Le a de r s h ip

Le a de r s h ip
. .


We a re not born with lea dership skills. This Lea dership
module outlines the cha ra cteristics of lea dership a nd how
Junior Forest Wa rden lea ders ca n give Wa rdens the
opportunity to pra ctice lea dership skills. Without pra ctice,
lea dership skills will not be there when needed. One of the
most importa nt components of effective lea dership is a llowing
the group to function a t its best. And tha t is wha t you a s a
JFW lea der will fa cilita te within your group.
Another pa rt of lea dership tra ining is ma stering processes a nd
skills such a s ma king decisions a nd dea ling with conflicts.
Wa rdens must be given opportunities to develop these skills,
a s well a s provide feedba ck to ea ch other a fter a n experience.
Wa rdens ca n be encoura ged to keep notes on wha t does a nd
doesn' t work. The confidence a nd skills tha t Wa rdens ga in a re
cumula tive. They must be encoura ged to cha llenge
themselves, ta ke risks a nd lea rn from their mista kes. You ca n
ea sily tra in the Wa rdens to ma ke good decisions by a llowing
them, in rea l situa tions, to fa ce the cha llenges by themselves.
This is a n exciting module. You will observe the Wa rdens'
skills a nd a bilities develop a nd grow. It ca n be extremely
gra tifying for a lea der to pa rticipa te in the lives of some of
toda y' s youth a nd wa tch them stretch a nd grow to their
potentia l.
This module includes a checklist for the lea der to eva lua te
ea ch individua l Wa rden. As lea dership skills a re pra cticed a nd
demonstra ted through the three yea r progra m by ea ch
Wa rden, the skills ca n be checked off, the da te noted a nd
comments entered a bout the skill. Keeping tra ck of the skills
Wa rdens develop will ena ble you to pla n the progra m
a ctivities to suit the individua ls in your group.
Like the other modules, the Lea der' s version of this module is
different tha n the Wa rden' s version. This wa s purposely done
to give you the a dva nta ge for meeting a ctivities a nd to prevent
Wa rdens from rea ding a hea d a nd doing worksheets before
their time. The items not in the Wa rdens ma nua l a re
individua lly noted in your copy. There a ren' t ma ny a nd
includes such things like problem solving scena rios, scoring
lists, a nd discussion questions.
This module ma y test your own skills a nd a bilities a s a lea der.
The secret of lea dership lies within a person. As wa rdens
discover them, encoura ge them to pra ctice the skills so they
a re a ble to become a successful lea der. Remember, good
lea ders libera te people to do wha t is needed in the best
possible wa y.
Fra mework vii
Understa nding Lea dership 1
Communica tion 11
Responsibility 25
Pla nning 35
Lea dership of Others 53
I. Ice Brea kers, Coopera tive Ga mes, 63
Initia tives Ta sks & Energizers
II. Working with the Media 81
III. Ma king Presenta tions 89

I. Un de r s t a n din g Le a de r s h ip
Lea dership is not a science to be lea rned from a book. It is a n a rt
to be lea rned over time. Lea dership is libera ting people to do
wha t is needed in the best wa y possible.
u Understa nd a nd define wha t lea dership mea ns.
u List the cha ra cteristics of a good lea der.
II. Co mmu n ic a t io n
Good communica tion is not simply a ma tter of getting your fa cts
stra ight a nd delivering them a ccura tely. It is a lso a bout common
sense, a nd being willing to ta ke responsibility for your impa ct on
people' s lives.
u Prepa re a nd deliver a 10 minute presenta tion to younger Wa rdens
in your club .
u Conduct a nd eva lua te a specia l event or outtrip with your group.
u Demonstra te communica tion skills while lea ding a n a ctivity.
u Develop communica tion skills through pra ctice. Pla n a nd deliver
six a ctivities of your choice.Pa rticipa te in a la nd use pla nning
ga me.
III. Re s po n s ibilit y
Ta king responsibility includes completing duties a nd obliga tions
a s lea der, a s well a s ta king cha rge of your impa ct on other people
a nd forming fa ir a nd positive rela tionships.
u Sign the contra ct which lists some of the responsibilities of being
a lea der a nd a follower .
u Lea d a bra instorming session.
u Coa ch peers or younger wa rdens to help improve their skills a nd a bilities.
u Demonstra te one problem solving technique.
u Demonstra te coopera tion in the group a t club meetings a nd on outtrips.
IV. Pla n n in g
The most importa nt a spect of lea dership is pla nning a nd prepa ra tion. No other a spect of lea dership
counts for more. A well-orga nized, well-prepa red a nd well-informed group will likely rea ch its
goa ls, a void a ccidents a nd ha ve a positive experience.
u Lea rn how to write goa ls.
u Complete a Persona l Equipment Loca tor a nd a Group Equipment Loca tor.
u Pla n a nd conduct two JFW progra m a ctivities for younger Wa rdens.
V. Le a de r s h ip o f Ot h e r s
Good lea ders ca re a bout those they lea d. They a lso see a ctivities a nd outtrips a s opportunities to
help people lea rn a nd grow.
u Crea te a tea m by building trust through ice brea kers a nd coopera tive ga mes.
u Determine the strengths of Wa rdens in your group.
u Assist in lea ding a da ytrip for younger wa rdens.
. ..
Understa nd a nd define wha t lea dership mea ns. pa ge 3
List the cha ra cteristics of a good lea der. pa ge 7
I. Understa nding Lea dership
Un de r s t a n d a n d de fin e wh a t
le a de r s h ip me a n s .
` .
Lea dership is not a science. Lea dership is a process of getting
things done through people. Being a lea der is like a n
a dventure beca use you must delega te a nd empower, then trust
others to help you rea ch your goa ls. Lea dership mea ns
responsibility a nd ma king sure the job gets done. If you lea d,
they will do the job. If you don' t lea d, they ma y expect you to
do the job a ll by yourself.
` .
Lea dership is not ma gic tha t comes out of a lea der' s hea d.
The lea der lea rns how to get the job done a nd still keep the
group together. This does not mea n tha t the lea der does the
sa me things in every situa tion. Lea dership styles differ with
the lea der, the group a nd the situa tion.
No lea der ca n ta ke over a nother lea der' s job a nd do it the
sa me wa y. Group dyna mics va ry a lso. When a lea der
cha nges groups, the lea der cha nges the wa y he or she lea ds.
Simila rly, a lea der ma y cha nge his a pproa ch depending on the
circumsta nces.
Lea dership is not a science to be pic ked up in one book
or course, but a n a rt to be lea rned over time. Good
lea ders sometimes tell people wha t to do, but lea dership
is not just giving directions-it' s libera ting people to do
wha t is needed in the best possible wa y .
- from “Ou t d o o r Le a d e r s h ip ” by John Gra ha m
. .
How will you know when you a re improving? You lea rn best
by working with groups. You ca n' t keep tra ck of your progress
without a guide. You must know a nd understa nd wha t you
a re trying to lea rn. This mea ns you ha ve to know wha t the
skills of lea dership a re.
To find out if you a re a true lea der, see if you possess these
qua lities:
r Lea ders sta rt projects by a sking, "Wha t ha s to be done?"
instea d of "Wha t do I need to do?"
r Lea ders never a sk "Wha t do I ha ve to do to ma ke a rea l
contribution?" The a nswer best suits the lea der' s
strengths a nd the needs of the project.
r Lea ders continua lly a sk, "Wha t a re my orga niza tion' s
purposes a nd objectives?" a nd "Wha t qua lifies a s
a ccepta ble performa nce a nd a dds to the bottom line?"
r Lea ders don' t wa nt clones of themselves a s employees.
They never a sk "Do I like or dislike this employee?"
Lea ders won' t tolera te poor performa nce.
r Lea ders a ren' t threa tened by others who ha ve strengths
they la ck.
Ada pted from Peter Drucker, cited in “Fo r b e s ASAP ” ma ga zine.
A c t i v i t y
Rea d the true/ fa lse sta tements from “Wha t is Lea dership?” on
pa ge 5, or copy the pa ge for ea ch individua l or group of
Wa rdens. Discuss Wa rdens’ rea sons for choosing the a nswers
they did. Use the discussion summa ry on pa ge 6.
` .
Answer True or Fa lse to the following sta tements.
Circle T or F.
1. The only people who lea d ha ve some kind of lea dership
job, such a s cha irma n, coa ch or king. T or F
2. Lea dership is a gift. If you a re born with it, you ca n
lea d. If you a re not, you ca n' t. T or F
3. "Lea der" is a nother word for "boss." T or F
4. Being a Wa rden lea der in a JFW club is like being a
lea der a nywhere else? T or F
5. A lea der ha s two jobs, dea ling with people a nd the job.
T or F

Qu e s t io n # 1
You a re not a lea der beca use you ha ve a ha t on tha t sa ys
lea der, you a re lea der beca use you lea d. Lea dership is
something people do. It' s true tha t some lea ders a re elected,
inherited, or a ppointed.
Qu e s t io n # 2
Lea dership does ta ke skill a nd not everyone lea rns to lea d a s
well a s they should. People ca n lea rn most of the skills a nd
develop their own potentia l.
Qu e s t io n # 3
A lea der is not a person who pushes other people a round. A
lea der is a person who ha s a job a nd works with other people
to get it done.
Qu e s t io n # 4
If you a re a Wa rden lea ding in a JFW club or group then you
a re doing the sa me things a s a ny lea der a nywhere. You ca n
lea rn a nd pra ctice how to lea d in JFW. Then you ca n lea d
other groups too, the skills a re very much the sa me.
Qu e s t io n # 5
Every lea der dea ls with two things; the job or ta sk a nd the
group or rela tionships. The job is wha t ha s to be done, it
doesn' t necessa rily mea n work. The group or rela tionships a re
the people who get the job done. The group continues a fter a
job is done, a nd this presents cha llenges to a lea der.
Lis t t h e c h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f a go o d
le a de r.
Lea ders ha ve individua l cha ra cteristics tha t people recognize
a nd va lue. Lea ders ha ve a following, people who a re willing
to ta ke direction from them a nd help them sta y on course.
Not everyone is born to be a lea der, but certa in skills a nd
a ttitudes we a ll a re ca pa ble of a tta ining give a ll of us the
ca pa city to lea d.
r True lea ders will a lwa ys pour forth their best work even if
it' s not something they wa nt to do.
r True lea ders set expecta tions. They a re the people a sking
for a genda s a t meetings a nd help to move through the
a genda .
r True lea ders never belittle. Every person is equa l a s a n
individua l.
r True lea ders know tha t in developing others a nd helping
them crea te their own successes, it ta kes nothing from
r True lea ders wa nt things to work out well for everyone.
They recognize the potentia l of win-win situa tions.
r True lea ders recognize tha t life is full of fa ilures a nd
successes a nd it is up to them to minimize fa ilures a nd
ma ximize successes. Ea ch fa ilure is a n opportunity to
lea rn, a stepping stone to the future.
r True lea ders recognize tha t they don' t go it a lone. They
sha re the credit for successes beca use they know the
group effort resulted in success.
r True lea ders pursue idea s a nd continua lly test their own
thoughts a nd idea s.
Ba sed on surveys of more tha n 15,000 people, which of these
tra its do you think wa s selected a s the key to effective
lea dership:
r Being fa ir-minded?
r Being coopera tive?
r Being honest?
r Being ima gina tive?
If you guessed "honest" you get a high ma rk. It scored fa r
a bove a ny of the others in a list of 20. In fa ct, the top four
cha ra cteristics of a dmired lea ders a nd the percenta ge of
people tha t selected them a re:
r Being honest - 87%
r Being forwa rd-looking - 71%
r Being inspira tiona l - 68%
r Being competent - 58%
Honest people ha ve credibility a nd tha t gives lea ders the trust
a nd confidence of their people. High credibility lea ders foster
such things a s grea ter pride in the orga niza tion, a strong spirit
of coopera tion a nd tea mwork, a nd feelings of ownership a nd
persona l responsibility.
Wha t a re some of the other cha ra cteristics of credible lea ders?
r They do wha t they sa y they will do. They keep their
promises a nd follow through on their commitments.
r Their a ctions a re consistent with the needs of the people
they lea d. They ha ve a clea r idea of wha t others va lue a nd
wha t they ca n do.
r They believe in the inherent self-worth of others. And they
lea rn "how to discover a nd communica te the sha red va lues
a nd visions tha t ca n form a common ground on which a ll
ca n sta nd."
r They a re ca pa ble of ma king a difference in the lives of
others, a nd libera ting the lea der in everyone.
r They a dmit their mista kes. They rea lize tha t a ttempting to
hide mista kes is much more da ma ging a nd erodes
credibility. When they a dmit to ma king a mista ke, they do
something a bout it.
r They a rouse optimistic feelings a nd ena ble their people to
hold positive thoughts a bout the possibility of success.
r They crea te a clima te for lea rning cha ra cterized by trust
a nd openness.
Ada pted from “Cr e d ib ilit y: Ho w Le a d e r s Ga in a n d Lo s e It , Wh y P e o p le
De m a n d It ” by Ja mes Kouzes a nd Ba rry Posner .
A c t i v i t y I d e a s
r Ha ve Wa rdens think a bout some people they know who
a re effective lea ders. Pla y "Lea ders a re like . . ." Wa rdens
ha ve to come up with a n a dvertising sloga n tha t credits
lea ders. Here a re a few exa mple:
 Lea ders a re like Coke, they a re the rea l thing.
 Lea ders a re like Frosted Fla kes, they a re gr-r-r-ea t!!
 Lea ders a re like Ford, they ma ke qua lity job one.
 Lea ders a re like Nike, they just do it.
 Lea ders a re like Ha llma rk Ca rds, the ca re enough to send
the very best.
 Lea ders a re like V-05 ha ir spra y, they hold together in a ll
kinds of wea ther.
 Lea ders a re like Energizer Ba tteries, they keep going a nd
going a nd going.
r Repea t the sa me exercise but with a more serious note.
 Lea ders a re like vegeta ble soup, they ha ve ma ny different
qua lities tha t ma ke the recipe grea t.
 Lea ders a re like a ga rden, they grow in ma ny a rea s, a nd
even weeds grow. But with pruning a nd proper ca re, the
ga rden will flourish for a ll to enjo y.

