# INDEX

S.NO

1

2

DATE

NAME OF EXPERIMENT

DETERMINATION OF THE CO-EFFICIENT
OF DISCHARGE OF GIVEN ORIFICE
METER
DETERMINATION OF THE CO-EFFICIENT
OF DISCHARGE OF GIVEN VENTURI
METER

3

CALCULATION OF THE RATE OF FLOW
USING ROTA METER

4

DETERMINATION OF FRICTION FACTOR
OF GIVEN SETOF PIPES

5

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

6

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF
SUBMERGIBLE PUMP

7

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF
RECIPROCATING PUMP

8

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF GEAR
PUMP

9

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF PELTON
WHEEL

10

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF FRANCIS
TURBINE

11

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF
TRIANGULAR NOTCH

12

PAGE
NO

SIGNATURE

KAPLAN TURBINE TEST RING
Completed Date :

Staff-in-charge

DETERMNATION OF THE CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF GIVEN ORIFICE
METER
EXP No. : 1
Date :
AIM :
To determine the coefficient of discharge through orifice meter
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Orifice meter
Differential U tube
Collecting tank
Stop watch
Scale

FORMULAE :
1. ACTUAL DISCHARGE
m3 / s

Qact= ( A x h )/ t
2. THEORETICAL DISCHARGE:

Qth = ( a1 a 2 √ 2 gh ) / √

a 12 – a22

Where
A = Area of collecting tank in m2 = 0.25 m2
h = Height of collecting tank in cm
a1= Area of inlet pipe in m2,
a2= Area of throat in m2
g = Specific gravity in m / s2
t = Time taken for h cm rise of water
h = Orifice head in terms of flowing liquid
= (h1

h2 )(sm/ s1 – 1 )x10-2 m

m3 /s

First one is of area a1.( no unit) . Orifice meter has two sections.h2 are note down The time taken for rise of water in the collecting tank is noted The experiment is repeated for various flow in the same pipe The coefficient of discharge is calculated RESULT : The coefficient of discharge through orifice meter is ………. The pipe is selected for doing experiments Note down the diameter of inlet pipe and orifice Compute the cross sectional area a1 .6) S1 = specific gravity of flowing liquid ( water = 1 ) Dia of pipe 1: d1= 40mm. 5. 3. d2 = 24mm Dia of pipe 2: d1 =25mm . a2 Motor is switched on . 9. The mercury level should not fluctuate because it would come out of manometer.the mercury level fluctuates in the U tube manometer The results of h1 . PROCEDURE: 1. 4. 8. CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE Co efficient of discharge = Q act / Qth ( no units) DESCRIPTION An orifice meter is used to measure the discharge in a pipe. 6. 2. and second one area a2.Where : h1 = manometric head in left limb h2 = manometric head in right limb Sm=specific gravity of manometric liquid( Hg = 13. d2 =15mm 3. 7. as a result water will flow According to the flow . it does not have throat like venturimeter but a small holes on a plate fixed along the diameter of pipe.

THEORETICAL DISCHARGE: Qth = ( a1 a 2 √ 2 gh ) / √ a 12 – a22 m3 /s Where A = Area of collecting tank in m2 = 0. Manometer 6.ACTUAL DISCHARGE : Qact= ( A x h )/ t m3 / s 2. d2 =20mm Dia of pipe 2: d1=25mm . Venturimeter 2. d2 = 15mm . Differential U tube 5.DETERMINATION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF GIVEN VENTURIMETER Exp No.6) S1 = specific gravity of flowing liquid ( water = 1 ) Dia of pipe 1: d1 =32mm .25m2 h = Height of collecting tank in cm a1= Area of inlet pipe in m2 a2= Area of throat in m2 g = Specific gravity in m / s2 t = Time taken for h cm rise of water h = Orifice head in terms of flowing liquid = (h1 h2 )(sm/ s1 – 1 )x10-2 m Where : h1 = manometric head in left limb h2 = manometric head in right limb Sm =specific gravity of manometric liquid ( Hg = 13. Collecting tank 4. 2 Date : AIM: To determine the coefficient of discharge for liquid flowing through venturimeter. APPARATUS REQUIRED 1. Scale FORMULAE : 1. Stop watch 3.

CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE Co efficient of discharge = Q act / Qth ( no units) DISCRIPTION: Venturimeter has two sections. PROCEDURE: 1.( no units ) . One divergent area and the other throat area. The pipe is selected for doing experiments The motor is switched on. 7. 6.3. 5. 2. 4. as a result water will flow Open an inlet valve and allow the water to flow through the pipe According to the flow. The former is represented as a1 and later is a2 water or any other liquid flows through the venturimeter and it passes to the throat area the value of discharge is same at a1 and a2 . 3. 8. 9. the mercury level fluctuates in the U-tube manometer The reading of h 1 and h 2 are noted The time taken to rise of water in the collection tank is noted The experiment is repeated for various flow in the same pipe Compute the theoretical discharge The co efficient of discharge is calculated RESULT : The coefficient of discharge through Venturimeter is …….

Q act=Q act x 1000 x 60 lit /min Rotameter reading 100 Percentage error of Rotameter = --------------------------------------------Rotameter reading =(R Q act) /R ) x 100 PROCEDURE : 1. Set the flow rate in the Rotameter for example say 50 litres per minute Actual x .ACTUAL DISCHARGE : Qact= ( A x h )/ t m3 / s Where A = Area of collecting tank in m2 h = Height of ware level in collecting tank t = Time taken for rise of water level in collecting tank CONVERSION : Actual flow rate (lit /min).3 Date : AIM : To determine the percentage error in Rotameter with the actual flow rate APPRATUS REQUIRED : 1.CALCULATION OF THE RATE OF FLOW USING ROTAMETER Exp No. Stop watch FORMULAE : 1. Measuring scale 3. Rotameter set up 2. Adjust the delivery valve to control the rate in the pipe 3. Switch on the motor and the delivery valve is opened 2.

. 7.4. Note down the time taken for 10 cm rise in collecting tank Repeat the experiment for different set of Rotameter readings Tabular column is drawn and reading are noted Graph is drawn by plotting Rotameter reading Vs percentage error of the Rotameter RESULT : The percentage error of the Rotameter was found to be …. 6.. 5.

: 4 Date : AIM : To determine the friction factor for the given pipe APPARATUS REQUIRED : 1.DETERMINATION OF FRICTION FACTOR OF GIVEN SET OF PIPES Exp No. A pipe provided with inlet and outlet and pressure tapping Differential U tube manometer Collecting tank with piezometer Stop watch Scale FORMULAE : 1. 5. 3. 2. ACTUAL DISCHARGE: Q = ( Ax h ) / t ( m3 /sec ) Where A = Area of the collecting tank ( m2 ) h = Rise of water for 5 cm (m) . 4. FRICTION FACTOR ( f ) : 2 g d hf f= -----------l v2 where g = Acceleration due to gravity ( m / sec 2 ) d = Diameter of the pipe (m) l = length of the pipe v = velocity of liquid flowing in the pipe ( m / s ) hf = loss of head due to friction ( m ) = h1 h2 h1 = manometer head left limbs h2 = manometer head in the second limbs 2.

RESULT : 1. The outlet valve is slightly opened and the manometer head on the limbs h 1 and h 2 are noted 4. More the roughness of the pipe will be more the frictional resistance. VELOCITY : V = Q /a ( m / sec ) Where Q = Actual discharge ( m 3 / sec ) A = Area of the pipe ( m2 ) DESCRIPTION : When liquid flows through a pipe line it is subjected to frictional resistance. The friction factor for given pipe by graphical method = …. PROCEDURE : 1. The loss of head between selected lengths of the pipe is observed. X 102 ( no unit ) 2.x 102(no unit ) CHARATERISTICS TEST ON CENTRIFUGAL PUMP . The diameter of the pipe is measured and the internal dimensions of the collecting tank and the length of the pipe line is measured 2. The above procedure is repeated by gradually increasing the flow rate and then the corresponding readings are noted. The frictional factor ‘f’ for given pipe = ……. The frictional resistance depends upon the roughness of the pipe.t = Time taken for 5 cm rise ( sec) 3. Keeping the outlet valve closed and the inlet valve opened 3.

