militera.lib.

ru

http://militera.lib.ru/research/meltyukhov/11.html

Rating Soviet leadership of the Second World War in 1939-1941.
To study the problems of the Great Patriotic War history is important to the question of how the Soviet leadership
evaluated the events of the Second World War in 1939 - 1941 gg., Without which it is impossible to understand
solutions Soviet policy of this period. Unfortunately, the documentary sources, which would give a straight answer to
this question, to very small, but we are interested in information can be gleaned from Soviet propaganda materials,
which were prepared under the supervision of IV Stalin and his entourage. As the initiative definition of "general line"
of. promotion came "from above", minimizing the mid-level functionaries initiative, these materials provide albeit
indirect, but quite the right idea about the mood in the Kremlin. Since any propaganda is to prepare public opinion for
certain events, content-Soviet propaganda in conjunction with other materials reflecting the views of the Soviet
leadership on the international situation at the turn of 30-40-ies. and national and state interests of the USSR in this
situation allows confident enough to talk about what it is trained in Moscow.
In Soviet historiography inspired by Soviet propaganda prevalent view that Moscow's foreign policy determined solely
by ideological dogmas. Not by chance in recent years in the literature debated the question of Stalin's commitment to
the idea of "world revolution." So, M. Nikolaev and VE Molodyakov believe that Stalin did not follow this idea, citing as
proof of his thesis opinion LD Trotsky's fear of Stalin's war and revolution {1331} . More advanced version of the
original AD Orlov claims that Stalin guided ideas panslavism {1332} . DA Volkogonov the contrary, believes that the
strategic goal of the Soviet leadership was "the world proletarian revolution", and thought Stalin was Kominternovsky
{1333} . This [416] same opinion is shared by JN Afanasyev, believing that the purpose of the war, the Soviet
leadership saw the plantation of "communism" in Europe {1334} .
Unfortunately, chattering hand spared the question of what the "world revolution" and why this idea prevailed in Soviet
propaganda 20-40-ies. As you know, the idea of "world revolution" was an important part of the Marxist conception of
the revolutionary transition from capitalism to socialism in the most developed countries and developed in the second
half of XIX century. At the beginning of XX century. ideological evolution of European social democracy has led to the
formulation of the concept, is considered the most important goal of the emergence of the socialist revolution in
Germany, which was regarded as the most developed European countries, which had the largest social-democratic
party. Prospects of the revolution in Russia because of its backwardness without the support of Europe were
considered too bleak, but if it still happens, the only guarantee of retaining power in revolutionary Russia presented a
revolution in Germany. However, after October 1917. Russian Social-Democrats (Bolsheviks) faced with a choice. Or
should, in spite of everything, to promote a revolution in Germany, that in case of failure could lead to loss of power in
Russia or had to first hold power in Russia, but then had to maneuver between the leading WWI countries. After some
intraparty debate VI Lenin made a choice in favor of the second option {1335} .
However, the idea of "world revolution" in Europe has not been abandoned, and in 1919-1923 gg. it repeatedly tried to
carry through the Comintern. However, these attempts have failed, and have since 1920. begins a new transformation
of the idea of "world revolution." September 22, 1920 at the IX Party Conference of the RCP (b) Lenin, by reviewing
the current international situation, stated that the main enemy is the Treaty of Versailles and "our basic policy remains
the same. We take every opportunity to move from defense to offense. We already tore The Treaty of Versailles and
its doorways at the first opportunity. " Of course, in the current international environment "must confine defensive
stance towards the Entente, but, despite the complete failure of the first case, our first defeat (in Poland. - MM), we
once again and once again move from defense policy to offensive, as we all do not divide until the end. " Considering
the Russian Revolution from the point of view of the international communist movement, Lenin stated that "... we do go
on an international scale from semi-revolution, from unsuccessful forays to ensure that there was a miscalculation,
and we will be on this, learn offensive war" in 1336 { } . [417]
Three months later, on December 23, 1920., At the VIII All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Lenin, has been denounced

by the delegates to the idea that "we should wage war only defensive", said that if in a hostile imperialist encirclement
Soviet leadership would be "to swear that we will never get down to the known actions that military-strategic terms
may be offensive, we would be not only foolish, but criminals" {1337} . Thereby laid the foundation for the formation of
ideas about long-term coexistence of "capitalism" and "socialism" and the concept of building "socialism in one
country", which will be the basis for future "world revolution."
January 26, 1924. the first meeting of II All-Union Congress of Soviets, dedicated to the memory of Lenin, Stalin
sounded famous oath, which combines the idea of "world revolution" and "socialism in one country." "Departing from
us, Comrade Lenin adjured us to consolidate and extend the Union republics. Vow to you, Comrade Lenin, that we will
fulfill with honor and your behest!" - Said the general secretary of the CPSU (b). The USSR "has deep sympathy and
unfailing support in the hearts of the workers and peasants of the world", as it gives them "the linchpin of their hopes
of deliverance from oppression and exploitation, as a true beacon pointing them to the path of liberation." But "Lenin
never looked at the Republic of Soviets as an end in itself. He always regarded it as an essential link for strengthening
the revolutionary movement in Western and Eastern countries as an essential link for facilitating the victory of workers
throughout the world over the capital. Lenin knew that only such an understanding is help not only in terms of
international, but also in terms of maintaining most of the Soviet Republic. Lenin knew that the only way to ignite the
hearts of workers around the world to decisive battles for the liberation ... Departing from us, Comrade Lenin adjured
us to remain faithful to the principles of the Communist International. vow to you, Comrade Lenin, that we will not
spare his life in order to strengthen and expand the Union of Workers of the world - the Communist International! "
{1338} .
Later in the work of Stalin was quite logically explained that the complete victory of socialism in the USSR may not be
final until there is a capitalist environment, January 19, 1925, speech at the plenum of the Central Committee of the
CPSU (b), Stalin, concluding the inevitability of future new war, which "can not but aggravate the crisis of internal
revolutionary," said that "in this context can not stand before us a question about our intervention in these cases."
However, although the revolutionary movement in the West is strong and can lead to a revolution in some countries,
"but to keep them without our help scarcely [418] succeed. " In the case of the outbreak of war and the rise of the
revolutionary movement, "our intervention, not necessarily active say, do not say necessarily directly, it may be
absolutely necessary. This is hope. To victory could be won by us in this situation. This does not mean that we should
have to go on active action against someone. " However, "if the war starts, we will, of course, to speak last, latest, in
order to throw the weight on the pan, the weight, which could outweigh the" {1339} .
But first needed to create a powerful military and economic base that would be a solid foundation for the war against
"capitalist encirclement." Therefore, speaking with the report of the Central Committee at the XV Congress of the
CPSU (b) December 3, 1927, Stalin, analyzing the international situation and concluded that the growing threat of
war, and set the task - "to take into account the contradictions within the imperialist camp, delay the war," pay off "
capitalists, and take all measures to maintain peaceful relations. We can not forget Lenin's statement that it is very
much in our construction depends on whether we can delay the war with the capitalist world, which is inevitable, but
which can be postponed or before time as not ripen proletarian revolution in Europe, or until until fully matured colonial
revolution, or, finally, to the moment when the capitalists do not start fighting among themselves over the division of
colonies " {1340} .
This task required further maneuvering between the great powers, in order to prevent their possible consolidation on
the basis of anti-Soviet and use them to upgrade the technical capabilities of the Soviet economy. Active anticommunist and anti-Soviet propaganda of the new National Socialist government of Germany and the fears that Berlin
"will continue to converge with Western countries, demanded clarification tactics of Soviet diplomacy, and in
December 1933, Moscow has supported the French idea of collective security in Europe. Then and Now many see
this as a step USSR desire for rapprochement with the West against Germany. However, it was still the same policy
maneuvering, applied under the new conditions. Already 26 January 1934. XV11 in the Report of the Congress of the
CPSU (b) Stalin explained that "we orientation was not on Germany, as well as we do not focus on Poland and
France. We have focused in the past and in the present focus on the USSR and the USSR alone. And if the Soviet

In addition. They are not against the offensive. According to the memoirs NS Khrushchev. considering the Second World War as a unique opportunity to implement the ideas of "world revolution. late XIX-early XX centuries.A. or "struggle for democracy" in the modern United States. the idea of "world revolution" was supplemented by the idea of the struggle for "socialism . All States masked " {1344} . some authors believe that in 1921 1924gg. As a rule. As has been shown. The task of returning to the club of great powers is the hardest of all international problems of any state because it requires him to be stronger than those who would be subject to seizure. for example. in the degree of activity would be on the level of a Norway or Argentina. developed and well-armed militaryindustrial complex of the Red Army. the idea of "world revolution" is on a par with such. it is important to note that the idea of "world revolution" transformed from abstract hopes for revolution [420] in expanding the boundaries of the slogan of "socialism". then the state would be the abandonment of the struggle for the status of a "great power"." In this regard. as always and everywhere. Betting on an accelerated military-economic development of the USSR.Union's interests require convergence with certain countries that are not interested in disturbing the peace. rather than the abandonment of the idea of "world revolution. because "in our time with the weak is not accepted considered . the Soviet leadership was forced to establish economic ties with the West. and to the early 30-ies. equality and fraternity" at the turn XV11I-X1X centuries. the veil. any arguments about the abandonment of the idea of "world revolution" based on a misunderstanding of the elementary laws of development of international relations. Stalin "was now persistently seek to establish relations with its immediate neighbors and the West.considered a strong " {1341} . In this case. "because they are interested in expanding the business [419] ties for the development of the economic base.this veil. but it was just the opposite. ie the expansion of Soviet influence in the world arena. Somehow. Therefore. not against every war. ideas like "culture of protection against the barbarians" in ancient Rome. in this case. themselves begin to attack. and began to take seriously any official statements of Moscow. Or Moscow had to agree with her secondary status of a regional power on the world stage with a further weakening of Soviet influence. if the situation is right. "open doors" in the U. and used the idea of "world revolution" to substantiate their claims of these. if conditions are favorable. Naturally. Soviet leadership refused his revolutionary ambitions in the international arena. who led from behind . not wanting to take a hard look at its real action. "struggle for living space" in Germany 3040-ies. And in this case. especially in the XX. the "white man's burden" in the era of colonial expansion of European countries. Now.. pushing the revolutionary activity by the wayside. Not accidentally October 1." This is an important propaganda addition was necessary for the moral justification of any action of the USSR on the world stage and fits into the characteristic.S. The desire to hide the real policy for moral felicitous screen. Now. in France. it is not possible due to limited resources.a bright future for all mankind. And in this case. "creation of a Greater East Asia "Japan 30-40-ies. we adopt this course without hesitation. trying to achieve the most advantageous agreement {1345} ." {1342} . that this problem is solved by Soviet diplomacy in the 20-30s. Under these conditions. it is difficult not to agree with AN L. whose leadership has appeared before the next election. Like other great powers leadership. "liberty. which can only be achieved by subjecting any part of the world. the ideological dogma of "world revolution" is closely linked with national and state interests of the Soviet Union. reduction of "revolutionary activity" was associated only with diplomatic tactics. the researchers forgot widely known truth that real policy and providing its propaganda is not the same. so that this situation is actively used diplomacy to divide potential adversaries. the Soviet leadership has gone the way of any country aiming to become a "great power"." Especially now that the USSR had a strong autarkic economies.Mertsalovyh and who believe that Stalin was thinking ultimately usual imperial. propaganda talked about global problems. or the Soviet Union would join the fight for a return to the club of "great powers" Having opted for the second alternative. 1938 at a meeting in Moscow and Leningrad propagandists Stalin explained that "there are times when the Bolsheviks themselves will attack if a just war. and their potential allies. In the context of the political crisis in 1939 Moscow maneuvered between the British and French allies and Germany. whatever it was covered by {1343} . the Soviet leadership was very active on the international scene and sought to achieve their own goals. What we scream about the defense . and even better to help them enter into open conflict with each other. if the Soviet foreign policy during the 20-40s. which naturally required a certain amount of masking their intentions.

