the aluminum extrusion process starts with a diet being loaded into the press
the diet has openings that will create the profile when the aluminum is pushed
dies our preheated to prevent the aluminum from sticking in these openings
next the wrought alloy is brought to the press in the form of a bill
the bill it as a solid solent oracle length of a lawyer there can be up to
seventy two inches long
abilities and placed into a heating furnace and he did to nine hundred
degrees fahrenheit
this temperature allows the bill it to become soft yet still maintain its shape
in a solid form
note that the aluminum has not changed color
even as a basis for heating furnace at nine hundred degrees

did he did bill it is now loaded into the press 0:54 as pressure is first applied the bill it is crushed against the dye 0:58 them as the pressure increases the soft but still solid aluminum has no place 1:03 else to go 1:04 and begins to squeeze out through the opening of the diet 1:08 to emerge on the other side as a fully formed profile 1:13 the extrusion has cooled after emerging from the dye 1:16 either naturally or through the use of air or water quenchers 1:21 this is a critical step to ensure sufficient metallurgical properties 1:25 after aging 1:26 the extrusion is then transferred to a cooling table 1:31 a stretcher is used after the profile has been cool to straighten the 1:35 extrusion 1:36 incorrect any twisting that may have occurred after the extrusion 1:41 .

finish cuts off is used to cut the profile to the specified commercial life 1:47 extrusions are then placed on rafts as they are prepared for the aging process 1:52 extrusion alloys reach their optimal strength through the process of aging 1:57 sometimes known as age hardening 1:59 natural dating occurs at room temperature 2:02 artificial aging takes place through controlled heating in an aging often 2:07 the aging of and further strengthens or hardens the profile through controlled 2:11 thermal treatments that affect the metallurgical structure of the alloys 2:16 yielding maximum strength 2:17 hardness an elasticity for the profile 2:21 once the extrusion process is complete the die is removed from the press and 2:26 cleaned of any residual aluminum 2:29 after cleaning the die is inspected and prepared for the next time it will be 2:33 used to extruded this profile .

ROLLING this isn't all university production 0:05 this film will give you as a student an overview of the processes within a hot 0:10 rolling now 0:13 the film is made in collaboration with insists on being in mourning 0:20 the steel material is processed plastic green 0:23 at very high temperatures 0:27 rotating roles reduce the thickness of the material 0:30 and produce long strips that can be used for manufacturing products such as steel 0:35 plates 0:38 we will be going through the various stages of the hot rolling process 0:45 each stage requires knowledge and experience to ensure high quality 0:48 product 0:52 immaterial it is 0:53 .

heated in the reading furnace 0:56 rolled in the rafting now 1:00 coral boxed 1:05 role in the finishing mail 1:14 before the slab can be processed 1:16 it must be seated 1:17 the slab is continuously casten has the dimensions required for the final 1:22 product of a correct weight 1:24 and thickness 1:28 these furnaces keep the material to about twelve hundred degrees centigrade 1:33 walking being princes 1:35 he didn t real through the other 1:41 the heating is especially important as it affects the properties of the 1:45 material 1:46 .

if the material is not sufficiently heated 1:49 incorrect material properties will arise 1:52 this is due to carbides and nitrates failing to dissolve 1:58 during the heating process and the transport to the rockingham 2:02 the hot material reacts to the oxygen in the air and the mill scale consisting of 2:07 oxide is formed on the surface 2:10 if they are excited layer remains on the material during rolling 2:14 the mayor risks being rolled into the steel material 2:17 adversely affecting the surface quality of the final product 2:21 the material must undergo a mill scale cleansing before rolling 2:26 in order to cleanse the surface 2:28 waters sprayed at high pressure hundred and sixteen bombs 2:37 after the material has undergone a surface cleansing 2:40 it sent to the rockingham 2:43 .

here the material is rolled from its original thickness of twenty two 2:47 centimeters 2:48 down to about 2:49 three centimeters 2:51 is is a very significant reduction 2:55 at this rough email 2:57 four high vol the notice 3:00 to back up 3:01 and to smaller working 3:04 the back of roles are often cast steel group 3:09 the working roles must have very smooth surfaces and tolerate high temperatures 3:14 and where as they are in direct contact with the material 3:23 this particular material is rolled with five passes 3:26 where one past means that the material passes through the roles ones 3:33 .

the material is surface planned several times during the roughing mill process 3:39 any new traces of mail scam 3:44 in order to control the width of the material 3:47 vertical roles are used 3:53 the material is now called 3:55 transfer bars 3:57 after the roughing mail 3:59 the transfer bar is rolled up in the coral barks 4:03 the coil boxes primary purpose is to save space 4:07 button when inside the club box a temperature equalization also occurs 4:12 the temperature difference between the ends of the material is minimized as the 4:17 transfer bar is coil together 4:19 when the transfer bar is removed from the coral barks it has a temperature at 4:23 of about one thousand fifty degrees centigrade 4:28 .