25m2 h = 10cm rise of water level in the collecting tank ( m ) t = time taken for 10cm rise of water level in collecting tank 2 TOTAL HEAD : H = H d+ Hs+ Z Where H d= Discharge head = P d x 10 m H s= Suction head P s x 0. Meter scale 3. Centrifugal pump set up 2. m Z = Datum head= 0.8 KW Where N = Number of pulse of energy meter . Stop watch FORMULAE : 1. mm of Hg 3 INPUT POWER : P I =(3600 x N)/ (ExT) X 0. APPARATUS REQUIRED : 1. Kg /cm2 Ps= Suction pressure gauge reading . : 5 Date : AIM : To study the performance characteristics of a centrifugal pump and to determine the characteristic with maximum efficiency.0136.Exp No. ACTUAL DISCHARGE : Q act = ( A x h) / t ( m3 / s ) Where A = Area of the collecting tank =0.30m Pd = Pressure gauge reading.

The water flows in a radially outward direction. the delivery valve is gradually opened. 3. Prime the pump close the delivery valve and switch on the unit Open the delivery valve and maintain the required delivery head Note down the reading and note the corresponding suction head reading Close the drain valve and note down the time taken for 10 cm rise of water level in collecting tank. 4.81 (m / s2 ) H = Total head of water (m ) Q = Discharge ( m3 / sec ) 5 EFFICIENCY : Ƞ o=( Out put power Po/ Input power P I ) x 100 DESCRIPTION : PRIMING : The operation of filling water in the suction pipe casing and a portion delivery pipe for the removal of air before staring is called priming. The rotating vane gives a centrifugal head to the pump.E = Energy meter constant = 1600 T = Time taken for ‘N’ pulse (seconds ) 4 OUT PUT POWER : P = ρ g Q H / 1000 O KW Where ρ = Density of water =1000 (Kg / m3 ) g = Acceleration due to gravity =9. 5. Measure the area of collecting tank 6. Now kinetic energy is gradually converted in to pressure energy. it leaves the vanes at the outer circumference with a high velocity and pressure. 2. Then. For every set reading note down the time taken for 10 pulse of energy meter GRAPHS : . After priming the impeller is rotated by a prime mover. The high pressure water is through the delivery pipe to the required height. PROCEDURE : 1. For different delivery tubes. repeat the experiment 7. When the pump attains a constant speed.

4.1. : 6 Date : . 3. 2. Actual discharge Vs Total head Actual discharge Vs Efficiency Actual discharge Vs Input power Actual discharge Vs Output power RESULT : Thus the performance characteristics of centrifugal pump was studied and the maximum efficiency was found to be ……………… CHARATERISTICS CURVES OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP Exp No.

A = area of the collecting tank =0. Submersible pump 2. Stop watch FORMULAE : 1. N = number of pulse of energy meter disc E = Energy meter constant =1600 te= time taken for N pulse ( seconds) 3.AIM : To study the performance characteristics of a submersible pump APPARATUS REQUIRED : 1. INPUT POWER : P I = ( 3600 x N x 1000 ) / ( E x te) X 0.8 Where.25 m2 h = Height of the water level collected=10 cm t = Time taken for ‘ h ‘ rise of water ( seconds ) x = Distance between the suction and delivery gauge 2. W = specific weight of water ( N / m2 ) Q act = actual discharge (m2 / s ) H = total head of water (m) ( watts) . OUTPUT POWER : PO = W x Q act x H ( watts) Where. Meter scale 3. ACTUAL DISCHARGE : Q act = (A h)/ t ( m2/ sec ) Where.

The suction housing of the pump is fitted between the pump and motors are provided with a perforated strainer. The submersible pump is started. is provided at the top of the pump to discharge water. 5. 2. CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF RECIPROCATING PUMP Exp No. The winding of the motor are insulated well and cooled by water. Actual discharge Vs Total Head 2. A gate valve. which is a non-return valve. 3. The experiment is repeated for different delivery gauge readings 6. : 7 Date : . This is multistage centrifugal pump with radial or mixed flow impellers. Actual discharge Vs Input power 3. The time taken for ‘ h ‘ rise in water level in the collecting tank is found carefully. Finally the readings are tabulated and calculated GRAPHS : 1. If the water flow is heavy reduce the ‘h’ value. The delivery gauge reading is set to the required value by means of adjusting the gate valve. The time taken for N pulse in the energy meter disc is noted with the help of stop watch 4.4. PROCEDURE : 1. Actual discharge Vs Efficiency RESULT : The performance characteristic of the submersible pump is studied and the efficiency is calculated ……………. EFFICIENCY : Ƞ o=( Out put power Po/ Input power P I ) x 100 DESCRIPTION : In submersible pump electric motor and pump are coupled together and both are submerged in the water. The electric current is conducted through a waterproof cable.

