organization will increase.Chapter 06 . An organization. Bully Broads c. 50. voluntary affirmative action plans. Reflective Thinking Page: 298 Feedback: Discrimination against those traditionally considered being in power or the majority. c. Affirmative action Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-14 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 298 Feedback: The term affirmative action refers to a policy or a program that tries to respond to instances of past discrimination by implementing proactive measures to ensure equal opportunity today. intentionally hires a lot of African-American women.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights be in power or the majority. b. or posted on a website. Answer: c Difficulty: Easy 6-19 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. consultant based affirmative action. All of the following are ways through which affirmative action can arise at the workplace except: a. . distributed. such as white men. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. for example. through legal requirements. 52. There will be an increase in the number of diversity training sessions.

Judicial affirmative action d. which requires affirmative action efforts to ensure equal opportunity. Voluntary affirmative action b. scanned.Chapter 06 . Courts may also require what is termed “judicial affirmative action” in order to remedy a finding of past discrimination. Voluntary affirmative action Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-14 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 299 Feedback: A form of affirmative action involves voluntary affirmative action plans employers undertake to overcome barriers to equal opportunity. The law relating to affirmative action applies only to about 20 percent of the workforce who are subject to Executive Order 11246. Executive affirmation action Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-14 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 299 Feedback: Much of the law relating to affirmative action applies only to about 20 percent of the workforce.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Learning Objective: 06-14 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 299 Feedback: Affirmative action arises in the workplace in three ways. Quasi-affirmative action b. in whole or part. focused recruiting activity. 53. . Where Executive Order 11246 does not apply. forwarded. 54. Which of the following is required by courts in order to remedy a finding of past discrimination. Quasi-affirmative action d. or the elimination of discrimination? a. duplicated. Which of the following affirmative action plans would include training plans and programs. when Executive Order 11246 is not applicable? a. however: those employees of federal contractors with 50 or more employees who are subject to Executive Order 11246. This document may not be copied. or posted on a website. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. which requires affirmative action efforts to ensure equal opportunity. Executive affirmation action c. A third form of affirmative action involves voluntary affirmative action plans. courts may also require what is termed “judicial affirmative action” in order to remedy a finding of past discrimination. Judicial affirmative action c. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. These might include training plans and 6-20 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. The first way is through legal requirements. distributed.

57. or posted on a website.” This means that.Chapter 06 . duplicated. unless an agreement specifies otherwise. unless an agreement specifies otherwise. authoritative leadership Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-15 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 299 Feedback: Opponents to affirmative action argue that it translates into current punishment of past wrongs and therefore is inappropriately placed because those who “pay” for the wrongs are unfairly burdened and should not bear the responsibility for the acts of others. A claim which states that people who ‘pay’ for wrongs are unfairly burdened and should not bear the responsibility for the acts of others. The doctrine of _____ holds that. scanned. a. Fill in the Blank Questions 56. reverse discrimination b. employers are free to fire an employee at any time and for any reason. distributed. Answer: employment at will Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-03 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 269-270 Feedback: Employment at will (EAW) holds that. absent a particular contractual or other legal obligation that specifies the length or conditions of employment. The burden of proof lies with the dismissed employee to show that she or he was unjustly or illegally fired. in whole or part. This document may not be copied. is opposing _____. focused recruiting activity. Due process and _____. whether instituted as part of internal corporate policy or through legislation. affirmative action d. judicial activity within organizations c. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. employers are free to fire an employee at any time and for any reason. all employees are employed “at will. EAW is the default position on which courts will rely until and unless an exception can be demonstrated. Answer: just cause Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-04 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause 6-21 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. would reverse this burden of proof and require employers to show cause to justify the dismissal of an employee.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights programs. 55. . or the elimination of discrimination that might be caused by hiring criteria that exclude a particular group. forwarded. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

