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COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. 751 Broadway." "MEALS FOR THE MILLION. TO COOEEHY AN EXPLANATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY TAUGHT IN THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF COOKERY." " FIFTEEN-CENT •" DINNERS. SIXTH EDITION." " THE WORKINGMAN's DIETARY." ETC." DIET FOR INVALIDS AND CHILDREN. By JULIET CORSON. Superintendent of the Neiv York School of Cookery." " TWENTY-FIVK CENT DINNERS. AND HOUSEKEEPERS' GUIDE AND EITCHEN MANAGEIUCENT. 1883. REVISED AND ENLARGED. AUTHOR OP "the COOKING MAKUAL. . NEW YORK: ORANGE JUDD COMPANY.

All Rights Reserved. Electrotyped by & Ckh Lovejoy Bon .w b' ^4-' \^ Copyrighted 1877 and 1878 by JULIET CORSON.

we that offering our special plan of instruc- tion for the guidance of societies or individuals who wish to establish similar institutions elsewhere. In presenting this text-book to the public. we desire to call attention to instruction with the necessity for accompanying technical some explanation of the principles of cookery as applicable to the preservation of the general health. School of Cookery. and will (iii) . and the student is advised to become well acquainted with them before begin- ning the actual practice of the cooking lessons. but we have embodied the general features of our instructions in the appendix to this volume. and so applications for a book of this character are contin- ually received at tlie feel quite justified in N. Public interest in the good cookery has many for work of popularizing some time been so cheap and marked. fail to some accomplish intelligent com- prehension on the part of the cook of the chemistry of food and the physiology of nutrition.. will not Our present limits permit any lengthy exemplification of this point.PRE FA C E. A book of mere receipts ^vould the purpose we have in view. knowdedge thus obtained will be available in The enabling tyros in the culinary art to realize the imperative necessity for careful study from the very outset of their work. e. i. Y.

aiding their less expert associates while practicing their own tasks. or visitors at the lessons. near the end they should be the course. done by them. their friends. by them. in the kitchen.PREFACE. Every cooking lesson should consist of the actual prepara- tion of certain suitable dishes by the pupils. in order for the them should act as pupil teachers. assist the more advanced pupils (1) to classify different articles of food in accordance with their effect upon the system. small. and. in no case should a diploma or certificate of proficiency be given until the jDupil has not only mastered the principles specified in the appendix. Both reasons and facts are good things for the average cook to comprehend. or by ants. iv. so as to and mental needs. The expense of the lessons can be considerably diminished by allowing the pupils. of thoroughly examined. or in their presence. to purchase the dishes at about their cost. of terioration satisfy their physical (3) to detect the adulteration food. when some number acting of the the class is lesson fire and the the class utensils. as the lessons progress. and the most capable all put of is in turn as assist- the marketing should large. The and de- scholars should be questioned occasionally by their teacher. familiarity with the nature of the different nutriments in common use enables persons of or- dinary intelligence to compose a variety of nourishing . for the purpose of arriving at their understanding of the subject. but has also given abundant evidence by practical demonstration that the cooking lessons are clearly understood. (2) to alter and improve the dietaries of persons following stated pursuits. the if be possible cases.

for the past three the retail price States. the methods which are best calculated to serve this purpose are the proper ones to employ. The prime fact that the sole object of cooking is to pre- pare for nourishing the body should never be forgotten. all been collecting parts of the United and from information already received. The prices in Boston and Philadelphia seem to range . and how sho\rs greatly the appetizing nature of a meal depends upon its combination and seasoning. good cook man will will wantonly ruin his tools or his handiwork. A not waste food any more than a good work- Some discussion may arise concerning the that but of foods from years. food. the ac- complishment of which demands foresight. we feel quite confident that the prices herein quoted will be found to form an aveuage sufficiently accurate for a standard in es- timating the expense of giving a course of cooking lessons. consequently. cooking should not be regarded as an incentive to gluttony. properties. we It may making the lists prices attached dir. the desire of a conscientious cook to economise is propor- tionate with his or her mastery of the culinary art. or used as the means of tempting the luxurious to indulgence of appetite.PREFACE. to the ingredients required in ing the lessons. it Good undue has a nobler purpose. from a limited dishes market supply.hes compos- be well in this connecwion to state have. and. care and pa- how every scrap of untainted made to yield all its nutrient Its mission is to sliow tience. can be how every available warmth and strength. cheap or costly. to decide be converted into Economy in cooking is particle can best often miscalled meanness.

VL liigher than those in figures used in this such New York and Washington work represent the rates current in localities as those east of of Seventh avenues. and given To the encour- due the success which New York School of . agement and influence of the press is has attended the work of the Cookery. articles of The Chicago.PREFACE. Before concluding this preface we desire to express our the earnest thanks to those friends of who have manifested such genuine Cooking School interest. which has invariably accorded its generous support and judicious endorsement to the enterprise. and in any place the price paid for upon the knowledge and Third and west Washington Market. among them ranks Foremost the public press of the United States. such substantial support to the institution. But in food largely depends discretion of the purchaser.

THIRD LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. How to SECOND LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. SIXTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. Page 13. I. Sponge—Biscuit—Milk RoUs— Breakfast Twist CHAPTER VI..-PART CHAPTER Page 3. PREFACE. Butter—Grilled Fish Bones CHAPTER — — — — -------— — CHAPTER V.--. FIRST LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSEMaterial for Soup Vegetable Poiridge Pea Soup with CroHtons—Scotch Broth without Meat Beef and Vegetable — — — ----------- Soup Page 25. IV. and Seasonings How to Clean Kitchen How to Clean Stove How to Make and Keep up Fii-e The Best K i n d of — Fuel—Cooking UtensUs—How — Temperatures —Best to Clean Utensils CHAPTER — — ----- Material for Cooking 11. Bordelaise Style Boiled Lentils Fried Lentils—Red Kidney Page Beans. How to Choose Macaroni How to Boil Macaroni ^IMacaroni. Choice and Fittings of Demonstration Kitchen^Weights. (vii.----— 43. Measures. and Bake Bread — — — — 40. FOURTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. Prove. I. FIFTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE.— CONTENTS.) . Baker's and Homemade Bread—Yeast— How to Set BreadPage 37. How to Choose Eggs How to Keep Eggs ^Boiled Eggs Poached Eggs Fried Eggs ^Plain Omelette Parsley Omelette Page Sweet Omelette 34. . Farmer's Style Macaroni with Bechamel Sauce Baked Page Macaroni —How to Mould. INTRODUCTORY TO ALL THE COURSES OP LESSONS.-----. CHAPTER m. CHAPTER Vn. Stewed — — — . Choose Fish—Boiled Haddock with Parsley Sauce Fried Filets of Flounder —Broiled — ------ with Maitre d^Hotel Filets Page 31. Leguminous Vegetables Peas and Bacon ^White Haricot Beans.

CHAPTER Xin. TWELFTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. ELEVENTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSEHow to Cook for Invalids Toast ^Toast Water Tea—Beef Tea Page Chicken JeDy ^Panada Barlej^ Water ^Apple Water — — — — — — 58.— — — — CONTENTS. NINTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. Parts of Animals called Entrails—Haslet Ragout Stewed Tripe Pi^e —Stuffed Heart—Broiled Kidneys — ----- 55. viii. XI. TENTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. _ _ Page 62. Soup Fiied Halibut Neck Kolcannon ^Bubble and Squeak Apple Fritters Page Tripe — — 76. IV. CHAPTER XII. Soup Cai'amel Baked Herrings Liver Rolls Cassel — — Puddings with Hard Sauce — — ------ Page 66. CHAPTER OxtaH I. CHAPTER n. How to Choose Vegetables How to Keep Vegetables How to Boil Green Vegetables Hot Slaw Baked Turnips ^Parsnip — — ---- Fritters — — — Page - CHAPTER X. Crecy Soup Filets of Fish with Spanish Sauce Spareribs and Peas Caramel Custai'ds — CHAPTER in. FOURTH LESSON OP THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. THIRD LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. SEVENTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. —Cream Cream Sauce — Cake Silver Cake — Swiss Pudding with Rice Pudding ^Apple Tarts Gold Nutritive Value of Pies and Puddings — _ - - PART — - . SECOND LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. Cheapest Cuts of Meat Combination Dishes Potato Pot ^Beef d la ModCy Victoria Style ^Pork and Beans ^Bacon and Page Cabbage — — CHAPTER I — -_-_-_---— 49. EIGHTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. CHAPTER Vni. How to Choose Potatoes—How to Keep Potatoes Boiled Potatoes—ii/onjiatse Potatoes German Potatoes—Potato Salad Page — — 45. — 52. Ragout of Page TO. FIRST LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. Mulligatawny Soup Persillade of Fish ^Fried Brains ^Lemon Diunplings — — --------— — ------CHAPTER Page 72. II. CHAPTER IX. .

FIRST LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. ^Fish Chowder—Chicken Pie Corn Starch Page Puddings Turtle — — Bean Soup CHAPTER 82. Pot-au-Feu Devilled Crabs— Beef and Vegetables— French PanPage cakes 91. Cabinet Bi^noise Soup Clam Fritters—Mutton Rechauffe Page Pudding with Jelly Sauce 88. plain CHAPTER TWELFTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. Stock Flavoring. III. XII. CHAPTER IX. SECOND LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. Fish— Baked Cod with Cream Cui-ried Trij^e Sago Page Pudding — — Piir^e of PART 97. Mutton Broth—Fish Fie—Krameskies—Fvicadels— Apple CharPage lotte. EIGHTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. Boiled Cod with Hollandaise Sance—Filet of Sole with Caper Butter Baked Bass Broiled Shad with Maitre cfHotel Page Butter 111. 100. CHAPTER X. TENTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. VII. — — ---------- . FIFTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. or Consommi Scotch Broth Vermicelli Soup Julienne — — — Soup—Spinach Soup—Pea Soup — ----- Page 103. CHAPTER I. Gravy Soup Boiled Pike with Egg Sauce Curry of Pork Page Orange Omelette — — CHAPTER 79. ELEVENTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. NINTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. — — . — — ---------------CHAPTER XI.— — — CONTENTS. Croutes CHAPTER VIII. SEVENTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. CHAPTER II. CHAPTER V. Creole Soup Boiled Ray with Piquante Sauce Salmi of Duck Page Baroness Pudding 94. Thickening and Coloring Soup Clear Soup. Soup Fish Croquettes—Creole Sausages— Apple — Wrexham Page 85. SIXTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. ix. VI.

Mutton Broth Chicken Broth Beef Tea Beefsteak Juice Oatmeal Porridge Chocolate Iceland Moss Blanc-Mange Page 137. Blanquette of ------ Veal— Chicken Cva-rj—Ragout Cho^s Saute — Broiled Steak of Beef—Mutton Page 114. CHAPTER IV. CHAPTER XI. Bechamel ^axxce CHAPTER — VII. CHAPTER X. — Page 127. Stuffed Ham with Madeira Sauce and Vegetable Garnish CHAPTER V.. NINTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. FIFTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE.... -------- Bread—Rolls—Biscuit Page 133. Roast Duck with Watercresses—Wild Duck—Boiled Fowl with Chicken Broiled Birds Boned Birds Oyster Sauce — — — ---------- Fricassee Page 122.. CHAPTER III. SIXTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. CHAPTER IX.— — CONTENTS. — — — — ------ Fruit Cake ^Pound Cake Sponge Cake Pie Cream Meringue Pie — Cranbeny Pie Apple Page 133. TWELFTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. —Broiled Chops—Baked Apples—Tapioca —Apples and Rice—Apple Custards Baked Potatoes ding _ - _ PudPage 139. SEVENTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. THIRD LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE.. — — — — Kentucky Potatoes Potato Croquettes Boiled Potatoes Stuffed Potatoes Boiled Green Peas Stewed Turnips with . — — — — CHAPTER — XII. EIGHTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. . - Page 118. ELEVENTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. FOURTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. —— --------— CHAPTER VIII. A la Mode Beef—Breast Roast Canton of Lamb of Veal. CHAPTER VI.. How to Boil Macaroni Macaroni with White Sauce Macaroni Macaroni with Parmesan Cheese Macaroni d Vltalienne Page d la Milanaise 180. Poached Eggs Scrambled Eggs Baked Eggs Ham Omelette Oyster Omelette Fine Herbs Omelette Omelette with PrePage serves — — — I — ----— 131. TENTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE.

FIRST LESSON OF LADIES' COURSE IN MIDDLE CLASS AND ARTISTIC COOKERY. CHAPTER I. CHAPTER — — — VI. _ _ _ .Page Cabinet Pudding - — — 143..__---. — CHAPTER — 148. III. — Piir^e of — — — . PART xi.— —— — — — — CONTENTS.. Cream of Beets Oysters d la Foxdette Saratoe. CHAPTER V. IV. n. SIXTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. ... Mock Turtle Soup Stock— Halibut Neck d la CrtoZe— Broiled Potatoes—Salmon Croquetteft Oyster Plant Saut^ aux Fines Hcrbes Canton of Lamb d la Jardinere Salade dla Russe . — CHAPTER 153. THIRD LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. FIFTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE.. 175. FOURTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE.a Potatoes Fried Oysters Broiled Oysters Red HaHcot Btans Soxde d la Bordelaise Baron of Lamb with Mint Sauce Salade d — — — — la Macedoine— Cream Frittei"^ — ----- Page 165. Mock Turtle Soup Crimped Cod d la Colbert — Parisienne Potatoes — Calf's Tongue and Brains with Tartar Sauce —Jerusalem Artichokes — Artichokes with Butter Sauce Calf's Head d la Foxdette —Anchovy Salad — Omelette Soufflee— Chocolate Page Soiiffl. Salmon Filets of Bass d la Eoyale Julienne Potatoes Fricandeau of Veal Rizotta a la Milanaise ^Roast Ham with Champagne Sauce Celery d la Cardiriale Creme Page Reverse.ee — — ---------- 159.. Mock Terrapin Soup Boxiilhtbaisse —Potatoes axi gratin Calf's Liver d la Bordelaise Macaroni d la Napolitaine — Braized Beef d la Printaniere Salade d la Suede French Pancakes Page —— — — . Potage d la Reine Broiled Trout with Maitre d'' Hotel Butter Duchesse Potatoes Canton de Roxien Celery d la Villeroi Breast of Lamb d la Marechale Chicken Salad Rice Croqiiettes with Vanilla Cream Sauce Page 170. — — ----- CHAPTER VIL SEVENTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE.--. la Eomaine Page Apple MeHngues — — — — ___ CHAPTER — SECOND LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. Consommi d la Royale Baked Cai-p with Spanish Sauce Potatoes d la lioyale Breast of Lamb with Bechamel Sauce Cauliflower axi gratin Roast Beef Salade a... IV..

xii. The Chemistry of Food Page 220. BE Used with All the Different Courses. TENTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. The Physiology of Nutrition Page . CHAPTER — — — — — — — CHAPTER XII. _ . Page 237. Potage d la Hollandaise Scallops of Sturgeon aux Fines Herbes Potatoes with Sauce Piquante Chicken Saute d la Marengo Brussels Sprouts d la Maitre d'Hotel ^Roast Pigeons Shrimp Salad Pudding Diplomatique Page 198. CHAPTER X. Page Page 250. Puree of Carrots ^Turban of Flounders d la Hollandaise Potatoes Saute d la Barigoule Mutton Cutlets d la Milanaise French Beans SautA aux Fines Herbes Filet de Boeuf d la Macedoine— Italian Salad—To Glace Fruit and l^uts—Gdteau de Princesse Louise Page 202. Purde of Celery ^Eels en Matelotte Potatoes d la Maitre d^Hotel —Galantine of Chicken (First Part)-Asparagus Peas— Braized Capons with Tongue Lobster Salad Cumberland Pudding Page with Rum Sauce — — — . _ _ roe Salad Macedoine of Fruits —Shad- Page 191. late £:cZai?-s — 180. ELEVENTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. Dietary for Schools INDEX. — — — PART APPENDIX — To — — '| |j V. CHAPTER IX. 255. Index of Dishes General Index LIST OF KITCHEN UTENSILS Required for use in all the Courses of Lessons - I . CHAPTER CHAPTER II. CHAPTER VIII. I. Game Consomme d la Desclignac Carp d la Chambord —Potatoes d la Provengale—Galantine of Chicken (Second Part) — — Oyster Patties Shoulder of Lamb d la linanciir'e . XI. EIGHTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. TWELFTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE.— — CONTENTS.ao8. NINTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. Mi-car^me Soup Halibut Filets d la Mare chale—Potatoes d la Creme— Curry of Duck d V Indienne—Kale with Butter Sauce—Roast Turkey—French Salad—Cream Cakes—ChocoPage ._-_---- — 185. CHAPTER 111. Page 258.