4. ACTUAL DISCHARGE : Q act = ( A x h) / t ( m3 / s ) Where A = Area of the collecting tank =0. 3. mm of Hg 3.8 KW Where N = Number of pulse of energy meter E = Energy meter constant =1600 T = Time taken for ‘N’ pulse (seconds ) 4. 2. TOTAL HEAD : H = H d+ Hs+ Z Where H d= Discharge head = P d x 10 m H s= Suction head P s x 0. INPUT POWER : P I =(3600 x N)/ (ExT) X 0. Kg /cm2 Ps= Suction pressure gauge reading .AIM : To study the performance characteristics of a reciprocating pump and to determine the characteristic with maximum efficiency. APPARATUS REQUIRED 1. Reciprocating pump Meter scale Stop watch Pressure gauge FORMULAE : 1. OUT PUT POWER : P = ρ g Q H / 1000 O Where KW .0136. m Z = Datum head= 0(zero) m Pd = Pressure gauge reading.25 m2 h = 10cm rise of water level in the collecting tank ( m ) t = time taken for 10cm rise of water level in collecting tank 2.

3. 2. 2. 3. 8 Date : AIM : . 4. Qt = 2LAN/60. For every set reading note down the time taken for 5 revolutions of energy meter disc GRAPHS : 1.81 m / s2 H = Total head of water (m ) Q = Discharge( m3 / sec ) 5. For different delivery tubes. Percentage Slip Slip = Qt. repeat the experiment 7. Measure the area of collecting tank 6.A=0.001256m2 N =326rpm PROCEDURE : 1.Qact/Qt. Close the delivery valve and switch on the unit Open the delivery valve and maintain the required delivery head Note down the reading and note the corresponding suction head reading Close the drain valve and note down the time taken for 10 cm rise of water level in the collecting tank.ρ = Density of water =1000 Kg / m3 g = Acceleration due to gravity =9. Actual discharge V s Total head Actual discharge V s Efficiency Actual discharge V s Input power Actual discharge V s Out put power RESULT : The performance characteristic of the reciprocating pump is studied and the efficiency is calculated ………… CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF GEAR OIL PUMP Exp No. L=0. 5. EFFICIENCY : Ƞ o=( Out put power Po/ Input power P I ) x 100 6. 4.045m.

Stop watch FORMULAE : 1.To draw the characteristics curves of gear oil pump and also to determine efficiency of given gear oil pump APPARATUS REQUIRED : 1. ACTUAL DISCHARGE : Q act = ( A x h) / t ( m3 / s ) Where A = Area of the collecting tank = 0. Gear oil pump set up 2.16 m2 h = 10cm rise of water level in the collecting tank ( m ) t = time taken for 10cm rise of water level in collecting tank 2. OUTPUT POWER Po=( W x Q act x H ) / 1000 Where ( watts ) . TOTAL HEAD : H = H d+ Hs+ Z Where H d= Discharge head = P d x 10 m H s= Suction head P s x 0. INPUT POWER : P I =(3600 x N)/ (ExT) X 0. Meter scale 3. mm of Hg 3. Kg /cm2 Ps= Suction pressure gauge reading .3 m Pd = Pressure gauge reading.8 KW Where N = Number of pulse of energy meter E = Energy meter constant =1600 T = Time taken for ‘N’ pulse (seconds ) 4. m Z = Datum head =0.0136.