Now we take the initiative. it's hard. 1941 this idea in a slightly different formulation of the hit and Vishnevsky diary: "We use the old method of" divide and conquer. Guessing how the rest of the game. Then the German bourgeoisie to agree with your enemy. frustrating. frankly stated that "there is a game. knowing that "Hitler wants to deceive us. Attract a number of countries. the writer September 1.Molotov said to his companion. something we pay for it. In this war. someone who outwit and deceive". Next time . Gradually... we will come with fresh forces. rotten. where force. it's time for the USSR external world performances . in order to suppress the combined efforts of the insurgent proletariat. etc. we will try to keep to the end of their winning positions . and stepping. "broker". at a minimum not to disturb the imperialists to wage war for another year or two . just overreaching. etc. who had the opportunity to receive reliable. Britain and France declared war on Germany. undermining the British empire. It is clear that such ideas are not publicized by the Soviet leadership. but just enough to keep her from making suggestions about the world as long as the hungry masses of the belligerent nations not part with illusions and not rise up against their leaders. do not back down.. Hitler outsmarted by signing" {1346} ." Wisniewski said that "this is the most likely option . We carry trade relations with different countries. " {1350} . although not involved in the development of major military and political decisions. Then . but whatever the official praises about the "friendship" with Germany in public opinion prevailed belief that everything was done for tactical reasons. . well prepared.push the other side " {1348} .. preparation for war. because of their political duties and functions knowledgeable about the mood of "top". in an interview with Stalin leadership of the Comintern September 7. But one thing is clear: the world will once again redraw. will the decisive battle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Hitler himself did not understand and did not want to. " {1351} ." {1349} .Kreve-Mickevicius on the night of July 3. nonaggression pact.the scenes actions of Stalin. antifascist campaign was curtailed.) for the redivision of the world for domination world We do not mind that they fought hard and weakened each other. broad and diverse information about the activities of the Soviet leadership.stand as an umpire. "Now . use their technique and gain something useful for the Army and Navy.... Today we support Germany. USSR began active global foreign policy. the Soviet Union. Average if Germany is shaken hands position of the richest capitalist countries (especially England). "We're out of the war.. Assessing the outbreak of war in Europe. and in Western Europe .it's clear. where affection. But figured that we. we get a lot. " {1347} . the bourgeoisie allied States. Army Commissar 1st rank LZ Mehlis meeting with writers said that "Germany is doing useful work in general. 1940 in Moscow. and November 10. September 1. The media began pedaling theme of improving Soviet-German relations. " Passing the common sentiment: "We are in a year will beat Hitler. which decides the fate of all of Europe. to some extent helps to Germany.. Germany invaded Poland on September 3.. etc. Destruction it will lead to the total collapse of capitalism .. This statement is not Stalin remained secret. [421 ] Interesting assessment of the events of 1939-1941. while . Similar ideas were expressed in a conversation Chairman CH K and People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Molotov with Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania V. every effort was made to convince the public opinion both at home and abroad. We can maneuver to push one side against the other. 1939 shall record in his diary: "The USSR won hands-free.. Diplomacy Berlin is clear: they want our neutrality and then reprisals against the USSR. that the USSR is neutral in the war broke out in Europe. Wait till the weakening them. to better torn down. 1939 stated that "the war is between the two groups of capitalist countries (rich and poor against the colonies. but nevertheless. Soviet diplomacy in the summer of 1939. Assessing the Soviet-German non-aggression pact. on the contrary. But at this point we will come to him for help. contained in become available only recently researchers diary writer VV Vishnevsky. we want them bogged down in a war and then deal with them. assuring us. This is a new chapter in the history of the party and the country. 1939 Chief of the Political Administration of the Red Army. [422] that the Second World War will allow us to gain power in Europe as World War I allowed to take power in Russia. fueling its "portions". So the fall of 1939 for the characteristic of the Soviet propaganda of the second half of 30-ies. raw materials.we are convinced more than ever else that genius Lenin was not mistaken. February 10. This was facilitated by the fact that both Soviet propaganda to explain the non-aggression pact had to treat it as a kind . for helping to lead the war the same in Germany. undermining the capitalist system .

1940. Tone of these statements asked Stalin himself." As a result. which [423] were closely interrelated. it is necessary to educate the entire staff of the army and the entire country in that spirit that every one of our war. 1940. it is beneficial to mankind. in the west. bringing the fighting on enemy territory. we walk through the woods and require daily wage. It is necessary to promote these ideas under the banner of security. However. It happens at different times in different countries. to formulate and solve the question of the security of Leningrad " {1356} . Speaking on November 20. more space is required to ensure the USSR's external action in Eastern Europe. during the meeting of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) Stalin said that "we are expanding fronts of socialist construction. Our war with the capitalist world will just war. progressive. Army Commissar 1st rank LZ Mehlis delivered a keynote speech in which he stated that "the Red Army. police and any other scum " {1354} . we got rid of the yoke of the landlords. He proposed "radically alter our military ideology. speaking April 17. Speaking at a meeting of the Supreme Military Council on April 21. " {1358} . when your hands are busy. expanding socialist territories of the Soviet Union. like any army is an instrument of war.it is also the cause of world revolution" {1355} . the three biggest powers at each other's throat. which tried to provoke Britain and France. it is the slogan of "defense of the borders and the interests of the Soviet Union" was the basis for Soviet propaganda and slogans of "liberation" and "broaden the front of socialism" was given additional justification actions of the Soviet leadership on the world stage. mythical threat of Soviet-German war in the summer of 1939. for the liberation of other nations from the bourgeoisie. widely used slogans such as "liberation" and "broaden the front of socialism". Since September 9. our borders. in his letter to Kautsky. because Lithuanians consider themselves happy.. based on a common goal . 1940. In 1939. and she and the other warring parties as the biggest ace. Stalin declared that the period of the war depended "on the international situation. will be the most fair of all the wars that have ever been. and it seems to us a favorable environment for them at this moment to strike.. we proceeded in the past year. All personnel of the Red Army should be brought up in time of peace. Engels was quite right when. That is. Western Belarusians Bessarabians. In this situation. So. AA Zhdanov said that "we are now trying to use. achieving complete contrition and defeat the enemy. These foreign policy actions were perceived in the Kremlin in a specific ideological context. dated September 12.. it was about liberation from the yoke of capitalism. but quite high classrooms became louder voices about the need to modernize the military propaganda. Accordingly. in order "to delay the war with Germany and use the time to further strengthen economic and especially military power of the USSR. and here you are clear on what line should go case " {1357} ." Further. citing. Actions of the Red Army . she gave . Head of Political Department of the Red Army. Soviet propaganda 1940ies. if not in such circumstances." because "the policy of the socialist state is to expand at any time when it will have the possible positions of socialism. protection of our country. January 21. and when to decide on Leningrad. In this case. Thus. the Soviet leadership was perfectly understood that the accession of new territories is only possible during the European war. political short-sightedness and not miss a moment to try as soon as possible until there is a war in the west. the war with Finland showed that such abstract slogans insufficient to impact on the Soviet soldiers and went to move the traditional slogan of "protecting the north-western borders and Leningrad. directly . Naturally. at a meeting with officers of the Red Army of the CPSU (b) the experience of the war in Finland. Stalin said that the "world revolution as a single instrument ." the Soviet government signed an agreement with Germany.of respite similar Brest peace in 1918. Practical embodiment of the wishes of the leader was a meeting on military ideology 13-14 May 1940. We must educate your chain of command in the spirit of active defense. 1882. which was prepared against us " {1353} . Such is our policy will continue. 1940. including both offensive. he said that "until the woodcutter trees break. capitalists. There. Britain and France putting "before the war so the enemy. It would be a great folly. 'Red Army will be active. 1940. On this score Lenin clearly states: "It would be a war for socialism. as it is now known {1352} . at the joint plenum of the Leningrad City and Regional Committee of the CPSU (b).is nonsense. So capacious formula allowed Soviet propaganda adapt to any international situation and give explanations to any acts of the USSR. which lead Army socialism is progressive war. [424] Since the spring of 1940 is still narrow. From this policy.to prepare for war. comparing Germany with the woodcutter and the Soviet Union with the bear.