. ..’
Prepa re a nd deliver a 10 minute presenta tion to younger
Wa rdens in your club . pa ge 13
Orga nize a nd eva lua te a specia l event or outtrip with your
group. pa ge 13
Demonstra te communica tion skills while lea ding a n a ctivity.
pa ge 16
Develop communica tion skills through pra ctice. Pla n a nd
deliver six a ctivities of your choice. pa ge 23

1 3
II. Communica tion
Pr e pa r e a n d de live r a 1 0 min u t e
pr e s e n t a t io n t o yo u n ge r
Wa r de n s in yo u r c lu b.
A c t i v i t y I d e a s
r Use a ny of the topics from Pa thfinder or Tra ilbla zer
progra ms. Some suggestions a re: dressing for the
outdoors, how to choose a good tent, informa tion a bout
wa ter filters, how to build a shelter or fire, or pa cking a
ba ckpa ck. You ha ve to pla n for a 10 minute presenta tion
of a n idea . You ma y use pictures or props to ma ke your
points effective.
r Ma ke a list of a ll the possible subjects tha t you ca n use to
do a presenta tion for younger Wa rdens. Remember tha t
your knowledge level ma y not be "expert" but it is proba bly
higher tha n Pa thfinders a nd Tra ilbla zers.
Refer to Appendix III -
Ma king Presenta tions for
more informa tion.
Or ga n iz e a n d e va lu a t e a s pe c ia l
e ve n t o r o u t t r ip wit h yo u r gr o u p.
Pla nning a n event requires a common sense a pproa ch to
a chieving a goa l. “Wha t do we ha ve to do to get there?” If it' s
a la rge event, the a nswer ca n seem da unting, but don' t let tha t
stop you. A little a t a time ca n be pa rt of your pla n to a chieve
a successful event. Successful pla nning ha s two components:
things to do a nd time. List a ll the things tha t ha ve to be done
a nd a llow enough time for them to ha ppen.
Ha ve Wa rdens bra instorm a ll the things tha t ha ve to be done.
Orga nize them into three time periods: before the event,
during the event a nd a fter the event. The pla nning process
looks like a bow tie with most of the time a nd pla nning
ha ppening before the event. The event ta kes pla ce in a very
short time period. This is the knot in the bow tie. After the
event, things still ha ppen such a s the wra p up a nd eva lua tion
a nd pla nning for next yea r.
1 4
Arra nge the ta sks tha t need to ta ke pla ce before the event on
a time line. Wha t a ctivities need the most time to be
a ccomplished? Wha t things needs to be done first? As you
get closer to the event, wha t ca n be done two months before,
one month, 2 weeks, one week, two da ys a nd the da y before.
When a ll the ba ses a re covered, the event should run

When the da y of the event a ctua lly a rrives you will be well
prepa red, prefera bly with a contingency pla n in ca se there is
a n una voida ble sna g in the proceedings. It is ra re for a ny
event to go perfectly, so try to rela x a nd enjoy the fruits of your
la bour.

Eva lua tion is a n essentia l component to the pla nning process.
Eva lua tion consists of two pa rts, mea surement a nd judgment.
Mea surement is done by compa ring the event to a sta nda rd.
Wha t do you consider ma kes up a successful event? When
eva lua ting, compa re the process a nd event to the model.
In ma king a judgment, you ha ve to decide whether it wa s
"good enough."
Eva lua tion is a continuous process where the orga nizer
continua lly monitors the progress of ea ch step a nd records
them a s they a re completed.

When you a re in cha rge of pla nning a n event, there will be
times when you will need to conduct short meetings to
coordina te a ctivities a nd upda te those helping out. Here a re
some tips on how to run a meeting:
r Don' t compete with group members. Give their idea s due
considera tion.
r Listen to everyone. Pa ra phra se but don' t judge.
1 5
r Don' t put a nyone on the defensive. Assume tha t
everyone' s idea s ha ve va lue.
r Control the domina nt people without a liena ting them.
r Rea lize tha t your interest a nd a lertness a re conta gious.
r Keep a ll pa rticipa nts informed a bout where they a re a nd
wha t' s expected of them. Keep notes on flip cha rts or a
boa rd tha t everyone ca n see.
r Check with the person who owns the problem to find out if
a n idea is worth pursuing or if a proposed solution is
sa tisfa ctory.
r Give others a turn a t running the meeting. Those who
lea rn to lea d, lea rn how to pa rticipa te.
A c t i v i t y I d e a s
r Ma ke a pla nning templa te or a n individua lized pla nning
model. Ha ve Wa rdens work together a s a group to
develop the steps a nd items to be done to ca rry out a n
event. Use a rea l or fictitious event a s a guide to help ma ke
the lists. Ask, “Wha t ha s to be done to ma ke this event run
smoothly?” Ha ve Wa rdens orga nize the things to be done
into ca tegories of likeness, for exa mple, Advertising (one
month before, one week before, during the event),
Orga niza tions a nd/ or People to Conta ct, Things to be
Purcha sed (keep a ledger), Things to be Borrowed (Crea te
a nd ma inta in a list of conta cts), Volunteer Jobs (list a ll with
job descriptions), a nd so on. Remind them tha t they must
include three time periods: before the event, during the
event, a fter the event. Crea te a n event pla nning sheet tha t
will be like a templa te for other events to be pla nned by
Wa rdens.
r Develop a n eva lua tion specific to the event being pla nned.
Ha ve Wa rdens list wha t they would consider to be the
elements of a successful event. Use these a s criterion to
mea sure the event' s success.
r Specia l Event to Pla n: Ha ve Wa rdens pra ctice
bra instorming a nd develop a list of events tha t they ca n
pla n.
Ada pted from Fina ncia l Times.
1 6
De mo n s t r a t e e ffe c t ive c o mmu n i-
c a t io n s kills wh ile le a din g a n
a c t ivit y.
Communica tion is the tra nsfer of messa ges from a sender (the
spea ker) to a receiver (the listener.) It is a tra nsa ctiona l
process of sha ring mea ning, feelings a nd idea s.
Messa ges consist of:
r Symbols - words, sounds a nd a ctions tha t represent
mea ning.
r Form or orga niza tion
r Mea ning - idea s a nd feelings.
The Sender-Messa ge-Receiver (SMR) Communica tion Model
below shows the rela tionships between the ma jor components
of the communica tions process. A sender selects a nd
encodes(using symbols) a messa ge. The messa ge is
tra nsmitted by a pa rticula r a pproa ch or method to a receiver.
The receiver decodes the messa ge a nd returns feedba ck to the
For communica tion to be effective, messa ges must be
understood a nd a ccepted the wa y they a re intended to be.
Receiver a ccepta nce depends on:
r Communica tor or sender fa ctors
r Messa ge design a nd delivery fa ctors (a pproa ch)
r Receiver or a udience fa ctors
Messa ge
Approa ch
Feedba ck
Sender Receiver
1 7
1. A person' s tendency to a ccept a messa ge depends on how
well-informed, intelligent, trustworthy, confident a nd
sincere the communica tor is perceived to be.
2. A well-liked communica tor usua lly puts a n a udience in a
receptive fra me of mind. A receiver a lso tends to a gree
with a well-liked spea ker, a nd disa grees with a disliked
one. Some methods to increa se your "lika bility" include:
 Be friendly, considera te, courteous a nd ta ctful
 Smile
 Involve your a udience
 Be interested a nd a s empa thetic a s possible.
3. A receiver' s tendency to a ccept a messa ge depends on
how presenta ble you a re. Be cool, rela xed, well groomed
a nd use good posture.
4. Wea r your JFW uniform. It helps the receiver a ccept you a s
a credible source of informa tion. Credibility a ffects a
person' s tendency to a ccept messa ges.
5. Use eye conta ct. An a udience will listen if they know you
a re interested in them. Eye conta ct tells the a udience tha t
you a re interested.

1. A smooth, well pla nned a nd orga nized presenta tion will
help get your messa ge a cross.
2. The messa ge should be designed a nd presented in such a
wa y tha t the presenta tion is rela xed a nd enjoya ble. This
will help the a udience to a ccept the messa ge.
3. Your messa ge ca n be designed a nd delivered to ga in
a ttention. Use music, stories, or a ctivities.
4. Use words, symbols, a na logies a nd situa tions tha t the
a udience ca n understa nd.
5. Avoid use of ja rgon, sla ng, wisecra cks or voice inferences
such a s uh, a y, like, um, ok, right, you know.
1 8
6. Ma ke a ppropria te use of your voice, volume, spea king ra te,
pitch, qua lity, fa cia l expressions, gra mma r a nd pronun -
cia tion.
 Pitch - Highness/ lowness of tone
 Volume - loudness
 Ra te- speed
 Qua lity - sound of voice
7. The messa ge must be designed a nd delivered so tha t it is
releva nt to the receiver. People remember better when the
messa ge rela tes to persona l experiences.
8. Monitor your posture, gestures a nd movements. Ma ke
sure they a re used properly a nd in context. Non-verba l
beha viours ca n a ffect mea ning.
9. Recognize the receiver' s sensory limits when you a re
delivering a messa ge, for exa mple, you will ha ve to spea k
louder for the people a t the ba ck.
10. The more senses you involve the a udience in using, the
better the cha nces a re tha t your messa ge will be received
a nd understood.
11. Be specific a nd concrete when selecting words to minimize
the cha nce of a ny misundersta nding. Abstra ct words or
genera l terms ca n be confusing. Be clea r. Use ca r instea d
of vehicle.
12. Elimina te noise a s best a s you ca n.
13. Keep your delivery a s simple a nd a s short a s possible so it
will be remembered. Stick to one or two concepts a nd
develop them a nd use a va riety of techniques.
14. Effective a nd persua sive communica tion should a rouse
needs in the receiver. Provide a mea ns of a ction to sa tisfy
these needs, for exa mple, if you a re ta lking a bout the
threa tened Northern Leopa rd Frog then ma ke suggestions
a s to how the a udience ca n help the species.
15. Look a t the messa ges sent to you from the a udience. Now
you a re the receiver. Some of the non-verba l messa ges
a re: fa cia l expressions, hea d nods a nd sha king, body
movements, ya wns, la ck of eye conta ct, a nd wa lking out.
Some verba l cues a re questions, comments a nd heckling.
1 9

There a re ma ny fa ctors tha t ca n a ffect how a n a udience will
a ccept you a nd believe your messa ges. A few a re listed
1. Listening is importa nt to understa nding. Listening mea ns
ma king sense out of wha t is hea rd. People do not listen
well. A norma l person reta ins only a bout 10% of wha t you
tell them if they a ctua lly try to a bsorb your messa ge.
2. People' s beliefs a ttitudes, prejudices, a nd interests
influence wha t they hea r .
3. People in unfa milia r surroundings tend to reject new idea s.
4. A receiver ma y simply not believe you if wha t you a re
sa ying doesn' t sound true ba sed on their own knowledge
a nd experience.
A c t i v i t y I d e a s
r Pra ctice communica tion skills. Choose a ny object (a key)
or a symbol (JFW logo) a nd ta pe it in a folder so the group
ca nnot see it. Choose a Wa rden to be the communica tor.
The rest of the group will be the receivers. Ha ve pa per a nd
pencils rea dy. Tell the Communica tor a nd the group the
following: "Inside this folder is something tha t you ca nnot
show the group. Look a t it a nd without sa ying wha t it is,
expla in to the group how to dra w it. You ca nnot use ha nd
motions, only words. The group ca nnot sa y a nything--they
ca nnot a sk questions or a sk for cla rifica tion. They a re to
follow your instructions. Continue with your expla na tions
until you a re finished." Sha re dra wings. You will proba bly
ha ve a good la ugh. Most likely no one wa s even close to
dra wing the rea l thing. Discuss wha t ha ppened. How ca n
a communica tor do a better job? Wha t were some of the
fa ctors tha t prevented the group members from dra wing
with a ccura cy? How ca n this informa tion help you do a
better job in communica ting during presenta tions?
r Ha ve Wa rdens pra ctice communica tion skills by expla ining
how to do a specific ta sk or procedure. A procedure is a
"how to" expla na tion with no props or a ids or physica l
a ctions. Suggestions: Expla in how to cha nge a n empty
toilet pa per roll, how to cha nge a roll of film, how to
pump ga s, how to cha nge a litter box, how to boil a n egg,
how to flip pa nca kes, how to sta rt a fire, how to brush your
teeth, how to sha rpen a knife, how to write a cheque, or
2 0
how to pla nt a seedling. Any topic where the Wa rdens
ha ve to pra ctice pla nning how they will deliver the
informa tion. This is not a n impromptu a ctivity. Wa rdens
must pla n, pra ctice, present a nd eva lua te.
A c t i v i t y

Ask five Wa rdens to lea ve the room. Choose one person from
the group in the room to be a n eye-witness a t a ca r a ccident.
Give the witness a complete, a ccura te report a llowing time for
questions tha t might a rise.
After the eye-witness is briefed, ha ve one Wa rden from
outside the room come ba ck in. The witness rela tes the
a ccident report from memory. When completed, the wa rden
ca lls in the next Wa rden to come into the room a nd rela tes the
a ccident from memory. Continue this process until the la st
person, who is the R. C. M. P. Consta ble, is told a bout the
a ccident. The Consta ble gives the fina l sta tement of the
a ccident to the entire group.
The lea der ma y wish to keep tra ck of the a dditions, deletions
a nd distortions.