7. 3. 6. 9. For calculating the area of the collecting tank its dimensions are noted down. Finally the redingare tabulated. As the gear rotates.W = specific weight of oil ( N / m2 ) Q act = Actual discharge H = total head of oil ( m2 / s ) (m) 5. 4. PROCEDURE : 1. 8. 3. The experiment is repeated for different delivery gauge readings. RESULT: Actual discharge V s Total head Actual discharge V s Efficiency Actual discharge V s Input power Actual discharge V s Output power . EFFICIENCY : ƞ =(Out put power Po / Input power Pi ) x 100 DESCRIPTION : The gear oil pump consists of two identical intermeshing spur wheels working with a fine clearance inside the casing. 2. 2. The gear oil pump is started The delivery gauge reading is adjusted for the required value The corresponding suction gauge reading is noted The time taken for ‘N’ revolutions in the energy meter is noted with the help of a stop watch The time taken for ‘h’ rise in oil level is also noted down after closing the gate valve With the help of the meter scale the distance between the suction and delivery gauge is noted. the oil is trapped in between their teeth and is flown to the discharge end round the casing. The pump is first filled with the oil before it starts. 5. The wheels are so designed that they form a fluid tight joint at the point of contact. The rotating gears build up sufficient pressure to force the oil in to the delivery pipe. GRAPHS : 1. 4. One of the wheels is keyed to driving shaft and the other revolves as the drives wheel.

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF PELTON WHEEL Exp No..9 Date : AIM : .The performance characteristics of gear oil pump was studied and maximum efficiency was found to be …….

Out Power : Po = (2x π x N x T ) / ( 60000 ) KW Where .6x10-2 m Qth = ( a1 a 2 √ 2 gh ) / √ a 12 – a22 m3 /s d1=0. Venturimeter Stop watch Tachometer Dead weight FORMULAE : 1. Input power P O = ρ g Q H / 1000 KW H = pressure gauge reading x 10 3.039m 2.To conduct load test on pelton wheel turbine and to study the characteristics of pelton wheel turbine APPARATUS REQUIRED : 1. Position of the jet strikes the knife edge of the buckets with least relative resistance and shocks. VENTURIMETER READING : h = ( h1 – h 2 ) x12. R= radius of drum=0. All the available heads are classified in to velocity energy by means of spear and nozzle arrangement. d2 =0. While passing along the buckets the velocity of the water is .81 5.PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY : ƞ = (Po /Pi x 100) DESCRIPTION : Pelton wheel turbine is an impulse turbine.15m.065m . g=9. N = Speed of the turbine in rpm D = Effective diameter of brake drum T = R( W1 – W2 )xg . 4. 3. which is used to act on high loads and for generating electricity. 2.

reduced and hence an impulse force is supplied to the cups which in turn are moved and hence shaft is rotated. Out put Vs Efficiency Results : Thus the performance characteristics of the Pelton wheel turbine is done and the maximum efficiency of the tubine is ……………. PROCEDURE : 1. The spring balance reading and speed of the turbine are also noted down 6. The pressure gauge reading is noted down and it is to be maintained constant for different loads 4. The venturimeter readings are noted down 5. The experiment is repeated for different loads and the readings are tabulated. Out put V s Speed 3. Out put V s Input 2. All the weight in the hanger is removed 3. CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF FRANCIS TURBINE ExpNo : 10 Date : . GRAPHS : The following graphs are drawn 1. The pelton wheel turbine is started 2.

6x10-2 m Qth = ( a1 a 2 √ 2 gh ) / √ a 12 – a22 m3 /s d1=0.AIM : To conduct load test on Francis turbine and to study the characteristics of Francis turbine. Input power P O = ρ g Q H / 1000 KW H = pressure gauge reading x 10 – vacuum gauge readingx0. The water under pressure from the . APPARATUS REQUIRED : 1.Hence it required medium quantity of water.130m . N = Speed of the turbine in rpm D = Effective diameter of brake drum T = R( W1 – W2 )x g.078m 2.15m. d2 =0. Stop watch 2.0136 3. VENTURIMETER READING : h = ( h1 – h 2 ) x12.81 5. g=9. Tachometer FORMULAE : 1.PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY : ƞ = (Po /Pi x 100) DESCRIPTION : Modern Francis turbine in an inward mixed flow reaction turbine it is a medium head turbine. Out Power : Po = (2x π x N x T ) / ( 60000 ) KW Where . R= radius of drum=0.