Based on the political environment. of such active action when initiated just war will make our state and Peasants' Red Army. smash the enemy. In this spirit.the revolutionary-imperialist and unjust.. it is necessary to review all the events in the first place. "we can say that our army is preparing to attack and this attack we need for defense. We must ensure that our country is not defense and offense and that we can give a strong blow to the enemy. Meanwhile. [. from the regimental commander and down to the fighter should be formulated so that our leaders and soldiers understand that regardless of the justice or injustice of [war] our troops have to beat your opponent.. you need to put the revision of the whole body. He was referring to the defense of the victorious proletariat against the bourgeoisie of other countries "(T. "After all. I had to deal with narrow-minded. as well as our population should be brought up in the spirit of an offensive doctrine. to let everyone know that all our war. but we did not attack everything. and before that was a cult to protect their borders.acknowledged the possibility of "defensive war" is already victorious socialism.. We'll teach the whole world . infantry divisions in the states now existing and created defensive tendencies prevail character.232-233). With regard to defense. and the Government will indicate to us that we need do " {1361} . we need to advance. I must begin with its doctrine. According to the commander of the 2nd Rank KA Meretskova. would be against the rest of the capitalist world. all modern decor requires that our people and our soldiers were warlike people. You know that the military doctrine of the Red Army is an offensive doctrine emanating from known Voroshilov wording .." This provision remains in force . but it worked out in an offensive spirit in the last 3-4 years". we need to educate our Red Army and the entire proletariat. Chief Editor of "Red Star" Colonel EA Boltin follows instructed "engineers of human souls": "Talking about the ideology of the Red Army. and to ensure this. We must be recorded that we will defend only offensive and beat the opponent and thereby defend their socialist fatherland and its borders. but we have military ideology. Neither magazine or a newspaper should not be written that we will only defend and beat your opponent in their own territory. once our commanders in the world occupy the position of the British officers. but we have nothing to hide. to arms. acting if necessary even with armed force against the exploiting classes and their states "(T.. and for this it is necessary to advance.325). wherever it occurred. having expropriated the capitalists and organized its own socialist production. [426] pacifist understanding of our policy the world. And the second statement of Comrade Lenin. That is absolutely correct . The ideas have been presented to June 25 as the directives on convened on the initiative of the newspaper "Red Star" magazine "Banner" and Defence Committee meeting Soviet Writers' Union of Writers developing military themes.] We have too many peaceful moods.] Our army is there to ensure our state. and the military command orders are always fair and should always be performed " {1360} .. In his speech Corps Commander DT Kozlov pointed out that "our army should be brought up. for the infantry so heavy that it is unable to give those rates of advance that will be needed . "all our wars are perfectly justified. [. [425] Speaking of military doctrine."beat the enemy on its territory. it is necessary to crush. attracting the oppressed classes of other countries. it is necessary organizational structure revise strictly from this angle.. . 18. social-democratic. "The victorious proletariat of that country. that time will come when we will be the aggressor.. " {1359} . " {1363} . P. our country. p. commander of the 2nd rank DG Pavlov said that "military doctrine have been developed in a purely offensive spirit. If we give such an installation. that enough is done. No special love for the sport. able to perform tasks that it faces. the war is progressive and fair.. If we want to have the army could be light and agile. our entire army. 19. According to him. [. It is an active force of the victorious proletariat and working people in the capitalist countries against the bourgeoisie. Another disadvantage propaganda. Comrades. " {1362} . fair . military. I guess. Major AI Samoilov offered scrutinize the enemy. So it must be and will be.. build.] Our era has epoch of wars. raising them in revolt against the capitalists. but it does not mean that we should not deal with other issues. might attack on us. we are the very essence of our system and its historical vocation should be able to fight and love military affairs..

the combat experience.. there is talk about the Baltics. which allowed we would achieve the desired effect and at the same time comply with external decorum "because our military reviews carefully eyeing overseas. based mainly on the experience of the Civil War. On the other hand. this experience could not take into account the true nature of modern warfare. "it is impossible to educate people in the spirit of indiscriminate attack. " However. Up until 1939. which did not say anything to our soldiers. We Such sentiments were that we defend. and those provisions which raised its command structure.. the process of fixing our historical right flank.] Sometimes the question can not be. Instead teach people that the army is an instrument of war. Speaking in the debate Wisniewski said: "Who is not met. "We must speak impressively. collisions in future we will have to solve more difficult problems and it is therefore necessary to bring the Red Army and our whole nation is not in the spirit of invincibility naked slogans and continuous heroism." but we have to think how we will prepare for the war. win a fortune. " You should carefully study the experience of the war in Europe and a flexible approach to its assimilation. brings to our understanding of the war a number of significant new features. etc. largely based on the experience of the Civil War. However. and Boltin asked rhetorically: ". no matter who started this war. if we need to . we first go to war. Khalkhin-and Finland to revise our views on the future war. Wrong. Our people must be ready for that when it will be profitable.today. " However. of course. that our victory in modern warfare can be achieved only at the cost of all forces. The people can smell it . in the spirit of willingness to serve as a home to all. if necessary.. " As practical problems Boltin called study of military history. weapons active defense of our homeland. Has undergone a transformation and promotion of the Comintern. But at the same time. We raised portion so that the word" retreat "was considered a disgrace. during the Russo-Finnish War. we will fight with the Germans . we sided slogan popularized the invincibility of our army "that generates shapkozakidatelskie mood. Necessary to educate people so that a future war with any capitalist state is a just war. not just respond blow for blow. "now this is not enough and should be based on the experience of fighting Hassan. ie before we began to explore the experience of the war in Spain. "I do not advise at best" Red Star "screaming that we.. In the autumn of 1939 it was shifted to the fight against warmongers (Britain and France) and explaining to the masses that only the elimination of the capitalist . had to replace the slogan of "liberation of Finland". not an instrument of peace. right.. Experience of war in Finland showed that we It took a serious effort to even potentially weak to break the enemy. because we live in a very difficult international situation. Often in" Red Star "and in the literature can be found expression that the Red Army is an instrument of peace.we will break the backbone of Hitler. as it was until now. there is a lot of valuable. the Red Army was essentially neobstrelyanny army.I can make it here. and themselves into the fray is not useful. as beneficial to our cause. Write so that neither one nor the other is not to offend and not to tease. and will continue to serve as a guide for us. if you need.. and should be brought up in the spirit of the difficulties that is modern war. "First of all.who are our future enemy? Did [428] it is useful to us? Politically it is harmful. excessive frankness in this matter was not encouraged." "We are all well aware of the huge historical rightness of our cause and invincibility.. very much that today. including my life. We have to consider that we have to defend and sometimes. at [427] the slogan of "protecting the north-western borders and Leningrad. we must give an account. on the southern flank. strengthening training and discussion of the problems of military science. because at the time when the enemy's weak technology we had very often the weakest technique. even have to move to trench warfare.] Our tactics and operational art until 1938. but we educate people in a kind of Soviet pacifism. In this experiment. We must be prepared.. but very cautiously and quietly. we need to educate people to understand that the Red Army is an instrument of war. [. because the experience of war in Belgium and the Netherlands shows that the strategic means passivity. to strike first. Why must we need to talk straight .this is a great historical perspective." It would be nice widely and openly discuss these issues. Therefore. methods will I require flexible. which acquired the Red Army in the last two years. Why do we now arming themselves against Germany or France? We will always do so. All my personal opinion . But at the same time. " {1364} . about the prospects of the Black Sea. retreat to donate part. frankly. we said that it is the army of the world. "Oddly enough. [.

We are approaching a critical point in Soviet history." which "is a war for the socialist fatherland. which will be supported by the USSR. F. in April 1940.. "people began to bring with lectures on the international situation dosage criticism at Germany ." April 9. to a national rise to the Great Patriotic War.. himself this slogan was borrowed from the work of Lenin "The main task of the day". [430] Stalin April 20..". April 30. 1941 proposed to dissolve the Comintern. 1941: "The position of the USSR expectantly... after which the solution can be re-create the international communist organization. Feel it all clear. Soviet propaganda structures are increasingly began to collect "negative" against Germany. Already in the first hours of the war." [430] in which it was noted that "the Red Army soldiers and junior commanders insufficiently explained that the Second World War both belligerents underway for a new division of the world .. The turning point in the preparation of Soviet propaganda to action in the new environment became Stalin's speech . we will if appropriate. " {1370} . apparently. especially after the Berlin negotiations in November 1940.. the Soviet leadership understood that the advance of the Red Army under the slogans of social change could lead to the unity of the capitalist states into a single anti-Soviet bloc. which. and only a general depletion of the belligerent countries could push them to compromise." However. Of course. Meanwhile. Since December 1940 the ECCI demanded of European Communist Parties to strengthen the propaganda of national and social liberation. in April 1941. which had to be guided by the Communist Party in the German-occupied countries. passed for conquest and capture enough . as the cooling of the Soviet-German relations... quite likely that this slogan and planned to wage war against Germany.. Under these conditions. Germany .. February 21.. In the spring of 1941. Interim Agreement with Hitler is bursting at the seams" {1369} . it was "important that they (foreign Communist Party. and then a new social order. the Comintern propaganda arises again the idea of "popular front" to fight the population of countries occupied by Germany for freedom and independence. Since the end of 1940 the USSR propaganda machine began secret training to work in a future war with Germany and conducting anti-fascist propaganda. In his opinion. which showed that Germany took in relation to the USSR more intransigent position. Ulbricht said that prolonging the war leads to the growing discontent of the population and can cause revolutionary explosion. remembers who lived before the war in Khabarovsk AF Rahr. Resit probably coming summer.system is able to provide "real peace. he makes the following entry: "Decide the coming months. were expressed at a meeting of the Presidium of the Comintern. In order to better mask the influence of the USSR and the Communist Party on foreign help to expand their social base. independence and socialism. At the same time. which stated that "Russia is now . but did not indicate when exactly planned to dissolve the Comintern. but not the one that started. 1941 in the western border of the county was sent to the General Directorate letter of instruction political propaganda (GUPP) Red Army "Results of inspections of political studies. promoting friendship with the Soviet Union and condemnation of British imperialism {1365} . rumors of impending war with Germany and began to walk among the people" {1368} . Similar sentiments were reflected in the aforementioned diary Vishnevsky who recorded January 31. and will be able to throw their weight on the scales of war .." Finally on April 14: "The truth gets out. explained that the expansion of the second world war poses a direct military threat to our country. First goal of the Popular Front was to be the question of national independence. . the disclosure of the aggressive nature of imperialism and the aggressive policies of Germany. socialism as a fatherland for the Soviet Republic as a detachment of the world army of socialism "and leads" to the international socialist revolution " {1367} . At the same time at the political forces in the increasing emphasis on studying the space required military-political situation in Europe. Firsov notes that it is the intention to implement prevented German attack. Later Comintern propaganda in continental Europe increasingly focused on the need to combat the invaders and their accomplices. the ECCI was developed the idea of national anti-fascist National Front. Therefore. 1941 in Moscow hotel "suite" where they lived overseas Communists held "information session" members of the KKE. Walter Ulbricht briefed colleagues with estimates of the war. Stating that the victory of one of the parties is not yet available. Since May 1941 the European Communist Party embarked on this idea..MM} infiltrated his people and focused on their own particular problems . the main tasks of the Communist parties was to be further strengthening influence on the masses. Stalin pointed to the need to remove the question of social revolution and focus on promoting domestic war {1366} .I .