r Wha t fa ctors seem to contribute to the brea kdown of
informa tion a s it pa ssed from one person to a nother?
r Wha t techniques seemed to be useful in a voiding errors?
Th e Ac c ide n t
"I ca n' t sta y here to report to the police wha t I sa w in this
a ccident. I ha ve to get to the hospita l a s soon a s possible.
This is wha t ha ppened. The pa nel truck, hea ding south, wa s
turning right a t the intersection, when they sa w a sports ca r,
hea ding north, a ttempting to turn left. When they sa w tha t
they were turning into the sa me la ne, they both honked their
horns but proceeded to turn without slowing down. In fa ct,
the sports ca r seemed to a ccelera te just before the cra sh."
Co mmu n ic a t io n
This a ctivity will exa mine
communica tion between
individua ls, will explore va rious
elements in the sending a nd
receiving of a verba l messa ge a nd
to exa mine how these elements
will work.
2 1
r How ca n you a pply wha t you lea rned a bout communi-
ca tion to ma king effective presenta tion a nd improving
communica tion skills?
A c t i v i t y
This a ctivity will help Wa rdens understa nd tha t a ll beha viour is
communica tion even though a person does not use words.
You' ll need scra ps of pa pers with either of the two things
written on ea ch slip: a feeling towa rd the group or a ta sk.
Here a re a few idea s of wha t ma y ha ppen a t a group meeting:
r You a re ea ger to get the meeting over a s you ha ve a very
importa nt enga gement a nd you should be there now.
r The topic is dull. You a re not interested a t a ll.
r You a re a fra id tha t they a re going to a sk you to do
something you don' t wa nt to do.
r You a re highly excited a nd interested in wha t the group is
r You a re worried a bout a big job you ha ve tomorrow.
r You a re a ngry with the person cha iring the meeting.
r You a re extremely tired.
r You feel tha t no one is a wa re of your presence.
r You do not feel well.
r You wish you were somepla ce else.
r You ha ve something very importa nt you wa nt to sa y.
Pr o c e du r e :
The introduction of this ga me should include a discussion on
how people often show by their beha viour how they feel a bout
the members or a meeting or a ctivity. Ask for a volunteer to
dra w one of the prepa red slips of pa per from a ha t. The
setting is a meeting. The lea der will begin to discuss a very
controversia l topic. The volunteer will follow the instructions
on the pa per a s to the beha viour to be expressed. The group
will ca rry on the discussion a nd wa tch this person. After the
volunteer ha s sufficiently communica ted the feeling through
beha viour or body la ngua ge, the discussion will stop a nd the
group will discuss the feeling being communica ted. The
person with the pa per revea ls wha t is written. Continue
ta king turns a s long a s it is helpful.
No n - ve r ba l
Co mmu n ic a t io n
2 2
Va ria tion:
In a dva nce of the meeting, secretly give two or three people a
slip of pa per. The rest of the group will not know a bout the
exercise in body la ngua ge. Stop the meeting a fter you a re
sure the group ha s observed the others' beha viours.

r Wha t specifica lly wa s done to communica te their non-
verba l messa ges?
r Ca n beha viour be seen a s communica tion?
r How importa nt is it to be a ttuned to non-verba l beha viour
or body la ngua ge?
r Wha t ha ve you lea rned tha t will help you with your own
communica tion skills?
2 3
De ve lo p c o mmu n ic a t io n s kills
t h r o u gh pr a c t ic e . Pla n a n d
de live r s ix a c t ivit ie s o f yo u r
c h o ic e .
· · .
If you a re not a ccustomed to public spea king or you need to
help someone improve his or her spea king efforts, these
observa tions a nd suggestions might help:
r Most people should spea k a bit louder tha n norma l a nd
use la rger gestures tha n they feel origina lly comforta ble
r Invest quite a bit of time in a na lyzing the a udience. Be
sure to tell tha t a udience something they don' t know.
r Avoid rea ding a speech or ta lking with eyes glued to the
lectern or clue ca rds. If you a re tempted to rea d to people,
just remember your pa rents used to rea d to you to put you
to sleep. Work from a n outline a nd trust yourself.
r Esta blishing a ra pport with the a udience is vita l, move
a wa y from the lectern.
r Videota pe your rehea rsa ls to strengthen the effort.
r Spend five or six seconds looking a t ea ch person in the
a udience. Shorter times ca n ma ke you look like a sca red
ra bbit.
r Pa use instea d of inflicting "ums" a nd "a hs" on the
a udience.
Source: Ka ren Pa dley, writing in “In ve s t o r ' s Bu s in e s s Da ily”.
Refer to Appendix III - Ma king
Presenta tions for more informa tion.
2 4
1. Presenta tion Title:
Da te:
Summa ry:
2. Presenta tion Title:
Da te:
Summa ry:
3. Presenta tion Title:
Da te:
Summa ry:
4. Presenta tion Title:
Da te:
Summa ry:
5. Presenta tion Title:
Da te:
Summa ry:
6. Presenta tion Title:
Da te:
Summa ry:
Ha ve Wa rdens record the
six a ctivities they pla nned
a nd delivered. In their
own ma nua ls, ha ve them
write out the title of the
presenta tion, the da te
presented, a summa ry of
the content a nd how
successful the presenta tion
wa s.
. III.
.. . .
Sign the contra ct listing some of the responsibilities of being a
lea der a nd a follower . pa ge 27
Lea d a bra instorming session. pa ge 28
Coa ch peers or younger wa rdens to help improve their skills
a nd a bilities. pa ge 29
Demonstra te one problem solving technique. pa ge 31
Demonstra te coopera tion in the group a t club meetings a nd
on outtrips. pa ge 33
2 7
Sign t h e c o n t r a c t lis t in g s o me o f
t h e r e s po n s ibilit ie s o f be in g a
le a de r a n d a fo llo we r.
Review the contra ct with the Wa rdens. Discuss ea ch of the
points a nd wha t they mea n. Wha t implica tions do they ha ve
for ea ch of them a s a lea der a nd a s a follower? When you
think tha t the Wa rdens understa nd wha t the lea dership skills
a re a bout, ha ve them sign the contra cts.
Re-rea d this contra ct from time to time throughout the three
yea r Adventurer progra m. Rea d it before going on a n out trip
or before a ctivities where other Wa rdens will be pra cticing
their lea dership skills. If you a re serious a bout developing
lea dership skills, this promise should a lwa ys be evident be in
your beha viour .
III. Responsibility
Lea dership Contra ct
I ____________________, understa nd tha t during the three yea r Adventurer progra m, I
a nd fellow Adventurers will be lea rning a bout a nd pra cticing lea dership skills. With this
in mind, I promise the following:
u Lea dership is a contra ct which I will honour to the end. Other people a re expecting me to
lea d a nd ha ve given me a uthority to do so.
u I promise to keep the group sa fe a nd sound.
u I will a dhere to sa fety a nd group beha viour guidelines.
u I promise to help the group a chieve its goa l.
u I will crea te a n a tmosphere of ca ring a nd support.
u I promise to ma inta in a positive experience for the group.
u I promise not to a buse my role a s lea der to justify nega tive beha viour.
u I will encoura ge individua ls who find some ta sks difficult, recognizing tha t their a ttempt is
more significa nt tha n performa nce results.
u I will respect other people' s choices a nd idea s.
u When other Wa rdens a re lea ding, I promise to follow. I will give the lea ders the respect
they need to do the job.
print na me
your signa ture da te
2 8
Le a din g a br a in s t o r min g s e s s io n .
The bra instorming technique is popula r beca use it is so ea sy
to use a nd is a quick wa y to genera te idea s in a short period of
time. The bra instorming rules a re few a nd simple, but they
must be a dhered to if the technique is to be effective.
Before you begin, ma ke certa in everyone understa nds the
problem in the sa me wa y. Write the problem down a nd ha ng
it up or pla ce it so everyone ca n see it.
Once the idea -genera tion sta ge ha s begun:
r Do not censor a ny idea tha t is given. No idea is a ba d or
useless idea .
r Do not judge a ny of the suggested idea s.
r The more idea s the better.
r Everyone is expected a nd should be encoura ged to
pa rticipa te.
r Shout out idea s a s fa st a s possible.
r Freewheeling a nd hitchhiking on someone else' s idea s is
encoura ged.
r Write down a ll idea s on newsprint. You ca n a lso ha ve
someone else a ct a s the recorder a nd write down the
idea s.
r Work quickly without discussing idea s.
r Encoura ge the group to come up with a s ma ny idea s a s
possible. As they slow down, a sk questions to get them
going a ga in.
Once the idea -genera ting sta ge is complete, a sk the group if
they see a ny common themes. Open the discussion a nd
a ttempt to lea d the group to a consensus on the common
themes tha t a re the most importa nt. Eva lua te the worth of
ea ch solution a nd pursue those tha t seem most promising.
Discuss a ctions for implementa tion.
If you a re in cha rge of pla nning a meeting, you ma y wish to
use the bra instorming a pproa ch to help you decide which
items would be most useful to include on the a genda or to
determine in a dva nce which committees should be formed,
which a ssignments should be given a nd so forth.
Br a in s t o r min g Ru le s
Before beginning:
r Ensure tha t everyone
understa nds the
Idea -genera ting Sta ge
r Do not dismiss a ny idea s;
record them a ll.
r Work quickly; don' t
discuss idea s.
Eva lua tion Sta ge
r Pursue those tha t a re
most releva nt.
2 9
A c t i v i t y I d e a s
r Ha ve Wa rdens lea d a bra instorming session when the
group needs a solution to a problem.
r Pa ss a round a n object (egg ca rton, screw driver, tweezers)
a nd see how ma ny other uses they ca n come up with for
its use. Time to be crea tive.
r Bra instorm a t every a ppropria te opportunity.
Co a c h pe e r s o r yo u n ge r wa r de n s
t o h e lp impr o ve t h e ir s kills a n d
a bilit ie s .
When we think of coa ching, we a utoma tica lly think of sports
but we ha ve people coa ching us a t work, while pa renting a nd
in mentoring situa tions. A coa ch a ssists persons to rea ch their
goa ls. A coa ch is your pa rtner, someone you ca n trust a nd go
to for support a nd guida nce. Coa ching ca n be a one on one or
a group situa tion.
. . `
1. To help younger Wa rdens, rega rdless of their a bilities, to
grow intellectua lly, socia lly, emotiona lly a nd physica lly
though the coa ching experience.
2. To crea te situa tions or a ctivities in which this growth is
most likely to occur .
3 0
. .
Coa ching ca n influence individua ls or groups in ma ny
significa nt wa ys:
r Individua ls ta ke themselves more seriously.
r Individua ls ma ke a n effort to focus a ctions.
r Crea tes momentum so it' s ea sier to get results.
r Sets better goa ls tha t might not ha ve ha ppened without a
coa ch.
A c t i v i t y I d e a s
r Ha ve ea ch Wa rden buddy up with a younger Wa rden. To
help the older Wa rdens find some a rea s where they ca n
coa ch younger Wa rdens, ha ve them find out a couple of
skills tha t the individua l would like to develop or improve.
The coa ch (older Wa rden) will help to set the goa l a nd
work with the individua l towa rd a chieving the goa l.
r Wa rdens coa ching peers is like crea ting a tea m. The coa ch
will focus on the needs a nd goa ls of the group a nd helps
the group a ccomplish more tha n they could without a
coa ch. A coa ch helps the tea m to think bigger a nd set
better goa ls.
3 1
De mo n s t r a t e o n e pr o ble m
s o lvin g t e c h n iqu e .
People differ, situa tions differ a nd solutions to problems often
differ too. An a pproa ch tha t works for one person ma y not
solve the problem for a nother. Simila rly, a solution tha t works
one da y might be ineffective a week la ter in a different setting.
When you a re in a problem solving situa tion, be sensitive to
the person, the group, the setting a nd the problem itself in
order to a chieve a n a ppropria te solution.
Problem solving is a process consisting of severa l steps. Ea ch
step helps the group cla rify the problem a nd move closer
towa rd a solution.
The steps in the problem-solving process a re a s follows:
1. Identify the problem.
2. Ana lyze a nd cla rify the problem.
3. Genera te severa l possible solutions.
4. Select one solution a nd pla n its implementa tion.
5. Implement the solution.
6. Eva lua te the solution.
By exploring a problem in depth a nd developing solutions,
Wa rdens ha ve ta ken a big step in understa nding themselves,
their a ttitudes a nd the externa l fa ctors a ffecting their a ctivities.
The process of solving a problem not only a llows the Wa rden
to move beyond the problem, it a lso provides a n opportunity
for persona l growth.
Th e Pr in c iple s o f
Pr o ble m So lvin g
r There is ra rely only one
solution to a ny given
r There a re a va riety of
a pproa ches to problem
r The process of problem
solving often provides a n
importa nt lea rning
3 2
A c t i v i t y I d e a s
r Present the group with va rious problems a nd ha ve them
work on the solutions. The problems ma y be rea l or
fictitious. After the Wa rdens ha ve pra cticed solving
problems, ha ve them work on a ctua l or potentia l problems
you see in the group.
Here a re a few idea s:
u One member of the group is a lwa ys a nta gonistic,
especia lly to the Wa rden who is lea ding.
u There is a couple in the club, a ma le a nd fema le
Wa rden, a nd it ca uses problems while on outtrips. They
a lwa ys wa nt to be together.
u Your club a lwa ys ha s to be out of the building you a re
renting 30 minutes before the progra m finishes.
u The meeting pla ce you ha ve for club meetings is too
sma ll for a ll of you.
u The Lea der of your group insists they a re a lwa ys right.
It is ca using some problems a mong the Wa rdens.
3 3
De mo n s t r a t e c o o pe r a t io n in t h e
gr o u p a t c lu b me e t in gs a n d o n
o u t t r ips .
Ask Wa rdens to list the a ttributes a nd qua lities tha t describe
someone who is coopera tive. Tell them to sta te the qua lities in
positive wa ys in wha t a coopera tive does, not wha t a
coopera tive person does not do. Below a re a few exa mples.
r Willing to be a greea ble.
r Accepts the decisions of the lea der.
r Will work with everyone in group.
r Goes with the flow of things.
r Is a lwa ys willing to help when a sked.
r Is a ble to diffuse conflict before it a ccelera tes.
r Is willing a nd a ble to discuss conflicts.
r Observes the Golden Rule: Do onto others a s you would
ha ve them to do unto you.
Ha ve Wa rdens fine tune the list to focus on the a ttributes they
would like to see when they a re being eva lua ted for
coopera tion. Ha ve them consider including a ra ting sca le (1 to
5) so they a re better a ble to see the skills they need to improve
upon. Use the “Coopera tion Skills Cha rt” on the following pa ge
to crea te a useful eva lua tion tool. Then the Wa rdens ma y be
eva lua ted by the lea der or other Wa rdens ba sed on their list.
Coopera tion is working one or
more people together towa rd a
common end goa l or purpose. It' s
tea mwork. Coopera tion ha ppens
a t club meetings a nd on outtrips.
3 4
Sk ills Ra t in g Sc a le
Wa rden: Da te:
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
. IV. Pla nning
Lea rn how to write goa ls pa ge 37
Complete a Persona l Equipment Loca tor a nd a Group
Equipment Loca tor pa ge 44
Pla n a nd conduct two JFW progra m a ctivities for younger
Wa rdens pa ge 49
. . . .
.. . .
. .. .