two rooms of different size are desirable. I. a sink with plenty of hot ing food is a necessary adjunct.PART CHAPTER I. In front of these articles of kitchen furniture. and constantly. and a large one for space is available. a large. large demonstration kitchen must contain a large and cold water. window. a dresser for dishes and several A refrigerator for keepstrong tables of unpainted wood. a dresser for dishes. a sink with a full in supply of hot and cold water. unpain ted and plenty The of wooden tables. a long table or counter should extend across the width of the room. by using one all the various perishable supplies will nec- essarily be collected observation waste. a low platform. a small one for the practice-kitchen.— The room selected as the place where cooking lessons are to be given must be light. strong. its size may be in When plenty of accordance with the probable audience. cooking utensils in good condition. Choice and Fittings of Kitchen. The practice kitchen must contain a stove or range good burning order. containing a . and thoroughly ventilated. a light closet for pots and pans. THE DEMONSTRATION KITCHEN. three or four large. even in cool weather. stove or range. can be being under the cook's properly utilized without from and near a refrigerator should stand at a distance ho stove in order to escape the heat of the fire. I The for together. light pot-closet. airy. the demonstration lessons. for the purpose of insuring fresh air. and about six feet from them.

and jets the audience. and every scholar onstrator. upon a The bulletin board placed in a conspicuous pupils present at a lesson should be pro- vided with note-books and pencils. We give below a few receipts for preparing seasonings. if a uniform flavor is desired. should be placed at in such a position as to of the room without When audience. The bill of fare clear letters position. tie the stalks together and save them until wanted to I . and bottle them tightly until needed for use. if the flavor does not suit individual palates. a full view of every part interfering with the prospect of the practicable. 14 lecturer's desk. but the i^roper amount once found should never be deviated from. should bear in mind the fact that accuracy in receipts the secret of that even excellence which stamps the is work of the well-trained cook. In front of the counter rows of seats should be placed. R^^h the leaves of a bunch of dried herbs through a sieve. Accurate Weights and Measures. and should carefully record every useful hint and direction given by the demIt is useless to hope to remember all the information imparted during a cooking lesson. in such a manner as to permit the preparation of some of the smaller dishes within the immediate view of under the counter. each row being slightly elevated above the one in front of it. a gas pipe should be run be projected through apertures in it. and it is well worth a little trouble to decide upon the palatable point. — Dried Herbs. the necessary alterations may be made. so as to insure an unimpeded prospect to every one at- tending the demonstration. Very much of the excellence of a dish depends upon its seasoning.— The demonstrator should weigh or measure every ingredient used. command one end of the counter. and report its exact quantity to the audience. for the lesson should be written in large.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and a little cai-e to abide by the decision.

mint in June and July. sweet marfor five cents. Use a bunch of fresh tarragon in summer. joram. stalk or root. Tarragon Vinegar. roots and trimmings. thyme. can be bought at any German grocery or drug-store. cover it and let it stand until the next diiy. The bay-leaves. or in mentioned is planted enough can be raised for general use. Remember. or dry it. save every bit of them in the same way leaf. which have the flavor of laurel. this makes a most delicious seasoning for soups. and treat in using parsley. and put them in a cool oven to dry thoroughly. put it in an earthen bowl. a gallon or more can be made from . and rub the leaves and stalks through a sieve. basil and sage in August and September. In ly using parsley. 15 the French call a houquet. stalks. sweet basil. or the dried herb in winter. that the root has even a stronger flavor than the leaves. Either put more hot vinegar on the tarragon. and do not waste a — bit. celIf the seed of any of the seven first ery seed and onions. then strain it and put it into a bottle tightly corked.THE DEMONSTRATION KITCHEN. parsley. j-ust before flowering. their flavor is best preserved by keeping them in air-tight tin cans. marjoram and savory in July and August. thyme. or in tightly corked glass bottles.— In using celery. The best herbs are sage. stews and stuffing. Dried Celery and Parsley. and save it until wanted to make more. dried by artificial heat. wash the leaves. as the celery. Gather and dry them as follows: parsley and tarragon should be dried in June and July. enough to last for a long time. for a soup or stew. and pour on it one pint of scalding hot vinegar. mint. and put all into a tightcorked bottle. or tin can witli close cover. bay-leaves. then grate the root. louqiiet of herbs is made by tying together a few sprigs make what A of parsley. tarragon. thyme and two bay-leaves. all herbs should be gathered in the sunshine and in a sunny spot in the yard. little boxes on the window sill.

stuffing. (8. (7. and wiping the paint with the flannel Wash wrung out of clean water. and wipe it quite dry. in which a little washing shed lint.ted sif tings the following ingredients: one quarter of an ounce each of powdered thyme. to every four ounces of this powder add one ounce of salt. (0. one eighth of an ounce each of mar- joram and cayenne pepper. use a little soap. being careful not to fling the refuse about the room. one half of an ounce each of powdered clove and nutmeg. powdering and mixing byrepea. polish the glass with a clean.) Scrub the tables with hot water. — Spice Salt. or force meat of any kind. soda and soap have been dissolved. regular strokes. which has been dried and grated as above. and keeps a long time.— C^-) I^^st down the ceiling and side walls with a feather duster.) Wash all the . with one fourth its quantity of salt. if the spots are not easily rubbed off.) Scrub the floor in the same manner. Mix celery root. rinsing it off thoroughly. and keep the mixture in an One ounce of it added to three pounds of air-tight vessel. 16 one bunch. (2. only every time it is used it must stand a day longer. bay-leaf and pepper.) Wash the ])aint with a piece of clean flannel dipped in hot water. dry cloth. makes a delicious seasoning. in which borax has been dissolved in the proportion of one tablespoonful to a gallon of water. and moving it with long. How to Clean the Kitchen. hot water. or to raise much dust. (5. it makes a nice seasoning. 't'^iis can be made nicely by drying.COO KINO SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.) the window-glass with a soft cloth which does not dipped in clean water and wrung out. then rinse them with a cloth wrung out of clean. or a clean cloth tied over a broom. (4. or with newspaper. and wipe them as dry as possible.) Sweep the floor. setting the broom evenly upon the floor. — Celery Salt. using a stiff biusli.

and then put A the covers on. with a piece of flannel dipped in hot water containing a little soda. (5. flannel How wrung out of clean hot water. and bring the cinders the top of back to the kitchen. rinse. and wipe it dry with the stone. or borax. and closed with a tight fitting cover. to Light the Fire. they should be cleaned with emery or finely powdered and sifted bath brick dust rubbed on with a piece of damp flannel. put them at once into an ash-sifter fitted into a pail or keg with handles.) Brush the soot and ashes out of all the flues and draught-lioles of the stove.THE DEMONSTRATION KITCHEN. if used with strong hands. (4. will make them look as if newly finished." composed of a net-work of fine steel rings.— P^t a double handful of cinders iu the bottom of the grate. every time they are used. isher. 17 scrubbing brashes and cloths in hot water containing a little soda and soap. and then polished rusted from neglect.— (l.) Mix a little black-lead or stove polish with enough water to form a thin paste. (8. (6. if they have on them at night. with soap and soda. put the ashes into the ash-can. rub souie oil with dry dust and chamois skin.) Let down the grate and the cinders and ashes carefully to avoid all unnec- essary dirt. polish them Avith emery paper. take the pail out of doors.) Wash all the dish cloths and kitchen towels in hot water. careful cook will save all the wings of game and poultry to If the stove is greasy wash it off use for this purpose. and keep a clean. and brush all the dust off the outside. separating them so that .) Brush up the hearthwash it with a piece of flannel dipped in hot water containing a little soda. and A '' burnpolish them with emery paper in the morning. sift the cinders. apply this to the stove with a soft rag or brush.) If the fittings are brass.) If there are any steel fittings about the stove. How take up to Clean the Stove. (3. (2. let it dry a little and then polish it with a stiff brush. dry stock of them on hand.

and never let the ash-pan get choked up near the grate with ashes. this waste is avoided. on the paper lay some small sticks of wood cross-wise. but if a strong current blows through the mass of fire. The condition of the draught closely affects the degree of heat yielded by a given amount of fuel. if. or refuse of any kind. and fuel until the surface much of the cook's time fact not understood there is fuel. or over its surface. — As soon as the heat of the shows signs of diminishing. and light the As the fire burns up paper from the bottom of the grate. just enough air should be supplied to promote combustion. and gradually deadens the the air can pass freely between them. there a direct waste of all the heat which is is supplied by fresh and ovens of the stove are again heated to the proper degree. How to Keep up the Fire. loosely squeezed between the hands. Keep the bottom of the fire raked clear. fire. and cinders until there is a clear. and keep tlie fire bright by occasionally putting on a little coal. is trial of patience which coo apt response to a request for the services of is the the cook . and often enough to prevent any sensible decrease of the degree of heat required for cooking. it is sustained by the gradual addition of a little fuel at a time. place a double handful of small cinders and bits of coal on top of the wood. cinders. when that heat has once been reached. There is no economy in allowing a fire to fail for want of fire fuel. it carries of[ a great portion of the heat w^hicli should be utilized for cooking purposes. gradually add mixed coal bright body of fire.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. to say is nothing of the In kitchens where this a continual waste of time and saved. open all the draughts. if the fire is not replenished until the heat falls below the temperature necessary for cooking purposes. add a little fuel at a time. then partly close the draughts. 18 put on them a layer of dry paper. so as to permit a draught from the bottom. whereas. close the covers of the stove.

but after it has gathered moisture from exposure to the air it makes a slight blaze.he relative values of fuel can be reached: 600^ Fahr. more slowly. 19 and nothing can be burns up. easily and rapidly. and smoke. but produce harder coals. and produces a greater heat in proportion to its weight than any other fuel. Anthracite coal is the mineral remains of ancient vegetation which has lost all its elements except a little sulphur. It kindles slowly. Coke. and produce more flame and smoke. it burns. with a limited supply of air.— The advantage which one kind of fuel possesses over another depends upon its local abundance and cheapness. fierce fire. but burns witli an intense and steady volume of heat which is exceedingly valuable for cooking purposes. We append the average temperature of a clear fire made of different combustibles. Newly-made charcoal burns without flame. with less heat. Willow Charcoal '' Ordinary Hard Wood 80'0 to Coal 700 900 1. flame. that is. the gaseous elements of which have slowly been burned away in covered pits or furnaces. and a table of the degree of heat necessary for various operations in cookery.000 Shell-bark Hickory has the greatest heating value woods." Degrees of Heat from Fuel. the coals it '^ '' " among produces are hotter and retain the heat longer than the coals from soft woods. they are thereHard woods burn fore best to make a quick. the residue of any kind of coal from which illu- .THE DEMONSTRATION KITCHEN when ^* she has just cooked until it mended the fire. which retain the heat. Soft woods burn with a quicker flame and more intense heat than hard woods. an excess of carbon and the incombustible ash. and are consequently the best for long continued cooking operations. so that some definite idea of t. Charcoal is the residue of wood.

will fall below this estimate: 1 lb. of water. of water. yielding an intense but transient heat. transformed to sugar Water simmers Milk boils Water boils 180 (after boiling) . . 73 lbs. 20 minating gas has been manufactured. but remarks that the actual degree of heat derived from them. 145 150 160 . 1 lb. of water from the freezing to the boiling point. melts '' Beef tallow Stearin ** Batter '' Albumen Starch is 106 . Prof. Youmans quotes the following figures as represent- ing the comparative heating values of the above named fuels. is an inexpensive fuel. and 1 lb. or grape sugar. Moderate oven for sponge cake " rice pudding Baking heat " for ordinary cakes '^ biscuits macaroni " meat . hard wood will raise 35 lbs. The following table represents the degrees of heat to which food is subjected during its preparation for the table Glucose.: COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. of dry. of wood charcoal. pies to 199 212 220 220 240 240 240 240 280 240 280 . under ordinary circumstances. First baking heat for bread After five minutes moderate Baking heat for 111 135 coagulates Scalding water 80^ Fahr. — Cooking Temperatures. . . and is very well adapted for boiling and for cooking operations which do not require long sustained heat. of coal will similarly heat 60 lbs. 100 " Mutton tallow .

articles of food should never be allowed to stand in them. Baking heat for puff paste 300^ Fahr. or tin. which would not happen in a used with care. ranging up Smoking hot Thick fat . combining with carbonic acid. Acids. 345 345 380 . 600 ** 1000 Heat of open roasting fire " broiling fire Best Material for 1000 Oookmg Utensils— There can be no question of the superiority of copper cooking utensils over those composed of any other metal. lifetime with ordinary care. but they endure exposure to heat much better. and wear a greater length of time. oils and salt. all tend to produce injurious compounds when copper is long exposed to their action.THE DEMONSTRATION KITCHEN. and consequently cooking in copper utensils can be done with less fire than when other metal vessels are used. Frying temperature. The inside of all copper vessels used over the fire should order to prevent the formation of the oxide of copper. they can be sold as old cop- Copper is a better conductor of heat than either iron per. and they should be thoroughly cleaned . fish Filets. therefore. which. fry at " Croquettes Saratoga potatoes 385 385 ** 385 385 385 400 Fritters " " Rissoles Kromeskies " Wliitebait Lard Oil boils 565 . in appearance of a greenish color on the surface of the metal. even when they are worn quite thin. and considerably greater than that of tin. retain it longer. forms the poisonous carbonate of copper. indicated by the be coated with tin. providing they are Their first cost is about double that of those made of iron.

or with a layer of enamel. by any of these suband for that reason food On should not be kept in them for any length of time. and seems to meet the approbation of many housekeepers. although to a less extent. lead. employed manufacture of kitchen utensils to a greater extent than any other metal. The housekeeper must be guided in the selection of her kitchen outfit by convenience and expediency. from the possible to apprehended be using tin vessels is Tin vessels are liable to be affected stances. will be raised more quickly than that of a bright one. However. color affects the heating qualities of a cooking utensil. but they retain the heat better. Except in the case of steam. let all them stand l-)li the utensils are very much fifteen minutes in scalding hot . there no inconvenience to be feared from rust. which leterious 442^ Fahr.( COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. with some vegetable salts and acids. and they are Brightly polished tin or metal saucepans easily cleaned. food durquantity of tin collected by the other hand. Fahr. When the inside of iron cooking Iron is utensils is is in the coated Avith tin. methods of cleaning the kinds successfully in We append our own different kinds. the ing its general preparation is not suflBcient to produce any The danger in very injurious effect upon the health. Tin melts at about substances as copper. 23 Copper melts at about 1996° every time they are used. if they are kept clean and free from rust they answer ordinary kitchen requirements. given the above facts as explanatory of the merits of the different metals. and arsenic. it is cheap and readily obtained. the temperature which absorbs the rays of luminous heat. How to Clean Coppers. — tarnished. but the New York wc have used School of Cookery. we have of a black one. take longer to heat than tarnished ones. contamination of the metal by the presence of such foreign may form decompounds.

and then washed imd employed a soft with clean. and let the water boil for fifteen minutes. off j)arts of salt. Salt is sometimes substituted for sand in the above named process. into a thick paste with milk or butter- milk. apply at once. and dry with a soft. until and bright. and in clean. set it over the fire empty to heat. soap. (2. soda. soap. as to used for fish. or with a soft rag.) Never use vinegar or lemonjuice unless to remove spots which can not be scoured off perfectly clean as directed it above. and finish drying near the fire.) One of the best chefs belonging to the N. (3. then sconr the inside with fine sand and soap well rubbed on with the hand. rinse and wipe thoroughly with a clean towel. if it is not perfect- spoonful of soda in an odor will be perceptible. if acid is used.— (l-) Wash thoroughly inside and out with hot water. rub it . (2. towel to dry them thoroughly.) If you are obliged use the same gridiron for broiling steak that has been ly clean.) When about to use a fish kettle. mix it off it with salt. with the remains of food. hot water. Y. heat it over the fire. the mixture consisted of equal and made flour. dissolve a table- If the inside is coated the pot over the fire. this will soften the dirt so that it can be scoured off with sand and soap. (3. and thoroughly wash quickly. this care will serve to prevent the possible collection of verdigris upon the copper. wash. and wash and dry with a clean cloth. fine sand. rinse it wash thoroughly with hot water. dry cloth. fill it it. rubbed on with the hand. cold water. How to Clean Iron Ware. put with hot water. 23 water with a tablespoonfiil of soda dissolved in each gallon of water. School of Cookery always had the coppers cleaned with the following mixture. in that case clean it directed above before using it. and soda.THE DEMONSTRATION KITCHEN. but the utensils tarnish much more quickly when they are cleaned with acid than when any other method is employed. clean the outside in the same way.