In 1970. and “relative risks” is determined by comparing the probabilities of harm involved in various activities. This document may not be copied. distributed. For employee health and safety in the workplace. Answer: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 Feedback: In 1970. the U. something that financial compensation simply cannot replace. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. in part. the U. duplicated.S.Chapter 06 . by the lost wages that would have been earned had that person lived. Congress established the Occupational Safety and Health 6-22 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. The life of one who dies in a workplace accident has _____ value that can be measured. or posted on a website. . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. The burden of proof lies with the dismissed employee to show that she or he was unjustly or illegally fired. by the lost wages that would have been earned had that person lived. whether instituted as part of internal corporate policy or through legislation. forwarded. Due process and just cause. scanned. Congress established the _____ and charged it with establishing workplace health and safety standards.S. “_____” is determined by comparing the probabilities of harm involved in various activities. in whole or part. in part. Answer: relative risks Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-08 Topic: Health and Safety as Acceptable Risk Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: For employee health and safety in the workplace. “risks” can be defined as the probability of harm. 60.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 270 Feedback: EAW is the default position on which courts will rely until and unless an exception can be demonstrated. 58. 59. But these lost wages do not measure the intrinsic value of the life. would reverse this burden of proof and require employers to show cause to justify the dismissal of an employee. Answer: instrumental Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-07 Topic: Health and Safety Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 Feedback: The life of one who dies in a workplace accident has instrumental value that can be measured.

ages. affinity orientations. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. once the standards are set. distributed. Answer: Diversity Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-12 Topic: Diversity Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 294 Feedback: Diversity refers to the presence of differing cultures. affinity orientations. 64. or posted on a website. social classes. 62. to be traded off against competing commodities. 63. 61. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. _____ is discrimination against those traditionally considered to be in power or the majority. ethnicities. another individual preference.Chapter 06 . social classes. and national origins of the individuals in a firm. religious sects. 6-23 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. ages. duplicated. races.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Administration (OSHA) and charged it with establishing workplace health and safety standards. This document may not be copied. once the standards are set. The use of _____ analysis in setting workplace health and safety standards commits us to treating worker health and safety as just another commodity. A commitment to using _____ for setting standards would require that. we adopt the least expensive and most efficient means available for achieving those standards. religious sects. . another individual preference. languages. we adopt the least expensive and most efficient means available for achieving those standards. _____ refers to the presence of differing cultures. races. genders. in whole or part. genders. Answer: cost-effectiveness Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 Feedback: A commitment to cost-effectiveness would require that. abilities. scanned. to be traded off against competing commodities. abilities. ethnicities. languages. Answer: cost-benefit Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 Feedback: The use of cost-benefit analysis in setting workplace health and safety standards commits us to treating worker health and safety as just another commodity. and national origins of the individuals in a firm. forwarded.

” Defenders of employee rights argue that rights should protect important employee interests from being constantly subjected to utilitarian and financial calculations. On one hand. forwarded. This sense of duty might stem from the law.Chapter 06 . as well as perceptions of fairness. such as white men. Essay Questions 66. . 65. Describe in brief. of course. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. employers might decide to treat employees well as a means to produce greater workplace harmony and productivity. Answer: affirmative action Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-14 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 298 Feedback: The term affirmative action refers to a policy or a program that tries to respond to instances of past discrimination by implementing proactive measures to ensure equal opportunity today.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Answer: Reverse discrimination Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-13 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 298 Feedback: Reverse discrimination is discrimination against those traditionally considered to be in power or the majority. duplicated. all of which involve treating employees in humane and respectful ways. or posted on a website. On the other hand. or human rights on the part of the organization's leadership. professional codes of conduct. the two approaches to employee treatment discussed in this chapter. Research suggests that effective firms are characterized by a set of common practices. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. studies suggest that managers can have a significant impact on the emotions of their workers. and this impact can greatly affect productivity and loyalty. or such moral principles as fairness. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-01 6-24 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. and treating employees well simply because “it is the right thing to do. scanned. and concern. in whole or part. The term _____ refers to a policy or a program that tries to respond to instances of past discrimination by implementing proactive measures to ensure equal opportunity today. corporate codes of conduct. justice. regardless of the either utilitarian or self-interested productivity consequences. Though it is a relatively new area of research. self-interest depending on the perception. distributed. This document may not be copied. employers might treat employees well out of a Kantian sense of duty and rights. This deontological approach emphasizes the rights and duties of all employees. perspectives on the ethics of workplace relationships. care. and sometimes competing. Answer: There are two very distinct. This approach could be termed as utilitarian or instrumentalist.