3 7
Le a r n h o w t o wr it e go a ls
Goa l setting is a powerful tool tha t ca n yield strong returns in
a ll a rea s of a person' s life. At the simplest level, the process of
setting goa ls a nd ta rgets a llows a person to choose a direction
in life. By setting clea rly defined goa ls, one ca n mea sure a nd
ta ke pride in the a chievement of those goa ls.
By setting goa ls, you ca n:
r a chieve more
r improve performa nce
r increa se your motiva tion to a chieve
r increa se your pride a nd sa tisfa ction in your a chievements
r improve your self-confidence
r elimina te a ttitudes tha t hold you ba ck a nd ca use
unha ppiness.
Resea rch ha s shown tha t people who use goa l-setting
effectively suffer less from stress a nd a nxiety, concentra te
better, show more self-confidence, perform better a nd a re
ha ppier a nd more sa tisfied.
By setting goa ls a nd mea suring a chievement, you a re a ble to
see wha t you ha ve done a nd wha t you a re ca pa ble of. The
process of a chieving goa ls gives you the confidence a nd self-
belief tha t you will be a ble to a chieve higher a nd more difficult
goa ls.
IV. Pla nning
Goa l setting gives you
long-term vision a nd
short-term motiva tion.
Goa l setting helps
3 8
Providing tha t you ha ve the self-discipline to ca rry it through,
goa l setting is a lso rela tively ea sy. The wa y in which you set
your goa l strongly a ffects their effectiveness.
Below a re some guidelines to help set effective goa ls:
r Po s it ive St a t e m e n t . Express your goa ls positively. For
exa mple, "…to steer a ca noe in a stra ight line" is a better
goa l tha n "Don' t do the stroke tha t ma kes the ca noe go
crooked." Fra me the goa l a s a positive outcome. Do not
offer a n a lterna tive goa l by using the word "or", or set a
goa l beca use it is something tha t you should do. Ea ch goa l
should ha ve the word "to" followed by a n a ction verb, for
exa mple, After the lecture, Wa rdens will be a ble to list five
different tree species.
r Be p r e c is e . If you set a decisive goa l, putting in da tes,
times a nd skills so tha t the goa l ca n be mea sured, then you
know the exa ct goa l to be a chieved, a nd ca n ta ke complete
sa tisfa ction from ha ving a chieved it. Ensure tha t ea ch goa l
will produce a single key result when a ccomplished.
r Se t p r io r it ie s . Where you ha ve severa l goa ls, set
priorities. This will help you a void feeling overwhelmed by
too ma ny goa ls, a nd helps to direct your a ttention to the
most importa nt ones.
r Wr it e go a ls d o w n to a void confusion a nd memory loss.
Writing them down gives goa ls more power a nd force.
r Ke e p go a ls s m a ll. Keep the goa ls tha t you a re working
towa rds immedia tely, sma ll a nd a chieva ble. Will the goa l
stretch your a bilities without being impossible to a chieve?
If a goa l is too big then it seems tha t you a re not ma king
progress towa rds it. Keeping goa ls sma ll a nd incrementa l
gives more opportunities for rewa rd. Your goa l toda y
should be derived from la rger goa ls.
r Se t p e r fo r m a n c e n o t o u t c o m e go a ls . This is very
importa nt. Ta ke ca re to set goa ls in which you ha ve a s
much control a s possible. Nothing is more dishea rtening
tha n fa iling to a chieve a persona l goa l for rea sons beyond
your control. Wha t is beyond you control? How a bout the
wea ther, poor judgment, injury, or just pla in ba d luck.
Goa ls ba sed on outcomes a re extremely vulnera ble to
fa ilure beca use of things beyond your control.
3 9

When you ba se your goa ls on persona l performa nce or skills
or knowledge to be a cquired, then you ca n keep control over
the a chievement of your goa ls a nd dra w sa tisfa ction from
them. For exa mple, you might a chieve the best persona l skill
development in fire lighting but still not be successful in
torrentia l ra ins.
Be ca utious of setting outcome goa ls ba sed on the rewa rds of
a chieving something such a s recognition from fellow Wa rdens.
In the ea rly sta ges this ca n be highly motiva ting but a s they
a re a chieved, the benefits of a ny further a chievement a t the
sa me level reduce a nd you will become progressively less
motiva ted.
Set specific mea sura ble goa ls. If you a chieve a ll the objectives
of a mea sura ble goa l, then you ca n be confident a nd
comforta ble in its a chievement. If you consistently fa il to meet
a mea sura ble goa l, then you ca n a djust it or a na lyze the
rea son for its fa ilure a nd ta ke a ppropria te a ction to improve

Ma ke sure the goa l is something you rea lly wa nt, not just
something tha t sounds good. Goa ls ma y be set unrea listica lly
high for the following rea sons:
r Ot h e r P e o p le ’s Exp e c t a t io n s : Pa rents, lea ders,
cla ssma tes, a nd society ca n set unrea listic goa ls for you
ba sed on wha t they wa nt. Often this will be done in
ignora nce of your goa ls, desires, a nd a mbitions.
r In s u ffic ie n t in fo r m a t io n : If you do not ha ve a clea r,
rea listic understa nding of wha t you a re trying to a chieve
a nd of the skills a nd knowledge to be ma stered, it is
difficult to set effective a nd rea listic goa ls.
r Exp e c t in g P e r fe c t io n : Ma ny people ba se their goa ls on
their best performa nce. This doesn’t consider the
inevita ble ba cksliding tha t ca n occur for good rea son, a nd
ignores the fa ctors tha t led to the best performa nce. It is
better to set goa ls tha t ra ise your a vera ge performa nce a nd
ma ke it more consistent.
r La c k o f r e s p e c t fo r s e lf: If you do not respect your right
to rest, rela xa tion a nd plea sure in life then you risk
4 0

Sometimes goa ls ca n be set too low beca use of the following
rea sons:
r Fe a r o f fa ilu r e : If you a re a fra id of fa ilure you will not
ta ke the risks needed for optimum performa nce. As you
a pply goa l setting a nd see the a chievement of goa ls, your
self-confidence should increa se, helping you to ta ke bigger
risks. Know tha t fa ilure is a positive thing. It will show you
a rea s where you ca n improve your skills a nd performa nce.
r Ta k in g it e a s y: It is ea sy to use the rea sons for not
setting goa ls unrea listica lly high a s a n excuse to set them
too low. If your a re not prepa red to stretch yourself a nd
work ha rd, then you a re extremely unlikely to a chieve
a nything of rea l worth.

Setting goa ls a t the a ppropria te level is a skill tha t is a cquired
by pra ctice. You should set goa ls so tha t they a re slightly out
of your immedia te gra sp, but not so fa r tha t there is no hope
of a chieving them. No one will put serious effort into
a chieving a goa l tha t they believe is unrea listic. Remember
tha t if you believe a goa l is unrea listic, then you a re proba bly
Persona l fa ctors such a s fa tigue, other commitments a nd the
need for rest should be ta ken into a ccount when setting goa ls.

When you a re thinking a bout how to a chieve goa ls, a sking the
following questions ca n help you to focus on the objectives
tha t lea d to their a chievement.
r Wha t skills do I need to a chieve this?
r Wha t informa tion a nd knowledge do I need?
r Wha t help, a ssista nce, or colla bora tion do I need?
r Wha t resources do I need?
r Wha t ca n block progress?
r Am I ma king a ny a ssumptions?
r Is there a better wa y of doing things?
4 1
` . `
Goa l setting ca n go wrong for a number of rea sons:
r Ou t c o m e go a ls a r e s e t in s t e a d o f p e r fo r m a n c e go a ls .
Where you a re using outcome goa ls a nd you fa il to a chieve
the goa l for rea sons outside your control, this ca n be very
dispiriting a nd ca n lea d to loss of enthusia sm a nd feelings
of fa ilure. Alwa ys set performa nce goa ls.
r Go a ls a r e s e t u n r e a lis t ic a lly h igh . When a goa l is
perceived to be unrea cha ble, no effort will be ma de to
a chieve it. Ma ke rea listic goa ls.
r Go a ls a r e s e t t o o lo w. This will ca use you to feel there
is no cha llenge or benefit in a chieving the goa l a nd tha t
setting goa ls ha s been a wa ste of time. Alwa ys set goa ls
tha t a re cha llenging.
r Go a ls a r e va gu e a n d u s e le s s . It is difficult to know
whether va gue goa ls ha ve been a chieved. If a chievement
ca nnot be mea sured, then you will not observe progress
towa rds a grea ter goa l. Set precise, qua ntita tive goa ls.
r Go a l s e t t in g is d is o r ga n iz e d , in fr e q u e n t a n d
u n s ys t e m a t ic . Here goa ls will be forgotten, a chievement
of goa ls will not be mea sured a nd feedba ck will not
contribute to new goa ls. The ma jor benefits of goa l setting
ha ve been lost. Be orga nized a nd regula r a pproa ch to goa l
r Go a ls a r e n o t p r io r it iz e d . If the goa ls a re not set in
order of priority it lea ds to a feeling of overloa d. Remember
tha t you need time to rela x a nd enjoy being in JFW.
When goa l setting does go wrong, not only a re the benefits of
goa l setting lost, but the whole process of goa l setting ca n fa ll
into disrepute. By a voiding these problems a nd setting goa ls
effectively, you ca n a chieve a nd ma inta in strong forwa rd
4 2
· . ..
The Qua ntum Lea p a pproa ch tries to force intense a ctivity by
setting a goa l tha t will need a qua ntum lea p in a ctivity to
a chieve it. This is a da ngerous technique beca use it is too
ea sy for the whole process of goa l setting to fa il when
qua ntum lea p goa ls a re not met. If you a re not convinced tha t
the goa l is a tta ina ble, you will not put effort into a chieving it.

When you ha ve a chieved a goa l, ta ke the time to enjoy the
sa tisfa ction of ha ving a chieved the goa l. Absorb the
implica tions of the goa l a chievement, a nd observe the
progress you ha ve ma de towa rds other goa ls. If the goa l wa s
a significa nt one or one tha t you ha d worked towa rd for some
time, ta ke the opportunity to rewa rd yourself a ppropria tely.
When you ha ve fa iled to rea ch a goa l, ensure tha t you lea rn
the lessons of the fa ilure. They ma y be:
r you didn' t try ha rd enough
r your technique, skills, or knowledge were fa ulty a nd need
to be enha nced
r the goa l wa s unrea listic
r other (list): _______________
Use this informa tion to a djust the goa l or to a cquire new skills
or knowledge. Feedba ck will turn everything into a positive
lea rning experience. Even fa iling to meet a goa l is a step
forwa rd towa rds better performa nce in the future. Remember
tha t the fa ct of trying something, even if it does not work,
often opens doors tha t would otherwise ha ve rema ined closed.
The a ccomplishment of one goa l should lea d directly to the
setting of new goa ls.
r If the goa l wa s ea sily a chieved, ma ke the next goa ls
ha rder.
r If the goa l took too long to a chieve, brea k the next goa l
into short-term goa ls or objectives.
r If you ha ve lea rned something tha t would ca use you to
cha nge goa ls tha t a re not yet a ccomplished, then cha nge
Obsta cles a re frightening
things when you ta ke your
eyes off your goa l.
4 3
r If while a chieving the goa l you noticed a deficit in your
skills, set goa ls to remedy this.
Remember too tha t goa ls cha nge a s you grow a nd ma ture.
Adjust the long-term goa ls to reflect your growth. If the goa ls
do not hold your a ttention a ny longer then let them go. Goa l
setting is your serva nt, not your ma ster. It should bring you
rea l plea sure, sa tisfa ction a nd a sense of a chievement.
Wha t exa ctly a re group goa ls? How does a group a rrive a t
them? How do we know they a re the right goa ls? Group
goa ls a re a combina tion of the individua l goa ls of a ll the group
members. Individua l members a cting together set group
goa ls. All group members should pa rticipa te in discussing a nd
defining their goa ls. If they a re involved, they will be more
coopera tive a nd committed to a chieving the group' s goa ls.
4 4
Co mple t e a Pe r s o n a l Equ ipme n t
Lo c a t o r a n d a Gr o u p Equ ipme n t
Lo c a t o r.
Lea ders a re orga nized. "Winging it" is fine if you wa nt to get
lost, ea t uncooked food beca use you forgot to fuel the stove
a nd listen to everyone' s compla int a bout your trip pla nning.
But who rea lly likes this kind of misery? It is importa nt to
spend the time a nd energy to competently pla n a nd orga nize
the trip.
Trip pla nning includes resea rching the trip, ma king a pla n, a nd
keeping tra ck of deta ils. Pla nning is the most importa nt
ma na gement tool tha t lea ders use to keep tra ck of equipment,
food, ma ps a nd environmenta l ha za rds.
The la rger the trip, the more comprehensive the pla nning
required. Use lists to keep tra ck of tra nsporta tion needs,
group members, phone numbers a nd so on. Equipment
a lwa ys tends to present a ma jor orga niza tiona l cha llenge, so
this a ctivity will help Wa rdens orga nize their own a nd the
group' s equipment.
List every piece if outdoor gea r you own with a code tha t
identifies where the item is stored. For exa mple, Therma rest
pa d, GS (gea r stora ge in house). Some other codes ma y be B
for ba sement a nd BC mea ns bedroom closet. Identify every
conceiva ble trip tha t your JFW group ma y lea d or pa rticipa te
in: for exa mple, cross country skiing, hiking, group ca mping,
a nd so on. If the piece of equipment is essentia l to a pa rticula r
type of trip, put a n E on the cha rt. If the equipment is
optiona l, enter a n O, a nd if it is not needed, lea ve the grid
squa re bla nk. When you a re pla nning for a trip, a ll you need
to do is select the columns a nd look for the Es a nd Os.
4 5
It e m Lo c a t io n Ba c kpa c kin g Ca n o e in g Gr o u p Ca mpin g
hea vy sleeping ba g GS O E
light sleeping ba g GS E E
Therma rest pa d GS E E E
2-person tent GS E
4-person tent GS E E
one burner stove GS E E O
fuel bottle #1 GS E E E
fuel bottle #2 GS E E O
ea ting gea r GS E E E
la rge wa ter bottle GS O E E
cook kit GS E E E
da y pa ck FC O E
trip ba ck pa ck GS E E
Duleuth Ba g GS E
life ja cket G E
knee pa ds/ cushion GS E
pa ddle G E
light hiking boots FC O
hea vy hiking boots GS E
hea vy wool socks GS E O
light wool socks GS E O E
long underwea r BC O
ra in gea r FC E E E
Below is a n exa mple of a section of a Persona l Equipment Loca tor.
Pe r s o n a l Equ ipme n t Lo c a t o r Exa mple
Le ge n d :
GS - gea r stora ge pla ce
G - ga ra ge
FC - front closet
BC - bedroom closet
E - essentia l
O - optiona l
4 6
It e ms Wa r de n Jo h n Wa r de n To mmy Wa r de n Ha r r y Wa r de n Sa lly
one burner stove
two burner stove
la ntern
ba ckpa ck
a xe
. .
A group equipment loca tor is slightly different tha n the persona l equipment loca tor. In the left
column, items a re listed. Across the top, write the na mes of the others in your group. These
people either own, or a re responsible for tha t item.
Pe r s o n a l Equ ipme n t Lo c a t o r Exa mple
The next 2 pa ges provide bla nk grids to crea te your own Equipment loca tors.
4 7
It e m Lo c a t io n Ba c kpa c kin g Ca n o e in g Gr o u p Ca mpin g
Pe r s o n a l Equ ipme n t Lo c a t o r
4 8
It e m Lo c a t io n Ba c kpa c kin g Ca n o e in g Gr o u p Ca mpin g
Gr o u p Equ ipme n t Lo c a t o r
4 9
Pla n a n d c o n du c t t wo JFW
pr o gr a m a c t ivit ie s fo r yo u n ge r
Wa r de n s .