of which we are interested in the proposed directive "On problems of political propaganda in the Red Army in the near future. This kind of software Stalin's speech. a draft directive of the Central Committee "On the tasks of propaganda for the near future". when we became strong . The project did not satisfy the secretaries of the CC. Change the direction of Soviet propaganda was clearly formulated by Stalin May 5. but the ideas of this report echo the ideas GUPP directive from May 15." {1374} . we are obliged to act offensive manner. Other than statements of aggressive actions of Germany in Europe. Secretary of the Executive Committee of the Comintern. We begin ideological and practical offensive . the policy of preparing for war. our printing offensive spirit. minimizing amateur functionaries [432] middle managers. and in early June he was Shcherbakov new draft directive "On the current tasks of propaganda". who are unanimous in saying that she wore anti-German character. in the Office of Propaganda. Stalin directly assigned to it responsibility for the outbreak of World War II. when we remodeled our army. 1941 by the Supreme Military Council was sent June 9th Army Chief Commissioner GUPP 1 rank AI Zaporozhets the chief of the Propaganda of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) G. despite the presence in them of ideological and propaganda clichés. And now.] Ahead . From Defense go to the military policy of offensive operations. This document after discussing June 4.Hoffmanom data in the report was done. We are talking about the global fight Hitler here is calculated [. According to a report given instructions that Zaporozhets" {1378} .the army offensive " {1373} . . it was clearly voicing new course. In May 1941. In response to him. Simultaneously. Ahead of opportunities that we have dreamed for a long time " {1372} .as long as our army rearmed not supplied the army with modern means of warfare . delivered on the next day after the decision of the Politburo of his appointment to the post of chairman of the SNK. 1941 to graduates of military academies {1371} . All these documents are largely repetitive and complement each other and allow. In mid-May 1941 GUPP lecture group for private military audiences prepared a report "The Present International Situation and Soviet foreign policy. according to the reducible I. owner of the propaganda apparatus of the country and the army. All this suggests that the report had not been rejected by management.Aleksandrovu.." which was sent in May 6 Department of Propaganda and Agitation of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) Central Committee secretaries and Zhdanov and Shcherbakov.F. Red Army is a modern army and modern army .our trek to the West. which Aleksandrov May 28 directed the secretaries of the CC AA Zhdanov and AS Shcherbakov. our propaganda. [431] It was taken by Stalin's speech is the basis for the following documents prescriptive..May 5. In addition. 1941. VI Lenin on June 5 and Zhdanov's speech at a meeting of film workers in the CPSU (b) May 15. 1941 at the banquet in the Kremlin after a solemn meeting on the occasion of the release of military students was proclaimed a toast to Stalin's peaceful foreign policy. Peaceful policy is a good thing. Must prepare for war. No defense without offensive. you should pay attention to the performance of the international situation at the Kalinin party and Komsomol meeting employees of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on May 20 and the graduates of the Military-Political Academy. We do not have data that would reveal the nature of these guidelines. Stalin took the floor. The draft directive GUPP was approved on June 20 the Supreme Military Council {1377} . Necessary to bring in the spirit of the army offensive.he said. apparently in the army June 15. the above draft policy documents. Georgi Dimitrov noted in his diary: "Our policy of peace and security is at the same time. give an objective assessment of overall sentiment in the Soviet leadership in the last prewar . and the fate of the draft directive of the Central Committee not yet known. conducting the defense of our country. and have been used. We necessary to restructure our education. "Allow me to amend." Wisniewski praised this speech more emotional: "This enormous significance. their training initiative came "from above"..Peaceful foreign policy has provided the world of our country. 1941 {1380} Special value attached to these materials is that they were prepared at the level and under the order of members and alternate members of the Politburo. . and on behalf of which the document was drawn up {1375} . which is clearly more logical and accurate than text Aleksandrov {1376} . the Red Army GUPP prepared a number of draft policy documents. We from time to time took the line of defense . made a lasting impression on the audience.now we need to move from defense to offense. 1941 "one authoritative political worker" {1379} . Consequently. Though since the fall of 1939. agitation. saturated technique for modern warfare. in the USSR is widely promoted the idea that "warmongers" are England and France.. On a document sent Aleksandrov has its resolution of 19 June: "In the archive.

Among the senior commanders and senior politicians was widespread defeatism and direct betrayal. complacency and arrogance that lead directly to the backlog.. France and Britain not only made new friends and allies.. Assessing the causes of success in Germany. Germany won... others try to neutralize. but lost those who were with them. To win enough to have a good military technology and organization.months.. in preparation for the Second World War. military superiority of Germany in the first stage of the war was unconditional and overwhelming. based on the rapid advance on the weak and the unprepared opponent with massive use of modern military equipment . Armored and mechanized compounds were in the paddock. On the basis of easy victories . Germany has tried to establish peaceful and friendly relations with the Soviet Union. On the truth of this statement says the whole experience of past wars... in the war with France. National Economy.. and intimidate some small neutral countries "warning them siding with Britain and France {1382} . .. Military leaders of Germany developed operational plans for war. Rotten. This is the first reason for the military defeat of France.all this alienated part of France and England their allies. as well as the course of military operations in modern warfare. linking the issue with the need debunking the myth of the "invincibility of the Wehrmacht. Victory German army due to the fact that the Germans still had military confrontations with weak "enemy" and the German army suppressed their overwhelming superiority and appliances . In Germany for many years. remodeled on a war footing. "In addition. Shcherbakov follows expounding reasons for the defeat of France: "France . formation and training of a large army. which was once the strongest. so . This is the first reason for the military successes of the German army.. Around the world there has been no invincible armies. thanks to the neutrality of Russia. as a result.. 1941 sayings of Stalin paid attention to the causes of the military successes of Germany. Such views are fundamentally unscientific and contrary to historical experience. Shcherbakov wrote that "the German army being broken in 1918 benefited from this fact necessary military and political lessons. The French government.. not moving forward...Czechoslovakia . Since the war. anti-aircraft and anti-especially. was entirely subordinated to the tasks of war .. showed complete carelessness in the preparation for war . That is why. "" To the military treated dismissively . In the war of 1914-1918. remained at lessons of the war of 1914-1918." Guided by the thesis that war began showed her unpreparedness for England and France. not the Maginot Line continued to the English Channel. But the outcome of the war not only solves the arming and organization of the army. which devalued the entire fortified part of the front and made it possible to circumvent the German army French strengthening. but not even enough machine guns and pistols.in the army and political circles in Germany have spread boasting. flippant attitude to the role and relative importance of the Soviet Union in European affairs .. due to complacency..conceited.winning the first imperialist war .. Drafters of these documents after sounded May 5. treachery perpetrated against its direct ally . led to their isolation and strengthened the position of Germany. In 1870-71. mercantile policy "non-interference" and "appeasement" .As a result of the war on two fronts.. especially since 1933. French aviation. with the advent of the [433] power by the National Socialists. This is the second reason for the military defeat of France " {1381} . . and were there Army good and weak . or little understanding of military. moved to one of the last places. "In the army. perhaps money. The ruling circles of France not so much afraid of Hitler's victory as his people ." not only lacked artillery. rested on its laurels. "Germany's military victories and defeats her opponents caused the spread of views known about the alleged invincibility of the German army. and also prepare the war politically and is primarily meant to attract some states to his side as allies. Germany was able to" tear allies against their enemies and bring some countries as allies to his side . Germany was defeated..war on one front. military apparatus in the hands of people.. Her military thought.. The defeat of France is due not only to its military weakness. or people frozen in the classroom and traditions of the war of 1914-1918.

