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Rating Soviet leadership of the Second World War in 1939-1941.

To study the problems of the Great Patriotic War history is important to the question of how the Soviet leadership
evaluated the events of the Second World War in 1939 - 1941 gg., Without which it is impossible to understand
solutions Soviet policy of this period. Unfortunately, the documentary sources, which would give a straight answer to
this question, to very small, but we are interested in information can be gleaned from Soviet propaganda materials,
which were prepared under the supervision of IV Stalin and his entourage. As the initiative definition of "general line"
of. promotion came "from above", minimizing the mid-level functionaries initiative, these materials provide albeit
indirect, but quite the right idea about the mood in the Kremlin. Since any propaganda is to prepare public opinion for
certain events, content-Soviet propaganda in conjunction with other materials reflecting the views of the Soviet
leadership on the international situation at the turn of 30-40-ies. and national and state interests of the USSR in this
situation allows confident enough to talk about what it is trained in Moscow.
In Soviet historiography inspired by Soviet propaganda prevalent view that Moscow's foreign policy determined solely
by ideological dogmas. Not by chance in recent years in the literature debated the question of Stalin's commitment to
the idea of "world revolution." So, M. Nikolaev and VE Molodyakov believe that Stalin did not follow this idea, citing as
proof of his thesis opinion LD Trotsky's fear of Stalin's war and revolution {1331} . More advanced version of the
original AD Orlov claims that Stalin guided ideas panslavism {1332} . DA Volkogonov the contrary, believes that the
strategic goal of the Soviet leadership was "the world proletarian revolution", and thought Stalin was Kominternovsky
{1333} . This [416] same opinion is shared by JN Afanasyev, believing that the purpose of the war, the Soviet
leadership saw the plantation of "communism" in Europe {1334} .
Unfortunately, chattering hand spared the question of what the "world revolution" and why this idea prevailed in Soviet
propaganda 20-40-ies. As you know, the idea of "world revolution" was an important part of the Marxist conception of
the revolutionary transition from capitalism to socialism in the most developed countries and developed in the second
half of XIX century. At the beginning of XX century. ideological evolution of European social democracy has led to the
formulation of the concept, is considered the most important goal of the emergence of the socialist revolution in
Germany, which was regarded as the most developed European countries, which had the largest social-democratic
party. Prospects of the revolution in Russia because of its backwardness without the support of Europe were
considered too bleak, but if it still happens, the only guarantee of retaining power in revolutionary Russia presented a
revolution in Germany. However, after October 1917. Russian Social-Democrats (Bolsheviks) faced with a choice. Or
should, in spite of everything, to promote a revolution in Germany, that in case of failure could lead to loss of power in
Russia or had to first hold power in Russia, but then had to maneuver between the leading WWI countries. After some
intraparty debate VI Lenin made a choice in favor of the second option {1335} .
However, the idea of "world revolution" in Europe has not been abandoned, and in 1919-1923 gg. it repeatedly tried to
carry through the Comintern. However, these attempts have failed, and have since 1920. begins a new transformation
of the idea of "world revolution." September 22, 1920 at the IX Party Conference of the RCP (b) Lenin, by reviewing
the current international situation, stated that the main enemy is the Treaty of Versailles and "our basic policy remains
the same. We take every opportunity to move from defense to offense. We already tore The Treaty of Versailles and
its doorways at the first opportunity. " Of course, in the current international environment "must confine defensive
stance towards the Entente, but, despite the complete failure of the first case, our first defeat (in Poland. - MM), we
once again and once again move from defense policy to offensive, as we all do not divide until the end. " Considering
the Russian Revolution from the point of view of the international communist movement, Lenin stated that "... we do go
on an international scale from semi-revolution, from unsuccessful forays to ensure that there was a miscalculation,
and we will be on this, learn offensive war" in 1336 { } . [417]
Three months later, on December 23, 1920., At the VIII All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Lenin, has been denounced

by the delegates to the idea that "we should wage war only defensive", said that if in a hostile imperialist encirclement
Soviet leadership would be "to swear that we will never get down to the known actions that military-strategic terms
may be offensive, we would be not only foolish, but criminals" {1337} . Thereby laid the foundation for the formation of
ideas about long-term coexistence of "capitalism" and "socialism" and the concept of building "socialism in one
country", which will be the basis for future "world revolution."
January 26, 1924. the first meeting of II All-Union Congress of Soviets, dedicated to the memory of Lenin, Stalin
sounded famous oath, which combines the idea of "world revolution" and "socialism in one country." "Departing from
us, Comrade Lenin adjured us to consolidate and extend the Union republics. Vow to you, Comrade Lenin, that we will
fulfill with honor and your behest!" - Said the general secretary of the CPSU (b). The USSR "has deep sympathy and
unfailing support in the hearts of the workers and peasants of the world", as it gives them "the linchpin of their hopes
of deliverance from oppression and exploitation, as a true beacon pointing them to the path of liberation." But "Lenin
never looked at the Republic of Soviets as an end in itself. He always regarded it as an essential link for strengthening
the revolutionary movement in Western and Eastern countries as an essential link for facilitating the victory of workers
throughout the world over the capital. Lenin knew that only such an understanding is help not only in terms of
international, but also in terms of maintaining most of the Soviet Republic. Lenin knew that the only way to ignite the
hearts of workers around the world to decisive battles for the liberation ... Departing from us, Comrade Lenin adjured
us to remain faithful to the principles of the Communist International. vow to you, Comrade Lenin, that we will not
spare his life in order to strengthen and expand the Union of Workers of the world - the Communist International! "
{1338} .
Later in the work of Stalin was quite logically explained that the complete victory of socialism in the USSR may not be
final until there is a capitalist environment, January 19, 1925, speech at the plenum of the Central Committee of the
CPSU (b), Stalin, concluding the inevitability of future new war, which "can not but aggravate the crisis of internal
revolutionary," said that "in this context can not stand before us a question about our intervention in these cases."
However, although the revolutionary movement in the West is strong and can lead to a revolution in some countries,
"but to keep them without our help scarcely [418] succeed. " In the case of the outbreak of war and the rise of the
revolutionary movement, "our intervention, not necessarily active say, do not say necessarily directly, it may be
absolutely necessary. This is hope. To victory could be won by us in this situation. This does not mean that we should
have to go on active action against someone. " However, "if the war starts, we will, of course, to speak last, latest, in
order to throw the weight on the pan, the weight, which could outweigh the" {1339} .
But first needed to create a powerful military and economic base that would be a solid foundation for the war against
"capitalist encirclement." Therefore, speaking with the report of the Central Committee at the XV Congress of the
CPSU (b) December 3, 1927, Stalin, analyzing the international situation and concluded that the growing threat of
war, and set the task - "to take into account the contradictions within the imperialist camp, delay the war," pay off "
capitalists, and take all measures to maintain peaceful relations. We can not forget Lenin's statement that it is very
much in our construction depends on whether we can delay the war with the capitalist world, which is inevitable, but
which can be postponed or before time as not ripen proletarian revolution in Europe, or until until fully matured colonial
revolution, or, finally, to the moment when the capitalists do not start fighting among themselves over the division of
colonies " {1340} .
This task required further maneuvering between the great powers, in order to prevent their possible consolidation on
the basis of anti-Soviet and use them to upgrade the technical capabilities of the Soviet economy. Active anticommunist and anti-Soviet propaganda of the new National Socialist government of Germany and the fears that Berlin
"will continue to converge with Western countries, demanded clarification tactics of Soviet diplomacy, and in
December 1933, Moscow has supported the French idea of collective security in Europe. Then and Now many see
this as a step USSR desire for rapprochement with the West against Germany. However, it was still the same policy
maneuvering, applied under the new conditions. Already 26 January 1934. XV11 in the Report of the Congress of the
CPSU (b) Stalin explained that "we orientation was not on Germany, as well as we do not focus on Poland and
France. We have focused in the past and in the present focus on the USSR and the USSR alone. And if the Soviet

Union's interests require convergence with certain countries that are not interested in disturbing the peace, we adopt
this course without hesitation, "because they are interested in expanding the business [419] ties for the development
of the economic base, because "in our time with the weak is not accepted considered - considered a strong " {1341} .
Now, some authors believe that in 1921 1924gg. Soviet leadership refused his revolutionary ambitions in the
international arena, and to the early 30-ies. Stalin "was now persistently seek to establish relations with its immediate
neighbors and the West, pushing the revolutionary activity by the wayside," {1342} . Somehow, in this case, the
researchers forgot widely known truth that real policy and providing its propaganda is not the same, and began to take
seriously any official statements of Moscow, not wanting to take a hard look at its real action. Betting on an accelerated
military-economic development of the USSR, the Soviet leadership was forced to establish economic ties with the
West, which naturally required a certain amount of masking their intentions. Under these conditions, reduction of
"revolutionary activity" was associated only with diplomatic tactics, rather than the abandonment of the idea of "world
revolution." In this regard, it is difficult not to agree with AN L.A.Mertsalovyh and who believe that Stalin was thinking
ultimately usual imperial, whatever it was covered by {1343} .
In this case, the ideological dogma of "world revolution" is closely linked with national and state interests of the Soviet
Union, whose leadership has appeared before the next election. Or Moscow had to agree with her secondary status of
a regional power on the world stage with a further weakening of Soviet influence, or the Soviet Union would join the
fight for a return to the club of "great powers" Having opted for the second alternative, the Soviet leadership has gone
the way of any country aiming to become a "great power", which can only be achieved by subjecting any part of the
world, and used the idea of "world revolution" to substantiate their claims of these. Naturally, as always and
everywhere, propaganda talked about global problems. And in this case, the idea of "world revolution" is on a par with
such, for example, ideas like "culture of protection against the barbarians" in ancient Rome, "liberty, equality and
fraternity" at the turn XV11I-X1X centuries. in France, the "white man's burden" in the era of colonial expansion of
European countries, "open doors" in the U.S. late XIX-early XX centuries. "struggle for living space" in Germany 3040-ies. "creation of a Greater East Asia "Japan 30-40-ies. or "struggle for democracy" in the modern United States.
In addition, it is important to note that the idea of "world revolution" transformed from abstract hopes for revolution
[420] in expanding the boundaries of the slogan of "socialism", ie the expansion of Soviet influence in the world arena.
The task of returning to the club of great powers is the hardest of all international problems of any state because it
requires him to be stronger than those who would be subject to seizure, and their potential allies. As a rule, it is not
possible due to limited resources, so that this situation is actively used diplomacy to divide potential adversaries, and
even better to help them enter into open conflict with each other. As has been shown, that this problem is solved by
Soviet diplomacy in the 20-30s. And in this case, the idea of "world revolution" was supplemented by the idea of the
struggle for "socialism - a bright future for all mankind." This is an important propaganda addition was necessary for
the moral justification of any action of the USSR on the world stage and fits into the characteristic, especially in the
XX., The desire to hide the real policy for moral felicitous screen. Therefore, any arguments about the abandonment of
the idea of "world revolution" based on a misunderstanding of the elementary laws of development of international
relations. Now, if the Soviet foreign policy during the 20-40s. in the degree of activity would be on the level of a
Norway or Argentina, then the state would be the abandonment of the struggle for the status of a "great power", but it
was just the opposite.
Like other great powers leadership, the Soviet leadership was very active on the international scene and sought to
achieve their own goals, considering the Second World War as a unique opportunity to implement the ideas of "world
revolution." Especially now that the USSR had a strong autarkic economies, developed and well-armed militaryindustrial complex of the Red Army. Not accidentally October 1, 1938 at a meeting in Moscow and Leningrad
propagandists Stalin explained that "there are times when the Bolsheviks themselves will attack if a just war, if the
situation is right, if conditions are favorable, themselves begin to attack. They are not against the offensive, not
against every war. What we scream about the defense - this veil, the veil. All States masked " {1344} . In the context
of the political crisis in 1939 Moscow maneuvered between the British and French allies and Germany, trying to
achieve the most advantageous agreement {1345} . According to the memoirs NS Khrushchev, who led from behind