— (1-) Put minutes. cold water.— ^^^^ them on a leathercovered board with a little finely-powdered brickdust. the temperature of hot fat ranges from 340° Fahr.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and then with an it onion cut in two pieces. polish with dry whiting and chamois skin. and consequently will temper if exposed to a greater degree of heat. water for five and polish it use a very fine whiting or silver powder in polishing little with chamois skin. How to Clean Plated it with Ware. with hot water containing a tablespoon ful of soda to every gallon of water. so if you put a knife into hot fat it will be ruined. then wipe it in hot soda on a clean. out of the crevices and chased plate. for it. How to Clean Enamelled Ware. to 550^^ Fahr. rinse them . scour it with a little soap and filled fine sand.— (l-) Scour till bright with fine sand or powdered and sifted brickdust. of . scrub them well with a clean brush.) If it is much tarnished it. boil it in hot water with soda before scourIf no whiting is at hand dry flour maybe substituted ing..— (1. wipe it dry and polish dry flour well rubbed on with a soft cloth. How to Clean Tin Ware. How to Clean Steel Knives. dry cloth. taking care to brush work on the it all it (2.— Wash it with a sponge dipped in clean. Bear the fact in mind that knives are hardened at a temperature from 380^ Fahr. and wipe them thoroughly on a clean. (2.— P^^t it over the fire. and let it boil fifteen minutes. dry towel. lose their How to Clean Sieves and Jelly-bags. 24 thoroughly with clean brown paper.) Put the sieves into hot water containing a little soda or borax. but no soap. moistened with water and rubbed on with chamois skin. to 600*^ Fahr. How to Clean Japanned Ware.) If the tin is very much tarnished. it with a clean cloth. then if it is not perfectly clean. wash it and dry well.

and wring them where no dust clean place.) Never throw soapsuds into the sink without afterwards flushing it with clean hot water. and shake them dry. or choke the traps. CHAPTER 11. clean water as the hands can endure. drains. rinse them in them as dry as possible. and then returning them the price when they bring the ingredients . remember to watch the sinks and. flush them several times a day with boiling water. and keep them in a boiling water.) Never cease to exerkeeping the kitchen clean.'' (2. General Kitchen Cleanliness. (3. Remember that the best cook always has the cleanest kitchen. 25 thoroughly in plenty of boiling water.— (l.) After attention has been given to all the directions enumerated in this chapter. (5.) Eun hot water containing a little chloride of lime into the drains at least once a day in summer. and once in every two or three days in winter. then dr^ will reach them. FIRST LESSOR OF THE FIRST ARTISAK COURSE.) Never use soap for washing jelly-bags. The system of teaching in the New York Cooking School includes marketing with the pupils for the materials to be used during the lesson. (3.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE.) Take care that no scraps of meat or parings of vegetables accumulate in them to attract vermin. to counteract all unpleasant and uncise the greatest care in healthy odors. or allowing them to purchase the articles themselves. This course of lessons is designed for the instruction of the young daughters of working people in the preparation of those simple dishes which add variety to their daily fare without increasing its cost. it is the best place in the house to recall to mind the proverb that ^' Cleanliness is next to Godliness. wash them in as hot. (4.

away the soiled dishes after the conclusion of the meal. the choice is so fixed during the series of lessons as to enable every deservino' scholar to eneao^e in the actual work of making the dishes. A different girl is chosen at every lesson. bringing in the dinner. without assistance from the teacher. The result is highly satisfactory. to the school. waiting ujion the table. and corrected to correspond with instructions imparted during the first lesson. and when her work is done it is criticised by the other pupils. but after the first lesson the task of instruction is vested in the criticism of the class. This course of instruction includes the setting of the teachers. the teacher acting only as an umpire in case of any disputed question. this serves not only to excite an excellent spirit of emulation amoiig the members of tlie class. but also to develop the faculty of expression to such an extent as to enable the young assistants to gradually take rank as pupil and to instruct their comrades during practice hours in the kitchen.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and allowed to assist the demonstrator in pre- paring the dishes to be cooked during the lesson. table. until all the ])upils have participated in the dining-room practice in turn. Two or three girls are chosen for their attention and quickness. At the second lesson another girl is selected to perform the entire routine. the oldest girl working with the teacher. How at to Choose to the great improvement of their tables Soup Materials. After the dishes composing the first lesson are prepared and placed upon the stove to cook. washing the dishes and regulating the dining-room. 26 This gives them a practical knowledge of the prices and qualities of different articles of food whicli they could not acquire in any other way.— The reasons why soup . the scholars are shown clearing by the teacher how to go throngh these various operations. and the pupils prac- of these lessons home tice them and table manners. or at their own homes.

until the vegetables are quite tender. In the previous chapter we have spoken of making a collection of seasonings. tied Put and gently about two iiours. rice ^ - ----- Total 5 cents. and it is often of vegetables alone. celery stalks 3^ oz. (8. Pare the carrot. it by putting it in a coland wash rice. (2. -- 1 carrot 1 turnip - 1 cent.) Chop the parsley fine.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. and running water through it.) Cut them into dice a quarter of an inch square. 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 " parsley Seasonings 1 qt. (7. " ------. tomatoes 1^ lb. (3.1" -.) same way. and bring thyme and marjoram six it whole cloves. if the herbs cannot be raised at home. or a few bones. see if the then simmer it . half a level saltspoonful of pepper. up with and one sprig three bay eacli of leav*es. INGREDIENTS. vegetables and untainted meat. (6. they may be bought. care being taken to compound and season the soup properly. the kettle over the fire. 2 " 12 cents. (5.) Pick over the ander.-1" -------- 1 oz. 27 food will be fonnd soup should be fresh The materials for in the appendix. a few cents' worth at a time. Economical soup may be made from the remains of cooked food instead of newly-bought materials. but they may both be the cheapest of their kind.) After adding enough boiling water to increase the quantity to four quarts. until a good variety is accumulated. VEGETABLE PORRIDGE. turnip and tomatoes. a very little meat. is an economical and healthy article of will serve as the basis of excellent made soup.) Put all these celery stalks in the ingredients into tlie soup kettle with four quarts of cold water.) Cut the (1. (4.) slowly up to a boil.----. one tablespoonful of salt.

dried peas Drippings •' ----- Peel and slice the onion. and let the soup simmer slowly for about two hours. in the soup- kettle with the suet chopped (2. fry it brown 11 cents.) See if the seasoning is right.) Pick over the peas.) Cut two slices of stale bread in half inch dice. and then put it into the bottom of the soup tureen.) If the soup shows any sign of settling. INGREDIENTS. mix together a tablespoonful each of butter and flour by rubbing them together dry until they form a smooth paste.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. A PEA SOUP WITH CROUTONS. (7. a tablespoonful of salt. fry them in the two ounces of dripping. A wineglassful of cold water should be addcheck the boiling and help softminutes to ed every twenty en the peas. alter it.) " cents. which must be smoking hot before the bread is put into them. lay it on brown paper for a minute to absorb all the grease from it.) When the peas are tender pass the soup through the sieve with the potato masher and return it with the pot to lieat. (4. suet and seasonings - - - 1 1 - Total (1. and then serve the soup. (3. it will hold the peas in suspension. 1 pt. 28 seasoning suits the taste .1" -------53" -------- 1 cent. are soft. Bread ___----.) Add them to the onion with fine.) Set the kettle over the fire. carrot 1 1 onion - - 1 oz. (8. put them into the colander and wash them by running cold water through them. as soon as tlie bread is brown take it up with a skimmer. or until the peas level saltspoonful of pepper. (5. (6. and the soup will be ready to serve. half a and the carrot peeled and sliced. and then stir this into the soup. adding enough boiling water to make four quarts. four quarts of cold water. (9.) . if it does not.

(5. .) When the soup is done. celery stalks Bread Drippings 4 oz.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE.1" -------------2" and seasonings - - - - - 1 " 1 " 1 oz. INGREDIENTS. over the and fire.) Mix the oatmeal to a smooth batter with cold water. 2P SCOTCH BROTH WITHOUT MEAT. 1 carrot cent 1 turnip 1 onion -__---__i1" ------------. add it to the soup and let it simmer another hour. (8. and serve it. soup meat i cent.) it 12 cents Steep the barley over night in cold water. quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. add boiling water enough to make two quarts. a level tablespoonful of salt. let it BEEF AND VEGETABLE SOUP. (6. and as much cayenne as can be taken the point of a small penknife blade.) Put all these in- gredients into the soup kettle with four quarts of boiling water. pour it into the soup tureen. oatmeal 4 oz. (7.) Cut the bread in quarter inch dice. (4. and then put them into the soup tureen. and rinse well in clean water before using nip. INGREDIENTS. and cut them Cut the celery in small bits. 1 carrot 1 turnip 1 onion ---------------1" _--_--! ------ and seasonings 1 oz. which must be made smoking hot before the bread is put into them. pearl barley 2 cents - - - - - 3 - Total (1. Pare the tur- (2») in quarter inch dice. and onion. see that it is properly seasoned. when they are brown.) up on Set the kettle simmer slowly for one hour. celery stalks 1 lb. carrot (3. - - - - - 1 " '< 6 cents.) " it. t*ke them up with the skimmer^ lay them for a minute on brown paper to free them from grease. and fry them brown in the drippings.

or cut eyer. 30 }4 lb. clean. set the kettle over the fire. wipe it with a because that process will carry of its nutri- ment. (5.) Let it simmer steadily for two hours. or a tablespoonful of vinegar and a lump of sugar.) Meantime wash the rice by putting it into a colander. tomatoes Total - - - 19 - cents. either raw or cooked. and let them lay in cold water if they are prepared before wanted Season lightly. (4. be little overpowered by stronger flavors.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. it — all In preparing meat for soup do not wash it. see that the seasoning Note. add enough boiling per. modify the flavor of a . a Worcestershire sauce. quarter of a saltspoonful of pep- and a bouquet made as directed in Chapter I.) it may.) skimmed clear.5" cents. (2. add these ingredients to it. (4. will generally dish too highly salted. (3. water to make four quarts. --------4 ------. season it with a (1. When the soup is cut the celery in small bits. if it is soiled in damp away the injured portion. (3. (2. put it on the bones. and cut them in quarter inch dice. and put them into the bottom of the soup kettle.) Skim it carefully and constantly until clear. cut them in even-sized pieces. in the (1. but impossible to remove it. and running plenty of cold water througli it.) proper. and let it come slowly to a boil. it is very easy to add more for use. howcloth. add four quarts of cold water. Break any bones on hand.) seasoning. cut the meat in half-inch dice. (6. remove soup tureen.) level tablespoonful of salt.) pare the vegetables. being careful the bones as the soup is taken up= and serve is to olf more or less anyway.) Pare the vegetables very thin. rice 1 qt. for instance.

as soon as their shells turn a bright red color. flesh is soft and sunken and the flabby. because their flavor is impaired by exposure to the air. and lay it it. clams. put it - - - 19 cents comes from market wash it pan containing plenty of in a large cold water and a handful of cook " i cent s. fish is 31 "Tlie and economic nutritive given in the appendix. they are done in from ten to twenty minutes. and alive. BOILED HADDOCK WITH PARSLEY SAUCE. the fish is stale if eyes dull and the and unfit for food. dull-looking.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. and ruddy gills. 1 oz. crabs and cray-fish should al\va3^s be bought Oysters.) When it is into the fish kettle with cold water time to enough . the fins limp. half-dead shell-fish by putting them to eat. shell-fish are cooked fit head first into a large pot full of boiling water. it is. the bright colors of their shells. ------------_--_--_ ------1" haddock butter }^ " 15 cents 2 parsley Flour and seasonings Total(1.) As soon as the fish thoroughly.ilt. and mussels should be used as soon as they are taken from the shell. the gills pale. (2. val- therefore. when they are fresh and good their shells are tightly closed. — Choose Fish. CHAPTER SECOITD LESSON" OF How to ne of III. containing a handful of salt. A 3 lb. scollops they should be chosen for their heaviness in proportion to their size. rigid fins. THE FIRST ARTISAN^ COURSE. sufiB- cient to state here that all fish should be chosen by their firm flesh. Lobsters. their lively are not movements. clear. full eyes. this contact with the boiling water kills them instantly. INGREDIENTS.

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

33

it, a gill of vinegMr, a tablespoonfnl of salt, the
parsley, six cloves, and one sprig each of thyme
the
root of
and marjoram.
(3.) Set the kettle over the fire and

to cover

bring

it

fish is

usually done,

fin; if

to a boil.

the fin comes out easily, and the flesh of the fish

looks clear white,
fire,

By the time the kettle boils the
bnt it may be tested by pulling out a
(4.)

and

let

it is

(5.) Lift the kettle off

done,

the

the fish stand in the water until wanted for

(6.) Make the sauce by stirring together over the
one ounce, or one tablespoonful each of butter and flour
until they bubble.
(7.) Then slowly stir in half a pint of

nse.
fire

more

boiling water, or a little

sauce too miich, and
over,

constantly until

stir it

and clings to the spoon a

the sauce.

Move

(8.)

chop the parsley

fine,

the flour thickens the

if

little

when

up all
lifted from

boils

it

it is

the sauce to the side of the

and add

it

fire,

to the sauce with a salt-

salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful each of
pepper and grated nutmeg; the sauce will then be ready
To serve the fish, take it up carefully withto nse.
(9.)
out breaking, remove the skin by scraping it gently, so as
to avoid tearing the fish, pour the sauce over it, and it will
be ready for the table.

spoonful of

FRIED FILETS OF FLOUNDER.
INGBEDIENTS.

1 eg,^

A 3 lb.

___-__-------

-1

Bread, fat for frying and seasonings
Total

Cut the filets

on a clean cloth, and lay

-

7

"

20 cents.

as follows.

thin-bladed knife, cut

-

cent.

12 cents.

flounder

(1.)

it flat

down

Wash

the flounder, wipe

on the table; with a

it

shai-p,

to the bone in the center of

the fish, following the course of the back bone from the

head to the
the outer

tail.

(2.)

fin, insert

Turn the edge

of the knife towards

the point in the cut already made, lay

FIBST ARTISAN COURSE.

33

flat against the bone, and cut outwards towards
keeping the knife pressed close against the bone,
being careful not to mangle the fish, and taking off the
whole side-piece, or filet, entire. (3.) Cut off all the four
side pieces of the fish in the same way, and lay them, skin
down flat upon the table, with the ends towards the de-

the blade

the

fin,

monstrator; (4.) place the tips of the fingers of the left
hand firmly upon the end of one of the filets, lay the point
of the knife on the filet with the back against the fingers,

press the blade

down

cutting between the skin and the

flat,

and away from the end held down by the fingery; if
the end is held firmly, the knife laid flat, and the cut made
with a steady hand, the whole filet can be cut from the
skin without mangling it; skin all the filets in this way,
lay them on a dish, and wash and dry the table.
(5.)
Bread each filet as follows: spread upon the table some
bread crumbs, which have been dried in the oven, rolled
fine, and sifted; beat up one egg with a tablespoonful of
cold water; lay the filet upon the crumbs, press it gently,
turn it over, press it again, dip it into the beaten egg and
quickly remove it, so that the crumbs will not be washed

filet,

lay it again in the crumbs, pressing

off;

shape with a knife; bread

them on

a clean dish.

all

it

into a neat

the filets in this way, and lay

Heat enough fat to cover
begins to smoke; drop the filets

(6.)

three or tour filets, until

it

one at a time, fry them light brown, take them up
with a skimmer, and lay them for one minute on brown
into

it,

them from grease.

Arrange them neatly
on a dish with a few parsley leaves around them, and

paper, to free

(7.)

serve them.

BROILED FILETS WITH MAItRE D' HOTEL BUTTER,
INGREDIENTS.

A 2 lb.

flounder

-

-

-

12 cents.
2 "

-

-

1 oz. butter
1

egg

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 cent.