for the period from April 7 to June 29. 3. all kinds of raw materials. It already makes itself felt very keenly . But during the war the situation changed radically. "Down with the chains of Versailles" .2 kg.this is the first weak point of the German economy. wool. "Prepare war. On the basis of boasting and smugness military thought Germany is no longer as before . mica was in 1939." However. "German army large force that can not be underestimated. created in his time running out.. Despite the fact that Germany is getting some raw materials from occupied countries. sulfur and pyrites. If at the beginning of the war. helped German companies visiting the Soviet military-technical commissions in 1939-1941. This slogan means the suppression of the national independence of the occupied countries.was concluded in the draft directive GUPP {1386} . For example. 4.5% {1387} .This slogan was popular and well-known met support and sympathy and the German people. {1389} Germany's economy because of its limited capacity could not serve as a . Aggressive character of the slogan-establishment of a "new order" in Europe German politicians masked chatter about the need to continue the fight against "international plutocracy" need "to smoke Englishmen everywhere. under the slogan of the conquest and subjugation of other peoples not can be any strong " {1385} .. Predatory. As disclosure of the imperialist. as many people had suffered as a result of predatory Treaty of Versailles. that the Treaty of Versailles was considered humiliating and unjust. the figure was 82. 29 eggs. Slogan.All the new that is logged in operational art and tactics of the German army. Nazi Germany is the seizure of foreign territories under the slogan . as the prolongation of the war. freely sold. using the military weakness of several countries moved to the direct capture and enslavement of foreign territories..Shcherbakov wrote. 5. but the best part of the German people .75 kg of cheese curd 0. The third weakness of the German economy is the situation with the raw materials. Germany is facing a number of difficulties noted in the guppies. do not meet the sympathy and support of the broad masses of Germany itself. aluminum (bauxite). chrome ore. Average calorie daily ration per person dropped from 3000 calories in 1936-1938. mercury. erzatskofe 1. 1941 (84 days) for each adult received 27 kg of bread. It. just 17. It is clear that the success of German politics and the German army under the banner of [435] and the predatory imperialist war. this bad disguise hides program enslavement of peoples.1-18.. after .. military power weakened Germany ". up to 2445 calories in 1940-1941. it is not ensured. and the masses are becoming more clearly see and understand the predatory nature "of this slogan. ." first. the more depleted Germany.375 kg. stockpiles of fuel and rubber could be enough only to the fall of 1941. although replenished after the defeat of France and certain production capacity was limited. copper. This slogan found sympathy and known in other countries. Germany had a modern military equipment. manganese ore.3%. operated by the state. whereas the Soviet Union. Soviet leaders generally quite correctly assess military-economic condition of Germany. Germany's own software such kinds of strategic raw materials such as coal. The German army had lost the taste for the further improvement of military equipment. is not so difficult and now perceived and studied her opponents. wherever they appeared. food supply prospects are deteriorating .233 kg of fat 0. According to German researchers..175 kg of cereals and pasta.this is the second weak point of the German economy.go ahead.7 kg per adult (28 days). Foodstuffs . which means "fuel . and the British blockade of Germany close to non-European markets.05 kg of sugar. aggressive policy against Germany restores it not only the peoples of the occupied countries. potatoes until June 2. lead. Secondly. phosphates. Now the German army. oil. but now .. as well as non-news and armament of the German army. iron ore. this slogan is great discontent and bitterness of the peoples of the occupied countries and a gradual increase in resistance to the invader.disappeared. First of all is the lack of oil. Oil and raw materials in Germany. an agrarian appendage of Germany. The longer the war continues. Equally tense situation developed in Germany with food. However. This dispels the myth of the invincibility of the German army..the establishment of so-called "new order" in Europe. and nonferrous metals stocks did not even cover consumption. and the war in the first stage was carried out under the slogan of liberation from oppression Versailles chains . military-technical advantage Germany gradually reduced " {1383} . 2. not to mention the real needs of the {1388} . turning them into a vassal. [434] With the expansion of the war. predatory aims of Germany and changing attitudes towards the war of the masses of Germany itself " {1384} .6 kg of meat.

S.. it should be noted that the quality of military equipment. This soil-futility of war on the one hand and the fear of the revolutionary consequences of a protracted war .. "in the assessment of the most important issues of modern world politics and the world economy occupy theoretically erroneous and politically harmful position . [436] the planned nature of the German economy.. However. The Red Army did not yield his future opponent {1395} . existent in the national historiography {1393} . most acutely the question arose about the future direction of the war. Formally. is not yet at war. and the expulsion of England from the European continent. but England and the United States understand that the world today . In this situation. augmented thirst war profits.. having command of the sea. it affected the work of the Institute of World Economy and Policy Sciences of the USSR and the editorial board of the magazine of the Institute. therefore particularly important for Germany. an improvement in the food situation in Germany and an increase in the course of the war its economic and military resources. Time gained by Germany at the beginning of the war.S. Germany has no prospects in the near future to beat England and end the war. England is far from broken. And if in this case the attempt collusion can almost be considered failed. the U. among some circles of the bourgeoisie of the belligerent countries under pressure to agree among themselves in order to make peace and to direct the tip of the war against the Soviet Union.. without a strong navy. which greatly complicates the situation in Germany {1396} . the German military equipment "lags behind not only our". as it is.noted in the guppy . " So should reorganize Institute {1391} and eliminate such defects in Soviet propaganda. one of them will win. The report GUPP believed that "in the ruling circles of the belligerent countries is growing fear of the revolutionary consequences of a protracted war. All this creates an environment of hopelessness in the war that it can not be completed in the near future victory of one side or the other . . the Soviet Union is growing and gaining strength. have been in the wake of bourgeois propaganda. " Although the class hatred of the bourgeoisie can push the warring countries to make peace.. is strengthening its military forces. except aircraft older designs.. Most important outcome of the second imperialist war in its modern stage . In these circumstances. Predict the same. Prolongation of the war as military potential difference of two warring parties will act with relentless force . the soil for such efforts in the future remains. which. " {1397} . As a result. reinforcing criticism ideology of fascism and German propaganda fabrications {1392} . According to Stalin. fierce. and while the war undermines and weakens the capitalist countries.a concession . with irresistible force pushing America into the war . Moscow considered equivalent Germany opponent who in military terms has nothing special about any tanks or artillery or aviation. now more difficult. protracted and total. and also can not expect to win soon.reliable foundation for the struggle for world domination under a protracted war {1390} . "escape" Hess to England . Particular concern is the growing power of the imperialists of the USSR. According to Kalinin " this war on the [437] exhaustion takes a long. Fight for world domination. "The main factor determining the current international situation. Certain penetration of the Soviet press statements about the success of German propaganda of the German economy and power caused the Wehrmacht in May-June 1941.a serious warning to the Soviet Union. In this sense.S. and because of continued resistance increasing assistance from the U.a war between the major capitalist powers. "and" to a certain extent. Bourgeoisie of the imperialist countries with great anxiety looks at the Soviet Union. does not have strong land forces.with other.. with its large land force. but in regard to its aviation starts to overtake America {1394} .. increasing its economic and military power . and England. the negative reaction of the Soviet leadership. according to the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). " This was expressed in the fact that these staff and editors "picked and popularized the fascist propaganda disseminated myths about the ideal organization and invincibility of the German army on the alleged organized. First of all. position. At the same time. This conclusion reflects a certain underestimation of the state of the Wehrmacht. which is likely to be exhausting for both sides. which stands out of the war. This is why the Soviet Union should be ready for any eventuality by the imperialist powers. which lasts for about two years and has become a global. the U. "but in fact increasingly creeping into the war.is a significant military Germany's success on the land fronts. is now turning against her. Not confirmed the above pictures and version of the fear of the Soviet leadership to Germany and its armed forces. should be ready at any time to disrupt any conspiracy of the imperialists against us.

It should be noted and a second process that we observe during the war . all the necessary types of strategic raw materials. [. "When you consider the totality of the economic and strategic factors international position of the USSR. which were in favor of ending the war and the creation of so-called "united front of the imperialist powers" against the Soviet Union {1400} . Arguments about the rise of dictatorship and political consciousness of the masses in the capitalist countries..If we analyze the social processes that occur in democratic countries as belligerent and noncombatants. increasing the danger of a social explosion. to create the illusion of the eternity of our peaceful relations with the imperialist powers . the situation became even more tense. the concentration of capitalism. because" it is felt that this rich school for the laboring masses not be wasted "and they" will draw proper lessons and hurl their anger on the bourgeoisie " {1399} . as we shall see. A significant part of the report was devoted GUPP Soviet-German relations. This country is currently Germany. And I must say that the growth of the class consciousness of the toiling masses certainly accelerated to a greater extent than increasing the dictatorship of capital. otherwise the bulk of funds remain unused or will be used by the adversary.. he makes the seven-league steps . The events of recent years have shown us with distinct clarity that any pact can be converted at any time by the .. The Soviet leadership rather accurately assess the progress and prospects of World War II. During the war. During the war. Documents show that the Soviet leadership was quite knowledgeable about the results of "Hess's mission". If there was no war. during the war is reinforced maturation of the dictatorship of the capitalist world. In the world there is a crisis of bourgeois democracy as the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie misses . despite the clear imprint zaideologizirovannosti are under a certain soil. it is quite obvious that the most real danger for us is that a capitalist country that has a large ground forces and the greatest length of the land border with the USSR. most serious enemy of the USSR is the only major land power . All this during the war accelerated and exacerbated. "Unlikely that this war will come away with the capitalists of Europe. in its forecast Benes did not consider the possibility of "exporting revolution" on the bayonets of the Red Army that much more would help overthrow "the yoke of capital.] Recently. capitalism would move along this path with tiny steps. It must be admitted that the war and the related crisis of society contributed to the radicalization of public sentiment and thereby expanded the social base of the communist parties. that sooner or later doomed to defeat Germany. strengthening the dictatorship becomes a characteristic feature capitalist world. believed that such hopes Moscow unlikely to be fulfilled in full. It is interesting to note that this danger is in 1939. the concentration of material resources in the hands of the state. noting its protracted nature.. Tightening the war really fueled the forces in opposing camps. as "Western Europe in socio-economic terms. this is what made the basic rate and the Soviet leadership.Kalinin noted in a speech on June 5. So... knowing well the available ways to make peace difficult. course. during the war.. brighter detected before labor [438] masses selfish capitalists and he soon comes to the consciousness of the masses.] No covenants and agreements can not and must not relax vigilance of Soviet citizens. " {1403} . that points of contact between Germany and the USSR became much more than 2-3 years ago. Neither blockade or landing can not inflict a nasty blow USSR because the Soviet Union has huge spaces purse army. and it is impossible that the alleged German National Socialists abandoned their anti-Soviet plans. strengthening the dictatorship of a person ... {1401} . all forces must be concentrated... is still quite strong and is very determined to resist the social revolution .. While Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact "would be deeply flawed illusions regarding this pact and assume that the clash between the USSR and Germany.there is increased growth of political consciousness of the masses. Strong naval power is not so [439] dangerous for the USSR as a major land power.to Germany and thus this process is hampered {1398} . otherwise it can not be. "Very" war should contribute to a more rapid maturation of class consciousness in general. the process accelerates ripening of war dictatorships. So. . we note that there is increasing political dictatorship. .. which is confirmed by other data . Yes. who. however. and now. food and developed machine industry. foresaw the former Czechoslovak President Edvard Beneš." and.... Moscow no accident closely followed similar attempts. However. while Poland. . Germany and Central Europe are in a situation much more dangerous " {1402} . [.