the scenes actions of Stalin, Soviet diplomacy in the summer of 1939. frankly stated that "there is a game, someone
who outwit and deceive", knowing that "Hitler wants to deceive us, just overreaching. But figured that we, the Soviet
Union, Hitler outsmarted by signing" {1346} . [421 ]
Interesting assessment of the events of 1939-1941. contained in become available only recently researchers diary
writer VV Vishnevsky, although not involved in the development of major military and political decisions, but
nevertheless, because of their political duties and functions knowledgeable about the mood of "top", who had the
opportunity to receive reliable, broad and diverse information about the activities of the Soviet leadership, preparation
for war. Assessing the Soviet-German non-aggression pact, the writer September 1, 1939 shall record in his diary:
"The USSR won hands-free, while ... Now we take the initiative, do not back down, and stepping. Diplomacy Berlin is
clear: they want our neutrality and then reprisals against the USSR, we want them bogged down in a war and then
deal with them. " Passing the common sentiment: "We are in a year will beat Hitler." Wisniewski said that "this is the
most likely option ... it's time for the USSR external world performances ... Guessing how the rest of the game, it's
hard. But one thing is clear: the world will once again redraw. In this war, we will try to keep to the end of their winning
positions . Attract a number of countries. Gradually, where affection, where force. This is a new chapter in the history
of the party and the country. USSR began active global foreign policy, " {1347} .
September 1, Germany invaded Poland on September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany. Assessing the
outbreak of war in Europe, in an interview with Stalin leadership of the Comintern September 7, 1939 stated that "the
war is between the two groups of capitalist countries (rich and poor against the colonies, raw materials, etc.) for the
redivision of the world for domination world We do not mind that they fought hard and weakened each other. Average
if Germany is shaken hands position of the richest capitalist countries (especially England). Hitler himself did not
understand and did not want to, frustrating, undermining the capitalist system ... We can maneuver to push one side
against the other, to better torn down. nonaggression pact, to some extent helps to Germany. Next time - push the
other side " {1348} . This statement is not Stalin remained secret, and November 10, 1939 Chief of the Political
Administration of the Red Army, Army Commissar 1st rank LZ Mehlis meeting with writers said that "Germany is doing
useful work in general, undermining the British empire. Destruction it will lead to the total collapse of capitalism - it's
clear," {1349} .
Similar ideas were expressed in a conversation Chairman CH K and People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Molotov
with Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania V.Kreve-Mickevicius on the night of July 3, 1940
in Moscow. "Now - Molotov said to his companion, - we are convinced more than ever else that genius Lenin was not
mistaken, assuring us, [422] that the Second World War will allow us to gain power in Europe as World War I allowed
to take power in Russia. Today we support Germany, but just enough to keep her from making suggestions about the
world as long as the hungry masses of the belligerent nations not part with illusions and not rise up against their
leaders. Then the German bourgeoisie to agree with your enemy, the bourgeoisie allied States, in order to suppress
the combined efforts of the insurgent proletariat. But at this point we will come to him for help, we will come with fresh
forces, well prepared, and in Western Europe ... will the decisive battle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie,
rotten, which decides the fate of all of Europe, " {1350} .
February 10, 1941 this idea in a slightly different formulation of the hit and Vishnevsky diary: "We use the old method
of" divide and conquer. "We're out of the war, something we pay for it, we get a lot. We carry trade relations with
different countries, use their technique and gain something useful for the Army and Navy, etc. for helping to lead the
war the same in Germany, fueling its "portions", at a minimum not to disturb the imperialists to wage war for another
year or two ... Wait till the weakening them. Then - stand as an umpire, "broker", etc. " {1351} .
It is clear that such ideas are not publicized by the Soviet leadership, on the contrary, every effort was made to
convince the public opinion both at home and abroad, that the USSR is neutral in the war broke out in Europe. So the
fall of 1939 for the characteristic of the Soviet propaganda of the second half of 30-ies. antifascist campaign was
curtailed. The media began pedaling theme of improving Soviet-German relations, but whatever the official praises
about the "friendship" with Germany in public opinion prevailed belief that everything was done for tactical reasons.
This was facilitated by the fact that both Soviet propaganda to explain the non-aggression pact had to treat it as a kind

of respite similar Brest peace in 1918, citing, as it is now known {1352} , mythical threat of Soviet-German war in the
summer of 1939, which tried to provoke Britain and France. In this situation, in order "to delay the war with Germany
and use the time to further strengthen economic and especially military power of the USSR," the Soviet government
signed an agreement with Germany, Britain and France putting "before the war so the enemy, which was prepared
against us " {1353} .
In 1939, Soviet propaganda 1940ies. more space is required to ensure the USSR's external action in Eastern Europe.
In this case, widely used slogans such as "liberation" and "broaden the front of socialism", which [423] were closely
interrelated. Since September 9, 1940. during the meeting of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) Stalin said that
"we are expanding fronts of socialist construction, it is beneficial to mankind, because Lithuanians consider
themselves happy, Western Belarusians Bessarabians, we got rid of the yoke of the landlords, capitalists, police and
any other scum " {1354} . That is, it was about liberation from the yoke of capitalism. So capacious formula allowed
Soviet propaganda adapt to any international situation and give explanations to any acts of the USSR. However, the
war with Finland showed that such abstract slogans insufficient to impact on the Soviet soldiers and went to move the
traditional slogan of "protecting the north-western borders and Leningrad." As a result, it is the slogan of "defense of
the borders and the interests of the Soviet Union" was the basis for Soviet propaganda and slogans of "liberation" and
"broaden the front of socialism" was given additional justification actions of the Soviet leadership on the world stage.
These foreign policy actions were perceived in the Kremlin in a specific ideological context. Thus, January 21, 1940,
Stalin said that the "world revolution as a single instrument - is nonsense. It happens at different times in different
countries. Actions of the Red Army - it is also the cause of world revolution" {1355} . Naturally, the Soviet leadership
was perfectly understood that the accession of new territories is only possible during the European war. So, speaking
April 17, 1940. at a meeting with officers of the Red Army of the CPSU (b) the experience of the war in Finland, Stalin
declared that the period of the war depended "on the international situation. There, in the west, the three biggest
powers at each other's throat, and when to decide on Leningrad, if not in such circumstances, when your hands are
busy, and it seems to us a favorable environment for them at this moment to strike. It would be a great folly, political
short-sightedness and not miss a moment to try as soon as possible until there is a war in the west, to formulate and
solve the question of the security of Leningrad " {1356} .
Speaking on November 20, 1940. at the joint plenum of the Leningrad City and Regional Committee of the CPSU (b),
AA Zhdanov said that "we are now trying to use, and she and the other warring parties as the biggest ace." Further,
comparing Germany with the woodcutter and the Soviet Union with the bear, he said that "until the woodcutter trees
break, we walk through the woods and require daily wage," because "the policy of the socialist state is to expand at
any time when it will have the possible positions of socialism. From this policy, we proceeded in the past year, she
gave ... expanding socialist territories of the Soviet Union. Such is our policy will continue, and here you are clear on
what line should go case " {1357} . [424]
Since the spring of 1940 is still narrow, but quite high classrooms became louder voices about the need to modernize
the military propaganda. Tone of these statements asked Stalin himself. Speaking at a meeting of the Supreme
Military Council on April 21, 1940., He proposed "radically alter our military ideology. We must educate your chain of
command in the spirit of active defense, including both offensive. It is necessary to promote these ideas under the
banner of security, protection of our country, our borders, " {1358} . Practical embodiment of the wishes of the leader
was a meeting on military ideology 13-14 May 1940.
Head of Political Department of the Red Army, Army Commissar 1st rank LZ Mehlis delivered a keynote speech in
which he stated that "the Red Army, like any army is an instrument of war. All personnel of the Red Army should be
brought up in time of peace, based on a common goal - to prepare for war. Our war with the capitalist world will just
war, progressive. 'Red Army will be active, achieving complete contrition and defeat the enemy, bringing the fighting
on enemy territory. Accordingly, it is necessary to educate the entire staff of the army and the entire country in that
spirit that every one of our war, which lead Army socialism is progressive war, will be the most fair of all the wars that
have ever been. On this score Lenin clearly states: "It would be a war for socialism, for the liberation of other nations
from the bourgeoisie. Engels was quite right when, in his letter to Kautsky, dated September 12, 1882. directly

