EXTRUSION

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the aluminum extrusion process starts with a diet being loaded into the press
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the diet has openings that will create the profile when the aluminum is pushed
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through
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dies our preheated to prevent the aluminum from sticking in these openings
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next the wrought alloy is brought to the press in the form of a bill
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the bill it as a solid solent oracle length of a lawyer there can be up to
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seventy two inches long
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abilities and placed into a heating furnace and he did to nine hundred
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degrees fahrenheit
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this temperature allows the bill it to become soft yet still maintain its shape
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in a solid form
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note that the aluminum has not changed color
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even as a basis for heating furnace at nine hundred degrees
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did he did bill it is now loaded into the press 0:54 as pressure is first applied the bill it is crushed against the dye 0:58 them as the pressure increases the soft but still solid aluminum has no place 1:03 else to go 1:04 and begins to squeeze out through the opening of the diet 1:08 to emerge on the other side as a fully formed profile 1:13 the extrusion has cooled after emerging from the dye 1:16 either naturally or through the use of air or water quenchers 1:21 this is a critical step to ensure sufficient metallurgical properties 1:25 after aging 1:26 the extrusion is then transferred to a cooling table 1:31 a stretcher is used after the profile has been cool to straighten the 1:35 extrusion 1:36 incorrect any twisting that may have occurred after the extrusion 1:41 .

finish cuts off is used to cut the profile to the specified commercial life 1:47 extrusions are then placed on rafts as they are prepared for the aging process 1:52 extrusion alloys reach their optimal strength through the process of aging 1:57 sometimes known as age hardening 1:59 natural dating occurs at room temperature 2:02 artificial aging takes place through controlled heating in an aging often 2:07 the aging of and further strengthens or hardens the profile through controlled 2:11 thermal treatments that affect the metallurgical structure of the alloys 2:16 yielding maximum strength 2:17 hardness an elasticity for the profile 2:21 once the extrusion process is complete the die is removed from the press and 2:26 cleaned of any residual aluminum 2:29 after cleaning the die is inspected and prepared for the next time it will be 2:33 used to extruded this profile .

ROLLING this isn't all university production 0:05 this film will give you as a student an overview of the processes within a hot 0:10 rolling now 0:13 the film is made in collaboration with insists on being in mourning 0:20 the steel material is processed plastic green 0:23 at very high temperatures 0:27 rotating roles reduce the thickness of the material 0:30 and produce long strips that can be used for manufacturing products such as steel 0:35 plates 0:38 we will be going through the various stages of the hot rolling process 0:45 each stage requires knowledge and experience to ensure high quality 0:48 product 0:52 immaterial it is 0:53 .

heated in the reading furnace 0:56 rolled in the rafting now 1:00 coral boxed 1:05 role in the finishing mail 1:14 before the slab can be processed 1:16 it must be seated 1:17 the slab is continuously casten has the dimensions required for the final 1:22 product of a correct weight 1:24 and thickness 1:28 these furnaces keep the material to about twelve hundred degrees centigrade 1:33 walking being princes 1:35 he didn t real through the other 1:41 the heating is especially important as it affects the properties of the 1:45 material 1:46 .

if the material is not sufficiently heated 1:49 incorrect material properties will arise 1:52 this is due to carbides and nitrates failing to dissolve 1:58 during the heating process and the transport to the rockingham 2:02 the hot material reacts to the oxygen in the air and the mill scale consisting of 2:07 oxide is formed on the surface 2:10 if they are excited layer remains on the material during rolling 2:14 the mayor risks being rolled into the steel material 2:17 adversely affecting the surface quality of the final product 2:21 the material must undergo a mill scale cleansing before rolling 2:26 in order to cleanse the surface 2:28 waters sprayed at high pressure hundred and sixteen bombs 2:37 after the material has undergone a surface cleansing 2:40 it sent to the rockingham 2:43 .

here the material is rolled from its original thickness of twenty two 2:47 centimeters 2:48 down to about 2:49 three centimeters 2:51 is is a very significant reduction 2:55 at this rough email 2:57 four high vol the notice 3:00 to back up 3:01 and to smaller working 3:04 the back of roles are often cast steel group 3:09 the working roles must have very smooth surfaces and tolerate high temperatures 3:14 and where as they are in direct contact with the material 3:23 this particular material is rolled with five passes 3:26 where one past means that the material passes through the roles ones 3:33 .

the material is surface planned several times during the roughing mill process 3:39 any new traces of mail scam 3:44 in order to control the width of the material 3:47 vertical roles are used 3:53 the material is now called 3:55 transfer bars 3:57 after the roughing mail 3:59 the transfer bar is rolled up in the coral barks 4:03 the coil boxes primary purpose is to save space 4:07 button when inside the club box a temperature equalization also occurs 4:12 the temperature difference between the ends of the material is minimized as the 4:17 transfer bar is coil together 4:19 when the transfer bar is removed from the coral barks it has a temperature at 4:23 of about one thousand fifty degrees centigrade 4:28 .