in the area of the Straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. as its . does not abandon its anti-Soviet plans and their implementation will be postponed until the most opportune moment. In Finland. what are we . actually breaking the Soviet-German point. Population and the soldiers are taught that friendship with the USSR . Fighting between the two systems is a crucial point in our relations with all capitalist countries without exception. The version of the excessive reliance on force Stalin non-aggression pact. In a number of recent statements Commissariat about events in the Balkans. From Narvik to the Black Sea. Germany's policy in the Middle East. Romania. the war between Germany and the USSR was generated struggle for supremacy in Europe. without any consultation with us.time that Germany must necessarily fight against the USSR . or we retain independence ghostly underwent German occupation. unstable. and now borders. In south-eastern Europe. Capture Germany Balkans undoubtedly affects our vital interests . the Moldovan population. Documents show once again that the Soviet leadership knew about the concentration of German troops on the borders of the Soviet Union. a number of small "buffer" countries that are now or have completely disappeared from the political map of Europe as an independent state. For the purpose of planting spyware on our territory and subversive groups Germany is widely used against us the hostile elements of the Polish. Germany. . Enumeration of anti-Soviet actions of the German leadership has not only propaganda value. must not forget for a moment that all of the capitalist countries . but. as in Moscow knew that no matter what agreements can not be relied.. In its oral agitation and propaganda of the National Socialists remain fully brazen anti-Soviet tone. which recently came under significant economic and political dependence on Germany. of course.is a class policy. most of Finland and in Sweden the Germans were reinforced anti-Soviet propaganda. Or that the capitalist state. which could not affect the vital interests of the Soviet Union in those areas of Europe. the Soviet Union does not border with Germany. This fight makes any and all covenants and agreements of the USSR with the imperialist powers temporary. but also shows the actual sites of the Soviet-German conflict.. His keen interest in the safety of the Straits. Previously.potential enemies of the USSR. common in the national historiography {1405} is not confirmed. we currently have only one neighbor. Previously..capitalist state in a piece of paper.plays a huge role for us. "that" the Soviet Union made it clear that will be discouraged fomenting war in the Middle East and retraction of Turkey into the war " {1404} . As already noted.. Ukrainian and Belorussian population of occupied Poland. Over the last year in Germany. Soviet foreign policy . "Occasionally. yet clearly placed the hostile article. the Soviet government actually stated that it does not recognize the "new order" established the Axis powers in the Balkans. which for several reasons to conclude agreements with the Soviet Union. Bulgaria and ignited the flames of war in the Balkans. Germany has recently taken measures contrary to the interests of the USSR . In addition.. Germany concentrates in Poland [440] a large number of troops. violating the contract clause of the consultations with the Soviet Union sent troops to Romania. the Soviet government has once again demonstrated the latest statement to the Turkish government. the Lithuanian population Suwalki region. Development of our relations with Germany shows this quite clearly now. judging by the tone sheathe documents not feared imminent German attack. also runs counter to the interests of the USSR State Security .. Germany. On the borders of the Lithuanian SSR. as German troops entered.. and other nationalist groups emigration. has taken several measures in the north-west and south-east.. and retains the freedom of action in this regard . the USSR is separated from Germany. the Balkans. the Soviet government has clearly demonstrated their keen interest in the resolution of questions of southeastern Europe and the Middle East . particularly in relation to Turkey. all these acts of the Soviet government actually condemned Germany's policies aimed to retract into the war of the Balkan states. Thus. because it is the only way for the great Black Sea power. and gave unambiguously clear that Germany's actions are contrary to the policy of the USSR. especially in the provincial press. [441] The above material shows that the Soviet leadership in the spring of 1941 Germany considered the main enemy... not for peaceful purposes. arrange a consultation.

frankly said on May 20 Kalinin {1410} . But now this military weakness thing of the past. [ 443] "If. [442] The main success of the Leninist-Stalinist foreign policy of peace is that due to it has already managed to postpone the war between the imperialist countries and the Soviet Union. and should be obliged to take the initiative to offensive military action against the capitalist environment to enhance the front of socialism. helped the working people of Lithuania. Lenin's slogan" a foreign land to defend their land "may at any time turn into action" ." . using the favorable international situation.. the military threat to our country closer than ever. the USSR could go on the offensive against the imperialist powers in the cause of victorious socialism. Extremely aggravated international situation. before our country socialism has triumphed .. This.Soviet foreign policy proceeds from the unquestioned assumption that the clash between the socialist world and the world of capitalism is inevitable. by virtue of the prevailing situation. Latvia and Estonia to organize Soviet power " {1409} . the world's first socialist state is obliged every day. . does not exclude that may be offensive action against the USSR individual imperialist countries that threaten our security in a situation where there are no revolutionary situation in the capitalist countries.a temporary policy that necessitate accumulate sufficient force against capitalist encirclement. mainly to implement those agreements. with the desire for peace at any price " {1407} . take any initiative to offensive military action .ours. Main objective of Soviet foreign policy . first. in Finland and in the Middle East. Not exclude the possibility that the Soviet Union would be forced. We have a vested interest in ensuring that these conditions were most favorable for us. the Soviet Union must be prepared for any surprises and contingencies and keep their powder dry against each imperialist state. "USSR live in a capitalist environment . We are not indifferent to what conditions will the inevitable confrontation between the USSR and the capitalist encirclement. of course..the immediate preparation for war... Relying on its military power. and secondly. Under these conditions.. Settle them on the basis of a compromise failed.that socialist country. {1406} A compromise was complicated by the fact that the parties were no longer needed it. Bessarabia back. . aggressive period of Soviet foreign policy. While in 1939.accelerated collision Soviet and German interests in the Balkans.. and the front of socialism expanded. which imposes on us big and important responsibilities . But in this and in another case. But it would be wrong to regard our peaceful policy as eternal and unchangeable. Berlin and Moscow were able to reconcile their territorial aspirations and by autumn 1940.its special funds provide all the necessary prerequisites for the victorious decision on "who" on an international scale. extremely tense international situation.warned Shcherbakov {1411} . while clearly" looming Soviet role as an armed stronghold of world socialist revolution . hoping to achieve their objectives by military means.The clash between the socialist world and the world of capitalism is inevitable. capitalism had to make room.USSR liberated Western Ukraine and Western Belarus. the situation has been further improved in terms of strategy. worked hard and prepare for the decisive battles with the capitalist environment in order to get out of these fights the winner and thus ensure the final victory of socialism. since the end of 1940 the expansionist aspirations of Germany and the Soviet Union came into collision. "Leninism teaches . "When analyzing the immediate prospects of world capitalism should proceed from the rise of" revolutionary crisis ". "Thus. using a favorable environment . foreign policy of the Soviet Union has nothing to do with "pacifism". Soviet-German relations have entered a new phase .. and since November 1940. Based on the inevitability of the collision . performing the greatest mission entrusted by history on the world's first socialist state of workers and peasants constantly threatening to destroy us capitalist encirclement " {1408} . despite the presence of covenants and agreements with the State. For the time of the USSR could not proceed to such actions because of military weakness.. noted in the report GUPP. "The contradiction between the socialist world and the capitalist world is the sharpest contradiction of our epoch. In a modern. attach Finland..Shcherbakov wrote . of course. Thus Leninist-Stalinist policy in the world successfully resolved the challenges it faces. Now we have gained such strength and entered into a new.wrote Shcherbakov. and demonstrated that the talks in Berlin in November 1940. before imperialist powers themselves at loggerheads with each other for world supremacy . . This is .

widely used to achieve domestic and international militarytechnical thoughts reinvented organizational and seriously rearmed based on the experience of modern warfare " {1419} . Such ideas resonate with a note addressed to Zhdanov plows from February 22. . his devotion to the motherland.Kalinin said in a speech on May 20 . Revel in the world can not be unconsciously . Significantly improved and [445] military discipline. and connect the slogan of peace with the interests of socialism. "that our Party and the Soviet government are not fighting for the sake of world peace. While socialism wins worldwide. .wrote Shcherbakov. economic and military power . according to the documents quoted.not pacifists. " {1412} . If we really want peace . which in the autumn of 1939. The Red Army. and in the event of war between the other great powers.. containing "some thoughts on war propaganda among the population". Zhdanov said that "we are stronger. according to the Soviet leadership. "peace policy of the USSR" was interpreted in Moscow rather peculiar. June 5. For this purpose. "if the circumstances allow us. Speaking at the Supreme Military Council during the discussion guidelines GUPP June 4. All this once again confirms the fact that the so-called "peace-loving foreign policy of the USSR" was nothing more than a propaganda campaign under the guise of which the Soviet leadership sought to provide the most favorable conditions for the "smashing capitalism" by military means. We have already embarked on aggressive policy" { 1417} . which gave the Soviet leadership confidence in strike . Red Army really was a summer 1941 giant military instrument. as close to a combat situation. which is clearly defined.and for such a war in which the capitalists will not stop short of any. we will continue to expand the front socialism " {1414} . not as a moment of war. It is interesting to note that the issue of a new expansion "front socialism" got it in May-June 1941. his willingness to spare their strength and life in the name of communism.it leads to the transformation of people into pacifists vulgar . significantly raised the combat capability of the Red Army. was the main opponent of the USSR and was his only western neighbor. 1941.liberation war. it is enough to recall. which was seen as a strategic base for operations in Scandinavia and the Baltic. "If you are Marxists .and unsteady. then you must understand that this is the basic idea of the Marxist doctrine .They have always been and remain opposed to only unfair. 1941 . national. and a durable and reliable . We do not have to prepare for such a war. the first step of which was the Soviet Union's aggression against its neighbors to the west and the annexation of territories in Eastern Europe in 1939-1940.. with the task of protecting state interests of the USSR " {1413} .On this basis. and other wars. was to create a military-industrial complex capable of [444] provide the offensive of the Red Army. Only because of the difficult international climate Moscow failed to seize Finland. . These conditions.then we must go all out to prepare for war. " {1420} . which is now .Perestroika in the teaching methods of all arms. . the war with Finland. Red Army as strong as its political and moral state. War with Poland and Finland were not defensive wars.noted in the Proceedings of speech Kalinina from May 20. predatory. not short.with a huge conflict within humanity to gain maximum benefit for Communism" {1415} . he formulated the idea more succinctly: "for the war a time when you can extend communism" {1416} . But they always were. our country has made further steady growth in the political.the Red Army. tanks and powerful high-speed aircraft in an amount exceeding any capitalist army. stated on May 15 Zhdanov meeting filmmakers in the CPSU (b). To imagine at least a rough idea of this war.noted in the report GUPP. 1941. to expand the "front of socialism" further to the West could only crush Germany. "The Bolsheviks . in 1941. are and will stand for a fair. revolutionary.because it's not a war... capitalist world is full of flagrant abominations." {1418} . In these conditions it was possible under the guise of slogans about the "peaceloving Soviet Union" start "export of revolution" in Europe. which can only be destroyed with a hot iron holy war. the most diabolical means to fight for their existence. for example.if you study the history of the party. "She has a powerful artillery.As the documents show. "A wise foreign policy of the Party and the Soviet government provided the peoples of the USSR has been for 20 years the peaceful labor . which. we can put more active tasks. was awarded the epithet "the army of liberation. as long as they are inevitable. imperialist wars. However. Here's to what we should prepare for war. was ready enough serious tool . but spillikins . or at least in the principal capitalist countries.