acknowledged the possibility of "defensive war" is already victorious socialism. He was referring to the defense of the
victorious proletariat against the bourgeoisie of other countries "(T. 19. P.325).
And the second statement of Comrade Lenin.
"The victorious proletariat of that country, having expropriated the capitalists and organized its own socialist
production, would be against the rest of the capitalist world, attracting the oppressed classes of other countries, raising
them in revolt against the capitalists, acting if necessary even with armed force against the exploiting classes and
their states "(T. 18. p.232-233).
It is an active force of the victorious proletariat and working people in the capitalist countries against the bourgeoisie,
of such active action when initiated just war will make our state and Peasants' Red Army. In this spirit, we need to
educate our Red Army and the entire proletariat, to let everyone know that all our war, wherever it occurred, the war is
progressive and fair, " {1359} . [425]
Speaking of military doctrine, commander of the 2nd rank DG Pavlov said that "military doctrine have been developed
in a purely offensive spirit, but it worked out in an offensive spirit in the last 3-4 years", and before that was a cult to
protect their borders. According to him, "all our wars are perfectly justified, but we have military ideology, military, from
the regimental commander and down to the fighter should be formulated so that our leaders and soldiers understand
that regardless of the justice or injustice of [war] our troops have to beat your opponent, and the military command
orders are always fair and should always be performed " {1360} .
According to the commander of the 2nd Rank KA Meretskova, "we can say that our army is preparing to attack and
this attack we need for defense. That is absolutely correct ... We must ensure that our country is not defense and
offense and that we can give a strong blow to the enemy. [.. .] Our army is there to ensure our state, our country, and
to ensure this, it is necessary to crush, smash the enemy, and for this it is necessary to advance. Based on the
political environment, we need to advance, and the Government will indicate to us that we need do " {1361} .
In his speech Corps Commander DT Kozlov pointed out that "our army should be brought up, as well as our
population should be brought up in the spirit of an offensive doctrine. Neither magazine or a newspaper should not be
written that we will only defend and beat your opponent in their own territory. We must be recorded that we will defend
only offensive and beat the opponent and thereby defend their socialist fatherland and its borders, but it does not
mean that we should not deal with other issues. With regard to defense, I guess, that enough is done, but we did not
attack everything. If we give such an installation, it is necessary to review all the events in the first place, you need to
put the revision of the whole body, our entire army. infantry divisions in the states now existing and created defensive
tendencies prevail character, for the infantry so heavy that it is unable to give those rates of advance that will be
needed ... If we want to have the army could be light and agile, able to perform tasks that it faces, it is necessary
organizational structure revise strictly from this angle, " {1362} .
Major AI Samoilov offered scrutinize the enemy. "After all, once our commanders in the world occupy the position of
the British officers. So it must be and will be. We'll teach the whole world ... Another disadvantage propaganda. I had
to deal with narrow-minded, social-democratic, [426] pacifist understanding of our policy the world. [...] We have too
many peaceful moods. No special love for the sport, build, to arms. Meanwhile, all modern decor requires that our
people and our soldiers were warlike people. [...] Our era has epoch of wars, fair - the revolutionary-imperialist and
unjust. might attack on us, but we have nothing to hide, that time will come when we will be the aggressor. Comrades,
we are the very essence of our system and its historical vocation should be able to fight and love military affairs, "
{1363} .
The ideas have been presented to June 25 as the directives on convened on the initiative of the newspaper "Red Star"
magazine "Banner" and Defence Committee meeting Soviet Writers' Union of Writers developing military themes.
Chief Editor of "Red Star" Colonel EA Boltin follows instructed "engineers of human souls": "Talking about the ideology
of the Red Army, I must begin with its doctrine. You know that the military doctrine of the Red Army is an offensive
doctrine emanating from known Voroshilov wording - "beat the enemy on its territory." This provision remains in force

today. However, the combat experience, which acquired the Red Army in the last two years, brings to our
understanding of the war a number of significant new features. Up until 1939, the Red Army was essentially
neobstrelyanny army, and those provisions which raised its command structure, largely based on the experience of
the Civil War. In this experiment, there is a lot of valuable, very much that today, and will continue to serve as a guide
for us. But at the same time, this experience could not take into account the true nature of modern warfare, because at
the time when the enemy's weak technology we had very often the weakest technique. [...] Our tactics and operational
art until 1938, ie before we began to explore the experience of the war in Spain, based mainly on the experience of the
Civil War, "now this is not enough and should be based on the experience of fighting Hassan, Khalkhin-and Finland to
revise our views on the future war.
"Oddly enough, but we educate people in a kind of Soviet pacifism. Often in" Red Star "and in the literature can be
found expression that the Red Army is an instrument of peace. Instead teach people that the army is an instrument of
war, weapons active defense of our homeland, we said that it is the army of the world. On the other hand, we sided
slogan popularized the invincibility of our army "that generates shapkozakidatelskie mood. Therefore, during the
Russo-Finnish War, had to replace the slogan of "liberation of Finland", which did not say anything to our soldiers, at
[427] the slogan of "protecting the north-western borders and Leningrad." "We are all well aware of the huge historical
rightness of our cause and invincibility. But at the same time, we must give an account, that our victory in modern
warfare can be achieved only at the cost of all forces. Experience of war in Finland showed that we It took a serious
effort to even potentially weak to break the enemy. collisions in future we will have to solve more difficult problems and
it is therefore necessary to bring the Red Army and our whole nation is not in the spirit of invincibility naked slogans
and continuous heroism, and should be brought up in the spirit of the difficulties that is modern war, in the spirit of
willingness to serve as a home to all, if you need, including my life. " You should carefully study the experience of the
war in Europe and a flexible approach to its assimilation.
"First of all, we need to educate people to understand that the Red Army is an instrument of war, not an instrument of
peace. Necessary to educate people so that a future war with any capitalist state is a just war, no matter who started
this war. We Such sentiments were that we defend, and themselves into the fray is not useful. Wrong. Our people
must be ready for that when it will be profitable, we first go to war, because the experience of war in Belgium and the
Netherlands shows that the strategic means passivity. We must be prepared, if necessary, to strike first, not just
respond blow for blow. " However, "it is impossible to educate people in the spirit of indiscriminate attack, as it was
until now. We raised portion so that the word" retreat "was considered a disgrace. We have to consider that we have
to defend and sometimes, even have to move to trench warfare, retreat to donate part, win a fortune. " As practical
problems Boltin called study of military history, strengthening training and discussion of the problems of military
Speaking in the debate Wisniewski said: "Who is not met, there is talk about the Baltics, the process of fixing our
historical right flank, about the prospects of the Black Sea, on the southern flank, etc." It would be nice widely and
openly discuss these issues, of course, "I do not advise at best" Red Star "screaming that we, if we need to - we will
break the backbone of Hitler," but we have to think how we will prepare for the war. [...] Sometimes the question can
not be. All my personal opinion - I can make it here, we will fight with the Germans - this is a great historical
perspective. The people can smell it ... "
However, excessive frankness in this matter was not encouraged, and Boltin asked rhetorically: "... Why must we
need to talk straight - who are our future enemy? Did [428] it is useful to us? Politically it is harmful. methods will I
require flexible, which allowed we would achieve the desired effect and at the same time comply with external
decorum "because our military reviews carefully eyeing overseas. "We must speak impressively, right, frankly, but
very cautiously and quietly, because we live in a very difficult international situation. Write so that neither one nor the
other is not to offend and not to tease. Why do we now arming themselves against Germany or France? We will
always do so, as beneficial to our cause, " {1364} .
Has undergone a transformation and promotion of the Comintern. In the autumn of 1939 it was shifted to the fight
against warmongers (Britain and France) and explaining to the masses that only the elimination of the capitalist

system is able to provide "real peace." However, in April 1940, the Comintern propaganda arises again the idea of
"popular front" to fight the population of countries occupied by Germany for freedom and independence. Later
Comintern propaganda in continental Europe increasingly focused on the need to combat the invaders and their
accomplices. Since December 1940 the ECCI demanded of European Communist Parties to strengthen the
propaganda of national and social liberation, independence and socialism. February 21, 1941 in Moscow hotel "suite"
where they lived overseas Communists held "information session" members of the KKE. Walter Ulbricht briefed
colleagues with estimates of the war, which, apparently, were expressed at a meeting of the Presidium of the
Comintern. Stating that the victory of one of the parties is not yet available, and only a general depletion of the
belligerent countries could push them to compromise, Ulbricht said that prolonging the war leads to the growing
discontent of the population and can cause revolutionary explosion, which will be supported by the USSR. Under
these conditions, the main tasks of the Communist parties was to be further strengthening influence on the masses,
promoting friendship with the Soviet Union and condemnation of British imperialism {1365} .
Of course, the Soviet leadership understood that the advance of the Red Army under the slogans of social change
could lead to the unity of the capitalist states into a single anti-Soviet bloc. Therefore, in April 1941, the ECCI was
developed the idea of national anti-fascist National Front, which had to be guided by the Communist Party in the
German-occupied countries. First goal of the Popular Front was to be the question of national independence, and then
a new social order. Since May 1941 the European Communist Party embarked on this idea. In order to better mask
the influence of the USSR and the Communist Party on foreign help to expand their social base, [430] Stalin April 20,
1941 proposed to dissolve the Comintern. In his opinion, it was "important that they (foreign Communist Party. - MM}
infiltrated his people and focused on their own particular problems ...", after which the solution can be re-create the
international communist organization. F.I . Firsov notes that it is the intention to implement prevented German attack,
but did not indicate when exactly planned to dissolve the Comintern. Already in the first hours of the war, Stalin pointed
to the need to remove the question of social revolution and focus on promoting domestic war {1366} . himself this
slogan was borrowed from the work of Lenin "The main task of the day", which stated that "Russia is now ... to a
national rise to the Great Patriotic War," which "is a war for the socialist fatherland, socialism as a fatherland for the
Soviet Republic as a detachment of the world army of socialism "and leads" to the international socialist revolution "
{1367} . quite likely that this slogan and planned to wage war against Germany, but not the one that started.
Meanwhile, as the cooling of the Soviet-German relations, especially after the Berlin negotiations in November 1940,
which showed that Germany took in relation to the USSR more intransigent position, Soviet propaganda structures
are increasingly began to collect "negative" against Germany. Since the end of 1940 the USSR propaganda machine
began secret training to work in a future war with Germany and conducting anti-fascist propaganda. In the spring of
1941, remembers who lived before the war in Khabarovsk AF Rahr, "people began to bring with lectures on the
international situation dosage criticism at Germany ... At the same time, rumors of impending war with Germany and
began to walk among the people" {1368} .
Similar sentiments were reflected in the aforementioned diary Vishnevsky who recorded January 31, 1941: "The
position of the USSR expectantly, we will if appropriate, and will be able to throw their weight on the scales of war ...
Resit probably coming summer." April 9, he makes the following entry: "Decide the coming months. We are
approaching a critical point in Soviet history. Feel it all clear." Finally on April 14: "The truth gets out. Interim
Agreement with Hitler is bursting at the seams" {1369} . At the same time at the political forces in the increasing
emphasis on studying the space required military-political situation in Europe, the disclosure of the aggressive nature
of imperialism and the aggressive policies of Germany. April 30, 1941 in the western border of the county was sent to
the General Directorate letter of instruction political propaganda (GUPP) Red Army "Results of inspections of political
studies," [430] in which it was noted that "the Red Army soldiers and junior commanders insufficiently explained that
the Second World War both belligerents underway for a new division of the world ... Germany ... passed for conquest
and capture enough ... explained that the expansion of the second world war poses a direct military threat to our
country, " {1370} .
The turning point in the preparation of Soviet propaganda to action in the new environment became Stalin's speech