Pla n a ctivities tha t a re a ppropria te to the a ge of a group of
younger Wa rdens. Below a re some exa mples of the cha ra cter-
istics of children of different a ges a nd the types of a ctivities
tha t a re a ppropria te.
Ea rly Childhood - 5 to 8 yea rs
Wha t they a re like, wha t they need, a nd wha t they like to do:
r They ha ve short a ttention spa ns so they like to enga ge in
a ctivities of short dura tion. Choose a ctivities where the
kids ca n cha nge frequently a nd ca n be expla ined quickly.
r They a re individua listic a nd possessive. They like to pla y
a long with sma ll groups a nd to pla y a s a n individua l in a
la rge group.
r They a re curious a nd wa nt to lea rn. They wa nt to explore
a nd ha ndle ma teria ls in ma ny types of pla y. Use ma teria ls
such a s ropes, trees, soil, etc.
r They wa nt cha nces to a ct on their own a nd a re a nnoyed a t
conformity. They like to ma ke choices, to help ma ke rules,
sha re a nd eva lua te group experiences. Do a va riety of
a ctivities with minimum rules.
Middle Childhood - 9 to 11 yea rs
Wha t they a re like, wha t they need, a nd wha t they like to do:
r They respond differently in va rying situa tions. They like to
pa rticipa te in a wide ra nge of a ctivities using ma ny kinds
of ma teria ls a nd equipment. Individua l, dua l or sma ll a nd
la rge group a ctivities.
r They wa nt to be liked by their peers. They like to belong
to groups a nd be on ma ny kinds of tea ms.
r They wa nt a pprova l but not a t the expense of their group
rela tionships. They wa nt to ga in respect a nd a pprova l of
others. They like to pa rticipa te in a ctivities in which they
a re perceived to be good a t.
5 0
r They enjoy rough a nd tumble a ctivities. They like to
pa rticipa te in a ctivities with a n element of roughness but
limit the bumping, pushing a nd body conta ct.
r They ma y show increa sing independence a nd a desire to
help. They ca n a ssist with equipment, lea ding a nd keeping
tra ck of scores.
r They ha ve a strong sense of competition a nd cra ve
recognition. They need to succeed in a ctivities tha t stress
coopera tive a nd pla y a long with a ctivities tha t give
individua l sa tisfa ction. They like to do self-testing
a ctivities a s well a s group a nd tea m a ctivities.
A c t i v i t y I d e a s
u Ha ve older Wa rdens discuss with the lea ders of Pa thfinders
a nd Tra ilbla zers wha t progra m a ctivities they ca n pla n a nd
u Bra instorm with your group some possible a ctivities tha t
ca n be pla nned a nd delivered.
5 1
The two JFW progra m a ctivities I pla nned a nd delivered to
younger Wa rdens.
Ac t ivit y:
Ac t ivit y:

. .. . ..

Crea te a tea m by building trust through ice brea kers a nd
coopera tive ga mes. pa ge 55
Determine the strengths of Wa rdens in your group. pa ge 57
Assist in lea ding a da ytrip for younger wa rdens. pa ge 61
5 5
V. Lea dership of Others
Cr e a t e a t e a m by bu ildin g t r u s t
t h r o u gh ic e br e a ke r s a n d
c o o pe r a t ive ga me s .
Being pa rt of a n effective tea m is a wonderful experience for
a ll pa rticipa nts. Effective tea ms a re developed over time a nd
through positive a nd nega tive experiences. A lea der is
essentia l in helping a tea m work through a nd lea rn from
experiences a nd put experiences into perspective. Lea ders ca n
help a group of people become a tea m.
Below a re some commitments to foster a n effective a nd
enthusia stic tea m.
1. Help ea ch other be right, not wrong.
2. Look for wa ys to ma ke new idea s work, not for rea sons
they won' t.
3. If in doubt, check it out! Don' t ma ke nega tive a ssumptions
a bout ea ch other .
4. Help ea ch other win a nd ta ke pride in ea ch other' s
successes a nd victories.
5. Spea k positively a bout ea ch other a nd a bout Junior Forest
Wa rdens a t every opportunity.
6. Ma inta in a positive menta l a ttitude no ma tter wha t the
circumsta nces.
7. Do everything with enthusia sm, it' s conta gious.
8. Wha tever you wa nt, give it a wa y. (If you wa nt coopera tion,
give coopera tion, if you wa nt honesty, be honest)
9. Don' t lose fa ith a nd never give up.
Trust is a powerful tool; it is the key to persona l involvement.
At the end of trust a ctivities, it is sa tisfying to hea r Wa rdens
sa y “I' d like to try tha t,” in contra st to their initia l rea ction, “No
wa y!” A la rge pa rt of this growth in persona l confidence is
due to the esta blishment of trust.
For pa rticipa nts, trust mea ns:
r I don' t ha ve to do everything.
r The sa fety equipment a nd procedures work.
5 6
r Wha t the instructor sa ys is honestly presented.
r If I try something a nd I fa il, my peers will be supportive of
my efforts.
r I will not be la ughed a t or ma de to a ppea r foolish.
r My idea s a nd comments will be considered without
An individua l will seldom ta ke a physica l or emotiona l cha nce
if they perceive ca llousness a nd unrea sona ble risk a s pa rt of
tha t risk-ta king. A group surrounded with positive
experiences a nd successes will experience trust growing a pa ce
with persona l confidence.
Trust, within a fra mework of tea m building a ctivities, is ga ined
with pa tience, thoughtfulness a nd ca re over a period of time.
Trust ca n be da ma ged or lost in a second of ca relessness or
inconsidera te beha viour. Cultiva te a nd protect the trust tha t
a n individua l offers a nd sha res.
Coopera tive ga mes involve physica l a ctivity a nd seek to get a s
ma ny people a s possible pla ying. They a re lots of fun a nd
present sheer ma gic tha t comes from pla ying together in a n
a tmosphere of trust a nd freedom. Coopera tive ga mes a re ea sy
to lea rn. You don' t need a ny specia l equipment or a n ela bora te
pla ying field or gym. You pla y to compete beca use
competition is fun, not beca use you a re concerned a bout who
wins. Most of the ga mes ha ve people working together for a
common goa l.

Icebrea kers a re short fun a ctivities with the purpose of ma king
people feel comforta ble with ea ch other. Ice brea kers a re
frequently used for a group of people tha t ha ve just met one
a nother. These short a ctivities encoura ge people to put their
gua rds down a nd begin to be themselves.
Ice brea kers ha ve three purposes:
r To lea rn something a bout ea ch person in the group
r To unselfconsciously rela te something unusua l a bout
r To perform a ta sk together.
5 7
Appendix Iconta ins a va riety of icebrea kers, coopera tive
ga mes, initia tive ta sks, trust a ctivities a nd energizers. If you
remember some fun ga mes tha t you ha ve pla yed, record them
in the a ppendix. Write comments beside the ga mes tha t
worked well a nd the wa ys you ma y ha ve modified them.
De t e r min e t h e s t r e n gt h s o f
Wa r de n s in yo u r gr o u p.
Resources include a ll those things necessa ry to do a job.
Resources a lso include people, beca use people ha ve
knowledge a nd skills. Knowledge is wha t a person lea rns
through fa milia rity or experience. It is wha t you know. Skill is
the a bility to use wha t you know. Attitude includes the desire
to do something, motiva tion, a nd the belief tha t you ca n do it
with confidence.
When the lea der uses the knowledge a nd skills of the group
members to get the job done, the members ga in experience
a nd improve skills. They a lso develop a positive a ttitude
towa rd using a skill.
Below a re some informa tion items tha t ma y be upda ted
a nnua lly:
r Keep the group' s inventory up-to-da te a nd use it in
pla nning
r Understa nd the purpose a nd resources of the Junior Forest
Wa rdens
r Determine member' s skills, interests a nd resources a nd
ma ke a va ila ble to a ll members
As a lea der, you need to know the resources tha t a re a va ila ble
to you. A resource is something you ca n use, such a s, a book,
equipment. A piece of wood or a ha ndful of sa nd ma y be a
resource. People ca n a lso be a resource beca use:
r They know how to do things.
r They ha ve informa tion a nd knowledge.
5 8
r They know how a nd where to get other resources.
Every member in a group ca n be a resource. Not everyone ha s
something to give to every job, but ea ch member of a group
should be encoura ged to a dd wha t they ca n. By doing a n
inventory of the groups individua l strengths:
r You ca n elimina te ma king a lot of mista kes before finding
out wha t someone ha s to offer.
r You ca n sa ve time by not ha ving to ta lk to other members
of the group a bout the strengths of others.
r You ca n a ssign jobs to those who need pra ctice in
developing wea knesses a nd ca lling on those with strengths
when it rea lly counts.
r Ha ve Wa rdens bra instorm to develop their own list of skills
a nd strengths. Use the sheet on pa ge 60, to list the skills
a nd knowledge a rea s a nd ha ve ea ch Wa rden eva lua te
Exa mple
Check below a ll the skills you think you a re pretty good
a t a nd ra te yourself: wild edibles, cooking, la shing, a ble
to tie 10 knots, ma king a fire in wet wea ther, ma king a fire
in ra in, ma king shelters using na tura l ma teria ls, a nd so on.
Consider a dding a ttitudes a nd persona lity tra its tha t a re
considered to be importa nt, for exa mple, confident,
a na lytica l, coopera tive, motiva ted, enthusia stic, inquisitive ,
a nd so on. Consider a dding a t the bottom: "List three
strengths you bring to the group."
After a self eva lua tion, ha ve the Wa rdens sha re their
ra tings with ea ch other. There ma y be discussion a s to
how they ea ch eva lua ted themselves. Some ma y tend to
ra te themselves higher or lower in compa rison to ea ch
other. Discussions ca n even up the ra tings for more
a ccura cy. Group discussion will a lso help the Wa rdens
recognize ea ch others strengths. This should be done
a nnua lly since ea ch Wa rden' s skill a nd knowledge levels
will cha nge a fter a yea r of progra mming.
5 9
r Don' t trust your memory, ma ke a photocopy of ea ch
Wa rden' s “Strength Checklist”. Ensure tha t ea ch Wa rden
ha s their own copy on file. If you ha ve funds a va ila ble,
provide a copy of ea ch Wa rden' s Strength Checklist to ea ch
r Encoura ge Wa rdens to write goa ls to increa se the skill a nd
knowledge a rea s tha t a re wea k.
6 0
Skills / Kn o wle dge Ar e a s Ra t in g:
St r e n gt h Ch e c klis t Na me :
Da te: Ra ting Sca le: 1 is low, 5 is highest level
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
6 1
As s is t in le a din g a da yt r ip fo r
yo u n ge r wa r de n s .
Assisting a lea der is not a sla ck job. An a ssista nt lea der works
in pa rtnership with the lea der. It is your responsibility a s a n
a ssista nt to cla rify your role. Prior to the da ytrip, meet with
the lea der to cla rify deta ils. Ma ke a list of questions a nd
concerns. Your list ma y include some of the following:
r Get deta ils of trip: Ask the 5 Ws - Who, Wha t, Where,
When, Why, a nd How.
r Wha t is expected of me? Wha t do I ha ve to do?
r Wha t do I wa nt to do?
r Will lea der delega te to me a s we go a long or will I pla y a
role a nd sta y with tha t for the whole trip?
r I ha ve to do something. I will not go a long without
r Here a re some idea s of wha t I ca n do to a ssist the lea der:
(Wa rden ma kes a list)
r Some things tha t ca n I do on the trip, tha t will help me
develop some of my lea dership skills: debrief the group
a fter the trip, help the group or individua ls resolve
conflicts should a ny come up, a nd tea ch the group one
thing (be specific) while on the trip.
A c t i v i t y I d e a s
r Ha ve Wa rdens write a job description for a n Assista nt
Lea der.
r Assist with a da y hike, ca noe trip, or cross country trip.
r Ha ve Wa rdens ma ke a list of the skills they wish to
improve a nd concentra te on pra cticing them while
a ssisting on a da ytrip.
r Write a summa ry a bout the trip, describe the roles of the
lea der a nd your role a s the a ssista nt lea der, how ma ny
a ttended, where a nd so on. Finish the summa ry with:
Five things I lea rned a bout lea dership a re . . ., Three things
I did well on the trip a re. ., Three things I will improve
a re. . .
Cooperative Games,
Initiative Tasks &
6 5
Ic e br e a ke r s