the overall share of military spending in 1940.4%) and 32. almost 2 times higher than the overall growth in spending {1421} . In 1940. and tomorrow will be even stronger.448 tanks and warplanes 19458 {1429} . Soviet Union is now stronger than ever. If we consider the total expenditure on the armed forces.6 210. the military-industrial commissariats. According to the report GUPP. Total for 1939 . was 39%.7% in 1937 to 18. had done enormous work on the improvement of the Soviet armed forces. in 1939-1941. This conclusion is based on the failings of the Great Patriotic War. or 24. 2485 5774 232.. to mobilize and were captured by the German surprise attack.against Germany.4%. in 1939. these figures were 39.8 However. the war effort was expended 26% of industrial production (for example.5 316.7 18. As already noted. In the first half of 1941.3%) and 25.33. completing the transition to production of only these samples {1428} . when circumstances require.4 Division estimates 131.6% {1422} .the first half of 1941 troops received from industry 92. General Directorate of State Material Reserves. {1431} On 01/01/39 On 22/06/41 % To 1939.20 February 1941) in the defense industry were translated into wartime mode {1427} . the army really surpassed any other country in the number of military equipment.8 117.7 242. "The entire staff of the Red Army .5 240. the NKVD. the figure was 10. This offensive policy has resulted in the liberation of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus. Annual growth of military production in 1938 1940ies. Development of the Armed Forces of the USSR in 1939-1941.should feel the knowledge that increased political. which also had a negative impact on their performance {1433} .6% of national income {1423} . defending our country.4% (16. War itself came to the borders of our country. and in Germany in 1939. the Soviet industry produced 100% and 87% of tanks combat new types of aircraft. obliged to act offensive a way to pass from the defense.6% and in 1940 . economic and military power of the Soviet Union which allows us to carry out an aggressive foreign policy. In addition. In the years following happened redistribution of budget expenditure: in 1938 on the national economy (including industry) consumed 41.7 Guns and mortars (in thousands) 55. and accepted June 6 mobilization plan for the second half of 1941 and 1942 provides for its further growth and military industrial restructuring "in case of war" {1430} .) Increased from 8. expanding its territory.7% (19%) and defense 18.the first war year-23%) {1424} .7 Tanks (thousand) 21. could not affect the results. naturally. Accordingly. Personnel (thousand).7 121.5% in the first half of 1941 {1426 } After XVIII Party Conference (15 . Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. Accordingly.S. the growth of which is shown in Table 40. Soviet armed forces. Ammunition production only in the first half of 1941 increased by 66. reaches 52% of budget expenditures.7% in 1940 and to 22. in the U.4% (20. General Administration of Civil Aviation and other paramilitary organizations. the troops did not have time to complete the concentration and deployment. the question of real combat capability of the Red Army on the eve of the war still awaits the researcher.7%. Every day and hour perhaps . "the present international situation is extremely tense. . to the military policy of offensive action " {1434} . resolutely eliminating hotbeds of war on its borders. Red Army and the Soviet people. [446] Table 40. the Soviet government exaggerated the combat capability of the Red Army. the share of military production in the gross industrial production (in prices of 1926/27's. to which they were not prepared for that. three times (!) surpassing the growth of all industrial production {1425} .noted in the draft directive GUPP .492 guns and mortars. In our opinion. the Baltic states. in defeating the White Finnish adventure. increased military spending and direct the growth of which in 1938 1940ies. However. 7. available in the national historiography {1432} allegations of alleged low combat capability of the Red Army in 1941 seem to be insufficiently substantiated. but it ignores the fact that the Soviet troops had to fight a defensive battle.8%.1 25.8 Combat aircraft (in thousands) 7.

. apparently in the direction of British Malaya. Bakanova "The doctrine of Lenin and Stalin on the war.S. Simultaneously planned series of publications in the anti spirit in all major publications {1439} .MM) did not give any success and ended in defeat. Generally in April-June 1941.] Experience of the war action showed that the defensive strategy against the superior motorized units (Germany . The Soviet Union. were vague hints of "Truth" to the possibility of "any surprises" in the international situation . Covenant is the basis of Japan and the Soviet Union at this stage. the constant preparation for war. the same role that Europe has played for the Soviet-German non-aggression pact. the interests of Japan and the USSR really match. just wars {1436} . Concurrent with the development of these guidelines the purposeful reorientation of Soviet propaganda on the . because only the destruction of capitalism will lead to a world without wars but until that happens. "Interestingly. etc. This pact temporarily prevent confrontation between the USSR and Japan. USSR does not intend to intervene in a fight with the U. [.. backed by a powerful technique (emphasis mine. the need for tighter control of the Office of Propaganda for articles on foreign policy topics." attracted the attention of the British press. and Japan. in turn.imperialists attack on the Soviet Union. on different. [448] "Due to the tense situation prevailing in the West to the Soviet Union.] At this point in history the interests of the USSR and Japan regarding the preservation of the world on their joint borders coincided.MM) [447] Task of all the Red Army command staff . such a clash is not far off.S. Japan was interested in the neutrality of the USSR during the war in the Pacific {1443} . Thus. Japan promised to observe strict neutrality. The ruling Politburo devoted to this publication. 1941 shows that the Soviet leadership was familiar with the situation in the Far East and Japan knew about the preparations for war with Britain and the United States. the Soviet leadership led a cautious foreign policy so that it gave a number of authors a reason to talk about the policy of appeasement of Germany {1441} .noted in the guppy . . the Philippines. {1438} . Regime of strict masking even extends to the Comintern. however. against Germany to apply the same offensive strategy.. and their technical equipment and combat training. . equal to her as to the number of troops. Similar considerations in policy documents of the CPSU (b) together with data on.enormous importance to the prisoner by the Soviet government neutrality pact with Japan. " "The German army has not faced the enemy equivalent. we must be prepared to prevent their offensive operations. immediate military preparations to attack the Red Army unequivocally indicate the intention of the Soviet leadership to make summer 1941 attack on Germany. the Bolsheviks favor progressive. In this context. and this explains the above note Chief of Propaganda of the Central Committee.struggle with pacifism. and to a certain extent guaranteeing our Far Eastern borders is a new victory of Stalin's foreign policy wise. but not "diametrically opposite". 1941 with a detailed analysis of the international situation as it "could open our cards to the enemy" {1440} . " {1442} . and most importantly . which was refused publication appeals to May 1. Meanwhile. This would mean a bluff enemy " {1435} .to study the experience of modern warfare and use it. preparing young people for sluzhbe'v army. The only thing that was allowed in the press. Such ideas. and European problems in Japan's neutrality during the defeat of Germany and the "liberation" of European capitalism.he was supposed to provide the Soviet leadership a free hand in Europe. However. in the preparation of our soldiers. . All study of all arms of the Red Army should be soaked offensive spirit. Singapore. and for the same reasons: the Soviet-Japanese treaty was supposed to play for the Far East. materials known to date do not support this version. Score Moscow Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact on April 13. had to be kept in strict confidence. Consequently. was interested in diverting attention from England and the U. strengthening the defense power and combat offensive spirit of the Soviet people. clear sharply negative reaction of the CPSU (b) for publication May 21. In turn. diametrically opposite reasons. of course. Japan renounces from the anti-Soviet adventures on our borders. pacts from Japan is undoubtedly an attempt to secure its northern borders in order to hit with more power in the south. 1941 in "Komsomolskaya Pravda" article Regimental Commissar I. In her somewhat milder form set out some ideas above documents . [. Alexander made to the proposal the following note:" A sort of wording can not be permitted. and directly responsible of its appearance in the newspaper were removed from work {1437} .