May 5, 1941 to graduates of military academies {1371} . This kind of software Stalin's speech, delivered on the next
day after the decision of the Politburo of his appointment to the post of chairman of the SNK, made a lasting
impression on the audience, who are unanimous in saying that she wore anti-German character. Other than
statements of aggressive actions of Germany in Europe, Stalin directly assigned to it responsibility for the outbreak of
World War II. Though since the fall of 1939. in the USSR is widely promoted the idea that "warmongers" are England
and France, it was clearly voicing new course. Secretary of the Executive Committee of the Comintern, Georgi
Dimitrov noted in his diary: "Our policy of peace and security is at the same time, the policy of preparing for war. No
defense without offensive. Necessary to bring in the spirit of the army offensive. Must prepare for war." Wisniewski
praised this speech more emotional: "This enormous significance. We begin ideological and practical offensive ... We
are talking about the global fight Hitler here is calculated [...] Ahead - our trek to the West. Ahead of opportunities that
we have dreamed for a long time " {1372} .
Change the direction of Soviet propaganda was clearly formulated by Stalin May 5, 1941 at the banquet in the Kremlin
after a solemn meeting on the occasion of the release of military students was proclaimed a toast to Stalin's peaceful
foreign policy. In response to him, Stalin took the floor. "Allow me to amend, - he said. - Peaceful foreign policy has
provided the world of our country. Peaceful policy is a good thing. We from time to time took the line of defense - as
long as our army rearmed not supplied the army with modern means of warfare . And now, when we remodeled our
army, saturated technique for modern warfare, when we became strong - now we need to move from defense to
offense. conducting the defense of our country, we are obliged to act offensive manner. From Defense go to the
military policy of offensive operations. We necessary to restructure our education, our propaganda, agitation, our
printing offensive spirit. Red Army is a modern army and modern army - the army offensive " {1373} . [431]
It was taken by Stalin's speech is the basis for the following documents prescriptive. In May 1941, the Red Army
GUPP prepared a number of draft policy documents, of which we are interested in the proposed directive "On
problems of political propaganda in the Red Army in the near future," {1374} . This document after discussing June 4,
1941 by the Supreme Military Council was sent June 9th Army Chief Commissioner GUPP 1 rank AI Zaporozhets the
chief of the Propaganda of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) G.F.Aleksandrovu. Simultaneously, in the Office of
Propaganda, a draft directive of the Central Committee "On the tasks of propaganda for the near future", which
Aleksandrov May 28 directed the secretaries of the CC AA Zhdanov and AS Shcherbakov, and on behalf of which the
document was drawn up {1375} . The project did not satisfy the secretaries of the CC, and in early June he was
Shcherbakov new draft directive "On the current tasks of propaganda", which is clearly more logical and accurate than
text Aleksandrov {1376} . The draft directive GUPP was approved on June 20 the Supreme Military Council {1377} ,
and the fate of the draft directive of the Central Committee not yet known.
In mid-May 1941 GUPP lecture group for private military audiences prepared a report "The Present International
Situation and Soviet foreign policy," which was sent in May 6 Department of Propaganda and Agitation of the Central
Committee of the CPSU (b) Central Committee secretaries and Zhdanov and Shcherbakov. On a document sent
Aleksandrov has its resolution of 19 June: "In the archive. According to a report given instructions that Zaporozhets"
{1378} . We do not have data that would reveal the nature of these guidelines, but the ideas of this report echo the
ideas GUPP directive from May 15, 1941, the above draft policy documents, and have been used, according to the
reducible I.Hoffmanom data in the report was done, apparently in the army June 15, 1941 "one authoritative political
worker" {1379} . All this suggests that the report had not been rejected by management. In addition, you should pay
attention to the performance of the international situation at the Kalinin party and Komsomol meeting employees of the
Supreme Soviet of the USSR on May 20 and the graduates of the Military-Political Academy. VI Lenin on June 5 and
Zhdanov's speech at a meeting of film workers in the CPSU (b) May 15, 1941 {1380}
Special value attached to these materials is that they were prepared at the level and under the order of members and
alternate members of the Politburo, owner of the propaganda apparatus of the country and the army. Consequently,
their training initiative came "from above", minimizing amateur functionaries [432] middle managers. All these
documents are largely repetitive and complement each other and allow, despite the presence in them of ideological
and propaganda clichs, give an objective assessment of overall sentiment in the Soviet leadership in the last prewar

Drafters of these documents after sounded May 5, 1941 sayings of Stalin paid attention to the causes of the military
successes of Germany, linking the issue with the need debunking the myth of the "invincibility of the Wehrmacht."
Guided by the thesis that war began showed her unpreparedness for England and France, Shcherbakov follows
expounding reasons for the defeat of France:
"France - winning the first imperialist war - conceited, rested on its laurels, showed complete carelessness in the
preparation for war ... Her military thought, due to complacency, not moving forward, remained at lessons of the war of
French aviation, which was once the strongest, moved to one of the last places. Armored and mechanized
compounds were in the paddock. "In the army," not only lacked artillery, anti-aircraft and anti-especially, but not even
enough machine guns and pistols. The French government, perhaps money, not the Maginot Line continued to the
English Channel, which devalued the entire fortified part of the front and made it possible to circumvent the German
army French strengthening. "" To the military treated dismissively ... military apparatus in the hands of people, or little
understanding of military, or people frozen in the classroom and traditions of the war of 1914-1918. The ruling circles
of France not so much afraid of Hitler's victory as his people ... Among the senior commanders and senior politicians
was widespread defeatism and direct betrayal. This is the first reason for the military defeat of France.
The defeat of France is due not only to its military weakness. Since the war, France and Britain not only made new
friends and allies, but lost those who were with them. Rotten, mercantile policy "non-interference" and "appeasement"
... treachery perpetrated against its direct ally - Czechoslovakia ... flippant attitude to the role and relative importance
of the Soviet Union in European affairs - all this alienated part of France and England their allies, led to their isolation
and strengthened the position of Germany. This is the second reason for the military defeat of France " {1381} .
Assessing the causes of success in Germany, Shcherbakov wrote that "the German army being broken in 1918 benefited from this fact necessary military and political lessons. In Germany for many years, especially since 1933,
with the advent of the [433] power by the National Socialists, formation and training of a large army. National
Economy, remodeled on a war footing, was entirely subordinated to the tasks of war ... Military leaders of Germany
developed operational plans for war, based on the rapid advance on the weak and the unprepared opponent with
massive use of modern military equipment ... military superiority of Germany in the first stage of the war was
unconditional and overwhelming. This is the first reason for the military successes of the German army.
But the outcome of the war not only solves the arming and organization of the army. To win enough to have a good
military technology and organization, and also prepare the war politically and is primarily meant to attract some states
to his side as allies, others try to neutralize. On the truth of this statement says the whole experience of past wars. In
1870-71. in the war with France, Germany won, thanks to the neutrality of Russia, as a result, so - war on one front. In
the war of 1914-1918. - As a result of the war on two fronts, Germany was defeated.
That is why, in preparation for the Second World War, Germany has tried to establish peaceful and friendly relations
with the Soviet Union. "In addition, Germany was able to" tear allies against their enemies and bring some countries
as allies to his side ... and intimidate some small neutral countries "warning them siding with Britain and France {1382}
"Germany's military victories and defeats her opponents caused the spread of views known about the alleged
invincibility of the German army. Such views are fundamentally unscientific and contrary to historical experience, as
well as the course of military operations in modern warfare. Around the world there has been no invincible armies, and
were there Army good and weak .... Victory German army due to the fact that the Germans still had military
confrontations with weak "enemy" and the German army suppressed their overwhelming superiority and appliances
.... On the basis of easy victories - in the army and political circles in Germany have spread boasting, complacency
and arrogance that lead directly to the backlog.