Employers can tell employees what to do and when and how to do it. Because of the immense value that work holds for most people. This document may not be copied. in whole or part. has the authority to punish citizens. the threat of losing one's job is a powerful motivation to comply. They can exercise such control because they retain the ability to discipline or fire an employee who does not comply with their authority. Answer: Employment at will (EAW) holds that. Few dispute that the state. Both legal and ethical analyses of these claims. duplicated. the right of due process is the right to be protected against the arbitrary use of authority. 6-25 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. without offering any notice at all. basic fairness—implemented through due process—demands that this power be used justly. Discuss the various aspects associated with employment at will (EAW).Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Topic: Ethical Issues in the Workplace: The Current Environment Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 266 67. Total discretion over employment gives managers the ability to make efficient decisions that should contribute to the greater overall good. an EAW worker may opt to leave a job at any time for any reason. Answer: Philosophically. Further. work. scanned. or posted on a website. the employer is often responsible for the employee's livelihood." In the same manner. The ethical rationale for EAW. due process refers to the procedures that police and courts must follow in exercising their authority over citizens. though the freedom to terminate the relationship is theoretically mutual. all employees are employed "at will. Due process rights specify these conditions. Also. However. in the absence of a particular contractual or other legal obligation that specifies the length or conditions of employment. In legal contexts. EAW was thought to be an important management tool. But that authority is not unlimited. due process in the workplace acknowledges an employer's authority over employees. demonstrate that there are good reasons to limit EAW. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. . while the opposite is unlikely to be true. however.Chapter 06 . and do business. distributed. the right of private property itself is limited by other rights and duties. has both utilitarian and deontological elements. through its police and courts. It was thought that the manager would be in the best position to know what was best for the firm and that the law should not interfere with those decisions. Even if EAW proved to be an effective management tool. Correlate the right of due process to the workplace. This authority creates a safe and orderly society in which we all can live. forwarded. Another basis for EAW was the rights of private property owners to control their property by controlling who works for them. justice demands that such tools not be used to harm other people. the differential creates an unbalanced power relationship between the two parties. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-02 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 267 68. Similarly. both historically and among contemporary defenders. it can be exercised only in certain ways and under certain conditions. so the freedom is theoretically mutual. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. even if private property rights grant managers authority over employees.

Since employees should be kept aware of business conditions. the need for a downsizing effort should not come as a great surprise. Answer: First. where it is given first preference. as with any other termination it is critical to lessen the impact as much as possible and to allow the terminated employees to depart with dignity. the decision regarding downsizing should be made by a representative group so that all stakeholder interests can be considered and to earn the trust of those who will be impacted. distributed. Due process and just cause. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-06 Topic: Downsizing Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 275 71. If the firm's decision is based on some criterion that seems to be neutral on its face. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-04 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 270 70. When a firm decides to downsize. the guidelines suggested for tackling downsizing within an organization. Answer: EAW has priority unless the employee can prove that her or his case falls under one of the exceptions. Above all. The facts should be collected and issues should be determined. the decision may be suspect. However. 6-26 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This document may not be copied. the decision about whom to include in a downsizing effort must be carefully planned. Discuss the crucial aspect of employment at will (EAW). would reverse this burden of proof and require employers to show cause to justify the dismissal of an employee. but the plan results in a different impact on one group than another. That is. forwarded. The burden of proof lies with the dismissed employee to show that she or he was unjustly or illegally fired. or posted on a website. during a time when relationships might be strained. Discuss in brief. Discuss the issue of giving notice to the employees about organizational downsizing.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 06-03. EAW is the default position on which courts will rely until and unless an exception can be demonstrated. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. whether instituted as part of internal corporate policy or through legislation. scanned. it is critical to be honest and forthright and to be sensitive to the experiences of those who will be affected. it will be vital to enumerate any and all possible options with regard to the downsizing efforts and to catalog the impact of each option on each group of stakeholders. duplicated. the question of notice is debatable. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.Chapter 06 . 03-04 Topic: Due Process and Just Cause Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 270 69. such as seniority. From a legal perspective. Once the stakeholders are identified. in whole or part. .

