Anesthesia, types and the affection on the

nervous system
Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek αν-, an-,
"without"; and αἴσθησις, aisthēsis, "sensation"), traditionally meant the
condition of having sensation (including the feeling of pain) blocked or
temporarily taken away. It is a pharmacologically induced and reversible state
of amnesia, analgesia, loss of responsiveness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes
or decreased stress response, or all simultaneously. This allows patients to
undergo surgery and other procedures without the distress and pain they would
otherwise experience. An alternative definition is a "reversible lack of
awareness," including a total lack of awareness (e.g. a general anesthetic) or a
lack of awareness of a part of the body such as a spinal anesthetic. The preexisting word anesthesia was suggested by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. in 1846
as a word to use to describe this state. Types of anesthesia include local
anesthesia, regional anesthesia, general anesthesia, and dissociative
anesthesia. Local anesthesia inhibits sensory perception within a specific
location on the body, such as a tooth or the urinary bladder. Regional
anesthesia renders a larger area of the body insensate by blocking
transmission of nerve impulses between a part of the body and the spinal cord.
Two frequently used types of regional anesthesia are spinal anesthesia and
epidural anesthesia. General anesthesia refers to inhibition of sensory, motor
and sympathetic nerve transmission at the level of the brain, resulting in
unconsciousness and lack of sensation. Dissociative anesthesia uses agents
that inhibit transmission of nerve impulses between higher centers of the brain
(such as the cerebral cortex) and the lower centers, such as those found within
the limbic system.

Anesthesia and The Nervous System
Anesthetic agents slow down the central nervous system and ultimately cause
a loss of consciousness. There are two classifications for these types of agents.
An
anesthetic
can
either
be
considered
general
or
local.
In the early 1800’s anesthetics were used in surgery in the form of nitrous
oxide. This form is still commonly used today in dental offices. Several
anesthetics that were used by the mid 1800’s, like chloroform and ether, are
either hardly used or are no longer used in modern medicine due to the health
problems
they
have
been
associated
with.
A general anesthetic is primarily used for surgical purposes. A specialized
healthcare provider must be trained to administer general anesthesia. Only an
anesthesiologist or a nurse anesthetist can administer this type of anesthesia,
which
is
usually
inhaled
through a
mask
or
breathing
tube.
A general anesthetic can either be one pure form of a medication or a mixture
of medications. An anesthetic that consists of a mixture of medications is called
“balanced anesthesia” and is only administered depending on the patients

A balanced anesthesia is often used on patients who may have cardiovascular problems and is often administered in phases. A patient that is preparing for surgery is often given a hypnotic drug to be used the night before the surgery. A balanced anesthesia is also gentler on organs and is often easier for patients to recover from with fewer adverse side effects. weight and known allergies. age. medical history. It is also used when less general anesthetic is needed or to reduce potential post-anesthetic nausea and vomiting. This drug is administered to help the patient get a good night’s sleep. Let me show you some steps labeled with pictures: I II . On the day of the planned surgery. the patient may be given several other premedications. The anesthesia can be administered as an inhaled gas or through an intravenous tube.health. These types of drugs are generally used to help decrease anxiety and sedate the patient.

III IV V VI .