All the new that is logged in operational art and tactics of the German army, is not so difficult and now perceived and
studied her opponents, as well as non-news and armament of the German army. On the basis of boasting and
smugness military thought Germany is no longer as before - go ahead. The German army had lost the taste for the
further improvement of military equipment. If at the beginning of the war, Germany had a modern military equipment,
but now ... military-technical advantage Germany gradually reduced " {1383} . [434]
With the expansion of the war, Germany is facing a number of difficulties noted in the guppies. First of all is the lack of
oil, which means "fuel - this is the first weak point of the German economy. Foodstuffs - this is the second weak point
of the German economy. It already makes itself felt very keenly ... food supply prospects are deteriorating ... The third
weakness of the German economy is the situation with the raw materials. Despite the fact that Germany is getting
some raw materials from occupied countries, all kinds of raw materials, it is not ensured. created in his time running
out, and the British blockade of Germany close to non-European markets. The longer the war continues, the more
depleted Germany.
As disclosure of the imperialist, predatory aims of Germany and changing attitudes towards the war of the masses of
Germany itself " {1384} . "Prepare war, and the war in the first stage was carried out under the slogan of liberation
from oppression Versailles chains - Shcherbakov wrote. - This slogan was popular and well-known met support and
sympathy and the German people, as many people had suffered as a result of predatory Treaty of Versailles. This
slogan found sympathy and known in other countries, that the Treaty of Versailles was considered humiliating and
unjust. But during the war the situation changed radically.
Slogan, "Down with the chains of Versailles" - disappeared. Now the German army, using the military weakness of
several countries moved to the direct capture and enslavement of foreign territories. Nazi Germany is the seizure of
foreign territories under the slogan - the establishment of so-called "new order" in Europe. This slogan means the
suppression of the national independence of the occupied countries, turning them into a vassal, operated by the state,
an agrarian appendage of Germany.
Aggressive character of the slogan-establishment of a "new order" in Europe German politicians masked chatter
about the need to continue the fight against "international plutocracy" need "to smoke Englishmen everywhere,
wherever they appeared." However, this bad disguise hides program enslavement of peoples, and the masses are
becoming more clearly see and understand the predatory nature "of this slogan. It," first, do not meet the sympathy
and support of the broad masses of Germany itself. Secondly, this slogan is great discontent and bitterness of the
peoples of the occupied countries and a gradual increase in resistance to the invader. Predatory, aggressive policy
against Germany restores it not only the peoples of the occupied countries, but the best part of the German people ...
It is clear that the success of German politics and the German army under the banner of [435] and the predatory
imperialist war, under the slogan of the conquest and subjugation of other peoples not can be any strong " {1385} .
"German army large force that can not be underestimated. However, as the prolongation of the war, military power
weakened Germany "- was concluded in the draft directive GUPP {1386} . This dispels the myth of the invincibility of
the German army.
Soviet leaders generally quite correctly assess military-economic condition of Germany, helped German companies
visiting the Soviet military-technical commissions in 1939-1941. Germany's own software such kinds of strategic raw
materials such as coal, iron ore, oil, copper, lead, sulfur and pyrites, aluminum (bauxite), manganese ore, chrome ore,
wool, phosphates, mercury, mica was in 1939. just 17,1-18,3%, whereas the Soviet Union, the figure was 82.5%
{1387} . Oil and raw materials in Germany, although replenished after the defeat of France and certain production
capacity was limited. For example, stockpiles of fuel and rubber could be enough only to the fall of 1941, and nonferrous metals stocks did not even cover consumption, not to mention the real needs of the {1388} . Equally tense
situation developed in Germany with food. According to German researchers, for the period from April 7 to June 29,
1941 (84 days) for each adult received 27 kg of bread, 2,175 kg of cereals and pasta, erzatskofe 1.2 kg, 5.6 kg of
meat, 3,233 kg of fat 0.75 kg of cheese curd 0.375 kg, 29 eggs, 4.05 kg of sugar, potatoes until June 2, freely sold,
after - 7 kg per adult (28 days). Average calorie daily ration per person dropped from 3000 calories in 1936-1938. up
to 2445 calories in 1940-1941. {1389} Germany's economy because of its limited capacity could not serve as a

reliable foundation for the struggle for world domination under a protracted war {1390} .
Certain penetration of the Soviet press statements about the success of German propaganda of the German economy
and power caused the Wehrmacht in May-June 1941, the negative reaction of the Soviet leadership. First of all, it
affected the work of the Institute of World Economy and Policy Sciences of the USSR and the editorial board of the
magazine of the Institute, which, according to the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), "in the
assessment of the most important issues of modern world politics and the world economy occupy theoretically
erroneous and politically harmful position . " This was expressed in the fact that these staff and editors "picked and
popularized the fascist propaganda disseminated myths about the ideal organization and invincibility of the German
army on the alleged organized, [436] the planned nature of the German economy, an improvement in the food
situation in Germany and an increase in the course of the war its economic and military resources, "and" to a certain
extent, have been in the wake of bourgeois propaganda. " So should reorganize Institute {1391} and eliminate such
defects in Soviet propaganda, reinforcing criticism ideology of fascism and German propaganda fabrications {1392} .
Not confirmed the above pictures and version of the fear of the Soviet leadership to Germany and its armed forces,
existent in the national historiography {1393} . Moscow considered equivalent Germany opponent who in military
terms has nothing special about any tanks or artillery or aviation. According to Stalin, the German military equipment
"lags behind not only our", but in regard to its aviation starts to overtake America {1394} . This conclusion reflects a
certain underestimation of the state of the Wehrmacht. However, it should be noted that the quality of military
equipment, except aircraft older designs. The Red Army did not yield his future opponent {1395} .
"The main factor determining the current international situation, - noted in the guppy - a war between the major
capitalist powers, which lasts for about two years and has become a global, protracted and total. Most important
outcome of the second imperialist war in its modern stage - is a significant military Germany's success on the land
fronts, and the expulsion of England from the European continent. As a result, most acutely the question arose about
the future direction of the war.
England is far from broken, and because of continued resistance increasing assistance from the U.S. is strengthening
its military forces. In this situation, Germany has no prospects in the near future to beat England and end the war, as it
is, with its large land force, without a strong navy. At the same time, and England, having command of the sea, does
not have strong land forces, and also can not expect to win soon. All this creates an environment of hopelessness in
the war that it can not be completed in the near future victory of one side or the other ...
Time gained by Germany at the beginning of the war, is now turning against her. Prolongation of the war as military
potential difference of two warring parties will act with relentless force ... therefore particularly important for Germany,
the U.S. position. Fight for world domination, augmented thirst war profits, with irresistible force pushing America into
the war .... Formally, the U.S. is not yet at war, "but in fact increasingly creeping into the war, which greatly complicates
the situation in Germany {1396} . According to Kalinin " this war on the [437] exhaustion takes a long, fierce, which is
likely to be exhausting for both sides. Predict the same, one of them will win, now more difficult, " {1397} .
The report GUPP believed that "in the ruling circles of the belligerent countries is growing fear of the revolutionary
consequences of a protracted war. Particular concern is the growing power of the imperialists of the USSR.
Bourgeoisie of the imperialist countries with great anxiety looks at the Soviet Union, which stands out of the war, and
while the war undermines and weakens the capitalist countries, the Soviet Union is growing and gaining strength,
increasing its economic and military power ... In these circumstances, among some circles of the bourgeoisie of the
belligerent countries under pressure to agree among themselves in order to make peace and to direct the tip of the
war against the Soviet Union. In this sense, "escape" Hess to England - a serious warning to the Soviet Union. And if
in this case the attempt collusion can almost be considered failed, the soil for such efforts in the future remains. This
soil-futility of war on the one hand and the fear of the revolutionary consequences of a protracted war - with other. This
is why the Soviet Union should be ready for any eventuality by the imperialist powers, should be ready at any time to
disrupt any conspiracy of the imperialists against us. " Although the class hatred of the bourgeoisie can push the
warring countries to make peace, but England and the United States understand that the world today - a concession

to Germany and thus this process is hampered {1398} .

In the world there is a crisis of bourgeois democracy as the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie misses ... - Kalinin noted in
a speech on June 5. - If we analyze the social processes that occur in democratic countries as belligerent and noncombatants, we note that there is increasing political dictatorship, strengthening the dictatorship of a person ... Yes,
otherwise it can not be. During the war, all forces must be concentrated, otherwise the bulk of funds remain unused or
will be used by the adversary. So, strengthening the dictatorship becomes a characteristic feature capitalist world.
course, the process accelerates ripening of war dictatorships. If there was no war, capitalism would move along this
path with tiny steps, and now, during the war, he makes the seven-league steps ... So, during the war is reinforced
maturation of the dictatorship of the capitalist world, the concentration of material resources in the hands of the state,
the concentration of capitalism. All this during the war accelerated and exacerbated.
It should be noted and a second process that we observe during the war ... - there is increased growth of political
consciousness of the masses. During the war, brighter detected before labor [438] masses selfish capitalists and he
soon comes to the consciousness of the masses. And I must say that the growth of the class consciousness of the
toiling masses certainly accelerated to a greater extent than increasing the dictatorship of capital. "Very" war should
contribute to a more rapid maturation of class consciousness in general. "Unlikely that this war will come away with
the capitalists of Europe, because" it is felt that this rich school for the laboring masses not be wasted "and they" will
draw proper lessons and hurl their anger on the bourgeoisie " {1399} .
The Soviet leadership rather accurately assess the progress and prospects of World War II, noting its protracted
nature, that sooner or later doomed to defeat Germany. Tightening the war really fueled the forces in opposing camps,
which were in favor of ending the war and the creation of so-called "united front of the imperialist powers" against the
Soviet Union {1400} . Moscow no accident closely followed similar attempts, knowing well the available ways to make
peace difficult. Documents show that the Soviet leadership was quite knowledgeable about the results of "Hess's
mission", which is confirmed by other data , {1401} .
Arguments about the rise of dictatorship and political consciousness of the masses in the capitalist countries, despite
the clear imprint zaideologizirovannosti are under a certain soil. It must be admitted that the war and the related crisis
of society contributed to the radicalization of public sentiment and thereby expanded the social base of the communist
parties, increasing the danger of a social explosion. It is interesting to note that this danger is in 1939. foresaw the
former Czechoslovak President Edvard Bene, who, however, believed that such hopes Moscow unlikely to be fulfilled
in full, as "Western Europe in socio-economic terms, is still quite strong and is very determined to resist the social
revolution ... while Poland, Germany and Central Europe are in a situation much more dangerous " {1402} . However,
in its forecast Benes did not consider the possibility of "exporting revolution" on the bayonets of the Red Army that
much more would help overthrow "the yoke of capital," and, as we shall see, this is what made the basic rate and the
Soviet leadership.
A significant part of the report was devoted GUPP Soviet-German relations. "When you consider the totality of the
economic and strategic factors international position of the USSR, it is quite obvious that the most real danger for us
is that a capitalist country that has a large ground forces and the greatest length of the land border with the USSR.
Strong naval power is not so [439] dangerous for the USSR as a major land power. Neither blockade or landing can
not inflict a nasty blow USSR because the Soviet Union has huge spaces purse army, all the necessary types of
strategic raw materials, food and developed machine industry. most serious enemy of the USSR is the only major land
power . This country is currently Germany. [...] Recently, the situation became even more tense, that points of contact
between Germany and the USSR became much more than 2-3 years ago, " {1403} .
While Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact "would be deeply flawed illusions regarding this
pact and assume that the clash between the USSR and Germany, and it is impossible that the alleged German
National Socialists abandoned their anti-Soviet plans. [...] No covenants and agreements can not and must not relax
vigilance of Soviet citizens, to create the illusion of the eternity of our peaceful relations with the imperialist powers ...
The events of recent years have shown us with distinct clarity that any pact can be converted at any time by the