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

S4

Lemon

juice

-------

Seasonings, parsley and bread crumbs

Total

-

1 cent.
-

-----

1

"

17 cents.

Prepare the ^Ze/s as directed in the previous receipt,
but do not fry them.
(2.) Make the inaitre cT hotel butter by chopping fine a tablespoouful of parsle}^, and mix(1.)

ing

it

juice,
filets

thoroughly with

tlie

butter, a teasj^oonful of lemon

and a very little salt iind pepper.
on an oiled gridiron, over a moderate

(3.)

Broil the
lay

fire;

them

on a hot dish, spread the butter over them, and serve them
at once.
The dish may be garnished "with a few slices of
lemon.
GRILLED FISH BONES.
INGREDIENTS.
1 tablespoonful salad

"

1

---------

-

-

vinegar
mustard, pepper and salt

"

1

oil

Total

-

-

1 cent.
1

"

-

1

'*

3 cents.

Trim the ragged edges from the bones of the
making tho filets. (2.) Mix the oil, vinegar and mustard together, seasoning them well with
(1.)

flounders used in

pepper and

salt;

and spread this paste over the bones with

(3.) Broil the bones on an oiled gridiron, and
serve them on a hot dish, with a few sprigs of parsley, or

a knife.

slices of

lemon

laid

around them.

CHAPTER

IV.

THIRD LESSON" OF THE FIRST ARTISAK COURSE.

How
some

Eggs are so nutritious, and at
to Choose Eggs.
seasons of the year so abundant and cheap, that

and keeping them, and a variety of
methods for cooking them are always welcome. New laid
eggs have a pearly, semi-transparent shell, a little rough to
the touch, and are heavy in proportion to their size; as they
directions for choosing

FIBST ARTISAN COURSE.

grow

stale

they decrease

m

weight, because some of their

moisture evaporates from exposure to tlie air; the shells
wear smooth by rubbing against each other, and their color clouds a

How

to

little.

Keep Eggs.— (l-)

them

P^^ck

in salt or saw-

dust while they are quite fresh, and close the vessel in
which they are packed to keep out tlie air and prevent
evaporation.
solution of

gum

Or dip them

in melted suet or a thick

arabic, taking care that the shells are en-

dry them, and then dip them in it
second time; then pack them as above, and keep them

tirely
tlie

(2.)

covered with

it;

in a drv place.

BOILED EGGS.
6 eggs

(1.)

-

--6

cents.

Place a saucepan half fall of water over the

fire;

as

soon as it boils, put the eggs into it, using a large spoon
to drop them gently into the water; if they are wanted
soft, take them up in three minutes, by the clock; if wanted medium hard, let them cook four minutes; if Avanted
hard, let

them cook ten minutes.

bowl, pour some

warm water

Place the eggs in a

(2.)

them stand

over them, and let

one minute; then drain them, cover them with boiling
water, and let them stand ten minutes; they will then be
cooked medium rare, evenly all the way through, and can

Dacks' eggs cook in

be easily digested.

time than

less

hens' eggs.

POACHED EGGS.

---------6
INGREDIENTS.

6 eggs

Bread and butter
Salt and vinegar
Total

(1.)
tliat

-

-

-

shallow pan over the

-

-

-----

Break the eggs, each one

a chance stale one

-

may
fire,

in a saucer

not spoil the
half

-^

fill

it

rest.

cents.

3

'*

1

"

9 cents.

by

itself, so

(2.)

Put

a

with water^ add to

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

36

a teaspoonful of salt and two tablespoonfuls of vinegar,
and let it get scalding hot. (3.) Drop the eggs into the
water, and let them stand five minutes without boiling.
(4.) Meantime make six small slices of buttered toast and
it

Take up the eggs one by one on
a skimmer, trim each one evenly and slip it off upon a slice
of toast; put a few grains of salt and pepper in the center
of each Qgg and serve them hot.

lay

them on a

dish.

(5.)

FRIED EGGS.
6 eggs

---

INGEEDIENTS.

Fat and seasonings

6 cents.

-

-

-

-

-

-4"

-----

Total

10 cents.

Put some fat in a frying-pan over the fire to get
smoking hot. (2. ) Break the eggs, each one in a separate
(1.)

saucer; as soon as the fat begins to smoke, slip the eggs into

without breaking, and fry them brown; take them up
with a skimmer, lay them for one minute on some brown
paper to free them from grease, and then arrange them
it

neatly on a dish for serving.

OMELETTE.
INGREDIENTS.
8 cents.

3 eggs
Butter, pepper

and

salt

Total
(1.)

-

-

-

-

------

1

"

4 cents.

Break the eggs, putting the whites in one dish and

(2.) Add quarter of a saltspoonful
the yolks in another.
of salt and a dash of pepper to the yolks, and beat them
half a minute.
(3.) Put a bit of butter as large as a chest-

nut into a clean omelette pan, and set it over the fire to
heat.
(4.) Beat the whites to a stiff froth, mix the yolks
gently into it, and pnt the omelette into the pan.
(5.)
Stir the omelette with a fork, running it close to the bottom of the pan, and piling the omelette in a heap in the

sons. being cooked. V. 3 egg3 Butter and sugar - - - - Total cents. Baker's and Homemade Bread. and the task .) Prepare the eggs as directed for plain omelette. cook. When (6. center. omelette of three eggs large is enough for two per- more are to be served. ---------S INGREDIENTS. pepper and salt Total - - - - - - - - - • - 2 cents. a larger one can not be made so light. CHAPTER rOURTH LESSOl^ OF it hot. " 5 cents. and serve it in the same way. PARSLEY OMELETTE. taking care only to brown. --------3 --1 ----INGREDIENTS. hold a hot dish close to lette out on An Serve it. if or cooked so well. and cooking in the same way. Good homemade bread healthier and cheaper than baker's bread. rub the poker clean and heat (3.) the dish dust it After the omelette has been turned out on it thickly with powdered sugar. substituting one teaspoonf ul of powdered sugar for the salt and pepper. THE FIRST — is Serve ARTISAl^" COURSE.) While the omelette is red hot. a second omelette of three eggs may be made. (1. and not to burn the sugar black. butter. and score the top in diamonds with the red hot poker. of the pan. it it. Prepare the omelette as directed in the last receipt. mixing with it one tablespoonful of chopped parsley. 37 pile it and on one side ome- toss the immediately. 3 eggs Parsley. (2. SWEET OMELETTE.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. cent. 4 cents.) it is done enough.

(2.) Put seven pounds of flour into a deep pan.) spoonfuls of salt.) -----------i::gredients. and keep it into the yeast. into this put one quart of lukewarm water. boil. and (5. (About 8 lbs. have ready three pints more of and use as much of it as is necessary to make dough. and the learning girl. hops " flour " potatoes 5 " brown sugar 1^ " 3 Salt - - - - - - " 1 cent. ----------------------------INGREDIENTS. the greatest difficnlty is in may practice in bread to be deferred until later in the course of instruction. the lesson may begin with the making of biscuit. 5 cents. one tablespoonful of salt. 2 oz. beating jar or bowl. mixing and kneading it well with both When it is smooth and shining. strong skill of how bake it If the pupils are too young to understand this. stir day. yeast 28 cents. Tlie next day strain in a cool place. 38 of making not beyond the it is a bright.) Add it let it them it is only the sugar and two table- it this quite smooth.) of yeast. Total Boil the hops in four quarts of water for half an (1.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. On stand until stand in a mixture by degrees to the (4. lb. l cent. sugar. and let lukewarm. peel and mash the and let it stand another and bottle it. and half a warm gill Avater. ferment. (1.) Dissolve in (3. it (6. 20 cents. and make a hollow in the center. a rather soft hands. properly.) potatoes. YEAST. flour. (2. one teaspoonful of sugar.) Put it in an earthen warm place four days to the third day. HOMEMADE BREAD. strain the liquor. 29 cents. 7 lbs. 5 4 }4.) hour. strew a little . flour Salt.

MILK ROLLS. . (7. BISCUIT.) Sift the flour " cent.. the biscuit are half done—in oven door. - - 4 cents. tlic dough is made light by this gas forcing its way up through it. roll it out an inch thick.. it 39 and folded.) All this must be done very quickly. put them on the baking pan. turn the dough out on the pastry board. The remainder of the process must be deferred until the next lesson. salt Total - - - - 1 cent. 1 lb.) Pour the flour over the baking pan and pastry-board.) powder. INGREDIENTS.) Water maybe substituted for tlie milk in making biscuit. and powder results from the mixture of the baking has time to escape.) When about ten minutes — open has escaped they will be heavy. and if the biscuit are not biscuit into the oven before the carbonic acid gas. - lb. in order to get the which milk. set it in warm place by the fire for four or five hours to rise. with one tablespoonful baking of Rub the lard (2. baked until it (6. 12 cents. 4 cents. mix them rapidly together. one teaspoonful of salt. (5.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. i::aitEDiENT3. (or cold water) Baking powder and salt _. Total (1. and (3. flour 1 X " lard - . brush the tops with a little milk. (4.) Dust a little quickly into the flour in small flakes. cut out the biscuit as fast as possible. milk into the flour and lard. flojiT X"lard ------------- milk Baking powder and 1 pt.---! - - - 4 - 13 cents. 3 " - - 1 pint milk. 3 " 4 " . and then finish baking them. flour a upon lay a large towel over it. and set the pan in a quick oven.

(2. (4. 4 cents. to every quart of which a teaspoonful of salt has been added. it should be wiped with Italian macaroni can be a clean dry cloth.) Out it in strips half long. pinch them together and braid them. an inch wide and three inches (3. or put to cook in cold or lukewarm water. flour >^ lb. If it appears soiled or dusty.) Lay the ends of three strips one over the other. Total Proceed as directed for biscuit until the dough is rolled out half an inch thick. How to Boil Macaroni.) tions for biscuit. lard milk - - - Baking-powder and salt ----- " 3 4 " 1 cent. it does not break in cooking. CHAPTER VI.) Eoll them gently under the palm of the hand to smooth them. It should never be soaked or wet before boiling. is of a yel- if properly The imported bought in the Italian stores in New York for fifteea cents a pound. (4. ) Brush the top of each round of dough with melted lard.) Take hold of each round by the sides.— Put it into boiling water. Choose Macaroni. and press it gently in place.) a pinch. stretch it out. finish and bake according to the direc(1. then fold one half the way over. BREAKFAST TWIST. (3. 40 Proceed as directed for biscuit until the dougli is cut out. yields nearly four times its bulk. FIFTH LESSOJ^ OF THE FIEST ARTISAN" COURSE.— Good macaroni lowish color.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and How to cooked. 12 cents. . -- 1 lb. 1 pt.) Finish and bake them according to the di- rections for biscuit. INGBEDIENTS. (2. closing the end of the braid with (1.

FIRST ARTISAN COURSE.) Put the macaroni on a hot dish. (4. and quarter of and then season it with one teaspoonful of salt. " " 1 cent. test it by pressing it between the fingers.) Boil half a Make 2 - - - - - ----- pound of macaroni cents. (5. MACARONI WITH BECHAMEL SAUCE. }4 lb. but should not be boiled too soft. and fry it in a very little drippings. FARMER'S STYLE. butter Onion. - 13 cents.) Meantime. and is will little salt changed every day. }4 lb. macaroni 1 oz. (2. Macaroni will boil tender in about twenty minutes. a saltspoonful each of white pepper and grated nutmeg. -------8 INGREDIENTS. and put it into this sauce to heat. and seasonings - - - Total - - - - - - - - - - - 8 cents.) (2. substituting half a pint of . as soon as and rinse and lay it is done. INGREDIENTS. gi-adually add to them half a pint of boiling water.) Drain the macaroni. MACARONI.) Boil half a pound of macaroni as directed in the previous receipt. 41 sometimes an onion is boiled with it.) Peel and slice the onion. macaroni --2" - 1 oz. drain in cold water. smooth. being peeled and put whole into the boiling water. and serve egg-whip until it is it. milk 2 - - Flour and seasonings Total (1. it several days if the water has a it it in a colander keep good for added to it. (1. a sauce of one ounce each of butter and flour as directed in the previous receipt. butter K pt. flour. - 3 - - " 12 cents. pour the stirring the sauce with an onion on it. if it is done it will yield easily. as already directed. stir together over the fire one ounce each of butter and flour until they begin to bubble. (3.

and let it rise till morning in a warm and even temperature. j-ound (3.) BAKED MACARONI. put a few bits of bntter on the top. The above receipt will make about eight pounds of bread. (3. and divided into four loaves.) Grate Put the macaroni on a gratin pan. or any kind of baking dish suitable to send to the table. maycaroni ^ " 1 oz. Avhich have been dried in the oven and sifted. 4 " }4 lb. and Bake Bread. and let it rise plump and full. heat it the boiling water. and serve in a hot dish.) phiic of iron attached to a long handle. and not allowed to cool while rising. the dough should be mixed in a oven.— (i-) After the bread sponge has risen over night. and brown it quickly in a very hot oven.) Then divide it into four loaves. knead it two or three minutes.) - - _ _ _ i cent. - - - 15 cents. dust over the top a few bread crumbs. Mould. and knead it for fifteen minutes. for macaroni.) Put it again into the bread pan. and bake it in a quick In cold weather. the plate being heated red hot before using How to it. will bake in a little over an in the day time. warm room. put it into the baking pan. cheesG butter Bread ci-umbs and seasonings Total (1. __-_---------------2" INGREDIENTS. using enough flour to keep it from sticking to the board or hands. adding the sance and cheese to it. 42 milk boiling Drain the in the sauce. If the macaroni can be browned with a salamander.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. (2. (2. turn . 8 cents. it is best to mix the bread at night. (3. the cheese. set the pan containing it over a large vessel of boiling water. if it does not rise well. or sufficiently long it out on a floured bread-board. the sauce will not be dried away so much A salamander is a as when it is browned in the oven. Prove. Boil the macaroni as already directed.

and brown them in a rather quick oven. The best recommends them to every economiknown are peas and beans. 1 pt. bacon 1 pt.) Pick over the (1. lay them in baking-dish. --------2" -------l ----- Wbite Haricot beans butter 1 " drippings Parsley. Let every check the as they are soft. fifteen minutes. 10 cents. while their cheapness cal person. put the bacon on them. excellent as they are. hour's time. A more extended reference to their value will be found in the appendix. Total - - - 6 cents. Scrape and wash the bacon. which (4. if if it tarnished. and put it into three quarts of cold water. - cent. — valuable '^l^e qualities of these vegetables entitle thoni to careful culinary treatment. OF THE FIRST ARTISAN" COURSE. (2. the bread it is is not sufficiently baked. throwing peas.) As soon (3. To (4. CIIAPTEK SIXTH LESSO?^^ VII. and seasonings 1 oz. Leguminous Vegetables. over the fire. 1 lb. INGREDIENTS.) 43 bright the bread is run a comes out test tlie bretid while baking. dried peas 13 cents. drain them. - - - - 1 cent.) and put them into the pot with the bacon. rank lower as nutriments than the less familiar lentils. done. two hours.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. will be in about WHITE HARICOT BEANS. onion. -----------INGREDIENTS. . BORDELAISE STYLE. but these two. PEAS AND BACON.) in. them boil gently for about two hours. a season them Avith salt and pepper. a wineglassf nl of cold water. larding or knitting needle into the loaf. to boiling and soften the peas. 5" Total 17 cents.

and serve them hot. for the reason given in the previous receipt. they are but not broken. about three hours. put them into a saucepan with two quarts of cold water and tlie drip(2. and wash them as directed in Put them over the fire in a (2. - - - - - - - - - . them get thoroughly hot. (5. and set them over the fire to cook.) Let them pings.) When and quarter of a teaspoonful salt. BOILED LENTILS. (3. serve. shaking them about to prevent burning. . --------------------. in throwing every fifteen boil gently for about two hours. ter of a teaspoonful of pepper. drain soft. butter 1 oz. chopped parsley. lentils onion 1^ oz.) At the end of one hour season them with a level tablespoonful of salt. take out the onion. them.) the previous receipt. 44 Pick over the bejins. saucepan with two quarts of cold water.) At the end of one hour add (1.-1" INGREDIENTS. drippings Parsley and seasonings 1 Total (1. if desired. 1 10 cents. one onion peeled. a teaspoonful of sugar. until soft. - - lentils 1 " 1 " - - 14 cents. adding a wineglassful of cold water every fifteen minutes. rim plenty of cold water over them from the faucet.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. put them in a cohinder.) a level tablespoonful of of pepper. (3. and the drippings.) Let them boil gently but not cut. and (5. minutes a wineglassful of cold water. see if the seasoning is palatable and then soft drain off the water.) Let a tablespoonful of chopped parsley and onion. (4.) When and a quar- the lentils are add and tablespoonful a of the butter. (4.) Pick over the 1 cent. pt. and put them into a frying pan with the butter.