the ends of the transfer bar are cut off and the bar undergoes further males 4:32 killed it 4:34 after this it's time for the next stage 4:39 this mill consists of six n 4:41 in the shape of 4:42 four high voting 4:45 here the transfer bars now called strips 4:48 pot of gold into a thickness of between sixteen 4:51 and one point eight milliliters 4:59 we see enough of 5:01 which measures and controls amongst other things the line speed 5:08 the swinging motion that can be observed is when opt 5:12 is adjusting itself 5:16 in order to control the profile and the flatness of the strips 5:20 .

the working roles are horizontally adjustable 5:24 the first stands control the profile 5:26 and in the later stands the flatness is controlled 5:30 it's very important to have the correct 5:32 profile and flat 5:33 nest before any post-processing start 5:42 the cooling rate is adapted to each strip to produce the appropriate 5:46 microstructure and material properties of the end product 5:51 where mister fiske passed through the cooling section it's coral game 5:55 the temperature during carling varies between a hundred and fifty 5:59 and seven hundred and fifty degrees centigrade 6:02 depending on the properties assigned to the material 6:07 after coiling and the subsequent cooling 6:10 this trip can be sold directly to the customer 6:13 .

or undergo additional processing stages for instance cold rolling FORGING 0:05 is the controlled information of metal into specific shapes 0:09 by the use of compressive forces 0:13 these courses are applied through tools and died driven mainly by hammers 0:18 which still form the working spot hivelocity impact 0:22 or presses 0:23 which to form the workpiece through controlled high pressures 0:27 forging is one of the oldest metalworking processes 0:31 dating as far back as eight thousand bc 0:35 it is utilized today to reduce the cross-section 0:39 improved the metallurgical microstructure 0:42 provide directional grain flow 0:44 and eliminate porosity of casting get 0:47 in fabricating brought no forms .

0:50 to form discrete parts to near net shape from these rock mill forms 0:55 for their refining microstructure and directional grain flow 1:00 because of these effects on microstructure and grain flow 1:04 the mechanical performance of rock mill forms and parts 1:08 is typically superior to that of cast medals 1:14 opened i for j 1:15 is performed on ended 1:18 or a pre form 1:20 and is the defamation of a workpiece 1:23 between flap or shaped dies 1:25 without completely restricting mental flow 1:29 this defamation can result in lengthening of the workpiece while 1:33 reducing its cross-section 1:36 upsetting regions along the length to greater sizes than adjacent regions .

1:43 bulging the work pieces cross-section 1:45 while reducing its length 1:48 lengthening and upsetting are typically done using multiple impacts as the work 1:54 pieces incrementally advanced lengthwise 1:57 and rotated about its longitudinal access 2:01 there is a centrally no limit to the size of forgings that can be made 2:05 using opened i for j 2:08 they can range from a few centimeters two thirty meters in length 2:13 and wave from a few 2:14 to up to several hundred thousand kilograms 2:19 although fairly complex shapes can be made using opened i four jg 2:24 most a rather simple solid sore hollows requiring considerable machining 2:29 to achieve final shape 2:32 forgings are produced using simple flat .

2:36 v shaped 2:38 or semi round dies 2:41 various six esri tools are also used including saddles 2:46 blocks 2:49 rings 2:50 manju rolls 2:52 and punches 2:54 to withstand forging temperatures abrasion and impact 2:59 dies and accessory tools are usually made of hard work 3:03 tools deals or medium carbon alloy steels 3:09 impression dot forging 3:11 also called closed i forging 3:13 is the defamation of metal that forging temperature 3:17 within one or more die impressions or cavities .

3:21 it is performed both impresses and hammers 3:26 work pieces maybe round 3:28 or rectangular 3:29 and cross-section 3:31 or flat desks 3:32 and that dies are sometimes enter relief heated to minimize chilling and cooling 3:38 of the workpiece 3:40 for simple shapes impression die fourteen can be performed in a single 3:45 press stroke 3:46 more often however 3:48 several strokes of different force are used with dies 3:52 having several impressionist four sequential pre forming and finish 3:56 forging operations 3:59 preforming operations may include .

4:02 to increase the workpiece cross-section 4:06 blocking to refine the shape four finish forging 4:11 and finish forging to complete the shape 4:15 in finnish forging 4:17 the bulk of the metal is forced into the impression 4:20 wala thin-layer 4:21 called flash 4:23 flows out between the dies at the parting plane surrounding the forging 4:29 flash comprises a flat region called the land 4:32 and sometimes a bowl this region at the end of the land created by a gutter in 4:38 the upper die 4:40 the thin flash cools rapidly increasing pressure within the impression 4:45 which assists metal flow in the impression details 4:49 once finish forging is complete .

4:52 the flashes removed either manually for with training dies .