capitalist state in a piece of paper. must not forget for a moment that all of the capitalist countries - potential enemies
of the USSR.
Soviet foreign policy - is a class policy. Fighting between the two systems is a crucial point in our relations with all
capitalist countries without exception, This fight makes any and all covenants and agreements of the USSR with the
imperialist powers temporary, unstable. Or that the capitalist state, which for several reasons to conclude agreements
with the Soviet Union, does not abandon its anti-Soviet plans and their implementation will be postponed until the
most opportune moment. Development of our relations with Germany shows this quite clearly now.
Previously, the Soviet Union does not border with Germany, and now borders. From Narvik to the Black Sea, we
currently have only one neighbor, Germany. Previously, the USSR is separated from Germany, a number of small
"buffer" countries that are now or have completely disappeared from the political map of Europe as an independent
state, or we retain independence ghostly underwent German occupation. Over the last year in Germany, actually
breaking the Soviet-German point. arrange a consultation, without any consultation with us, has taken several
measures in the north-west and south-east, which could not affect the vital interests of the Soviet Union in those areas
of Europe. On the borders of the Lithuanian SSR, Germany concentrates in Poland [440] a large number of troops, of
course, not for peaceful purposes. In Finland, which recently came under significant economic and political
dependence on Germany, as German troops entered. In addition, most of Finland and in Sweden the Germans were
reinforced anti-Soviet propaganda.
For the purpose of planting spyware on our territory and subversive groups Germany is widely used against us the
hostile elements of the Polish, Ukrainian and Belorussian population of occupied Poland, Romania, the Moldovan
population, the Lithuanian population Suwalki region, and other nationalist groups emigration.
"Occasionally, especially in the provincial press, yet clearly placed the hostile article. In its oral agitation and
propaganda of the National Socialists remain fully brazen anti-Soviet tone. Population and the soldiers are taught that
friendship with the USSR - time that Germany must necessarily fight against the USSR .
In south-eastern Europe, the Balkans, Germany has recently taken measures contrary to the interests of the USSR ...
Germany, violating the contract clause of the consultations with the Soviet Union sent troops to Romania, Bulgaria and
ignited the flames of war in the Balkans. Capture Germany Balkans undoubtedly affects our vital interests ...
In a number of recent statements Commissariat about events in the Balkans, the Soviet government has clearly
demonstrated their keen interest in the resolution of questions of southeastern Europe and the Middle East ... all these
acts of the Soviet government actually condemned Germany's policies aimed to retract into the war of the Balkan
states, and gave unambiguously clear that Germany's actions are contrary to the policy of the USSR. Thus, the Soviet
government actually stated that it does not recognize the "new order" established the Axis powers in the Balkans, and
retains the freedom of action in this regard ...
Germany's policy in the Middle East, particularly in relation to Turkey, also runs counter to the interests of the USSR
State Security ... in the area of the Straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, - plays a huge role for us, because it
is the only way for the great Black Sea power, what are we . His keen interest in the safety of the Straits, the Soviet
government has once again demonstrated the latest statement to the Turkish government, "that" the Soviet Union
made it clear that will be discouraged fomenting war in the Middle East and retraction of Turkey into the war " {1404} .
The above material shows that the Soviet leadership in the spring of 1941 Germany considered the main enemy. The
version of the excessive reliance on force Stalin non-aggression pact, common in the national historiography {1405} is
not confirmed, as in Moscow knew that no matter what agreements can not be relied. Documents show once again
that the Soviet leadership knew about the concentration of German troops on the borders of the Soviet Union, but,
judging by the tone sheathe documents not feared imminent German attack. Enumeration of anti-Soviet actions of the
German leadership has not only propaganda value, but also shows the actual sites of the Soviet-German conflict. As
already noted, the war between Germany and the USSR was generated struggle for supremacy in Europe, as its

accelerated collision Soviet and German interests in the Balkans, in Finland and in the Middle East. While in 1939,
Berlin and Moscow were able to reconcile their territorial aspirations and by autumn 1940, mainly to implement those
agreements, since the end of 1940 the expansionist aspirations of Germany and the Soviet Union came into collision.
Settle them on the basis of a compromise failed, and demonstrated that the talks in Berlin in November 1940. {1406} A
compromise was complicated by the fact that the parties were no longer needed it, hoping to achieve their objectives
by military means, and since November 1940. Soviet-German relations have entered a new phase - the immediate
preparation for war.
"USSR live in a capitalist environment - wrote Shcherbakov. - The clash between the socialist world and the world of
capitalism is inevitable. Based on the inevitability of the collision - ours, the world's first socialist state is obliged every
day, worked hard and prepare for the decisive battles with the capitalist environment in order to get out of these fights
the winner and thus ensure the final victory of socialism. foreign policy of the Soviet Union has nothing to do with
"pacifism", with the desire for peace at any price " {1407} .
"The contradiction between the socialist world and the capitalist world is the sharpest contradiction of our epoch, noted in the report GUPP. - Soviet foreign policy proceeds from the unquestioned assumption that the clash between
the socialist world and the world of capitalism is inevitable. Main objective of Soviet foreign policy - its special funds
provide all the necessary prerequisites for the victorious decision on "who" on an international scale. We are not
indifferent to what conditions will the inevitable confrontation between the USSR and the capitalist encirclement. We
have a vested interest in ensuring that these conditions were most favorable for us. [442]
The main success of the Leninist-Stalinist foreign policy of peace is that due to it has already managed to postpone
the war between the imperialist countries and the Soviet Union, first, before our country socialism has triumphed ...
and secondly, before imperialist powers themselves at loggerheads with each other for world supremacy ... Thus
Leninist-Stalinist policy in the world successfully resolved the challenges it faces. But it would be wrong to regard our
peaceful policy as eternal and unchangeable. This is - a temporary policy that necessitate accumulate sufficient force
against capitalist encirclement. Now we have gained such strength and entered into a new, aggressive period of
Soviet foreign policy, which imposes on us big and important responsibilities ...
Not exclude the possibility that the Soviet Union would be forced, by virtue of the prevailing situation, take any
initiative to offensive military action ... In a modern, extremely tense international situation, the Soviet Union must be
prepared for any surprises and contingencies and keep their powder dry against each imperialist state, despite the
presence of covenants and agreements with the State. "When analyzing the immediate prospects of world capitalism
should proceed from the rise of" revolutionary crisis ", while clearly" looming Soviet role as an armed stronghold of
world socialist revolution ... This, of course, does not exclude that may be offensive action against the USSR individual
imperialist countries that threaten our security in a situation where there are no revolutionary situation in the capitalist
countries. But in this and in another case, the USSR could go on the offensive against the imperialist powers in the
cause of victorious socialism, performing the greatest mission entrusted by history on the world's first socialist state of
workers and peasants constantly threatening to destroy us capitalist encirclement " {1408} .
"Leninism teaches - Shcherbakov wrote - that socialist country, using the favorable international situation, and should
be obliged to take the initiative to offensive military action against the capitalist environment to enhance the front of
socialism. For the time of the USSR could not proceed to such actions because of military weakness. But now this
military weakness thing of the past. Relying on its military power, using a favorable environment - USSR liberated
Western Ukraine and Western Belarus, Bessarabia back, helped the working people of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia
to organize Soviet power " {1409} . [ 443]
"If, of course, attach Finland, the situation has been further improved in terms of strategy," - frankly said on May 20
Kalinin {1410} . "Thus, capitalism had to make room, and the front of socialism expanded. Extremely aggravated
international situation, the military threat to our country closer than ever. Under these conditions, Lenin's slogan" a
foreign land to defend their land "may at any time turn into action" - warned Shcherbakov {1411} .

As the documents show, "peace policy of the USSR" was interpreted in Moscow rather peculiar. "The Bolsheviks - not
pacifists, - noted in the Proceedings of speech Kalinina from May 20, 1941 - They have always been and remain
opposed to only unfair, predatory, imperialist wars. But they always were, are and will stand for a fair, revolutionary,
national- liberation war. While socialism wins worldwide, or at least in the principal capitalist countries, as long as they
are inevitable, and other wars. capitalist world is full of flagrant abominations, which can only be destroyed with a hot
iron holy war.
Revel in the world can not be unconsciously - it leads to the transformation of people into pacifists vulgar ... If we really
want peace - and unsteady, not short, not as a moment of war, and a durable and reliable - then we must go all out to
prepare for war. We do not have to prepare for such a war, which is now - because it's not a war, but spillikins - and for
such a war in which the capitalists will not stop short of any, the most diabolical means to fight for their existence. To
imagine at least a rough idea of this war, it is enough to recall, for example, the war with Finland. Here's to what we
should prepare for war, " {1412} .
Such ideas resonate with a note addressed to Zhdanov plows from February 22, 1941, containing "some thoughts on
war propaganda among the population", which is clearly defined, "that our Party and the Soviet government are not
fighting for the sake of world peace, and connect the slogan of peace with the interests of socialism, with the task of
protecting state interests of the USSR " {1413} .
All this once again confirms the fact that the so-called "peace-loving foreign policy of the USSR" was nothing more
than a propaganda campaign under the guise of which the Soviet leadership sought to provide the most favorable
conditions for the "smashing capitalism" by military means. These conditions, according to the documents quoted,
was to create a military-industrial complex capable of [444] provide the offensive of the Red Army, and in the event of
war between the other great powers. In these conditions it was possible under the guise of slogans about the "peaceloving Soviet Union" start "export of revolution" in Europe, the first step of which was the Soviet Union's aggression
against its neighbors to the west and the annexation of territories in Eastern Europe in 1939-1940. Only because of
the difficult international climate Moscow failed to seize Finland, which was seen as a strategic base for operations in
Scandinavia and the Baltic.
It is interesting to note that the issue of a new expansion "front socialism" got it in May-June 1941, stated on May 15
Zhdanov meeting filmmakers in the CPSU (b), "if the circumstances allow us, we will continue to expand the front
socialism " {1414} . "If you are Marxists - Kalinin said in a speech on May 20 - if you study the history of the party, then
you must understand that this is the basic idea of the Marxist doctrine - with a huge conflict within humanity to gain
maximum benefit for Communism" {1415} . June 5, he formulated the idea more succinctly: "for the war a time when
you can extend communism" {1416} . Speaking at the Supreme Military Council during the discussion guidelines
GUPP June 4, 1941, Zhdanov said that "we are stronger, we can put more active tasks. War with Poland and Finland
were not defensive wars. We have already embarked on aggressive policy" { 1417} . However, in 1941, to expand the
"front of socialism" further to the West could only crush Germany, which, according to the Soviet leadership, was the
main opponent of the USSR and was his only western neighbor. For this purpose, was ready enough serious tool - the
Red Army, which in the autumn of 1939. was awarded the epithet "the army of liberation," {1418} .
"A wise foreign policy of the Party and the Soviet government provided the peoples of the USSR has been for 20
years the peaceful labor - wrote Shcherbakov. - On this basis, our country has made further steady growth in the
political, economic and military power ... The Red Army, widely used to achieve domestic and international militarytechnical thoughts reinvented organizational and seriously rearmed based on the experience of modern warfare "
{1419} . "She has a powerful artillery, tanks and powerful high-speed aircraft in an amount exceeding any capitalist
army, - noted in the report GUPP. - Perestroika in the teaching methods of all arms, as close to a combat situation,
significantly raised the combat capability of the Red Army. Significantly improved and [445] military discipline. Red
Army as strong as its political and moral state, his devotion to the motherland, his willingness to spare their strength
and life in the name of communism, " {1420} .
Red Army really was a summer 1941 giant military instrument, which gave the Soviet leadership confidence in strike