Smooth. be perfectly ripe before gathering. red I oz.) l cent. Pick over the beans.) Chop one light yellow in two ounces lentils into the onion and drip- chopi)ed parsley and see pings.) cents. varieties of potatoes to be are tiie found in the The earliest New York market Alpha and Early Rose. because their skins are so porous as to permit the evaporation of their moisture.) Put the it 13 cents. 46 FRIED LENTILS. cents. (2.--. even. otherwise they will dry and shrivel. drippings Onion. if the seasoning -------6 -----INGREDIENTS. 9 cents. off the water. with one tablespoonful of is palatable. those which are heavy when in proportion to size will be the mealiest They should cooked. (4. and serve them hot.) boil them in they are nearly done. 1 pt. medium-sized potatoes are the most economical. RED KIDNEY BEANS. and a similar manner. fine. STEWED. the former is an excellent . parsley.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. as di- rected in the receipt for White Haricots. beans Seasonings - 1 Total (1.. (5.) Sliake them until they them hot. (1. — How to Choose Potatoes. 1 pt. drain add the butter.) ounce of onion of dripping.. lentils 2 oz. When (2. serve and then brown a little. CHAPTEK VIII. SEVENTH LESSON OF THE FIKST ARTISAN COURSE. let them finish cooking. - .-lo2" INGREDIENTS. " 2 butter cent. wash tliem in cold water. . Fry (3. season them with a level tablespoonful of salt and a quarter of a level teaspoonful of pepper. and seasonings Total _ ------ Boil the lentils as directed iibove.

In the spring. wlien cooked it is poor and soggy. is an excellent winter potato. Snow-flake of it How to Keep Potatoes. it is rather large. a winter variety of inferior quality.— Potatoes keep best in bins or heaps in a dry cellar of even temperature. and agreeable flavor. and boiling them in their jackets the most economical. 4 cents. will keep till the late spring in a cool. peeling and boiling being the most extravagant way of cooking. Salt --------3 ---------1 potatoes Tctal A boiled potato is ------ mealy n\ cents. 1 qt. skin. They if it little. mealy is inferior to eitlier the white or Prince Albert potato The flesh. to see that they are in when they and tlie and examined occasionally good condition. Potatoes lose some of their weight in cooking. is one of the best late The varieties. The yellow Peachwhile the Peach-blow is dry and mealy. and mealy. because the sprouts draw their substance from the starch cells which make the healthy tuber mealy. uniform size. blow and white. is are not really nec- fit for food after germination begins. tliey should be selected for the winter's use with reference to the points cited in the previous paragraph. baking in the skins the iiext most wasteful method. proportion to the amount of . they sliould be spread a sprouts removed as soon as they show. 46 vegetable. BOILED POTATOES. of medium size. white flesh. fine-grained. a kidney-shaped potato. essary to use tliem for cooking.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. dry cellar. cent. the Early Rose is with a clear skin tinged with white. with a reddish is The white Peach-blow is but frequently the Chili White one of the best winter sorts. of firm. red Peach-blow is The red variety. and when cooked red. INGREDIENTS. is sold instead of it. ])egin to sprout.

been stored (3. the water should then be drained off. in moisture of first tlie 4? proper cooking. and boil and finish tliem as directed above.) Chop one tablespoonful of parsley. drain minute tire in plenty of well-salted boiling water. and are consequently watery. they should be prepared for boiling by wasliing its preservation. set this LYONNAISE POTATOES. INGREDIENTS.) Pare and slice the potatoes. Then put tliem well with plenty of water.) the frying pan with the butter. (2. and shake it about over the fire until it is (4. put them into boiling water well salted. the starch ahpotato.) Put in the pan to 2)revent burning. removing the defective parts and paring off one ring around each. (1. potatoes. well salted. they should then be cooked (piickly in plenty of boiling water.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. put it into (3.) Potatoes which have should be prepared for boiling by carefully washing them. until tender enough to pierce with witli a tcaspoonful of salt. - 1 cent. starch sorbs it tlie pends. Slice half an onion. --------2" ----- Cold boiled potatxjes butter Parsley. a fork. G cents. shake the potatoes about to .) Pare some potatoes very thinly. the upon the ripeness of the New amount of starch de- potato.) potatoes contain them in cold an hour before cooking. and toss the brown them slightly aiid equally. (2. onion and seasonings 1 oz. and second. and laying water well salted for them over the boil them until fork. for. sliake to pierce easily with a sauce-pan for one tlie and serve tliem in their jackets. the potatoes covered with a clean towel. (1. for five of a pale yellow color. upon contains. Treated in way potatoes can be kept hot and mealy for hours. enough them in just tender them. an excess of water and but little starch. - - - Total - 3 cents. and the sauce-pan shaken and on a brick at the back of the stove.

POTATO r>ALAD. (3.) from the top of each one. (4.in a ('U|).) Pare and slice one saltspoonful of salt. 1 cent. (3. scoop out the center bowl of a teaspoon. count of a if this and return them it a longer time j)oor oven.s - cent.) on each tiie slice to the oven to finish halving. forcemeat. they serve them hot.) (5.) Sprinkle ILcni witli Season iheni with pepj)er and clioppcd parsley.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. or they will absorb their own steam and become soggy. pour over them the following dressing. and Stir tog(!th(u. oven. 48 iiiiuutcs. ])nt (2. jirranged neatly on a With a good. them in the Take them up. " . 7 ctnits. 1 (|t. wmsa^os So^iSollill{J. 10 cents. some cold boiled potatoes.) Wash the potatoes thorou<^hly. take them up on a clean napkin. ------ Total (1. j)()tat()os }{ lb. GERMAN I'OTATOES. qujirter of a sallspoonriil of jK'j»|K'i-.) Mix them together on a salad dish. (2. lit Fill the potatoes witli cut from When quite tender. INGREDIENTS. brisk oven. Never cover baked i)otatoes. and cook them lialf an hour. .) (1. mix it with the sausaire meat and cut a slice of the potato with the season it ratlier hi^dily. _----_-3-3" --------1 cents. liut. Cold potatoes Oil. vinegar and seasonings 1 onion Total - - - '^ - cents. ((). chop this i)art ofthepotiito very fine. the potatoes will is dish. and cook recjuired on acwill not be so good. in about forty minutes. one tabltispoouful of vinegar. ilio and serve them salt.) Tecl and slice thin one onion. INGIIEDIENTS.

throe of oil. The winter's store may be laid in . green vegetables shonld and juiey. turni})s. after that their elements are disarranged and altered by the process of germination.) with ii 49 sfilad witli this dressing. because they are both cheap and wholesome. but they should never be laid in store in in this way. dark place. where the tem[)eraUire does not vary. they will keep for a day or two Other green vegetables should be kept in a dark place. they are best just before and are in prime condition for use if gathered early morning. Roots and tubers. Roots of all kinds should Ijc kept in dark. cool. in the sprout. unshrivellcd skins. and should form the principal part of the day's provisions. and then lay them on the refrigerator. CHAPTER IX. How to Keep Vegetables. fresli. How to Choose Vegetables. and laying them in a cool. but if their use is nnavoidable they can be restored by sprinkling them with cold water. and not afterwards exposed to the heat of the sun. warmth. dwcoriito it Dress the (5. green vegetables which have laid in the market stalls for any time should not be bouglit if fresh ones can be obtained. EIGHTH LESSON OF THE FIRST AUTISAI?^ COURSE.— Iti summer wo have found that the best way to keep salads of all kinds fresli and crisp is the ice to cleanse iji them thoroughly. are good from the time of ripening until they begin to flowering. and whore neither light. large quantities. 'J'liey should with fresh. (/r// jdaces.— All be very erisp. and they do not sup- of nutriment. because nuiny of their itiesare lost with tlie evaporation of wholesome quali- tlieir nujisture. and potatoes. nor nioistui-e are })rosent to invito germiiiiitiiMi or decay. ply the be same kind or amount plump and even sized. and lew leaves of pursley. such as carrots.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. and serve.

run plenty of cold water through them. a teaspoonful of salt. (1.) the cold water. and simmer slowly for about two hours. until the cabbage level teaspoonful of is mixed spice.) Cleanse the cabbage thoroughly. and lay them in plenty of cold water. 1 - cent.— (1-) Pot a large pot two-thirds full of water over the fire with a heaping tahlespoonful of salt to every gallon of water.) When the pot is boiling. are given for the selection and care of potatoes. one of vinegar. HOT SLAW._--INGREDIENTS. press with a wooden spoon. 1 qt. (3. turnii>s butter ---------2" - Flour. . bread-crumbs - - and seasonings Total \ \ > \ INGREDIENTS. -------. drain the vegetables from to a boil. trim off any decayed parts. and cut it in slivers. (3.) Drain them in a colander.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. 50 care and discrimination are taken without clanger of loss. (4. and let it come Thoroughly cleanse the vegetables. 1 oz. " " 12 cents. (%. » - - • - 3 cents.) Put the butter into the bottom of the sauce-pan with two tablespoonfuls of sugar. . 1 cabbag:e 1 oz.. let them come boil them rapidly without covering the pot y only until they are tender.5 . BAKED 'HTRNIPS. set the saucepan over a moderate fire. a gill and half a saltspoonf ul of pepper. them down under it quickly to a and boil. stirring occasionally to prevent burning. Howto Boil Green Vegetables. butter 2 Sugar. (2. ) Put the cabbage on these ingredients. vinegar and spice Total - - - - 5 - - cents. tlirow them into the boiling water. centfc. and lay them in cold water and salt until wanted for use. if in In the previous lesson special directions its selection. seasonings. tender.

until tender. - - - - - ------3" - lard for frying Total (1.) stirring together over the fire one flour. now beat the whites of the beginning slowly. then stir it lightly into the batter. . Plain Frying Batter.) 2 cents. Pare the parsnips. and brown them in a quick oven. more or less. one iablespoonful of salad oil. PARSNIP FRITTERS. and dip them in the following batter.— Mix quarter of a pound of flour with the yolks of two raw eggs. and boil tliem as directed for green vegetables. lay them on a baking dish suitable to send to the table. and seasoning with one level salt- and quarter of a saltspoonful each of pepper and grated nutmeg. flour - and seasonings 2 eggs 4 oz. 3 parsnips Oil. cut them in strips about two inches long and quarter of an inch tiiick.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. pour the sauce over them. quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg. the batter should be stiff enough to hold the drops from the spoon in shape when they are let fall upon it. then drain them. two eggs to a stiff froth. until tliey ounce each of butter and bubble. (2. Put the baking dish on a clean dish and serve them. a level saltspoonful of salt. the froth Dip will surely come. and boil them as directed for green vegetables until tender. half a saltspoonful of pepper.) When the turnips are tender. spoonful of salt. (which is used to make the batter crisp.) Meantime make a white sauce by (1. 3 " 2 " 10 cents. then gradually stirring in half a pint of boiling water. (3. dust them over thickly with bread crumbs. then drain them and finish as follows. dry them on a clean cloth. 51 Pure and slice the turnips.) and one cup of water.and increasing the speed until you are beating as fast as you can. INGREDIENTS. as the flour will take it up.

and seldom economical. Combination Dishes. CHAPTER X.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. especially if it is salted or smoked. Cheapest Outs of Meat. and that enough nourishment can be found in such combinations to supply all the requirements of hualtli. majority of people at least once a day.— Joints of meat for roasting and baking. are always highpriced. used in frying will not cost over four cents. Tliey ought wife some day. lift for other purposes. and meat always comparatively dear. fry them golden brown Serve them on a neatly folded napkin in smoking hot fat. Where the cost of a meal materially affects the enjoyment with which it is eaten. and the A la mode beef given in this chapter. and chops and steaks for broiling. the choice of the dishes composing Meat is desired by the it becomes an important question. 52 them out with a fork.— Since vegetables are cheap and plentiful at all seasons. how necessary for the economical housewife to know to combine these two articles of food with reference to it is the appetite of her family as well as to their physical needs. Every one of our little pupils will grow up to be a house- meantime they can do a great deal to make father and mother comfortable at home. and there are several of the cheaper cuts which can be made into very palatable dishes. and drop them into plenty of smoking hot fat. such as Potato-pot. and to know that a little meat. The fat that is with a few sprigs of parsley aronnd them. for yon mnst strain the fat and save it after you fry your fritters. although they are preferred by many persons on account of their intense flavor. We . NINTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. will make a large dish of vegetables taste nicely. to use the parsnips into it.

pour the gravy over the meat and potatoes. the same dish under it is baked in. 6 " 3 " - Flour and seasonings Total Cut the steak i cent.) Make a pint of gravy by adding boiling water and seasonings to the drippings in the frying-pan. and seasonings Total (1.) in pieces. VICTORIA STYLE.) - - . 30 cents. (4. The dish will cook in about an hour. and thickening it with an ounce of flour dissolved in a little cold water. 2 lbs. slice fire in a frying pan to brown. rump steak >^ lb salt pork Carrots and turnips - - - - - 20 cents. 1 qt. Peel (3. one inch thick.) When the meat and onions are deep baking dish. POTATO POT. salt and powdered thyme. if it is sent to the table in a clean dish must be placed it.his as kind of dishes. licive cliosen examples of 53 Pork and Beans.) Put the trimmings of meat and scraps of (1. (3. and put them into a quick oven to bake. - - - - 2 " " " 20 cents.) Slice the pork thin and lay a slice on each piece of meat. ----------mGREDIENTS. and should be served hot. BEEF A LA MODE. Slice the bacon. and Bacon and Cabbage i. (5. wide. and tie it with a cord. potatoes neck of beef 1^ lb. and four inches long. lay the pieces flat .) them in cold water.) Roll up each piece compactly. and put (2. flour.) two onions and brown them with the meat. 3 Onions. two inches on the table and season them with pepper. (2. -------3 INGREDIENTS. in layers with the potatoes. bacon 2 13 - lbs. brown put them into a Peel and quarter the potatoes and lay (4.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. them over the and - - cents. cut the beef in small pieces.

lay the pork on them.) Meantime. salt and pepper Tota. lay it on a hot dish in an even pile. cut them in small. pare the vegetables. (7. PORK AND BEANS. season them with a teaspoonful of salt and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. wash them.l - - - - 6 cents. Molasses. drain them and lay them in cold water to retain their color.) Drain them. pour the gravy over the meat without slopping it around the dish. cover them tight and bake an hour in a moderate oven.5 cents. even dice. salt pork 1 pt. and let it simmer until tender. bacon and seasonings Total - - - - . (1. adding a wineglassiul of cold water every fifteen minutes. white beans 3^ lb. put them into a deep bean-pot. boil them until tender in boiling water and salt.) Then arrange them neatly around the meat. and j)ut them over the fire to brown. ______ INGREDIENTS. • 6 " 3 " - ------ 14 cents. and serve it hot.) BACON AND CABBAGE. pour over them two tablespoonfuls of molasses. boil them slowly for two hours. Pick over the beans. stir in a tablespoonful of flour and let it brown. to check the boiling and soften the beans. (G. with the pork. (8. 54 pork in the bottom of a saucepan. about one hour. (9. . 17 cents. (5.) When the meat is done. and keep it hot while the vegetables can be drained out of the cold water and warmed in the gravy. jiut them on the fire in cold water enough to cover them. 12 cents. or until tender. -----INGREDIENTS. and four of the water in which the beans were boiled. but not broken. (2. or olives. 1 1 head of cabbage lb.) Then add enough hot water to cover the meat.) When the meat is brown. lay the rolls on them.