This is a fun, introductory a ctivity. Ha ve the group form a circle. Inform them tha t ea ch ha ve to
sta te three sta tements, one must be the truth a nd the other two must be lies. As we go a round
the circle, sa y your na me a nd the three sta tements. The group will a sk questions for 30 seconds
then vote on the sta tement tha t they think is the lie. Give the group members time to think of
their three sta tements.
Hi, my na me is Joa nne.
1. I pa ra chuted from a n a irpla ne.
2. I ha d a close encounter with a bea r.
3. I won some money in a lottery.
For 30 seconds the group will a sk questions to check out their va lidity. They will ta ke a vote
a nd then I' ll tell them tha t I never won a ny money in a lottery. Remind the pa rticipa nts tha t the
sta tements don' t ha ve to be a ll tha t exciting. It ca n ra nge from I ha ve seen Queen Eliza beth to I
ba ked muffins in a reflector oven.
Ma ke a quick list of skills, a bilities,
interests, or wha tever theme you
wa nt to ha ve. Ma ke it into a cha rt
simila r to the one on the next pa ge.
Fill in your a nswers a nd then
circula te through the group a nd find
a nother person with the sa me
ma tch to one of the Things in
Common. Sign ea ch other' s sheet
when you ha ve a ma tch a nd
continue a sking others in the group
until a ll the boxes a re filled.
6 6
Th in gs in Co mmo n Yo u r s e lf Fr ie n d
1. Fa vorite ma mma l
2. Fa vorite movie
3. Fa vorite JFW Activity
4. Birthpla ce
5. Fa vorite school a ctivity
6. Fa vorite mea l
7. Astrologica l Sign
8. Fa vorite Va ca tion Spot
9. Eye Colour
10. Birth Order in Fa mily
11. Fa vorite Sport
12. Fa vorite Outdoor Mea l
13. Fa vorite Ca mp Song
. `
Ha ve a ll Wa rdens sit in a la rge circle. During this a ctivity, everyone will ha ve a n opportunity to
sha re their na me a nd sa y something specia l a bout himself or herself. Give people one minute to
think of something specia l a bout them. Begin the a ctivity by sta ting your na me a nd something
a bout yourself, for exa mple, "My na me is Jill a nd I a m wonderful a t ma king Bea nie Ba bies."
While holding onto the end of the ya rn, roll the ya rn ba ll to someone a cross from you in the
circle. This process continues until a ll ha ve either sha red, a nd a spider web ha s been crea ted.
This is a grea t a ctivity to show how a ll the skills a nd a bilities of ea ch member ca n contribute to
ma ke the group a tea m .
. .
Review the colors of the ra inbow (red, ora nge, green, blue, a nd violet). Ha ve Wa rdens a rra nge
themselves a ccording to the colors of their socks, shirts (if not a ll red) or some other a rticle of
clothing. Individua ls will ha ve to work together to a ccomplish the ta sk thus encoura ging
coopera tion a nd tea mwork.
All the pla yers need to be a ble to see one a nother for this ga me. Begin the ga me sitting down.
Anyone ca n sta nd up a t a ny time but ca nnot rema in sta nding for more tha n five seconds a t a
time before sitting down a ga in. The Wa rden ca n get right ba ck up a ga in if they choose. The
object of the ga me a s a group is to ha ve exa ctly four people sta nding up a t a ll times. It is best
to pla y this ga me in groups of eight to 10 people.
6 7

Everyone ta kes off one shoe a nd pla ces it in the center of the circle. All people join ha nds. With
ha nds joined; ea ch person must pick up one shoe, loca te the owner of the shoe a nd return it to
them without brea king their joined ha nds.

Ha ve the group sit in a la rge circle. One person begins by entering the circle a nd ma kes a
gesture, sound or movement (the more ridiculous, the better) a nd then points to someone else
in the circle to do the sa me thing. This person does the sa me thing the person before did a nd
a dds his or her own performa nce, a nd then choose the next person. This person need only
repea t the preceding a ction a nd a dd one before choosing someone new. The ga me is over
when a ll the people ha ve ha d a cha nce to pa rticipa te.
Form a la rge circle. One person in the middle wa lks up to a person in the circle a nd sa ys, "I
love ya honey." The chosen victim is to respond (without smiling), "I Love ya honey, but I' m not
a llowed to smile." Guess wha t ha ppens? They smile! The smiler joins the person in the center
to try a nd entice others to smile.
You' ll need a bla nket a nd a la rge ba ll, a soccer ba ll works well. Tea ms of four hold the bla nket,
one in ea ch corner. A ba ll is pla ced in the center of ea ch bla nket. When you sa y, "Go" a ll the
bla nket tea ms throw the ba ll to the gym ceiling by using the bla nket. The ha ve to ca tch the ba ll
on the wa y down. You ma y ha ve tea ms throwing the ba lls to ea ch other to ca tch in their
bla nkets.
Ask Wa rdens to find a pa rtner. Ea ch pa ir must choose a ma tching set of words, for exa mple,
sa lt-pepper, bla ck-white, Ma rco-Polo, or ha m-eggs.. Split the pa irs a nd ha ve the people wa lk to
opposite ends of a pla ying field. Put on blindfolds or promise to keep eyes closed. On a signa l,
everyone is to find their pa rtners by shouting their ma tching words. Va ria tion: In a sma ller
indoor a rea , ha ve pa rtners a gree on a n a nima l sound tha t they repea t to find ea ch other.
6 8

Ea ch member of the group must invent some a ction to a ccompa ny their na me, a gra ceful bow,
a wink, or a wa ve. Ea ch person sa ys their na me a nd demonstra tes their a ction, a nd then sa ys
the na me a nd performs the a ction, of the others in the circle. This continues a round the circle
until ea ch member ha s performed everyone else' s na me a nd a ction. This is a grea t ga me to
brea k the ice a nd get people to know everyone' s na me.

Ea ch member is a sked to give their first a nd la st na me a nd some history, some specia l persona l
fa ct or a n interesting fib. For exa mple, "I a m na med a fter my Grea t Gra ndmother who
immigra ted here from the moon" or "I a m na med a fter my Da d' s ca t."
Sit in a circle fa cing the center. One person sta rts the ga me by ta king a sa lt sha ker, turning to
the person on the right a nd sa ying, "This is the sa lt." Tha t person then turns a nd responds, "The
wha t?" The first person sa ys, "The sa lt." Then the second person sa ys, "Oh, the sa lt." The
second person turns to the third person a nd the entire excha nge repea ts until it ha s worked a ll
the wa y a round the circle. Once people ha ve the ha ng of it, you ca n confuse them. Here a re
two wa ys you ca n:
1. Pa ss a rock a round a nd ca ll it a fish.
2. Sta rt a nother object a round the circle, like the peppersha ker a nd ha ve the conversa tions
going both wa ys. Wa tch out, especia lly when they meet one person a t the sa me time-Za p!!
.. .
Ma teria ls required: Ma ke the Puzzle Set, found on pa ge 70 for every group of six Wa rdens.
Pla ce the six sma ll envelopes into a la rge envelope a nd la bel Set I. Ma ke more a s required.
Ha ve a group of six Wa rdens sit a round a ta ble. Assign the sixth person to a ct a s a referee.
Give ea ch group one la rge envelope conta ining the five sma ll envelopes.
Ru le s :
Everyone must stick to the strict rules. Time Limit: 10 minutes
1. Open your individua l envelope on the signa l from the lea der.
2. You a re to excha nge puzzle pieces with ea ch other within your group until you ha ve ea ch
ma de a n identica l squa re mea suring 15 cm 15 cm.
3. You ma y not a sk for, or signa l for a ny piece held by a ny other member of your group. If you
need a piece you must wa it until it is freely given to you.
4. You ma y volunteer a ny piece you ha ve to a ny other member of your group a t a ny time. You
ma y not a sk for a nything in return.
6 9
5. You must work in tota l silence (a nd tha t mea ns no body la ngua ge) until your group ha s
completed five identica l squa res.
6. After the ga me, the referee will sha re wha t they observed ha ppening in the group.
7. Discuss wha t ha ppened. Were some people competing? Were some coopera ting? Wha t
fa ctors intensified the competition (time limit, a nother group, a nd na ture of instructions)? Is
it norma l for people to be coopera tive or competitive?
7 0
Pu z z le Se t
These instructions a re for a complete puzzle set for one group of six Wa rdens. Use pla in
ca rdboa rd. Cut five squa res mea suring 6" X 6" (or 15 cm X 15 cm.) Cut ea ch squa re a ccording
to the five pa tterns shown below. Do NOT put letters on the pieces, they a re there to a ssist you
in scra mbling the pieces.
Ta ke five sma ll envelopes a nd
put puzzle pieces in them a s follows:
Envelope #1 - e, h, I
Envelope #2 - a , a , a , c
Envelope #3 - a , j
Envelope #4 - d, f
Envelope #5 - b, c, f, g
7 1
Tr u s t Ac t ivit ie s
· ..
Wa rdens form groups of four or five a nd pla ce their ha nds on the hips of the person in front of
them. The lea der ha s eyes open a nd ta kes them for a wa lk. At interva ls, the lea der ca lls
"Cha nge" a nd the person in front goes to the ba ck. This a ctivity is designed to produce feelings
of trust. Wa rdens process how they feel a s the lea der a nd the follower.
Tea mma tes form a circle. One person sta nds in the center with eyes closed. The center person
lea ns ba ck with feet glued to the ground a nd is gently rolled a round the circle. At lea st two
people in the circle ma inta in conta ct with the center person a t a ll times. The movement should
be slow a nd delibera te since crea ting a gentle feeling of support is the object of the exercise.
Pa rticipa nts sta nd fa cing ea ch other, pa lm to pa lm, a rms length dista nce a pa rt. Keep the pa lms
forwa rd a nd open. With feet firmly pla nted, rock into ea ch other. Stop ea ch other with pa lms,
a nd then spring ea ch other ba ck to sta nding position. As confidence a nd coopera tion build,
increa se the dista nce between the pa rtners.
Te a m Bu ildin g Ac t ivit ie s
Wa rdens form a circle with ea ch person holding out a clenched ha nd. Everyone sha kes their
clenched ha nd up a nd down three times a nd cha nts, "One, two, three." On the count of three,
ea ch person puts out a number of fingers. The purpose is to ha ve a ll the fingers a dd up to the
number 11. No ta lking is a llowed. When you finish tha t one, try a dding fingers to 12.
. .
Ma ke a ritua l of the community circle. Ma ke a circle to ta ke ca re if a dministra tive a nd
housekeeping needs such a s a ttenda nce, notices, clea n up a ssignments. Review the meeting
schedule so everyone knows the pla nned a ctivities. Ask a question of the da y; (see next pa ge
for some idea s). Ha ve Wa rdens respond in turn to the question a nd a llow time a t the end for
those who ha ve pa ssed to respond if they wa nt.
7 2
So me Su gge s t io n s fo r Qu e s t io n o f t h e Da y
r How do you feel toda y?
r How does the ra in ma ke you feel?
r Wha t is the biggest thing in the world?
r Wha t is your fa vorite food a nd why?
r Wha t is your fa vorite song?
r Wha t do you wa nt to be when you grow up?
.. .
Ha ve the group set-up ca mp without ta lking a nd only using one ha nd per person. This should
go on for a specified period of time or until some event, for exa mple, ta rp set-up, ha s been
completed. For sa fety, a ll stove a nd fire a ctivities will be performed using two ha nds, minima l
ta lking is permitted.
In pa irs, a line or a circle, gently work the kinks out of your neighbours ba ck. Remind group
members tha t people ha ve different tolera nces for how ha rd a nd soft a ba ck rub they prefer.
Tie a rope a round the wa ist of ea ch member of the group with ea ch person a bout 5 metres
a pa rt. You ma y need to ha ve severa l ropes with severa l people per rope. Ha ve the group brea k
ca mp in the morning, while roped up.

Your cha rter flight from Va ncouver to Edmonton ha s just cra shed in the Na tiona l Pa rk in the
Rocky Mounta ins. It’s mid-Ja nua ry, a pproxima tely noon. The twin engine, ten-pa ssenger pla ne,
conta ining the bodies of the pilot a nd one pa ssenger, ha s completely burned. Only the a irfra me
rema ins. No one in your group ha s been seriously injured.
The pilot wa s una ble to notify a nyone of your position before the pla ne cra shed in a blinding
snowstorm. Just before the cra sh, you noted tha t the pla ne' s a ltimeter registered a bout 1,500
metres. The cra sh site is in a rugged a nd hea vily wooded a rea just below the timberline. You
a re dressed in medium-weight clothing a nd ea ch of you ha s a n overcoa t. You ha ve nothing in
your pockets.
Before the pla ne ca ught fire, your group wa s a ble to sa lva ge 15 items. They a re listed below.
Your ta sk is to ra nk the items a ccording to their importa nce to your surviva l. Write a 1 next to
the most importa nt, 2 beside the second most importa nt a nd so on to 15.
7 3
You ha ve five minutes to complete this ta sk. Work a lone. When through, discuss with the
group your rea soning behind your ra nkings.
Ra n k It e m
four wool bla nkets
sectiona l a ir ma p
one fla shlight with four ba tteries
one rifle with a mmunition
one pa ir of skis
two-fifths of liquor
one cosmetic mirror
one ja ck knife
four pa irs of sungla sses
three books of ma tches
one meta l coffee pot
one first a id kit
12 sma ll pa cka ges of cockta il nuts
one clea r pla stic ta rp mea suring 3m x 4m
one la rge gift-wra pped decora tive ca ndle
Co o pe r a t ive Ga me s

Find different objects sa fe enough to toss. Form a circle. Step one is to esta blish a pa ttern.
Person one throws the object to person two who throws to person three a nd so on. Everyone
must remember who threw to them a nd whom they a re throwing to. Step two, now throw in
a nother object a nd continuing throwing to ea ch other. Step three, throw in the third ba ll a nd
continue. See how ma ny objects ca n be going a t once a round the circle.
7 4
Give ea ch person a piece of pa per a nd a sk them to print their na mes in the middle of the pa ge
in block letters a bout 2 cm high. When you give a signa l, the pa rticipa nts should move a round
the room, a dding their na me to the letters tha t fit the na me on the sheet of a nother person. If
the na me doesn' t fit, go to someone else a nd return la ter when you ha ve more letters. Try to
get a ll the na mes connected. Below is one ma de from nine na mes.
.. .
You' ll need a picture from a ma ga zine for every person. Tell ea ch person to tea r the picture into
four pieces. Ha ve them mill a round the room a nd tra de pieces, one piece per person. Let them
solve the puzzle by grouping with the others who hold up pieces of the sa me picture. New
tea ms of four a re formed this wa y. Another va ria tion to this idea is to use four lines from a
fa milia r poem or proverb .
Orga nize the Wa rdens into tea ms. One person from ea ch tea m steps out of the room. The
tea mma tes a gree on a n object in the room tha t the tea mma te must touch. All the tea mma tes
return a nd together begin to sea rch for the object. The tea mma tes cla p, cla pping louder a s their
tea m member a pproa ches the object they previously a greed on. When the tea m member
touches the object, the tea m sta nds up, gives a cheer, a nd invites the tea mma te ba ck to the
tea m.
In it ia t ive Ta s ks

You will need a la rge stump or a 60 X 60-cm pla tform. The object is to see how ma ny people
ca n get on the pla tform a t one time. To be counted a s being on the pla tform, ea ch person must
ha ve both feet off the ground a nd the whole group must be a ble to hold their ba la nce for five
7 5
An a vera ge group ca n get a bout 12 to 15 people on the pla tform. If your group is sma ller, ma ke
the pla tform sma ller; you ha ve flexibility rega rding its size.
Remember tha t one of your responsibilities, a s a group lea der is to encoura ge sa fety procedures.
Try to a void the group doing the "pig pile", one person piled on top of a nother.
You need a clea n, empty pop ca n. The object for the group of 12 to 15 people is to ma ke
physica l conta ct with a n empty pop ca n without ma king physica l conta ct with one a nother.