against Germany. As already noted, in 1939-1941. had done enormous work on the improvement of the Soviet armed
forces. Accordingly, increased military spending and direct the growth of which in 1938 1940ies. almost 2 times higher
than the overall growth in spending {1421} . In the years following happened redistribution of budget expenditure: in
1938 on the national economy (including industry) consumed 41.7% (19%) and defense 18.7%, in 1939. these figures
were 39.4% (20.3%) and 25.6% and in 1940 - 33.4% (16.4%) and 32.6% {1422} . If we consider the total expenditure
on the armed forces, the NKVD, the military-industrial commissariats, General Directorate of State Material Reserves,
General Administration of Civil Aviation and other paramilitary organizations, the overall share of military spending in
1940. reaches 52% of budget expenditures, or 24.6% of national income {1423} . In 1940. the war effort was
expended 26% of industrial production (for example, in the U.S., the figure was 10.8%, and in Germany in 1939. - the
first war year-23%) {1424} .
Annual growth of military production in 1938 1940ies. was 39%, three times (!) surpassing the growth of all industrial
production {1425} . Accordingly, the share of military production in the gross industrial production (in prices of
1926/27's.) Increased from 8.7% in 1937 to 18.7% in 1940 and to 22.5% in the first half of 1941 {1426 } After XVIII
Party Conference (15 - 20 February 1941) in the defense industry were translated into wartime mode {1427} . In the
first half of 1941, the Soviet industry produced 100% and 87% of tanks combat new types of aircraft, completing the
transition to production of only these samples {1428} . Total for 1939 - the first half of 1941 troops received from
industry 92,492 guns and mortars, 7,448 tanks and warplanes 19458 {1429} . Ammunition production only in the first
half of 1941 increased by 66.4%, and accepted June 6 mobilization plan for the second half of 1941 and 1942
provides for its further growth and military industrial restructuring "in case of war" {1430} . Soviet armed forces, the
growth of which is shown in Table 40, the army really surpassed any other country in the number of military
equipment. [446]
Table 40. Development of the Armed Forces of the USSR in 1939-1941. {1431}
On 01/01/39

On 22/06/41

% To 1939.

Personnel (thousand).




Division estimates




Guns and mortars (in thousands) 55.8



Tanks (thousand)




Combat aircraft (in thousands)




However, the Soviet government exaggerated the combat capability of the Red Army. However, available in the
national historiography {1432} allegations of alleged low combat capability of the Red Army in 1941 seem to be
insufficiently substantiated. This conclusion is based on the failings of the Great Patriotic War, but it ignores the fact
that the Soviet troops had to fight a defensive battle, to which they were not prepared for that, naturally, could not
affect the results. In addition, the troops did not have time to complete the concentration and deployment, to mobilize
and were captured by the German surprise attack, which also had a negative impact on their performance {1433} . In
our opinion, the question of real combat capability of the Red Army on the eve of the war still awaits the researcher.
"The entire staff of the Red Army - noted in the draft directive GUPP - should feel the knowledge that increased
political, economic and military power of the Soviet Union which allows us to carry out an aggressive foreign policy,
resolutely eliminating hotbeds of war on its borders, expanding its territory. This offensive policy has resulted in the
liberation of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus, the Baltic states, Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, in defeating
the White Finnish adventure. Soviet Union is now stronger than ever, and tomorrow will be even stronger. Red Army
and the Soviet people, defending our country, obliged to act offensive a way to pass from the defense, when
circumstances require, to the military policy of offensive action " {1434} . According to the report GUPP, "the present
international situation is extremely tense. War itself came to the borders of our country. Every day and hour perhaps

imperialists attack on the Soviet Union, we must be prepared to prevent their offensive operations. [...] Experience of
the war action showed that the defensive strategy against the superior motorized units (Germany - MM) did not give
any success and ended in defeat. Consequently, against Germany to apply the same offensive strategy, backed
by a powerful technique (emphasis mine. - MM) [447]
Task of all the Red Army command staff - to study the experience of modern warfare and use it. in the preparation of
our soldiers. All study of all arms of the Red Army should be soaked offensive spirit. "
"The German army has not faced the enemy equivalent, equal to her as to the number of troops, and their technical
equipment and combat training. Meanwhile, such a clash is not far off. "Interestingly, Alexander made to the proposal
the following note:" A sort of wording can not be permitted. This would mean a bluff enemy " {1435} .
Similar considerations in policy documents of the CPSU (b) together with data on. immediate military preparations to
attack the Red Army unequivocally indicate the intention of the Soviet leadership to make summer 1941 attack on
Germany. Such ideas, of course, had to be kept in strict confidence, and this explains the above note Chief of
Propaganda of the Central Committee. In this context, clear sharply negative reaction of the CPSU (b) for publication
May 21, 1941 in "Komsomolskaya Pravda" article Regimental Commissar I. Bakanova "The doctrine of Lenin and
Stalin on the war," attracted the attention of the British press. In her somewhat milder form set out some ideas above
documents - struggle with pacifism, preparing young people for sluzhbe'v army, strengthening the defense power and
combat offensive spirit of the Soviet people, the constant preparation for war, because only the destruction of
capitalism will lead to a world without wars but until that happens, the Bolsheviks favor progressive, just wars {1436} .
The ruling Politburo devoted to this publication, the need for tighter control of the Office of Propaganda for articles on
foreign policy topics, and directly responsible of its appearance in the newspaper were removed from work {1437} .
The only thing that was allowed in the press, were vague hints of "Truth" to the possibility of "any surprises" in the
international situation , {1438} . Simultaneously planned series of publications in the anti spirit in all major publications
{1439} . Regime of strict masking even extends to the Comintern, which was refused publication appeals to May 1,
1941 with a detailed analysis of the international situation as it "could open our cards to the enemy" {1440} . Generally
in April-June 1941, the Soviet leadership led a cautious foreign policy so that it gave a number of authors a reason to
talk about the policy of appeasement of Germany {1441} . However, materials known to date do not support this
version. [448]
"Due to the tense situation prevailing in the West to the Soviet Union, - noted in the guppy - enormous importance to
the prisoner by the Soviet government neutrality pact with Japan. This pact temporarily prevent confrontation between
the USSR and Japan, and to a certain extent guaranteeing our Far Eastern borders is a new victory of Stalin's foreign
policy wise. pacts from Japan is undoubtedly an attempt to secure its northern borders in order to hit with more power
in the south, apparently in the direction of British Malaya, Singapore, the Philippines, etc. [.. .] At this point in history
the interests of the USSR and Japan regarding the preservation of the world on their joint borders coincided, however,
on different, diametrically opposite reasons. USSR does not intend to intervene in a fight with the U.S. and Japan,
Japan promised to observe strict neutrality. In turn, Japan renounces from the anti-Soviet adventures on our borders.
Covenant is the basis of Japan and the Soviet Union at this stage, " {1442} .
Score Moscow Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact on April 13, 1941 shows that the Soviet leadership was familiar with
the situation in the Far East and Japan knew about the preparations for war with Britain and the United States. Japan
was interested in the neutrality of the USSR during the war in the Pacific {1443} . The Soviet Union, in turn, was
interested in diverting attention from England and the U.S. and European problems in Japan's neutrality during the
defeat of Germany and the "liberation" of European capitalism. Thus, the interests of Japan and the USSR really
match, but not "diametrically opposite", and for the same reasons: the Soviet-Japanese treaty was supposed to play
for the Far East, the same role that Europe has played for the Soviet-German non-aggression pact, and most
importantly - he was supposed to provide the Soviet leadership a free hand in Europe.
Concurrent with the development of these guidelines the purposeful reorientation of Soviet propaganda on the