) Meantime. but not very nourishing. in the country the brains should be thoroughly cooked. take up the cabbage in a colander. are much more commonly used for food in Europe than iu The tongue. In New York. lay it on a dish. thoroughly cleanse a head of cabbage. and tail. kidneys. All except beef-tongues and veal-sweetbreads. the kidneys should be cooked quickly.) with to boil. and when the bacon has boiled an hour put the cabbage (1. cnt it in thin slices. and sweetbreads are often thrown away.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. The Entrails of A nimalft. HASLET RAGot/T swer to the increasing INGREDIENTS. (3. brains. or they will become hard these articles. and plentiful in the vicinity of abattoirs and packing houses. or lungs. and the cheap cuts. are full of fleshforming elements. taking care that the water is boiling it when the cabbage is put into it.) When the bacon is done. these articles are now being kept in anare cheap demand for them. and bring it slowly to a boil. well known here. . and on account of their density of fiber. press the water out of it. and serve it hot. at many retail markets and butcher's stores. such as the haslet. and indigestible. cies. but they are generally considered delica- and are not often served at ordinary meals in the city.— Those parts of the carcass and tripe. Tripe and feet are very digestible. and put the bacon on it. -------63" ------- 1 Sheep^s haslet 1 qt potatoes cents. feet. the heart and lights. such as the head. called the entrails. and the cabbage is tender. CIIArTER XL TENTH LESSON OF THE FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. 56 Put the bacon over the fire in a pot half full of cold water. (2. and sweetbreads are this country.

------2" --------- 15 cents. two teaspoonfuls of salt. drippings 2 onions and vinegar Parsley and seasonings cleanse is it " i '* 20 cents. and fry them brown. chopped parsley and serve it hot. and add it to the onions. and fat. some persons prefer the honeycomb. Total (1. thick. tly for tripe. Season it with and boiling water enough to cover it. . bacon and flour - - ~ - 2 *' 15 cents. drippings Seasonings. and six whole Simmer it slowly two hours. and let it lay in scalding hot water until wanted. put them into a saucepan with the drippings. 66 ---32" ___--_ ----- % " onions cents. pepper. (2. 2 lbs. and others tlie double tripe. (3. a tablesj)oonf ul of vine- and just water enough to cover the one hour. Serve it hot. tripe 2 oz. stew it gen- . but it is by scalding and scraping before using it. two bay leaves.) Chop one tablespoontripe with a level tablespoonf ul of parsley. (2.) Peel and slice the onions.) Meantime scald the haslet and cut it in pieces two inches square. 2 oz. quarter of a level teaspoonful of pepper.) Peel and slice the onions and fry them brown in the drippings. Total Tripe 2 usually dressed before it is sold. haslet. add it to the f ul of salt. and one ounce of bacon cut in small dice. (3. STEWED TRIPK INGEEDEENTS.) half an inch wide and two inches light Cut the tripe in strips long. (1. a saltspoonf nl of gar. sprinkle in a little cloves. drain the and add it to them with one gill of vinegar are brown.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and a bouquet made by tying together two sprigs each of parsley and thyme. it well to should be white.) When the onions mix one ounce of flour among them.

sew it on a baking pan with tlie potatoes.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. 1 lb. 10 cents. (2. powdered herbs. them on the hot disii. Total Chop - one teaspoonful each of onions. sprigs of parsley or slices of lemon on the dish. (2. onion and seasonings - - - '* 2 " - 2 Total 17 cents. split them.) they are butter. 57 STUFFED HEART. and the butter. 1 beef's heart 1 oz. - Soak two slices of stale bread in cold water until soft.) Peel and chop one onion and fry it light yellow with the (1. potatoes -------3" Bread. . stuff it scalding hot. Add (3. much cayenne half a level as can saltspoonful be taken of up on the pen knife blade. INGREDIENTS. -take out the white centres.) Mix them with one level fine teaspoonful of pepper. is salt- forcemeat over stir this it and a Wash with the forcemeat. put it in a quick oven and bake it one hour. 10 cents. kidneys 1 oz. Avith a few equally with the seasonings. and sj^oonful of the fire in tiie frying-pan untib the heart in cold water. herbs and seasonings - - - 2 " 2 " 14 cents. as salt. parsley (1. butter Onion. up and lay it BROILED KIDNEYS.) and any green herb in season. half a level saltspoonf ul of pepper. and put point of a small a dish turning them over to cover them Serve them hot.) the soaked bread to it with a teaspoon- ful of salt. pared and washed. put set it where it w^ill get hot. and wring them dry in a clean towel. INGREDIENTS. butter 1 qt. and (3. broil them quickly.) them on Wash tlie kidneys in cold water and salt.

(5.) healthy people. remember it will be more it. 2 cents. (2. and. (3. therefore.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. more easily digested. There are five points which we wish to impress upon our pupils' minds in regard to diet in sickness. unhappily. or make use of all its nourishing qualities without being over taxed. . and consequently reason stale Ave .) The doctor should al- ways prescribe the diet of a very sick person. 58 CHAPTER XII. it eaten hastily. - . TOAST. such an every day occurrence in all families that we should not do our duty by even our youngest pupils if we failed to show them how to prepare a few delicate dishes for invalids. and no additions or alterations should be made without his knowledge. make good toast. Sick persons do not require such hearty food as (1. (4. Stale bread Butter (the best kind) Total The why cent. need bread to after the moisture has evaporatis because we want it dry ed from bread it is less tough and solid.) Sick persons should always be reminded that if they hold their food in their mouths for a few minutes before swallowing the saliva to mingle with than if it ple also to is it. and allow easily digested would be wise for well peo- this fact. - Scents.) such good quality Food for sick persons as to aiford must be of the nourishment they all need from a very small quantity. very digestible articles should be chosen. ELEVENTH LESSOK OF THE FIEST ARTISAI^" COURSE.— Sickness is.) Food for sick persons must be cooked so as to enable weak digestive organs to assimilate. and the heat of the fire more readily . How to Cook for Invalids. --------1 -----INGBEDIENTS.

made as above. spread very thinly . it. so that it will digest equally. then strain it through a piece of fine muslin or flannel. # TEA.-.) If toast.) Put the bread on a toasting-fork and expose it to the heat of amoderate fire. and to mingle the butter thoroughly with it. Rinse out the teapot with boiling water. (1.) Make a slice of toast as directed in the previous re- ceipt. This makes dry which should be eaten at once. (3. It will then be readv for use. and the likely to sour in the looks of a disli has a great influence upon it (2. (2. cent. holding it so that it will turn golden brown all over. into only let it stand two minutes. but taking care Drop it into a small pitcher contain- ing a pint of boiling water. it. cover the pitcher and let the toast-water cool. milk sugar --------1 --------1" ------ 2 centa. and then toast. cold water to it. 59 changes the bread into pure wheat farina. (3. -. because a sick person's appetite is very capricious. toasting it to a not to burn cent.) deep brown color. }4 oz.) Cut two even slices of stale bread about half an inch thick. taking care to have tlieni smooth and of even size. moist bread.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. Total (1. which is not as stomach as fresh. TOAST-WATER. enough and add a boiling water to cover strain little it. serve hot. ). turn the slice and toast the other side in the same way.water is wanted for immediate use.--i Stale bread (1. INGREDIENTS. and being careful not to burn it. put the toast. tea 1 gill 1 oz. Buttered toast is prepared in the same way. and set it in the oven for five minutes to make it crisp.) 4 cents. put the .. and use it.and evenly with a little nice butter. " INGREDIENTS.

(2. tea into it. and use the tea at once. remove all the fat. fine cloth or flannel to the fire to simmer until it is reduced to a (3. as time will permit. because the longer the meat lays in cold water. INGREDIENTS. (2. tannic acid is developed in it.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and set the pot where it will keep hot witliout boiling. then strain off the liquid. 60 pour half a pint of boiling water on it. boil from fifteen to thirty minutes. but not so well.) it in a covered earthen jar without water. the doctor al- not time to let it stand an honr. lean beef Chop one ponnd (1. If tea is boiled. cover the saucepan tightly. Tliis preparation contains every nutritious element of the beef. (2. INGREDIENTS. and re- This point can be decided by putting a teaspoonful of the jelly .) and simmer pulp. draw it carefully. and use it.) Put it into a saucepan Avith two quarts of cold water. nnhealthy. the doctor allows it. and serve it. if strain it. season it slightly. 1 11^. and it tastes strong and bitter. chice:en jelly. if of lean beef fine. becomes a jelly. skimming it until clear. and is very. it. the more of Chop one x>ound its nutriment will put be extracted. that slowly until it is from two liquid tlirongh turn it the chicken to four hours. and bring it lows less in one pint over the it fire in the slowly to a boil. - Skin a fowl. BEEF TEA. BO as to avoid breaking the gall or intestines. season it with a very it little salt and then and pepper.) Pour one pint and a half of boiling water into the pot at the end of five minntes. fowl - accents. and set it in a moderate oven for four hours.) of lean beef fine. bring it slowly to aboil. for five minutes. cut up the meat. and break tlie bones by pounding. (1. lay of cold water for one honr. 12 cents. then pnt same water. If there is time will answer. ) Strain the until clear. A 21b.

3 apples 1 oz. -----_-. BARLEY WATER. put them in a pitcher with the sugar. then strain and use a beverage. INGREDIENTS. (2. it as . on a saucer and cooling Season it it . to remove any musty or bad flavor.) the water until it when Crumb two it boils. INGREDIENTS.. cover the pitcher and let the water cool. when allowed by the doctor.) yellow rind of half a lemon.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. pour one pint of boiling water over them. 1 cent. 2 OZ. pearl barley 2 cents. It may 61 be eaten cold. or tlie doctor. let it boil put it into as fast as possible then take it up. and use it either hot or cold. INGREDIENTS. PANADA. sugar and lemon rind Total 3 cents. if it is firm the jelly very slightly. Total 4 cents. Thorouglily wash two ounces of pearl barley. and boil it until it is reduced to one quart. 4 cents. and slice thin three spicy. and cool little. Bread sugar Seasonings 1 oz. if the doctor allows it. Pare. Put a pint of water over the fire to boil. juicy apples. as directed by it in cups. and an inch of stick cinnamon. if the doctor allows the use slices of stale bread. or the (1. with an ounce of loaf sugar. put it over the fire in two quarts of cold water. then strain and cool it. 2 cents. and begins to thicken. core. of either. warmed a is done. a little sugar may be used with it. --------i" ----- 1 cent. APPLE WATER. and the yellow rind of half a lemon.

flour 6 oz. or nntil a broom spliut can be run into it without fiuding the pudding stickTurn the pudding out of the mould. and set this into a large pot with boiling water enough to come two-thirds up the side of the monld. and when they are well mixed. creamy. Nutritive Value of Pies and Puddings. and flavoring - - 4 cents. spoonful of baking powder. and one of one heaping tea- rub together four ounces of granulated sugar and two ounces of butter.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. -----. milk 1 egg.. put into a well buttered and floured mould. and they sometimes are very fond of pies mothers to make sucli dishes when they Because they do like such things cannot well be afforded. —Stir together over the fire one ounce each .. add the flour gradually nntil all is nsed. with the following sauce. " 4 " 6 1 pt. while good.— All little girls and puddings. SWISS PUDDING WITH CREAM SAUCE. INGREDIENTS. OF THE FIRST ARTISAN^ COURSE. Total Sift together half a pound of flour. but they must not forget that greasy persuade pics tial their and rich cakes are very unhealthy.. mix send to a it to the table Cream Sauce. 63 CHAPTER TWELFTH LESSOJS^ XIII. steam the pudding throe-quarters of an hour. make a hollow in the middle of the flour. granulated sugar 3 " butter - - . and ing to the splint. . - . baking powder. 3^ lb. so as to be granular but not salt. 2 cents. half a teaspoonful of lemon flavoring. smooth paste. put into it one Qgg. and half a pint of milk.-4" ----- 20 cents. make some very nice and cheap them how to will show we dishes of this kind. substanpuddings are both wholesome and economical.

rice 3 " -----__2** -------13" 3 cents. and when they are well mixed gradually add enough cold water to make a stiff paste. INGREDIENTS. and . and use with the pudding as soon as it boils up. apples -----__. Wash four ounces of rice through two waters. put it into a baking dish with three ounces of sugar and a teaspoonful of flavoring. legg Icent. (4. or unof a creamy consistency. . INGREDIENTS. about half a pint.§« -----__ -10" 3" 2 cents. Total 24 cents. of flour and butter. and put it into a moderate oven to bake an hour and a half. 63 as soon as they arc smooth. K lb.) Make the pastry as follows. sugar IX qts.) Pare and slice the apples. milk Flavoring 1 cent. This pudding is very deli- til it is cate and wholesome. pour in one quart and a pint of milk. This makes a very nice pudding for the Sunday dinner.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. flour 4 oz. 4 oz. (2. (3. and stew them tender with the sugar and one gill of water. pour into add two ounces of sugar and half a teaspoonful of lemon flavoring. working it well with tiic right hand. - - - - . butter 4 " sugar 2 qts.) Roll this about on the pastry-board.) Mix these ingredients with the fingers of the right hand. into this put a saltspoonful of salt. Total - 18 cents. them half a pint of boiling milk. (1. and a piece of the butter as large as a walnut. Put the flour in a heap in the middle of the pastry-board and make a hollow in its center. CREAM RICE PUDDING. the yolk of the egg. APPLE TARTS.

lay the butter in tlie center of it.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and (6. cup of a ture smooth with an Qgg whip. Line the cake pans with buttered paper. flavor tlie batter with Vanilla extract. roll it out again. put it quickly into the baking pan. and bake it press the folded edges down slightly in a rather quick oven. (5. (2. GOLD CAKE.) Add to them by degrees two-thirds one cup of flour.) Sift of baking powder and one saltspoonful of teaspoonful one (3. i * . INGREDIENTS. (4. little. 64 dusting to it. cream. and turn the lump of paste over on the board. and six eggs to a dients. and fill them with the stewed apple. ornament beaten egg. brush it with cover a the them with paste. and then bring the other side up over the first.) Koll out the paste in a round as large as a dinner plate. taking care not to break the butter through it.) sugar to a cream.) Let it stand in a cool place. 6 eggs 2 (K - scant) 6" - Flavoring and baking powder Total 2 " " " - - - - - - - - - 1 cent. 2 oz. granulated sugar }i 1^ lb. line the pie plates (8. five minutes to cool. fold the edges up over the butter so as to cover it completely. 4 lb. flatten it with the roller and roll out evenly. 21 cents. and beat the mixand of milk.) Beat the yolks of stir them into the above ingrecup of flour which has been sifted with the salt and baking powder. roll it out and fold it twice more and set it (7. milk. ^ (1.) Cover with it. and dry it hand the in a clean napkin. dust it with flour. to (6. board tlie Work (5. fold one side half over. flour 6 cents.) Avitli flour until the paste ceases to stick the butter a minute with press out the buttermilk. butter y^ pt.) Beat the butter and salt with one cup of flour. or dust it with powdered sugar. on the ice if possible.) Stir in the v .

(8. 65 bake the cuke in a rather moderate oven. ----- K Total 15 cents. - 6 cents.FIRST ARTISAN COURSE. granulated sugar " flour }4 2 oz. SILVER CAKE. . if it is done the splint will come out clean. (7. substituting the whites of the eggs for the yolks. milk (3^ scant) Flavoring and baking powder 6 whites of e^Q (cost counted in last receipt) }4 lb. INGREDIENTS. butter pt.) To test the cake run a clean broom splint into its center. Proceed according to the receipt for Gold Cake. 2 " 4 " 2 " - 1 cent.) When it is done. and flavoring with Bitter Almond instead of Vanilla. turn it quickly out of the pan and let it cool. .

used entire. and up to the succeeding one. it. 66 PART CHAPTER II. introductory paragraphs will be dispensed with through- out this course of lessons. I. any one suitable for a holiday dinner. Rolls. This course of lessons is intended for the instruction of the grown daughters mid wives of workingmen. FIRST LESSON OF THE SECOJfD ABTISAK COURSE.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. them. or which may be separated to of the family using of bills of fare. The meats given are all in the form of side-dishes. and to the appendix. As pupils arc expected to study the whole of this book. Baked Herrmgs. . who can afford to vary their daily fare at a moderate expense. lessons are arranged in the of which. or supper. being replaced by the necessary explanatory notes affixed to the receipts which call for and the scholars are referred to the preceding course. The at discretion for either break- Their preparation calls for a lit- more care and judgment than the previous course. and afford a good example of the importance of such preparations for economy and exceltle leads lence. for any questionable points which may suggest themselves. —Liver Cassel Puddings. and convenience dishes composing the suit the taste the different may be employed dinner. is form bills of fare fast. Oxtail Soup.

dry them in a clean towel. . ----- Total Cut the - 17 cents. sauces and stews of various kinds. when it is the proper color. 2 " 3 " l cent. and half a saltspoonf ul of pepper. inch dice. ------__ -------------___-__-i" INGREDIENTS. cover the sauce-pan and let the soup simmer gently for two hours. onion and bouquet. flour. thyme.) Then take out the onion and bouquet.) carrot When onion and" stick six whole and turnip and cut them the oxtails have come in half to a boil. season the soup with a level tablespooiiful of salt. if it is not of the proper hue. it is a good and harmless coloring for soups. and stir it until it turns very dark brown.) Peel the cloves in tlie it.) fire in - - oxtails in joints. put them again into the saucepan with one ounce of butter. turnip. drain them. put in the carrot. (5. (6. marjoram and two bay leaves. and then strain and bottle it.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. -. peel (4. (3. Put one ounce of brown sugar over the fire in a fryingpan. tied up compactly. and stir it until the sugar is thoroughly dissolved. 67 OXTAIL SOUP.------1 II^GREDIENTS.) Pour over them three quarts of cold water. herbs and seasonings 1 carrot 1 turnip - (1. 10 cents.) Meantime make a bouquet of one sprig each of parsley. sugar cent. and put them over the three quarts of cold water to blanch. CARAMEL. Let the caramel cool.. stir in one ounce of ilour and let it brown. darken it with caramel. butter Onion. but do not let it burn. i. 1 OZ. and serve the soup. e. to come to a boil. pour into the pan half a pint of boiling water. (2. and fry them brown. The soup should be of a rich brown color. 2 oxtails 1 oz. rinse them by running cold water over them.