the ends of the transfer bar are cut off and the bar undergoes further males 4:32 killed it 4:34 after this it's time for the next stage 4:39 this mill consists of six n 4:41 in the shape of 4:42 four high voting 4:45 here the transfer bars now called strips 4:48 pot of gold into a thickness of between sixteen 4:51 and one point eight milliliters 4:59 we see enough of 5:01 which measures and controls amongst other things the line speed 5:08 the swinging motion that can be observed is when opt 5:12 is adjusting itself 5:16 in order to control the profile and the flatness of the strips 5:20 .

the working roles are horizontally adjustable 5:24 the first stands control the profile 5:26 and in the later stands the flatness is controlled 5:30 it's very important to have the correct 5:32 profile and flat 5:33 nest before any post-processing start 5:42 the cooling rate is adapted to each strip to produce the appropriate 5:46 microstructure and material properties of the end product 5:51 where mister fiske passed through the cooling section it's coral game 5:55 the temperature during carling varies between a hundred and fifty 5:59 and seven hundred and fifty degrees centigrade 6:02 depending on the properties assigned to the material 6:07 after coiling and the subsequent cooling 6:10 this trip can be sold directly to the customer 6:13 .

or undergo additional processing stages for instance cold rolling FORGING 0:05 is the controlled information of metal into specific shapes 0:09 by the use of compressive forces 0:13 these courses are applied through tools and died driven mainly by hammers 0:18 which still form the working spot hivelocity impact 0:22 or presses 0:23 which to form the workpiece through controlled high pressures 0:27 forging is one of the oldest metalworking processes 0:31 dating as far back as eight thousand bc 0:35 it is utilized today to reduce the cross-section 0:39 improved the metallurgical microstructure 0:42 provide directional grain flow 0:44 and eliminate porosity of casting get 0:47 in fabricating brought no forms .

0:50 to form discrete parts to near net shape from these rock mill forms 0:55 for their refining microstructure and directional grain flow 1:00 because of these effects on microstructure and grain flow 1:04 the mechanical performance of rock mill forms and parts 1:08 is typically superior to that of cast medals 1:14 opened i for j 1:15 is performed on ended 1:18 or a pre form 1:20 and is the defamation of a workpiece 1:23 between flap or shaped dies 1:25 without completely restricting mental flow 1:29 this defamation can result in lengthening of the workpiece while 1:33 reducing its cross-section 1:36 upsetting regions along the length to greater sizes than adjacent regions .

1:43 bulging the work pieces cross-section 1:45 while reducing its length 1:48 lengthening and upsetting are typically done using multiple impacts as the work 1:54 pieces incrementally advanced lengthwise 1:57 and rotated about its longitudinal access 2:01 there is a centrally no limit to the size of forgings that can be made 2:05 using opened i for j 2:08 they can range from a few centimeters two thirty meters in length 2:13 and wave from a few 2:14 to up to several hundred thousand kilograms 2:19 although fairly complex shapes can be made using opened i four jg 2:24 most a rather simple solid sore hollows requiring considerable machining 2:29 to achieve final shape 2:32 forgings are produced using simple flat .

2:36 v shaped 2:38 or semi round dies 2:41 various six esri tools are also used including saddles 2:46 blocks 2:49 rings 2:50 manju rolls 2:52 and punches 2:54 to withstand forging temperatures abrasion and impact 2:59 dies and accessory tools are usually made of hard work 3:03 tools deals or medium carbon alloy steels 3:09 impression dot forging 3:11 also called closed i forging 3:13 is the defamation of metal that forging temperature 3:17 within one or more die impressions or cavities .

3:21 it is performed both impresses and hammers 3:26 work pieces maybe round 3:28 or rectangular 3:29 and cross-section 3:31 or flat desks 3:32 and that dies are sometimes enter relief heated to minimize chilling and cooling 3:38 of the workpiece 3:40 for simple shapes impression die fourteen can be performed in a single 3:45 press stroke 3:46 more often however 3:48 several strokes of different force are used with dies 3:52 having several impressionist four sequential pre forming and finish 3:56 forging operations 3:59 preforming operations may include .

4:02 to increase the workpiece cross-section 4:06 blocking to refine the shape four finish forging 4:11 and finish forging to complete the shape 4:15 in finnish forging 4:17 the bulk of the metal is forced into the impression 4:20 wala thin-layer 4:21 called flash 4:23 flows out between the dies at the parting plane surrounding the forging 4:29 flash comprises a flat region called the land 4:32 and sometimes a bowl this region at the end of the land created by a gutter in 4:38 the upper die 4:40 the thin flash cools rapidly increasing pressure within the impression 4:45 which assists metal flow in the impression details 4:49 once finish forging is complete .

4:52 the flashes removed either manually for with training dies .