education of the population in the spirit of "destructional offensive war", a serious ideological confrontation with
Germany and its allies. Painting these preparations detailed in the study, VA Nevezhina {1444} . Most importantly, this
activity is not limited to classrooms executives promotional agencies, and affected the propaganda that was fought in
the army and among the population.
Restructuring propaganda in the army with the task of "educate personnel in offensive and belligerent spirit, in the
spirit of the Soviet Union inevitable clash with the capitalist world and the constant readiness to move in a crushing
offensive" launched in accordance with the decision of the Chief Military [449] Council of 14 May 1941 The next day
the troops were sent directive "On political activities with the Red Army and junior commanders of the Red Army for the
summer of 1941", which stated that "on the just and unjust wars is sometimes given this interpretation: if the country
first attacked another and leads offensive war, this war is considered unjust, and vice versa, if the country was
attacked and only defending itself, such a war ostensibly should be considered fair. From this it is concluded that the
Red Army will conduct only defensive war, forgetting the truth that every war, which will lead the Soviet Union, a just
war " {1445} . Since the second half of May 1941 in the Army began a demonstration of anti-fascist films made with
rolled autumn 1939 {1446} . songs were written about the war with the Nazis, which began with the advance of the
Red Army {1447} .
To maintain the offensive spirit of combat commanders of the Red Army in May 1941 (signed print May 5) was
reprinted booklet MV Frunze "Unified Military Doctrine and the Red Army", the contents of which resonated with the
above documents. Analyzing the doctrine of Germany, France and England in 1914, the author concludes that the
military doctrine of any state "depends on the nature of the general political line of the social class, which is in charge
of it" and must comply "with the overall objectives of the state and that the material and spiritual resources which are
at his disposal. " Since the main objective is to build a Soviet communism throughout the world, it is necessary to
crush the hostile capitalist encirclement, and therefore to be stubborn and uncompromising struggle. "And we need to
understand and quite openly admit - Frunze wrote - that joint parallel existence of our proletarian Soviet state with the
states of the bourgeois-capitalist world for a long time ... It's impossible contradiction can be resolved and only outlived
by force of arms in the bloody battle of class enemies. no other way out and can not be. " For this it is necessary to
strengthen the Soviet military might, given that "by the course of the historical process of the revolutionary working
class will be forced to go on the offensive on the capital, when these will develop a favorable environment ... Hence
the need to educate our army in the spirit of the greatest activity, preparing it to completion of the tasks of the
revolution by energetic resolutely and courageously carried out offensive operations " {1448} .
At the end of May - beginning of June 1941 was published in great quantities and sent troops to the western border
districts "Russian-German phrase for a soldier and junior commander", the content of which was to help Soviet
soldiers [450] act of the German-speaking population and thus facilitating "liberation mission" {1449} . According to the
memoirs of a member of the Military Council and the Army 16-AA Lobacheva, is June 10-14, 1941 in Moscow, "at the
Military Political Academy Lenin just finished special courses military council member and chief of political department.
Here I met a lot of old friends and comrades. Most of them considered a military conflict inevitable fight is inevitable.
Head of political propaganda AI Zaporozhec invited to interview a group of senior political officers. He said that,
apparently, will have to work in a new environment, introduced with the directive on the strengthening of political
propaganda in the army and in particular the need to expose the reactionary nature of fascism. " Commander of the
16th Army, Lieutenant General MF Lukin ^ believed that the war is about to begin " {1450} .
Naturally, all this gave rise to rumors of the impending war with Germany, which were committed by "competent
authorities" in mid-May 1941 with 3-NGO Management (Special departments) repeatedly informed the Head of Crime
Prevention and other interested instance of "unhealthy political attitudes and anti-Soviet statements "within the
population of the western region and the Red Army soldiers. Thus, during the concentration of the 75th Infantry
Division WSMD to the border on May 12-13, the following statements were recorded. Krasnoarmeets Radinkov during
the march said: "We are at war and we do not say anything." Lieutenant Dashkevich said about refutation TASS 9 May
that "the Soviet government is cheating and denies the reality." According to Lieutenant Kondakova, "end if second
imperialist war, the Soviet Union would end" {1451} . May 15 th Red Army 337 separate anti-aircraft artillery battalion

arhve Zyuzin believed that "if now there is no war between the USSR and Germany, Great Britain, it is because the
Soviet Union is not ready for war, and if it is ready, we will announce you fools , come to liberate the brothers of
England and Germany, and you are all fools go " {1452} .
May 20, 1941 3rd NPO Management report on the mood of the troops KOVO. Among civilian personnel following
rumors circulated pieces. "Arrival of Soviet generals in Rivne speaks for the fact that Russia will soon be at war with
Germany ... Once the Soviet troops started doing radio and conspiring to them, it will soon be a war between Russia
and Germany" (chef military hospital Sorokin). "Soviet troops knocked into hard Rivne obviously preparing war with
Germany" (a former employee of the military hospital Visht). "In Rivne arrived many generals of the Red Army, soon
there will be war with [451] Germany "(electrician Becker). "... It is worth the headquarters, many generals, colonels,
all are preparing for war" (master of urban battery workshop Horn). "The war against Germany will be required.
Currently in the USSR are mobilizing. Exactly sent from a large batch of youth of premilitary age. Moreover, from the
Soviet Far East (DCK) is thrown to the West many troops ... It is now clear that there was a Japanese newspaper
entirely untrue "(dental technician Toshman military hospital).
Similar statements allowed themselves and the military. "Higher commanders came not just for exercise, but for the
outbreak of war with Germany" (cadet courses junior commanders Zhukov). "In exactly came many generals and
political workers, so soon there will be war" (Paramedic conscripts Surikov). "We were 60 people came and generals
as if they were all on the game. Well, what could be the game when everyone is talking about as we sow and go fight
the Germans. Though the government is engaged in deceptive denials, but most need to understand that there will be
war. I Today he received the completion of DVK "(doctor / u Janitorial 2811). "Rebuttal TASS untrue. Parts come from
CAAC, the high command gathers and presumably soon be a war" (soldiers in / h Voronkov 2906). "In the long-term
vacation leave now do not have to, since you have to carefully prepare for a war that will be with Germany, and must
be carefully prepared, for Germany, it's not Poland" (clerk of the 2nd Battalion / h Shabanov 2806) {1453} .
May 25, 1941 3rd NPO Management reported new facts. "Now, the international situation is fraught with all sorts of
surprises. Check generals Exactly this is not an accidental phenomenon ... The transfer of troops from the CAAC, and
transfer of German troops in Finland, where there already has 60 thousand - Issue commanders of schools and
academies of the General Staff is also not accident. orders ensure there soon fighter full equipment "(in politruk / h
Trofimov 2806). "The Soviet Union conducts intensive training for war with Germany, so the generals and came in
exactly '(sergeant in / h 2806Amel-kin). "It is said that generals gathered for teaching, but we do not believe it is
because so many higher command personnel gather in front Proskurov attack on Poland" (Lt. / h Tsaberyaby 2811).
"Lately, something smells bad.'s Body was brought to the headquarters train nurses, it's not casual" (Petty 6th battery /
h Polishchuk 2806). "In exactly a lot of cars. Telephone wire, a lot of pilots arrived, the war with Germany was
inevitable" (a local Litovchenko). "That would be a war - it's a fact. USSR But why so long in coming to Germany" (a
local Long) {1454} . [452]
Naturally, the Soviet leadership tried every possible way to suppress such rumors, and it is possible that their spread
has led to the fact that the June 14, 1941 was published the famous statement TASS, and anti-fascist propaganda in
the army was somewhat muted, but not collapsed. As a result, even after June 22, 1941 continued circulation of
rumors that the instigator of the war was the Soviet Union. Similar statements were recorded in the first days of the
war. Recalls A.F.Rar, June 23, 1941 in Khabarovsk, learning about the beginning of the war, his mother and her friend
(both teachers) suggested: "Yes, it's probably we went to war themselves and bombed our cities" {1455} . The same
thoughts June 23, 1941 in Moscow, someone suggested Spunde (former SR): "The war with Germany started ours.
This war started by our government to divert attention from the masses of discontent that swept the people - we the
existing dictatorship " {1456} .
However, much more significant that similar sentiments have taken place among the military. Thus, the listener
military Veterinary Academy Potapov, listening on the radio speech Molotov said that "this is probably a provocation on
our part forced the Germans to go to war the USSR." Teacher Academy Breusenko said that "the war started not they
(the Germans), and we" {1457} . According to the listener Quartermaster Academy lieutenant Prokofiev, "most likely
not start the war in Germany, and the Soviet Union. Romania We started flailing and fighting broke out of here already.

I do not know how it could break the Germans in the Soviet Union, it sabotage or something else " {1458} . Chief of the
3rd Division of the Office of clothing allowances Main Quartermaster Directorate of the Red Army Paleev believed that
"the acceleration caused by the war with Germany our provocative actions, that is, the concentration of troops on the
Western border, and most importantly performance Comrade. Stalin to release academics, where he stated that
Soviet entry into the war - there is a matter of choosing the moment. Additionally, all reports on international issues,
particularly closed, also said that the war with Germany was inevitable, so it would be strange to expect from Germany
our concentration. Admittedly, the Germans shot at us, from their perspective, was the only right decision under the
circumstances, " {1459} . Assistant Chief of the Military-Political Academy for Logistics, Major General Peter says that
"war did not begin at 4 am on June 22, but before that, what he knew from talking to some relative Vadim, who knew
that the Soviet Union started the war before June 22, 1941 " {1460}
As you know, under German attack Soviet propaganda had to be reconstructed again, this time on the [453] providing
a defensive war, and fight with the above rumors.
The above data show that the Soviet leadership by joining the struggle for the achievement of the Soviet Union the
status of a "great power", considered the second world war as an opportunity to solve this problem. This explains
Moscow's policy in the summer of 1939, when, making sure that Britain and France were not willing to make
concessions to the Soviet Union, the Soviet leadership went into an agreement with Germany. Thus escaped Soviet
participation in the European war and had the opportunity to join the new territories in Eastern Europe. But it was only
an intermediate objective, the main goal is to expand CSCP "front socialism" to the maximum possible area.
According to the Soviet leadership, the situation favored the implementation of this task. Germans occupied most of
the continent, protracted, futile war, the growing discontent of the population of the occupied countries, spraying the
Wehrmacht on different fronts, near the Sino-American conflict - all this gave the Soviet leadership a unique chance to
sudden blow to crush Germany and "liberate" Europe from "decaying capitalism . " In anticipation of the impact of
Soviet propaganda was ordered to smoothly bring public opinion to believe that the current international situation
pushes "the world's first socialist state" to inflict a crushing blow to the "bastion of the most reactionary bourgeoisie" Germany, which will not only protect the Soviet Union, but dramatically affect the fate of capitalism in general. [454]