Avill completely dissolve the bones. The fish may be used either hot or cold. some trimmings from soup vegetables. -------13 ----INGREDIENTS. (1. - - - - - Total cents. 68 • BAKED HERRINGS. (3. unless it is absolutely necessary. season it with salt and pepper. 2 herrings Vinegar and seasonings lbs. bacon Vegetables. tlie same number of pej^per corns.) Proceed exactly as above except that the backbone should not be removed. herbs and seasonings Total (1. LIVER ROLLS. 1 lb. 5 *' 17 cents. liver }i lb. in pieces (2. put the fish in layers in a deep baking dish with half a dozen whole cloves. salt and powdered mace mixed together. and simmer them . the action of the salt and vinegar. ---------INGREDIENTS. and the fish should bake four hours instead of one.) 3 2 - ------ Cut the bacon in thin with boiling water. (2. salt plentifully.) Scale and clean the fish carefully without washing them. and two bay-leaves between them. and bake them in a moderate oven for one hour. and a few herbs in the bottom of the saucepan. sprinkle them inside with a little j)epper. cover them with boiling water.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. lay a slice of bacon on each piece. split them down the back and remove the backbones. cut - 10 cents. lay the liver rolls on them. no water should be added to the vinegar. Scald the liver two inches wide and three inches long. if there are any roes enclose them in the fish. tie a sheet of oiled or buttered paper over tlie top of the dish. roll each up and tie it firmly. season them with pepj^er and salt. cover them with vinegar and water equally mixed. and the long continued heat.) Put any remaining scraps of bacon. " " 15 cents.) - it slices.

testing them Avith a broom splint at the end of twenty minutes. until the ingredients are thoroughly mixed. color it dark brown with caramel. making them two- and bake them in a moderate oven about thirty minutes. four ounces of sugar. . When they are done turn them out of the cups and serve them with hard sauce. and stir in the flour. 2 eggs 2 cents. — Hard Sauce. 6 " 8 oz.) Take up the liver remove the strings and lay them on a hot dish to keep warm. pour it over the rolls.) Icent - - - --. (4. INQREDIENTS.-. granulated sugar 6 " butter 12*' 4 '' flour Peel and juice of half a lemon Total (1. it hot. thirds full.) Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth. and the juice of half a lemon. shape the sauce in some pretty form. (4. (2. then stir the whites in lightly.) Add the yolks to the butter and sugar. and the yolks to a cream.- 1 " 22 cents. to a cream. put the pud- dings into six buttered cups or tins. (3. Rwb together two ounces of butter. over a slow for about one hour. and keep it cold until wanted for use.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. put a few sprigs of parsley about the dish and serve fire rolls. if it is not thick add a little flour to it. Mix four ounces each of butter and sugar ) Grate the rind of the lemon into them. strain the gravy. CASSEL PUDDINGS WITH HARD SAUCE.

rub the rest of the ingredients through a sieve with a potato masher. rub one tablespoonful each of flour butter to a paste. (7. Crecy Soup. or nntil the vegetables are tender. celery. to boil. If the soup shows any sign of settling when it is returned into it. them in tlie of cold water. 70 CHAPTER II. season it to the tire to heat.) Cut two slices of stale bread in dice.) sniiill Make (3.) Peel two Scrape half a dozen car- Cut three stalks of celery in a houquet of herbs. (8.) (5. Filets of Fish with Spanish Sauce. lay them four quarts and skim carefully. ------»-5 ---------5" INGREDIENTS. Soup bones Carrots cents. and return tliem to the fire to heat.) Take out the bones and the bouquet. and seasonings - - - - ~ - Total (1. them thin. pour the soup over them and serve it hot. SECOKD LESSON OF THE SECOKD ARTISAN COURSE. bring slowly to a onions and rots. Bread and drippings 2 onions. (2. Caramel Custards. and simmer it slowly for about two hours. fry them in smoking hot drippings. quite free from 2 3 scum put all (6.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. them. and slice slice small pieces. (4. the soup is bones in add pieces. CRECY SOUP. Ragout of Sparerihs and Peas. and .) '* " 15 cents.) When these ingredients with a level tablespoonful of salt.) Break bottom of a tlie pot. })lace them in tlie souji tureen. and stir them into it.

INGREDIENTS.) sweet herbs.._-. Garnish the fish with a few sprigs of parsley. rub the sauce through a sieve. or (1. and tomato.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE.) Cut one ounce of fat bacon in dice. ------. half a saltspoonful of pepper. (3. Out the spareribs in small pieces. (2. butter Meat or herbs . skimming it clear. - - - and seasonmgs Total - - - - - » 15 cents. then add one quart of hot water. 3 lb. heat it. and stew them for lialf an hour. see if the seasoning is palatable. a teaspoonful of salt.) Prepare the filets of fish as directed on page 32. leaving two or three ribs in each piece. stir in two ounces of flour when the other ingredients are brown.) When the vegetables are soft. pour a little of it on the dish with the fish. season with a teaspoonful of salt and half a saltspoonful of pepper. and let it brown too. *' g" \ cent. onion. put in tlie spareribs.) Put the butter in a saucepan. or water and the remains of any brown gravy. 38 cents. and fry it in the bottom of a sauce-pan with one ounce of drippings and two ounces each of carrot. and enough boiling water to cover the spareribs. and keep them hot while the sauce is finished. 1 can peas 5 lbs. (1.-_. heat them thoroughly. (2. and serve the rest in a sauce-boat. INGREDEEKTB. blue fish Materials for sauce - - - - - - Total 24 cents. cut small.) Tlieu add the joeas. RAGOUT OF SPARE RIBS AND PEAS. 71 FILETS OF FISH WITH SPANISH SAUCE. and let the sauce simmer for nearly an hour. and serve the ragoitt with the spare- . ------. two sprigs of mint. (3. 10 " 84 cents. bake them about twenty minutes.go spareribs 1 oz.

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

72

ribs
ly

the center of the dish, and the peas arranged neat-

ill

around them.

When

green peas are in season this dish

is less

expensive

than when preimred with canned peas.

CARAMEL CUSTARDS.
INGREDIENTS.

.-------4"

1 pint of milk

4 cents.

-

4 eggs
2 oz, sugar and half lemon rind

-

-

-

Total

"

10

Put three drops of caramel, made

(1.)

3

as directed

on

page 07, into the bottoms of six cups.
(2.) Boil a pint
of milk with two ounces of '"agar and half the yellow rind
of a lemon; meantime beat four eggs, and strain the milk
into them; mix thoroughly, strain again, and pour into
the cups; set these in a baking pan containing hot water

enough

to reach half

either set the

or bake

them

minutes.
serve

way up the

pan over the

sides

lire until

of the cups,

and

the custards are firm,

in tlie oven; they will set in twelve or fifteen

Cool the custards, and turn them out on saucers;

them

cold.

CHAPTER

III.

THIRD LESSON OF THE SECON^D ARTISAN COURSE.
Mulligatawny Soup.
Fried Brains.
Persillade of Fish.
Lemon Dumplings with Lemon Sauce.

MULLIGATAWNY

SOUP.

---------------INGREDIENTS.

rabbit
3^3 qt. onions
1

3^

lb. rice

20 cents.

3"

2

"

I

SECOND ARTISAN COUE^K
Carrot, turnip, jaarsley

€urry powder,

flour

and seasonings
and drippings

-

73

3 cents.
4 "

-

Total

33 cents.

Mulligatawny soup may be made either of chicken
or
rabbit.
(1.) Choose a tender rabbit or hare, which will
cost at the market about tvv^enty cents, and
which if young
will be i^lump,

and have a short neck, thick knees, and
fore paws Avhose joints break easily; hang it
by the hind
legs and skin it, beginning at the tail and
ending at the
head; wipe it carefully with a damp cloth to
remove the
hairs; take out the entrails, saving the
brains, heart and
liver, and cut it in joints.
(2.) Lay the rabbit in a saucepan with two ounces of dripi)ings, the onions peeled
and
a teaspoonful of salt, ten whole cloves,
of a level teaspoonful of pepper, and fry
sliced,

and a quarter
it

gently for

twenty minutes.

(3.) Pare the carrot and turnip, and cut
them in small dice. (4.) Make a boiirjtcet of one sprig
each
of parsley, thyme, marjoram and two
bay leaves.
(5.)
AVhen the rabbit is brown, stir a tablespoonful of

flour into

add the vegetables, houquct, and three quarts of boiling
water, and simmer until the vegetables are
tender enough
to rub througli a sieve with a wooden
spoon.
(G.) Meantime, boil the rice as follows:
throw it into one quart of
boiling water containing two teaspoonfuls
of salt, and boil
it,

fast ten minutes; drain it in a
Colander.
Meantime,
just grease the pot with sweet drii^pings,
put the rice back
it

m

it,

or

m

cover

it, and set it on a brick on
the top of the stove,
a cool oven, and let it stand ten minutes
to swell- be
careful not to burn it.
(7.) Strain the soup, rub the vegetables through a sieve; put the vegetable
j^jz^rce thus made
into a clean pot with tlie soup and
the rabbit;

ascertain

if

enough, add a heaping tablespoonful of curry
powthe pot over the fire, bring the soup just to
a boil

it is salt

der, set

serve
«oup.

and

The rice is sent to the table with the
Mulligatawny is made from ciiicken in the same way.

it

hot.

(8.)

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

74

PERSILLADE OF

FISH.

INGREDIENTS.
-

3 lbs. codfish
2 oz. butter
Onions and parsley Flour, bread ci-mnbs and seasonings

fire

Make a White Sauce by

one ounce

-

-

-

-

-----

Total

(1.)

16 cents.

each of butter

4

"

1

"
"

1

22 cents.

stirring together over the

and

flour, until

they bubble;

add half a pint of boiling water gradually, stirring until
the sauce is smooth, and then season it with a teaspoonful
of salt and quarter of a saltspoonful eacli of pepper and
nutmeg.
Set the saucepan containing the sauce in a pan
half full of boiling water, to keep it from drying up,
while the

prepared.

fish is

(2.)

each of onion and parsley.

(3.)

Chop one tablespoonful
Remove the skin and

bones from two pounds of cold boiled codfish, lay it on a
buttered baking dish which can be sent to the table, moisten it with the white sauce, sprinkle it with the chopped
onion and parsley, dust it thickly with dried and sifted
bread crumbs, dot it over with a very little butter, and
brown it quickly in a hot oven, or with a salamander.

FRIED BRAIN'S WITH TOMATO SAUCE.
INGREDIENTS.

._.-----io
-------5"

Brains
1

cents.

egg, vinegar, herbs

1 qt.

tomatoes

1 oz.

butter

and vegetables

-

-

1^ lb. lard

Flour, bread

-

crumbs and seasonings

-

-

Total
(1.)

hour.

Lay the brains
(2.)

Make

the

3

"

2

"
"
"

3
2

25 cents.

in salt

and water

Tomato Sauce

for at least one

as follows: peel

and

one quart of tomatoes, half a carrot, half a turnip,
and one onion, and after reserving two slices of each put
slice

them

into a saucepan over

tlio fire witli

one

})int of

boiling

I

SECOND ARTISAN COURSE.
water, or broth, one sprig each of
cloves, three

75

thyme and

parsley, three

peppercorns, and a bayleaf; boil these in-

gredients gently until they are tender enough to rub through

a sieve with a wooden spoon;

mix

together over the

fire

one

tablespoonful each of butter and flour until they begin to
bubble, stir gradually into

them

half a pint of boiling water,

then mix smoothly with the strained tomato sauce; keep
the sauce hot as directed in the previous receipt.

(3.)

made take the brains from the
remove the membrane v/hich covers them,

While the sauce

is

water, carefully

being

and put them over the

fire to

blanch in cold water enough

them, with the slices of vegetables reserved from
the tomato sauce, a bayleaf, three cloves, one sprig each of
parsley and thyme, a tablespoonful of salt, and half a cup
of vinegar; boil them gently fifteen minutes, then take
them up, dry them and bread them as follows. (4.) Sift
a thick layer of dried bread crumbs on the table,
beat up the Qgg with a tables])oonful of cold water;
roll the brains in the crumbs, di}) them in the Qg^ quickly
enough to avoid washing off the crumbs, and fry them in
smoking hot fat. Take them up wlien brown, lay them
for a moment on brown paper to free them from fat, put
them on a hot dish with a little tomato sauce under them,
garnish the dish with some bits of parsley, and serve hot.
to cover

The remainder

of the sauce

must be saved

for garnishing

fried chops.

LEMON DUMPLINGS WITH LEMON SAUCE.
INGREDIENTS.
3^

lb.

suet

}4 *' bread
2 lemons

-

crumbs

3 oz. sugar
2 eggs

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-2"

-

Kpt. milk
1 oz. Ijutter

Flour, sugar,

2 cents.
"

2

-

4"

2

"
"

.

-------2"
2

and nutmeg for sauce
Total

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

'*

18 cents.

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

76

Shred the suet and chop

(1.)

it

very

fine.

(2.)

the yellow rind and squeeze the juice of one lemon.

Mix together the

suet,

Grate
(3.)

bread crumbs,three ounces of sugar,

the eggs, the rind and juice of one lemon, and enough
milk to moisten these ingredients; divide them into six
equal parts; dip six small pudding cloths in boiling water,
dust them with flour, tie up a dumpling in each, and drop
them into a pot full of boiling water; boil steadily for an
hour, keeping the pot covered all the time or tlie dump-

may be heavy. When they are done, take them up,
them out of the cloths, arrange them on a disli, dust
them with powdered sugar, and serve them with lemon
lings

turn

sauce.

Sauce. Gnite the yellow rind, and squeeze the
juice of one lemon; mix together over tlie fire one ounce
each of butter and sugar, until they bubble; stir in half a

Lemon

pint of boiling water, one ounce of sugar, the rind and
juice

of

the lemon, and serve in a sauce boat witli the

pudding.
lemon, or

Do

not

it will

the

let

sauce boil after adding the

be bitter.

CHAPTER
FOUJiTH

lj5sso:n"

IV.

of the second aktisan coukse.

Fried llalihut Neck,

Soup,
—Tripe
Kolcannon, — Bubhle

and Squeak.

Apple Fritters.

TRIPE SOUP.

-----INGREDIENTS,

2

lbs.

1 pt.

tripe

-

milk

3^ qt. onions
Flour, parsley,
1

carrot

1

turnip

15 cents.
4 "

--

3"

---------------1"
and seasonings

Total

-

-

-

-----

-

2

"

i

cent.

20 cents.