You need 10 to 16 people with two ha nds. Ask everyone to fa ce one a nother in a tight circle.
Ha ve everyone holds their right ha nd out a nd gra bs a nother ha nd a s if they a re sha king ha nds.
Next, everyone extends his or her left ha nds a nd gra sps the ha nd of someone else. Check to
see tha t everyone is hold the ha nds of two different people.
The cha llenge is to try a nd unwind themselves from this huma n knot without brea king conta ct
with the ha nds. You' ll see them stepping over ha nds, turning inside out. It' s fun to wa tch a
group solve this. There is no one right a nswer; you ma y end up with two intertwining circles, a
big circle with some people fa cing in a nd out. In a la rge group you ma y ha ve to a dminister
Knot First Aid where you will sepa ra te one or two ha nd conta cts a nd re-grip their ha nds. Don' t
be a rush to a dminister First Aid. Most groups like to work through the problem.
When you do Knots with younger Wa rdens, sta rt with a group of eight kids. Increa se the group
size a s their communica tion skills, coopera tion a nd problem solving a bilities increa se.

Define a recta ngula r a rea a pproxima tely 2 X 4 metres with string or ma rked on the ground. Fill
the a rea with toys a nd a bout 12 mousetra ps, of course. Ra ttra ps would sound better! These
a re the da ngers! Ha ve people in pa rtners, one with a blindfold. One set of pa rtners goes to
ea ch end of the a rea . The object is for the sighted pa rtners (who a re outside the defines a rea )
to verba lly guide the blindfolded pa rtner through the ma ze of obsta cles on the group without
touching the da ngers, setting off the mouse tra ps or touching ea ch other a s they pa ss. Get
through the ma ze sa fely, rea rra nge the objects, re-set tra ps if necessa ry a nd cha nge roles.
7 6

Obje c t :
To tra nsport the group over a n "electric fence" using only themselves a nd a conductive bea m.
Ru le s :
1. If a person touches the fence (rope) tha t person is dea d a nd must a ttempt the crossing
a ga in.
2. If the conductor bea m touches the wire, a ll those in conta ct a re dea d a nd must try a ga in.
3. An "electric field" extends from the wire to the ground a nd ca nnot be penetra ted.
4. The corner supports, which hold the wire, ca nnot be sa fely touched so ca nnot help in
solving the problem.
Sa fe t y
Be ca reful not to let the most enthusia stic person throw other people over the rope. Someone
will get hurt. Do not let the la st person dive hea d first over the wire.
Co n s t r u c t io n
The "electric wire" ca n be nylon rope tied off in a tria ngle sha pe, ea ch side of the tria ngle is 3 to
4 metres (10 to 15 feet). The rope should be 1.5 metres (5 feet) high. In gym use net supports
for the corner supports, surround the a rea with ma ts. The conductor bea m is a log a bout 2.5
metres (8 feet) long with a n 8-cm (3-inch) dia meter. If you a re doing this a t ca mp, use trees a s
the supports for the electric wire.

Ha ve everyone in the group sit in a circle blindfolded a nd without ta lking. Ea ch person must
ta ke off two items (shoes, shirt, ha t, etc.) a nd pla ce them in the middle of the circle. Mix up a ll
the items. Then everyone must find their own things a nd get someone to put them ba ck on
them. Without seeing a nd ta lking.
7 7

Obje c t :
To move the group a cross a n open field a s quickly a s possible. The dista nce will va ry with the
estima ted strength of the group. The length of a ba sketba ll court is a vera ge. Ha ve groups
competing a ga inst ea ch other .
Ru le s :
1. Ca rry a member of the tea m a cross the field.
2. The ca rrier must return a nd be ca rried himself.
3. The only person a llowed to run or wa lk a cross the open a rea is the la st person.
4. If the ca rried person touches the ground while being tra nsported, both members must return
to the sta rt.
5. The number of people being ca rried a nd ca rrying ca n va ry with the strength a nd/ or
ima gina tion of the group, for exa mple, one-to-one is not the only wa y.
Va r ia t io n s :
The object ca n be to move the entire group a cross the dista nce in a s few trips a s possible. This
will cha nge the empha sis from speed to efficiency. To include more of a trust fa ctor, require
tha t everyone wea r blindfolds. Ha ve a t lea st three people a va ila ble a s spotters.
7 8
Gr o u p Ra t in g My Ra t in g
ma t c h e s
c o mpa s s
gla s s e s
pla s t ic
kn ife
s n a ke bit e kit
fis h in g ge a r
in s e c t r e pe lle n t
pa pe r a n d pe n c il
fla s h ligh t
wh is t le
wa t e r pu r ific a t io n t a ble t s
c o r d a n d wir e
s o a p
fo o d r a t io n s
n e e dle a n d t h r e a d
me dic a l kit

Do this exercise by yourself first. When everyone ha s finished, work together a s a group a nd
a gree on the fina l ra ting.
Sc e n a r io :
You a re hiking through the woods a nd suddenly fa ll down a steep slope, twisting your a nkle.
Your ba ckpa ck is now too hea vy for you to ca rry a ll your supplies in a nd some things will ha ve
to be left behind. To decide wha t you a re going to lea ve behind, you must think a bout the uses
of ea ch item a nd ra nk them a ccording to the importa nce they will ha ve to you for the rest of
your journey.
Begin with number one a s being the most importa nt to number 17 a s being the lea st importa nt.
7 9
En e r giz e r s
Wa rdens simply a ppla ud for a bout 15 to 20 seconds non-stop.
All group members mimic the sound of bees (zzzzzzzz) beginning very softly a nd gra dua lly
increa sing in loudness.
Form a circle sta nding up with one Wa rden who is "It" in the center. "It" wa lks up, sta nds in
front of you a nd sa ys one of the following:
"Ce n t e r , bumpety-bump-bump"
"Se lf, bumpety-bump-bump"
"Righ t , bumpety-bump-bump"
"Le ft , bumpety-bump-bump"
You must sa y her/ his na me, your na me, or the person' s na me to the right or left of you before
"It" completes sa ying "bumpety-bump-bump," otherwise you become "It."

Pa rticipa nts sta nd in a circle, fa cing in, shoulder to shoulder. Sta rt producing a little energy by
rubbing ha nds together a s if you a re cold. Ask everyone to ta ke three deep brea ths, brea thing
in through the nose, holding the brea th for a moment, then exha ling out through the mouth.
The lea der then sa ys, "We a re going to count to three together a nd on the count of three, we
will point our fingers into the middle of the circle a nd sa y, ZAP!"
Collect ma teria ls tha t ca n be used a s instruments, for exa mple, comb a nd pa per for ka zoo, tins
a nd spoons, drums, rocks hitting together, coconuts ha lves on a ta ble, spoons, popcorn or rice
in a ca n, etc. If there a re not enough instruments for everyone, then ha ve the Wa rdens without
instruments ma ke sounds, which imita te instruments. Ha ve Wa rdens pra ctice. Appoint a
conductor a nd select a simple tune to pla y. Plug your ea rs a nd ha ve fun!
Working with
the Media
8 3
In t r o du c t io n
The role of the media (newspa pers, ra dio a nd television) is to educa te a nd inform the public.
When you ha ve opportunities to pla n community events, you should be conta cting the media to
publicize your event a nd be a va ila ble for interviews when the event is a ctua lly ha ppening.

r Newspa per - Genera lly only one or two da ilies cover a n a rea . They ha ve a need for pictures
a nd deta ils. Dea dlines a re tight.
r Ra dio - Most a rea s ha ve a number of sta tions tha t provide immedia te covera ge. They a re
interested in a verba l report from the orga nizers for ma ximum impa ct.
r Television - Genera lly there a re two or three sta tions in a n a rea . Their needs a re for short
visua l clips of the event for covera ge on the noon or evening news.
Below a re some tips tha t you ma y find useful for your JFW Club:
1. Designa te one person to be the media conta ct. This person ta lks to the ra dio a nd television
people. You ma y a lso ha ve a committee
2. Be prepa red. Be rea dy with your spiel a nd remember tha t you represent the Junior Forest
Wa rdens orga niza tion. Ta ke a deep brea th a nd smile.
3. Tour the media a round the event to highlight the importa nt messa ge you wa nt to
communica te.
4. Ta ke a dva nta ge of the opportunity. Remember tha t you a re the expert a nd media people
represent the uninformed public. Ta lk to them a nd pra ctice your communica tion skills.
5. If you do not know the a nswer to a question, "I don' t know” is the best a nswer. Tha t
doesn' t ma ke for exciting news, so don' t worry, it won' t ma ke it to television.
6. Be yourself. Do not try to cha nge your voice or sound different. Don' t pla y a ct or try to be
someone else. You ha ve done very well
a s the person you a re.
7. Be clea r a nd to the point.
8. Your a ttitude should be open, friendly
a nd helpful.

Television lea ns towa rds a ction a nd
enterta inment. It' s a more intima te
medium tha n newspa per a nd ra dio.
Television is a n emotiona l medium, not a n
intellectua l one. Viewers often forget the
content of your messa ge but remember
your style, how you looked, how you
beha ved a nd the qua lity of your voice.
8 4
Check your a ppea ra nce a nd then forget it. Now, concentra te on the questions being a sked.
Look stra ight a hea d a nd try not to look up or down. The best a dvice when prepa ring for a TV
interview of a ny kind is a s follows:
1. Know the subject. Do your homework. Ma ke certa in you know a s much a bout the subject
a s a nyone.
2. Consider one, two, or ma ybe three ba sic points tha t you wish to convey during the
interview. Ma ke certa in you ca n rela te them in brief, clea r sentences. Keep steering the
conversa tion a round those points. Don' t be a fra id to repea t your messa ge(s) in different
wa ys. Use exa mples a nd a na logies tha t provides the viewer with menta l ima ges.
3. Try to smile, rela x, a nd consider the experience a s a conversa tion.
Your objective is to a ppea r na tura l. You wa nt to be comforta ble, in control, confident, open a nd
friendly. Reporters a re short-term experts who ha ve simply ta ken some time to prepa re a few
direct questions.
Community newspa pers wa nt news tha t directly a ffects the community. Newspa pers tra nsla te
complex idea s better tha n ra dio a nd television. If possible, ha ve a previously written short
a rticle a bout the event. If it' s good it ma y get published a s it is. Or the reporter ma y use pa rts
of wha t you' ve written. Tha t' s good beca use the informa tion is a ccura te.

Ra dio tends to be ca sua l a nd persona l. Ra dio progra ms often use stories a bout people. When
you get a telephone ca ll from the ra dio sta tion, ha ve your messa ge in point form by the phone.
They will usua lly tell you tha t you a re being recorded, ta ke a deep brea th a nd try not to spea k
too quickly.
For the record, esta blish whom you a re ta lking to a nd how the informa tion will be used, i.e.
specia ls segment. Record a ll the media conta cts for future reference.
8 5
Ho w t o Pu blic iz e Yo u r Eve n t o r Pr o je c t

Someone in the club should be a ssigned the job of ma king a list of the conta cts in the loca l
ra dio, television a nd ca ble sta tions tha t will be conta cted to help promote your event. Get the
na mes a nd telephone numbers of the Progra m Directors. Keep the list upda ted for future
It' s not a s ha rd a s it sounds. Remember the 5Ws: Who, Wha t, Where, When, a nd How. Write a
one-pa ge, double-spa ced media relea se sta ting the na me of your group, a ge, the number of
people involved in the project or event a nd a description of the event. The most importa nt
informa tion goes in the first pa ra gra ph. Add a conta ct na me a nd phone number a t the bottom
of the pa ge. The Media Relea se should be delivered to the editor of a loca l newspa per, a nd to
ra dio a nd television sta tion progra m directors. Follow up one week la ter with a telephone ca ll.
Hold a kickoff celebra tion to bring exposure to the project. For exa mple, ha ve the ma yor or
a nother dignita ry pla nt a tree for wildlife to kick off a ma jor tree-pla nting project. Ask the
media a nd other members of the community to a ttend a nd pa rticipa te. If a photogra pher or TV
ca mera crew is expected to show up, pla n some visua lly stimula ting a ctivities.
` .
Pla n a hea d by writing your own story just in ca se the media does not show up a t your event.
Submit a photogra ph a nd a story to the newspa per a fter the event. You ma y a lso consider
writing a story before the event just to stimula te interest in the community before the big event.
This is a shorter version of a media relea se. This is written a s a n a nnouncement so a ra dio host
ca n rea d it on the ra dio or it ca n go a s a sma ll a nnouncement in a newspa per column. In the
top left corner of the pa ge, write the conta ct na me a nd phone number. In the top right corner
of the pa ge write the da te when you would like the media to ma ke the a nnouncement a nd for
how long, for exa mple, Run: June 9-10, 1998.
Assign someone to be the conta ct person. The na me will be on Media Relea ses a nd Public
Service Announcements. This person should be someone who will not freeze up on ca mera or
in front of a microphone. The person must be prepa red to ta lk a bout the club, the project or
event, its purpose a nd so on.
8 6

You ma y decide to pla n your event so tha t it is pa rt of a la rger public event such a s Wildlife
Week, Arbor Da y or Environment Week. Your event ma y a lso be promoted in some a lrea dy
existing networks such a s a school newsletter, club newsletter or sma ll neighborhood
community newsletters. You ma y a lso a sk for a ssista nce, expertise or ma teria ls through those
conta cts.