scanned. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. They have intrinsic value in addition to their instrumental value. the uncertainty and rumors that are sure to develop between the announcement of downsizing and the decision about who will be terminated may outweigh the benefits gained in early notification. This document may not be copied. In addition. something that financial compensation simply cannot replace. Answer: Like work. health and safety are “goods” that are valued both as a means for attaining other valuable ends and as ends in themselves. consider how one might respond to the question of how much her or his life is worth. then it would be unreasonable to claim that employees have a right to a healthy and safe workplace. Remunerate the various problems associated with workplace health and safety as a market controlled approach. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-06 Topic: Downsizing Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 273 72. certainly no workplace is perfectly safe. If “healthy” is taken to mean a state of flawless physical and psychological well-being. it is 6-27 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. by the lost wages that would have been earned had that person lived. in whole or part. arguably no one is perfectly healthy. forwarded. But these lost wages do not measure the intrinsic value of the life. Insurance therefore seeks to compensate workers for injuries they incur by paying the employees for the wages they lost as a result of being unable to work.Chapter 06 . workers may interpret early notice as an effort to get the most out of them before departure rather than an effort to allow them time to come to grips with the loss of their jobs. duplicated. Yet health and safety are also valuable in and of themselves. The life of one who dies in a workplace accident has instrumental value that can be measured. To understand this distinction. being healthy and safe makes it much more likely that we will be capable of attaining our ends. Employees do not have the kinds of free choices that the free market theory would require in order to attain optimal satisfactions—though enlightened self-interest would be a valuable theory to introduce and apply in this environment. Whatever else we desire out of life. If “safe” means completely free from risk. On the other hand. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. Correlate health and safety issues at workplace with ideals. distributed. In this sense. . Answer: The free market approach has a number of serious problems.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Answer: It can be argued that a firm should give notice of an intent to downsize as soon as the need is determined. in part. or posted on a website. If health and safety are interpreted as ideals that are impossible to realize. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-07 Topic: Health and Safety Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 276 73. labor markets are not perfectly competitive and free. and let those who will be impacted know who will be let go as soon as that list is devised. First. health and safety have a very high instrumental value since part of their value derives from the fact that we use them to attain other things of value.

Another issue is the aspect of the “first generation” problem. if ever. But the more influential business criticism has argued that these 6-28 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. To the degree that these are important questions that ought to be asked. industries that cannot operate without harming the health and safety of its employees should be closed. they will not be in a position to freely bargain for appropriate wages and therefore they will not be in a position to effectively protect their rights or ensure the most ethical consequences. standards are fundamentally a social approach that can address public policy questions ignored by markets. Discuss the advantages of costeffectiveness as against the cost-benefit analysis. This document may not be copied. Such market failures can have deadly consequences when they involve workplace health and safety issues. scanned. but it is prejudiced in favor of health and safety by placing the burden of proof on industry to show that high standards are not economically feasible. The “feasibility” approach allows OSHA to make tradeoffs between health and economics.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights unrealistic to presume employees always have the choices available to them that make it possible. distributed. Answer: In 1970. Finally. in whole or part. duplicated. Congress established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and charged it with establishing workplace health and safety standards. In effect. employees seldom. Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 75. individual bargaining will fail as an ethical public policy approach to worker health and safety. Standards also address the first generation problem by focusing on prevention rather than compensation after the fact. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety as Market Controlled Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 281 74. If employees do not know the risks involved in a job. markets sacrifice the first generation in order to gain information about safety and health risks. .S. Standards prevent employees from having to face the fundamentally coercive choice between job and safety. Some critics charge that this approach does not go far enough and unjustly sacrifices employee health and safety. forwarded. How do mandatory government standards work? Answer: Mandatory government standards address most of the problems raised against market strategies. the U. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. The means by which the market gathers information is by observing the harms done to the first generation exposed to imperfect market transactions.Chapter 06 . Standards can be set according to the best available scientific knowledge and thus overcome market failures that result from insufficient information. This is a particular concern when we recognize that many workplace risks are in no sense obvious. possess the kind of complete information efficient markets require. Second. Explain the concept of standards and cost-benefit analysis. From that perspective.