GRAPHS : The following graphs are drawn 1. The guides vanes direct the water on to the runner. CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF TRIANGULAR NOTCH ExpNo : 11 Date : . The casing completely surrounds the series of fixed vanes. Out put Vs Speed 3. The experiment is repeated for different loads and the readings are tabulated. The Francis turbine is started 2.penstock enters the squirrel casing. The pressure gauge reading is noted down and this is to be maintained constant for different loads 4. The water enters the runner of the turbine in the dial direction at outlet and leaves in the axial direction at the inlet of the runner. Out put Vs In put 2. Out put Vs Efficiency RESULT : Thus the performance characteristics of the Francis wheel turbine are done and the maximum efficiency of the turbine is ……. All the weights in the hanger are removed 3. The venturimeter reading and speed of turbine are noted down 6. Thus it is a mixed flow turbine. PROCEDURE : 1. Pressure gauge reading is assented down 5.

CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE : Cd = Q act / Q the DESCRIPTION : 1. 4. 3. Notch tank Triangular notch Hook gauge Collecting tank Stop watch Piezo meter Meter scale FORMULAE : 1.AIM : To determine the co-efficient of discharge of flow through triangular notch APPARATUS REQUIRED . The inlet valve is opened and water is allowed to rise up to the level of the triangular notch . ACTUAL DISCHARGE : Q act =( A x h ) / t ( m3 / sec ) Where A = area of the collecting tank ( m2 ) h = Rise of water level in collecting tank ( cm ) t = Time taken for ‘h ‘ rise of oil in collecting tank ( s ) 2. 5. THEORETICAL DISCHARGE θ Q the =( 8/15 )x(tan 2 ) √ 2 x g x H5/2 ( m3 / s ) Where H =manometer height in m g = gravity in m/s 3. 2. 6. 1. 7.

The pointer of the manometer gauge is adjusted so that it coincides the water surfaces and note down reading 3. The water level is noted by means of point gauge 5. 12 Date : .2. The above procedure is repeated for different discharge RESULT : The co-efficient of discharge of triangular notch is Cd = …. The time required for 10 cm rise of water level is noted 7.( no unit ) KAPLAN TURBINE TEST RIG Exp No. The inlet valve is opened so that the water flows over the notch at the same rate 4. The reading for H2 is noted 6.

81 5. Out Power : Po = (2x π x N x T ) / ( 60000 ) KW Where . Input power P O = ρ g Q H / 1000 KW H = pressure gauge reading x 10 – vacuum gauge readingx0.AIM : To study the characteristics of a Kaplan turbine APPARATUS REQUIRED : 1.130m .6x10-2 m Qth = ( a1 a 2 √ 2 gh ) / √ a 12 – a22 m3 /s d1=0.0136 3. Tachometer FORMULAE : 1. Stop watch 2.10m 2. d2 =0. g=9.PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY : ƞ = (Po /Pi x 100) DESCRIPTION : . ORIFICE METER READING : h = ( h1 – h 2 ) x12. N = Speed of the turbine in rpm D = Effective diameter of brake drum T = R( W1 – W2 )x g . R= radius of drum=0.15m.

2. . 7. 9. 5. Keep the runner vane at require opening Keep the guide vanes at required opening Prime the pump if necessary Close the main sluice valve and then start the pump Open the sluice valve for the required discharge when the pump motor switches from star to delta mode Load the turbine by adding weights in the weight hanger. The turbine output torque is determined with the rope brake drum.Kaplan turbine is an axial flow reaction turbine used in dams and reservoirs of low height to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical and electrical energy. A tachometer is used to measure the rpm. Open the drake drum cooling water gate valve for cooling the brake drum Measure the turbine rpm with tachometer Note the pressure gauge and vacuum gauge readings Note the orifice meter pressure readings GRAPHS : The following graphs are drawn 1. 3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE : 1. They are best suited for low heads say from 10m to 5m the specific speed ranges from 200 to 1000 The flow through the pipe lines into the turbine is measured with the orifice meter fitted in the pipe line. Out put Vs Efficiency RESULT : Thus the performance characteristics of the Kaplan turbine are done and the maximum efficiency of the turbine is ……. Out put Vs Speed 3. 8. Out put Vs In put 2. The net pressure difference across the turbine output torque is measured with a pressure gauge and vacuum gauge. A mercury manometer is used to measure the pressure difference across the orifice meter. 4. 6.