Pla n your event, if possible, between 9:30 a nd 11:00 a .m. This is the best time to a ttra ct media
a ttention a nd will help ensure tha t your event is covered in the ea rly evening newsca st.

Two Weeks Before - Phone the media before the event a nd briefly tell them a bout your pla ns.
Specify the da te a nd the a ctivity. Tell them you will follow up with a media relea se.
One Week Before - Deliver the media relea se by ha nd to the person spoken to on the telephone.
Da y Before - Phone the media conta cts to remind them of the event. However, for a Monda y
event ca ll on Frida y.
Send a tha nk you letter to editors, Progra m directors a nd a ll those who helped promote your
event. Tha nk-you notes ma ke everyone feel good a bout being involved.
8 7
Wr it e a n Effe c t ive Le t t e r t o t h e Edit o r
Surveys show tha t the Letters Section of a ny newspa per or ma ga zine ha s one of the highest
rea dership ra tings of a ny portion of the publica tion. Writing a n effective letter to the editor is a
grea t wa y to sha re your views a nd news with the genera l public. Here a re some simple tips to
help you get your thought published.
1. Ma ke it legible. Type your letters if possible, using double spa ces. Use only one side of a
sheet of pa per .
2. Keep it simple. Be a s brief a s possible while still long enough to ma ke your ca se. Focus on
a ba sic idea in the first sentence or two so the editor ca n quickly determine why your a re
writing. Letters between 150 a nd 200 words a re most likely to get printed, a nd lea st likely to
get edited. Look a t the letter pa ges of the newspa per you a re writing to so you ca n get a n
idea of the typica l length of published letters. Sometimes the editor will ha ve it printed nea r
the letters column.
3. Ma ke it rea da ble. Give specific exa mples to support your points. Use persona l experiences
when possible. Use short sentences. Avoid long pa ra gra phs.
4. Ma ke it timely. If you a re responding to a news story, or someone else' s letter, try to ma il
your letter within three da ys. Refer to the a rticle in your letter in your first sentence.
5. Identify yourself. If you a re writing on your own, identify yourself with a short introduction
tha t expla ins why you a re knowledgea ble on this topic. If you a re writing on beha lf of the
Junior Forest Wa rden Club, include tha t informa tion a t the beginning. At the end, sign your
na me, give a n a ddress, a nd phone number. The phone number is importa nt beca use if a
decision is ma de to print your letter, someone often will ca ll to verify tha t you wrote the
6. Address it properly. Use the following both for the a ddress a t the top of your letter a nd a s
the a ddress on the envelope. Letters to the Editor, Na me of Newspa per, Address of
Newspa per.
7. Keep a copy. If your letter gets printed, you will wa nt to compa re your origina l with how the
newspa per published it. Tha t a llows you to ma ke sure the intent of your letter were not
cha nged by editing a nd tha t no crucia l point wa s elimina ted. It a lso will help you write a
better letter next time.
8. Be persistent. If you send a letter a nd it does not get printed, don' t get discoura ged. Review
the letters tha t did get printed. Especia lly on the sa me topic. You' ll proba bly see how you
could ha ve ma de yours more effective.
9 1
Ma kin g Pr e s e n t a t io n s
Your job when ma king a presenta tion is to convey informa tion effectively.
. `
1. You must a bove a ll else know wha t
you a re ta lking a bout. Do your
resea rch a nd know the subject well.
2. Know your a udience. Find out whom
you a re ta lking to. Wha t level of
knowledge do they ha ve? The presen-
ta tion should not be too ba sic or too
ha rd.
3. Include a specific beginning, middle
a nd end. The beginning should
introduce wha t you will be ta lking
a bout, the middle ha s the "mea t a nd
pota toes" of the presenta tion a nd the
ending should summa rize the ta lk.
4. Ma ke a written outline of wha t you
wa nt to sa y. Answer the six Ws: Who
you a re, wha t you' ll be doing, how
you' ll be doing it, when, where a nd
5. Pra ctice. Pra ctice. Pra ctice.

Introduce yourself if you a re in a n informa l setting. Ha ve the group members introduce
themselves too. This will brea k the ice a nd ma ke everyone more comforta ble a nd receptive to
wha t you ha ve to sa y.
Wha t do you do when you a re lea ding a na ture wa lk with younger Wa rdens a nd suddenly their
a ttention is dra wn to something else tha t is completely off the topic? Well, ha ve some
sponta neity, go with the flow but gra dua lly bring their a ttention ba ck to the topic. Ta ke
a dva nta ge of those tea cha ble moments.
9 2
r Yourself
Honor the importa nce of wha t you a re doing. Your position a s a spea ker a nd a s a presenter
ma y be the only opportunity the group ha s to hea r wha t you ha ve to offer. Excite them so
they a re a ble to pursue the subject on their own.
r The Listeners
Never ta lk down to your a udience. Never think tha t you a re superior beca use of wha t you
know. The cha llenge is to ha ve the a udience excited beca use of wha t they a re lea rning--not
for the a uthority they ha ve given you. Allow them to a sk you questions.

If you ha ve a lot of points for people to remember, it' s a good idea to ha nd out a written
summa ry. Listener' s ca n go ba ck a nd look up a point they missed.

Nervousness is usua lly the culprit a ffecting the qua lity of our voices. There a re three wa ys to
rela x a nd upgra de your voice:
1. Slow down. Control is ea sier a t slower speeds.
2. Rela x the upper body. Ta ke a brea th, rota te your shoulders, a nd rela x your neck. All these
a ctions will crea te more rela xed voca l chords a nd ma ke your voice sound deeper a nd more
plea sa nt.
3. Ta ke brea th from your stoma ch, not your chest. Short brea ths reduce voca l qua lity.
Brea thing deeply from the dia phra gm a llows a more rela xed sound.

A dry mouth hinders good voice qua lity a nd is a direct result of nervousness. Here a re three
wa ys to minimize the dry mouth:
1. Ta ke a hot drink instea d of a cold drink, which tend to tighten the voca l chords.
2. Try to force a ya wn. Yawning tends to stimula te sa liva ry gla nds a nd relieve tha t dryness.
3. There is a liquid spra y solution tha t crea tes a rtificia l sa liva , which ca n provide tempora ry
9 3

When you know your subject a nd believe in it with your hea rt,
gestures will become a utoma tic. You ca n videota pe one of
your presenta tions a nd study yourself. Sort out the wea k
gestures from the strong ones. You' ll see them, don' t worry.
Here a re some exa mples of wea k gestures:
r frequently clea ring throa t
r using a ny single gesture over a nd over a ga in.
r Pla ying with a pen or pa per clip.
r Fiddling with gla sses.
r Rea ching in your pocket a nd unconsciously jingling the
cha nge.
r Repea ted pa tting your ha ir, scra tching your hea d, pulling
on a n ea r, buttoning a nd unbuttoning a coa t.
Wh ic h Au dio - vis u a l Me diu m t o
Us e
Following is a list of the sta nda rd choices a mong a udio-visua l
methods, a long with the pros a nd cons of ea ch.
Pr o s Co n s
Best for ca sua l presenta tions. Slow beca use you produce
Good when a udience words a nd gra phics by ha nd.
pa rticipa tion desired. Little or no gla mour .
Inexpensive ma teria ls. Presenter must work ha rder to
No problems with keep a udience interested.
brea kdowns. Ha ndwriting ma y be difficult
Mista kes ca n ea sily be era sed. to rea d.
Ink ma rkers ca n be messy a nd
unrelia ble.
Difficult to preserve a nd store
Th e Bs o f
Go o d Spe a kin g
Be prepa red
Be clea r
Be simple
Be vivid
Be na tura l
We lea rn 7% by hea ring.
We lea rn 87% by seeing.
The rema ining 6% a re lea rned
by ta ste, touch a nd smell.
9 4
Pr o s Co n s
Ea sy to produce. Poor for la rge a udiences.
Reusa ble. Flipping pa ges ca n be slow a nd
Ea sily tra nsporta ble cumbersome a nd pa ges tea r ea sily.
Inexpensive. Requires some a rtistic skill to
Good a udience pa rticipa tion. produce ea ch pa ge.
Pr o s Co n s
Ea sy to use. Poor for la rge a udience (> 100 people)
Tra nspa rencies ma de chea ply a nd quickly. Cha nging tra nspa rencies becomes
Colors a nd overla ys ca n be used. distra cting.
Room lights need not be dimmed. The spea ker a nd projector ca n block view
Audience ca n see to ta ke notes. of the screen.
Allows on-screen editing a nd a udience Light bulb ca n burn out in
pa rticipa tion. mid-presenta tion.
Computer-genera ted visua ls ca n produce
nice tra nspa rencies.
Other new technology a llows displa y of 3-D
figures a nd "live" computer da ta .

Pr o s Co n s
Better for la rger, more forma l presenta tions. Slides ca n be expensive to produce.
Visua ls a dva nce smoothly. Room must be da rkened.
Photogra phic cla rity gives a qua lity ima ge. Inhibits note ta king a nd a udience
Slides a re sma ll, dura ble a nd tra nsporta ble. pa rticipa tion.
Projectors a re rea dily a va ila ble. Slides ca n be put in upside-down or
become Professiona lism enha nced by using two stuck.
or more projectors.
Pr o s Co n s
Color, motion a nd sound combine Shifts focus from presenter .
for top professiona lism. Projection equipment cumbersome a nd
Best for expla ining complica ted subjects or expensive.
Best for impa ct.
Best for la rge a udiences on la rge screens.
9 5

Pr o s Co n s
Visua ls produced a re sent electronica lly Cost of projection equipment is high.
to a specia l projection unit for Tra ining technicia n usua lly required
la rge-screen viewing. to a dva nce visua ls.
Slides/ tra nspa rencies/ overhea ds need not Cla rity of visua l not a s good a s slides.
be produced.
Ea sily produced fa des, wipes, dissolves
a nd other effects.

Choosing exa ctly the right medium for your presenta tion is importa nt a nd so is the design of
your visua ls. Here a re some genera l rules for designing effective visua ls.
1. Write the words first. Develop your messa ge a nd your outline with its key points. Then
consider which points in your outline need specia l empha sis. Gra phics a re to a ta lk wha t
music is to lyrics. They complement a nd reinforce one a nother.
2. Use the KISS Method. This is a n a cronym for Keep It Short a nd Simple. Design no more
tha n one ma in idea per visua l.
3. Use the KILL Method. Keep It La rge a nd Legible.
4. Use descriptive titles. Titles on your visua ls summa rize wha tever point you a re trying to
ma ke. A good title ca n a lso help bring tempora rily distra cted a udience members ba ck into
the presenta tion quickly.
5. Decide on a ba sic design. This mea ns using the sa me colors throughout, the sa me font
styles, the sa me ca rtoon cha ra cter, wha tever it ta kes to show a continuing rela tionship
between slides. Keep the design clea r a nd sta nda rdize it.
6. Proof, proof, proof. Ha ve someone else look over your work. Don' t let a misspelling ma ke
you a ppea r sloppy.
7. Allow enough time. Give yourself a mple time to prepa re visua ls to rehea rse with them
8. Use visua ls spa ringly. If something ca n be sta ted simply, don' t show it. Flipping through a
lot of miscella neous visua ls dilutes the impa ct of those tha t a re importa nt.
9 6
Cir c le Ye s o r No
Within time limits Yes No Audience a sked questions Yes No
Ra te the spea ker. Give a n exa mple to justify your decision.
1 = Disa gree 4 = Agree
Words were clea rly spoken 1 2 3 4
Voice wa s loud enough 1 2 3 4
Good eye conta ct with a udience 1 2 3 4
Informa tion wa s well expla ined 1 2 3 4
Prop or visua l a id wa s used effectively 1 2 3 4
Audience pa rticipa tion 1 2 3 4
Ca lm a nd rela xed (no fidgeting) 1 2 3 4
Moved smoothly through presenta tion 1 2 3 4
r Wha t wa s the best pa rt of the presenta tion?
r How could this presenta tion be improved?
Overa ll ra ting of spea ker:
Exc e lle n t Go o d OK Ne e ds Impr o ve me n t
Pr e s e n t a t io n Eva lu a t io n
Presenter ’s na me (optiona l): Da te:
Presenta tion Topic Group:
Leadership Skills
Checklist for
9 9
Le a de r s h ip Skills Ch e c klis t fo r Ad ve n t u r e r s
Na me of Wa rden:
Yea rs of progra m: Adventurer Yea r 1
Adventurer Yea r 2
Adventurer Yea r 3
Check off the following skills a nd a bilities the Wa rden ha s demonstra ted. Write the da te a nd
deta ils of the skills/ a bilities demonstra ted. Include which lea dership skills were pra cticed a nd
which of the other modules a nd progra m objectives (Forestry, Ecology, a nd Woodstra vel). Use
a nother sheet of pa per to keep a record of ea ch Wa rden' s a chievements. Initia l beside the skills
on the Wa rden' s copy of their own checklist in his/ her ma nua l.
r Listed Cha ra cteristics of a good lea der.
r 10-minute presenta tion to younger wa rdens Topic:
r Conduct a specia l event or outtrip.
r Eva lua te a specia l event or outtrip.
r Demonstra ted effective communica tion skills while lea ding a n event, a ctivity or outtrip.
r Pla nned a nd delivered six a ctivities of choice:
r Signed Lea dership Contra ct
r Lea d a bra instorming session.
r Coa ched peers or younger wa rdens to improve their skills a nd a bilities.
r Demonstra ted one problem solving technique.
1 0 0
Le a de r s h ip Skills Ch e c klis t
Adventurer' s Na me:
r Shows coopera tion in club meetings a nd outtrips.
r Goa l Setting
r Completed a Persona l Equipment Loca tor
r Completed Group Equipment Loca tor
r Pla nned a nd coordina ted two a ctivities to support JFW progra m to younger Wa rdens.
r Conducted ice brea kers a nd coopera tive ga mes session.
r Pa rticipa ted in determining strengths of group.
r Assisted a da ytrip for younger Wa rdens.
Adventurer Lea dership
Pr e s e n t e d t o Wa r de n :
Congra tula tions for successfully completing the
lea dership skills required for the
Adve n t u r e r Le a de r s h ip Mo du le
in the
Ju n io r Fo r e s t Wa r de n s pr o gr a m.
We hope tha t you will continue to further
develop your
positive a ttitude a nd lea dership skills.
Da te Lea der