a just war " {1445} . It's impossible contradiction can be resolved and only outlived by force of arms in the bloody battle of class enemies. in the spirit of the Soviet Union inevitable clash with the capitalist world and the constant readiness to move in a crushing offensive" launched in accordance with the decision of the Chief Military [449] Council of 14 May 1941 The next day the troops were sent directive "On political activities with the Red Army and junior commanders of the Red Army for the summer of 1941". Lieutenant General MF Lukin ^ believed that the war is about to begin " {1450} . "at the Military Political Academy Lenin just finished special courses military council member and chief of political department." According to Lieutenant Kondakova. 1941 in Moscow.education of the population in the spirit of "destructional offensive war". Most importantly. when these will develop a favorable environment . Since the second half of May 1941 in the Army began a demonstration of anti-fascist films made with rolled autumn 1939 {1446} . such a war ostensibly should be considered fair. this war is considered unjust. and vice versa. France and England in 1914. if the country was attacked and only defending itself. all this gave rise to rumors of the impending war with Germany. during the concentration of the 75th Infantry Division WSMD to the border on May 12-13. " Commander of the 16th Army. forgetting the truth that every war. "end if second imperialist war. Hence the need to educate our army in the spirit of the greatest activity. "And we need to understand and quite openly admit . which began with the advance of the Red Army {1447} . Restructuring propaganda in the army with the task of "educate personnel in offensive and belligerent spirit. will have to work in a new environment. To maintain the offensive spirit of combat commanders of the Red Army in May 1941 (signed print May 5) was reprinted booklet MV Frunze "Unified Military Doctrine and the Red Army". it is necessary to crush the hostile capitalist encirclement. preparing it to completion of the tasks of the revolution by energetic resolutely and courageously carried out offensive operations " {1448} . According to the memoirs of a member of the Military Council and the Army 16-AA Lobacheva.. At the end of May . Here I met a lot of old friends and comrades.. May 15 th Red Army 337 separate anti-aircraft artillery battalion . the contents of which resonated with the above documents. no other way out and can not be. apparently... VA Nevezhina {1444} . Most of them considered a military conflict inevitable fight is inevitable.that joint parallel existence of our proletarian Soviet state with the states of the bourgeois-capitalist world for a long time . the Soviet Union would end" {1451} . Krasnoarmeets Radinkov during the march said: "We are at war and we do not say anything. and affected the propaganda that was fought in the army and among the population.beginning of June 1941 was published in great quantities and sent troops to the western border districts "Russian-German phrase for a soldier and junior commander". Painting these preparations detailed in the study." Lieutenant Dashkevich said about refutation TASS 9 May that "the Soviet government is cheating and denies the reality. the following statements were recorded. From this it is concluded that the Red Army will conduct only defensive war. He said that. " For this it is necessary to strengthen the Soviet military might. a serious ideological confrontation with Germany and its allies. this activity is not limited to classrooms executives promotional agencies. which were committed by "competent authorities" in mid-May 1941 with 3-NGO Management (Special departments) repeatedly informed the Head of Crime Prevention and other interested instance of "unhealthy political attitudes and anti-Soviet statements "within the population of the western region and the Red Army soldiers. " Since the main objective is to build a Soviet communism throughout the world. Analyzing the doctrine of Germany. songs were written about the war with the Nazis. is June 10-14. Thus. which will lead the Soviet Union. the content of which was to help Soviet soldiers [450] act of the German-speaking population and thus facilitating "liberation mission" {1449} . and therefore to be stubborn and uncompromising struggle. introduced with the directive on the strengthening of political propaganda in the army and in particular the need to expose the reactionary nature of fascism. the author concludes that the military doctrine of any state "depends on the nature of the general political line of the social class.Frunze wrote . which stated that "on the just and unjust wars is sometimes given this interpretation: if the country first attacked another and leads offensive war. Naturally. given that "by the course of the historical process of the revolutionary working class will be forced to go on the offensive on the capital. which is in charge of it" and must comply "with the overall objectives of the state and that the material and spiritual resources which are at his disposal. Head of political propaganda AI Zaporozhec invited to interview a group of senior political officers.

Rar. even after June 22. USSR But why so long in coming to Germany" (a local Long) {1454} . for Germany. Once the Soviet troops started doing radio and conspiring to them.'s Body was brought to the headquarters train nurses. "In exactly came many generals and political workers. but for the outbreak of war with Germany" (cadet courses junior commanders Zhukov). all are preparing for war" (master of urban battery workshop Horn).. "Rebuttal TASS untrue. and we" {1457} . it will soon be a war between Russia and Germany" (chef military hospital Sorokin). the high command gathers and presumably soon be a war" (soldiers in / h Voronkov 2906). so soon there will be war" (Paramedic conscripts Surikov). since you have to carefully prepare for a war that will be with Germany. and anti-fascist propaganda in the army was somewhat muted. but most need to understand that there will be war. and you are all fools go " {1452} . 1941 continued circulation of rumors that the instigator of the war was the Soviet Union. "The Soviet Union conducts intensive training for war with Germany. come to liberate the brothers of England and Germany. Moreover.. and must be carefully prepared. and the Soviet Union. 1941 3rd NPO Management reported new facts. Parts come from CAAC.we the existing dictatorship " {1456} . May 25. what could be the game when everyone is talking about as we sow and go fight the Germans. Among civilian personnel following rumors circulated pieces. "In Rivne arrived many generals of the Red Army. This war started by our government to divert attention from the masses of discontent that swept the people .arhve Zyuzin believed that "if now there is no war between the USSR and Germany. the international situation is fraught with all sorts of surprises. something smells bad. but we do not believe it is because so many higher command personnel gather in front Proskurov attack on Poland" (Lt. colonels. Exactly sent from a large batch of youth of premilitary age. Romania We started flailing and fighting broke out of here already. However. I Today he received the completion of DVK "(doctor / u Janitorial 2811). Though the government is engaged in deceptive denials. the listener military Veterinary Academy Potapov. Telephone wire. and it is possible that their spread has led to the fact that the June 14. much more significant that similar sentiments have taken place among the military. but not collapsed. Currently in the USSR are mobilizing. soon there will be war with [451] Germany "(electrician Becker).Issue commanders of schools and academies of the General Staff is also not accident. Similar statements were recorded in the first days of the war. "That would be a war . listening on the radio speech Molotov said that "this is probably a provocation on our part forced the Germans to go to war the USSR. The same thoughts June 23. and if it is ready. "most likely not start the war in Germany. someone suggested Spunde (former SR): "The war with Germany started ours. "In exactly a lot of cars. learning about the beginning of the war. Well.F. where there already has 60 thousand ." Teacher Academy Breusenko said that "the war started not they (the Germans). it's probably we went to war themselves and bombed our cities" {1455} . May 20. According to the listener Quartermaster Academy lieutenant Prokofiev.. orders ensure there soon fighter full equipment "(in politruk / h Trofimov 2806). 1941 3rd NPO Management report on the mood of the troops KOVO.. "Now. It is now clear that there was a Japanese newspaper entirely untrue "(dental technician Toshman military hospital). "Lately. the war with Germany was inevitable" (a local Litovchenko). we will announce you fools . Similar statements allowed themselves and the military. it is because the Soviet Union is not ready for war. "In the long-term vacation leave now do not have to.. Check generals Exactly this is not an accidental phenomenon . so the generals and came in exactly '(sergeant in / h 2806Amel-kin). Thus.. The transfer of troops from the CAAC.. 1941 in Moscow. it's not Poland" (clerk of the 2nd Battalion / h Shabanov 2806) {1453} . . the Soviet leadership tried every possible way to suppress such rumors. June 23. "Higher commanders came not just for exercise. and transfer of German troops in Finland. "Soviet troops knocked into hard Rivne obviously preparing war with Germany" (a former employee of the military hospital Visht). 1941 was published the famous statement TASS. a lot of pilots arrived. [452] Naturally. it's not casual" (Petty 6th battery / h Polishchuk 2806). "Arrival of Soviet generals in Rivne speaks for the fact that Russia will soon be at war with Germany . "The war against Germany will be required. As a result. Recalls A. many generals. ". "We were 60 people came and generals as if they were all on the game. "It is said that generals gathered for teaching. / h Tsaberyaby 2811). 1941 in Khabarovsk.it's a fact.. It is worth the headquarters. Great Britain. from the Soviet Far East (DCK) is thrown to the West many troops . his mother and her friend (both teachers) suggested: "Yes.

all reports on international issues. [454] . protracted. Stalin to release academics. particularly closed. Chief of the 3rd Division of the Office of clothing allowances Main Quartermaster Directorate of the Red Army Paleev believed that "the acceleration caused by the war with Germany our provocative actions. This explains Moscow's policy in the summer of 1939. the concentration of troops on the Western border. considered the second world war as an opportunity to solve this problem. futile war. Germans occupied most of the continent. " {1459} . which will not only protect the Soviet Union. Admittedly. was the only right decision under the circumstances. but dramatically affect the fate of capitalism in general. it sabotage or something else " {1458} . near the Sino-American conflict . Additionally. the growing discontent of the population of the occupied countries. who knew that the Soviet Union started the war before June 22. but before that. Major General Peter says that "war did not begin at 4 am on June 22. Thus escaped Soviet participation in the European war and had the opportunity to join the new territories in Eastern Europe. that is. and most importantly performance Comrade. 1941 " {1460} As you know. the Soviet leadership went into an agreement with Germany. so it would be strange to expect from Germany our concentration. under German attack Soviet propaganda had to be reconstructed again.I do not know how it could break the Germans in the Soviet Union. this time on the [453] providing a defensive war. " In anticipation of the impact of Soviet propaganda was ordered to smoothly bring public opinion to believe that the current international situation pushes "the world's first socialist state" to inflict a crushing blow to the "bastion of the most reactionary bourgeoisie" Germany. the situation favored the implementation of this task. when. making sure that Britain and France were not willing to make concessions to the Soviet Union. from their perspective. what he knew from talking to some relative Vadim. also said that the war with Germany was inevitable. spraying the Wehrmacht on different fronts. the main goal is to expand CSCP "front socialism" to the maximum possible area.there is a matter of choosing the moment. where he stated that Soviet entry into the war . Assistant Chief of the Military-Political Academy for Logistics. According to the Soviet leadership. the Germans shot at us. and fight with the above rumors.all this gave the Soviet leadership a unique chance to sudden blow to crush Germany and "liberate" Europe from "decaying capitalism . But it was only an intermediate objective. The above data show that the Soviet leadership by joining the struggle for the achievement of the Soviet Union the status of a "great power".