once the standards are set. many economists argue that the maintenance of sweatshops is therefore supported by economic theory. which in turn will force companies to improve conditions in order to attract workers. wages. It is costbenefit. even if a standard is technologically and economically feasible. A commitment to cost-effectiveness would require that.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights standards go too far. Answer: Some contend that the exploitation of cheap labor allows developing countries to expand export activities and to improve their economies. in whole or part. analysis that is ethically problematic. What are the different ways in which women experience discrimination at the workplace? Answer: Women often face challenges that are distinct from those faced by men. Indeed. it would still be unreasonable and unfair if the benefits did not outweigh the costs. and working conditions will not inevitably lead to the negative consequences the free market advocates threaten. in effect. but suffer from different 6-29 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. to be traded off against competing commodities. Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 06-10 Topic: Global Applications: The Global Workforce and Global Challenges Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 284-285 77. Though it is an unpopular sentiment with the general consuming public. providing a positive impact on more stakeholders. not cost-effectiveness. This economic growth brings more jobs. opponents to this perspective argue that allowing this process to take its course will not necessarily lead to the anticipated result. individual bargaining approach. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-09 Topic: Health and Safety—Government-Regulated Ethics Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 282 76. Cost-benefit analysis. scanned. Rejecting cost-benefit analysis in setting standards is not the same as rejecting cost-effective strategies in implementing those standards. uses economic criteria in setting the standards in the first place. On the other hand. Critics in both industry and government have argued that OSHA should be required to use cost-benefit analysis in establishing such standards. returns us to the goals of the marketbased.Chapter 06 . distributed. or posted on a website. we adopt the least expensive and most efficient means available for achieving those standards. Contrast the two dominant perspectives on sweatshops. For instance. women and men are both subject to gender stereotyping. The use of cost-benefit analysis in setting workplace health and safety standards commits us to treating worker health and safety as just another commodity. Using cost-benefit analysis to set standards. From this perspective. duplicated. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. which will cause the labor market to tighten. even the term ‘sweatshops’ remains open to debate. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. This document may not be copied. just as voluntarily improving legal compliance. Cost-benefit analysis requires that an economic value be placed on one's life and bodily integrity. another individual preference. in contrast. Several commentators argue that encouraging greater global production will create additional opportunities for expansion domestically. forwarded. .

ethnicities. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-12. creativity. Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-14 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic 6-30 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education.Chapter 06 . or other environments. genders. 293 78. duplicated.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights expectations in that regard." unless that bad feeling is based on their difference in race or gender. scanned. but diversity efforts have also created new conflicts. or posted on a website. all requests that might lead to conflicts or tension even without additional stressors such as cultural challenges. in supervisory or subordinate roles. On the other hand. but also in terms of legal liability. abilities. and so on. races. distributed. . 06-13 Topic: Diversity Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 294-295 79. Diversity has brought benefits to the workplace. education. Summarize the influences of diversity within a workplace. the organization is likely to ask its employees to work together toward common goals. social classes. religious sects. in whole or part. it is important to realize that when a firm brings together individuals with these (or other) differences—often exposing these individuals to such differences for the first time—areas of tension and anxiety may emerge. sensitivity to the potential for conflict is necessary. Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 06-11 Topic: Discrimination Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember AACSB: Analytic Page: 291. and national origins of the individuals in a firm. affinity orientations. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. Another concern involves integrating diverse viewpoints with a preexisting corporate culture. it is vital to be wary of prejudgments based solely on differences in interpretations of culturally based standards. It is not discriminatory to refuse to hire someone about whom you simply have a "bad feeling. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Answer: Diversity refers to the presence of differing cultures. Where differences are new or strong and where negative stereotypes previously ruled interaction between particular groups. Unemotional men are viewed in positive terms: going after what they want. ages. What is affirmative action? Answer: The term affirmative action refers to a policy or a program that tries to respond to instances of past discrimination by implementing proactive measures to ensure equal opportunity today. forwarded. languages. and in power relationships. not only in terms of losses of productivity. not letting anything get in their way. In addition. This document may not be copied. on teams. It may take the form of intentional inclusion of previously excluded groups in employment. Diversity can potentially increase several areas of values tension. The cost of ignoring diversity is high. Keeping in mind the definition of diversity. and other performance-based measures.

forwarded. A third form of affirmative action involves voluntary affirmative action plans employers undertake to overcome barriers to equal opportunity.Chapter 06 . in whole or part. This document may not be copied. however: those employees of federal contractors with 50 or more employees who are subject to Executive Order 11246. scanned. courts may also require what is termed “judicial affirmative action” in order to remedy a finding of past discrimination. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. focused recruiting activity. . Much of the law relating to affirmative action applies only to about 20 percent of the workforce. These might include training plans and programs. or posted on a website. distributed. which requires affirmative action efforts to ensure equal opportunity. A demonstrated underrepresentation of a particular group or a finding of past discrimination is required to justify affirmative action efforts under either of these latter two options.Ethical Decision-Making: Employer Responsibilities and Employee Rights Page: 298 80. Where Executive Order 11246 does not apply. Answer: Affirmative action arises in the workplace in three ways. The first way is through legal requirements. Discuss the various ways through which affirmative action can arise within a workplace. Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 06-14 Topic: Affirmative Action Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand AACSB: Analytic Page: 299 6-31 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. duplicated. or the elimination of discrimination that might be caused by hiring criteria that exclude a particular group. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.