) Peel the carrot add them it two inches long and half an inch and turnip. (3.) Boil and peel a quart of potatoes and jnash through a colander. half a level saltspoonful of pepper. --------------5" INGREDIENTS.) Cleanse and boil a cabbage.) in hot water. 1 qt. and chop it very fine. scrape it with n dull knife. halibut of " 5 - - Total The neck 12 cents. FRIED HALIBUT NECK. 3 cents. or serve it with maitre (V hotel butter. tablespoonful of chopped parsley. half a level to the pepper.) Put the cabbage and potatoes over the fire in a frying-pan. 3 " extremely fat and gelatinous.) it Pare and in strijos fire in three quarts of cold water. INGREDIENTS. season it with a level tablespoonful of salt. with half a tablespoonful of butter. a tea- spoonful of salt. (4. potatoes 1 cabbage Butter and seasonings - - - - - Total 2 " 10 cents. as dii-ected in the receipt for it Fried Brains on page 74. halibut neck }i lb.) SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. add it to the soup. rinse (1. (1. KOLCANNON. them to the soup. cut them in small dice and the onions and add slice (3. bread and fry Avater.) Wash pieces three delicious dish. cut in it fish. soup and boil it slowly for one hour. Sciild the tripe. -------- 2 lbs.) Gnrnish it with lemon or parsley. lard 1 e^^. and (1. and put over the (2. seasonings - 20 cents. (2. bread crumbs. and heat and a them thorough- . and a tablespoonful of chopped saltspoonful of and serve parsley. it hot. the fish makes a in well salted cold inches square. (2. Mix three ounces of Hour with the milk. is much cheaper than the more solid parts of the when well seasoned. cut it wide.

2" 3" Sugar and spice 4oz.) Put them of salt. butter it. Cold vegetables can be reserve it mould and the warmed in the same way.) Heat a tin BUBBLE AND SQUEAK.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and chop with it any cold vegetaon hand. (2. put the Kolcannon into it.) . INGREDIENTS. fry it in one ounce of drippings.) Slice the cold meat rather thick. (3. ly.) Put the onion into tliej^an in wliich the meat was fried. cold meat 20 cents. of dripj^ings in the frying-pan to heat. press it down well.) 12 cents. around the meat on the hot dish. lard - 2 eggs Oil flour 2 Total (1. lay in the sugar turn tliem over and called a sweet marinade. and half a saltspoonful of pepper. (5. and fry them until they are a little brown.) Turn it from hot. for about an hour. ground spice preferred. is a (3. Remains of cold cabbage Onion. 3 apples 3 cent. drippings and seasoning - - - - Total (1. (2. and keep it hot.) Add the cold vegetables to the onion. any is them in a bowl. and lay sprinkling them with and a wine little " " 2 and quently. on page 51. and serve it hot.) fre- which Make batter as directed for Parsnij^ Fritters. (4. lay it in the middle of a hot dish. convenient. spice. Peel half an onion. (5. Peel and slice the apples. and fry it pale yellow.) bles APPLE FRITTERS.) Put an ounce 3 2 - " " 25 cents. and let if it them sugar. 2 lbs. (4. -----.-INGREDIENTS. and set the mould in a moderate oven for half an hour to brown. seasoning them with a teaspoonful (G. 78 mould.

adding two teaspoonf uls of salt. soup meat with marrow bone 4 oz. slices of apple into the batter.e used as it rises.) Strain the soup through a jelly-bag without pressing either the meat or vegetables. and let it boil gently until it is clear.) put it all into the brown. ham trimmings Veal bones 1 lb. stick the onion with ten whole cloves. . chop it fine. the meat will have but little nutriment in it. fry them golden brown. - 10 cents. and removing the scum as fast When it is clear.) As soon as the meat is brown.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. If they are allowed to get cold they will be less crisp then when used warm. and the (4. (2. but may b. with the bones and a tablespoonful of drippings. to free them from grease. and serve them hot. arrange them on a dish. celery and seasonings 5 " Total Cut - _ - - . OF THE SECOND AUTISAIT COURSE. (5. carrots. and set it over the fire to get (1. dust them with powdered sugar. INGEEDIENTS. and make a douquet as already directed. turnips. Omelette. add the vegetables whole. fork. and simmer the soup gently two hours. and lay them on brown paper a moment. Boiled Pike with Egg Orange Sauce. GRAVY SOUP. — Curry of Pork. - --__. Dip the 79 lift them out on a them into smoking hot fat. or longer if there is time. Gravy Soup. (3. add three quarts of boiling water.-- - 3 " Onions.) hotiquet. - - 2" 20 cents.) Meantime peel the vegetables. drop CHAPTER FIFTH LESSO]N" V. the meat from the bones. and bottom of a saucepan.

) Boil it as directed in the receipt for Boiled one Qgg hard and let it get quite cold. season it with a level teaspoonful of salt. BOILED PIKE WITH EGG SAUCE. and as as can be taken set the 31. butter Egg.) Let the soup cool.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. stirring the sauce with an egg-whip until it is quite smooth. or it may sour. securing them in place with a cord carried by a trussing needle. salt. cool do not cover it. well seasoned and warmed. carefully skim off the fat. in a basin half full of boil- hot until wanted for use. Haddock. 80 minced with some potatoes. (6. to keep move the it it much cayenne of a small pen-knife blade. (6.) Re- from the hard boiled egg. make the Egg Sauce as follows: stir one ounce each of butter and flour together over the fire until tliey bubble. (5. and heat and serve it. on page half a level (3. herbs and seasonings 1 oz. dry in the shape of the letter gc to one side ing the head :SK) - - ----- Total (1. ------INGREDIENTS. see if the soup is propIf it is allowed to erly seasoned. heat and season it. the vegetables may be saved for Bnbble and Squeak. if there is not time. (4. as preferred.) When the fish is done it may be shell served laid in a dish. so as to remove the fat in a solid cake.) Meantime.) - and the tail . pike Vinegar. chop it fine or cut it in small dice. gradually add half a i:)int of boiling water. and when it is wanted for use. with the sauce poured over it. if there is time. (2.) Boil saltspoonful of pepper. which will rise to the top as it cools. IX lb. and put it in the sauce just before using it. 6 " 2 " " 2 in cold water and 87 cents. on a it by turnand to the other. truss fish it - - cents. or on . flour and parsley Cleanse the clean towel. up on the point sauce-pan containing ing water.

and it will resemble chicken curry. cover it closely.' to make a sort of rampart. and let it finish cooking. fresh pork 20 cents. and the sauce sent to the table. Wlien the curry is done.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. put it over the fire to brown in the butter. . When it is brown stir into it one ounce of flour. (3.) Meantime. (2. with any cold gravy on hand mixed with it.) half a jiound of rice as directed in the receipt for Mulliga- tawny Soup. .) When the pork is nearly done. butter Curry. 81 a neatly folded napkin. Veal INGREDIENTS. If the curry is added in the early stages of preparation. slice them quarter of an inch thick. peeled and chopped. on page 72. orange 3 eggs Butter and powdered sugar 1 -------Total - - - 2 cents. remove the cores. with half an onion. and put them with the pork. 2 lbs. onion. season it with two teaspoonf uls of salt. push it towards the edges of the dish wdth a fork. much of its flavor and aroma will escape with the steam. in a sauce-boat. may be prepared in the same way. " CURRY OF PORK. (5. and serve it hot. - - 2 3 5 2 rice 2 apples Total " " " " 32 cents. Out the pork in pieces two inches square. -----INGREDIENTS. and simmer it for one hour. flour and seasonings Klb. (4. shake the rice out on a platter. 1 oz. boil (1. ORANGE OMELETTE. 3 " 1 cent. stir into it one ounce of curry powder. pour the curry inside this.) When the pork is brown cover it with boiling water. 6 cents. garnished with parsley. or if tlie saucepan is left uncovered. except that the apples maybe omitted. and let it brown. with it.) Wipe the apples with a damp cloth.

and (1. skimming Peel one onion. stick it it carefully until it with ten cloves. INGREDIENTS. Turtle Bean Soup. Turtle beans are small. black Haricot beans. with the meat.) lift it When the pan hot. (1. it out lightly and quickly. heating. and turn Dust it with powdered sugar. Corn Starch Puddings.) the fire nut. (2.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. hold a hot dish close to it. 2 " " 6" soup meat Onion and seasonings 1 cent. when seems nearly done pile it at one side of the pan. with two teaspoonfuls of powdered sugar. lemon - 3 . — Fish Chowder Chicken Pie. middle. and claimed by the lovers of this soup that it is very much like mock turtle soup. turtle 1 beans 7 cents. plentiful and cheap.) Beat the yolks of the eggs to a cream.) to the soup . is put the omelette into it. piling it in the and serve it at once. (4. 2 eggs 1 lb. TURTLE BEAN SOUP. and put them over the fire in three it is quarts of cold water.) add the orange rind and juice to them. 82 Grate the yellow rind and squeeze the juice of one orange. OF THE SECOND ATITISAN COURSE. smooth frying pan on froth. bring the water slowly to a boil. (3.) Pick over the beans.) Beat the whites to a stiff Meantime have a clean. add is it clear. 1 pt. it CHAPTER SIXTH LESSOi^" VI. Total 18 cents. constantly from the bottom of the pan with a fork. with a piece of butter as large as a chest- (5. (2. wash them.

sea biscuit potatoes onions Seasonings 1 K qt. remove the meat. level Cover teaspoonful all these in- gredients with cold water. well-salted cold water. and simmer a pound of sea it slowly for thirty minutes. chop the yolks fine or cut them in small dice. it pork in half inch dice. for five . and put them into the soup tureen. pour it into the tureen upon tlie egg. to check the the beans. and rub tlic beans and onion through a sieve with a wooden spoon. slice the lemon thin and throw it into tlic soup and serve it. and the onions into the pot in alternate layers. (3.) Boil two eggs liard. potatoes drained from the water. the potatoes and water. with a made l)Oiiquet of herbs. and a each of pepper and powdered thyme. and as mucli cayenne as can be taken up on the point of a small penknife blade. biscuit in warm Tlien lay water. half a level saltspoonful of pepper. (4. (5. saving it for some little dish. pour the soup through with them. remove the shells and whites. adding a wineglassful of cold water every fifteen minutes. bring the chowder gradually to a boil. ' - -------3*« 10 *' 3 " " Icent. (4. (3.) Put it over the fire. FISH CHOWDER. or milk.) Wasli the fish in in slices an inch thick. let the soup boil gently for about two liours.) Cut the tom of a saucepan " 6 - and cut lay them in cold (2. boiling and soften INGREDIENTS.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. put it in the botand fry it brown. peel and slice the onions.) Wheu the beans arc soft.) Pare and slice 39 cents. season it with two teaspoonfuls of salt. 3 lb. 83 and as already directed. seasoning each layer from a saucer salt containing a tablespoonful of salt. when it is hot. Total (1.) Put the fish. Yi " 1 " cod fish salt pork 16 cents.

84 minutes to isof ten them. (3.- . New James Chowder. and then draw them.-. and fry it brown.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.. Meantime make the pastry for the pie (1. or tlie entrails. 3 lbs.) When it is brown stir an ounce of flour with it. and taking out the crop without tearing the skin of the breast. loosen the heart.) Pi^t half a pound heap on the pastry-board. or until the chicken is tender. 45 cents. Unless you have broken the gall. CHICKEN PIE.. Choose a rather tender fowl. damp cloth. singe off the hairs with a piece of burning paper. and a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. boil it A tablespoonful of five minutes longer and serve it hot. draw it carefully by slitting the skin at the back of the neck. for this greatly impairs the flavor. from the vent. chopped parsley is sometimes added to it. make a hollow in of flour in a .— (i. pluck all the pin feathers. then wipe the fowl with a clean. a level teaspoonf ul of pepper. 2 " 2 " - . parsley.) as follows. or a little alcohol poured on a plate and lighted with a match. (2. in drawing the bird. chicken % lb. and lungs by introducing the forefinger at the neck. flour - 2 oz. INGREDIENTS. and the salt pork cut in dice. with the entrails. liver. cover it with boiling water and let it simmer gently for an hour. salt pork 5 " butter - - - - - - - 30 cents. A bottle of champagne and half a bottle of port wine transforms the above receipt into that for the famous York St. and let the flour brown. put them into the chowder. Onion. Pastry for Meat and Game Pies. season it with a teaspoonf ul of salt.) Cut it in Joints and put it into a hot frying pan with an ounce of butter. and seasonings Total - - - 10 " i cent. c?o not tvashit. and partly destroys the nourishing qualities of the flesh.

) Make 3 cents. or cool them and turn them out on saucers. com-starch 2 eggs 4 oz. and nicely browned.) Then put it add one quart of sweet milk. using cold ounces of butter. and a teaspoonful of flavoring. water enough to make a stiff paste. gradually stir the custard over the (2. Apple — Creole Crotltes.) Roll the paste out. 85 the center into which put a teaspoonful of salt and four (2.) Either serve them hot in the cups. and fire until it is just ready to boil.) Put the chicken into the dish. . set puddings about half an hour. Soup. the little CHAPTER VII. SEVENTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. (3. three ounces of cornstarch. bake it about an hour in a moderate oven until tlie crust is nicely browned. 3 oz. CORN-STARCH PUDDINGS. (4. sugar milk Flavoring 1 qt. Wrexham. Tlien serve it. and set them in a dripping pan the pan in a moderate oven and bake into cups. Fish Croquettes. 18 cents. line the edges of a baking dish half way down with a strip of the paste. orna- menting and leaving some holes in the top for the steam to escape. it a little. fit on it a cover of the paste.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. until they are firm. pour over it the gravy. - 4" -------Total (1. a custard by mixing together two eggs. Sausages. (3. ) Mix with the finger tips. INGREDIENTS. half full of water. 2 " - 8 - " 1 cent. four ounces of sugar.

fire M IG cents. soup beef of tomatoes 1 lb.) slices. ------------2 --------2 -_-__-.) Put these ingredients in alternate layers in an earthen crock or jar. put on the cover. pour in cold water enough to fill the jar. then stir in a pint of boiling water. FISH CROQUETTES. adding ery. houquet of parsley and herbs. nutmeg. and bake it in a moderate oven five hours. 1 lb. fish }i lb.) (2. (4. 2 turnips 2 carrots 10 cents.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.) Mix together a teaspoonful of sugar.) fish from skin and Mix together over one ounce each of butter and flour until they bubble.) it in small dice. (5. - - flour and seasonings 1 - 2 - Total (1.) Cut the meat in thin slices. lard 1 oz.) Put the fish into this sauce. lean qt. Remove the houquet before serving the soup. and a saltspoonful of pepper. season with a teaspoonful the fire and quarter of a saltspoonful each of pepper and (3. (2. cold boUed 8 cents. which con- tains all the nutriment of the articles composing it. Free one pound of cold boiled bones. cement it with a thick paste made of flour and water. stir it over the until it begins to thicken. INGREDIENTS. Make (3. -2 -_-. the usual an ounce of to it cel- in a saucer a tablespoonful of salt. and chop " " " " ^ . 86 WREXHAM SOUP. Total Pare the vegetables and cut them in thick (1.---3 ---------INGREDIENTS. butter legg - 8 2 - Bread crumbs. onions Celery and parsley Seasonings and herbs 2 2 23 cents. so that no steam can escape. and then pour it out about of salt. 3^ qt.

(8. and pat them lightly into shape. or division of it.) Out the croquette paste a tablespoonful of cold water. prick them with a fork and put them into a deep saucepan. cover the saucepan the sausage. clove. roll them over. for half an hour. 3 " 1 qt. sausages tomatoes Seasonings 1 qt. -------5 12 cents. and a quarter wide and two inches long. 18 cents. toss them upon the sifted crumbs. 1 lb. Total on a damp cloth. drop them into smoking hot fat.) Wipe a pound of sausages Break up a bulb of garlic. put them into the saucepan with (1.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. so as not to Dip them off lay them the crumbs.) Wet the hands with cold quettes in little rolls like corks. and serve them hot. 87 an inch and a half thick on an oiled dish.fry them golden brown. 1 cent.) wash into the beaten egg quickly. . bruise it and add it to the of salt. and beat up an egg with (5. (4.. ^ cents. roll them again in the ci'umbs and on a clean dish. (3. and a saltspoonful of pepper.) simmer the sausages gently be ready to serve. INGREDIENTS. from the heat to cool and stiffen. CREOLE SAUSAGES. water. lay them on brown paper a moment to free them from grease.) Set it away Dust the table thickly with sifted bread crumbs. they will then ^ APPLE QROUTES. INGREDIENTS.) Peel and slice a can of that vegetable. and quarter of (4. apples Stale bread Sugar and spice ^ Total ----- 10 cents. in strips an inch (7. or use half a (2.) When all the croquettes are shaped. select a small sausages. and form the cro(6. quart of fresh tomatoes.) Season them with a teaspoonful closely.

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT HOOK. and serve them cither hot or ajiple. soup moat and bono Imtter Carrot.) Out as riirc. cjiArrnu ETOnTII LESSON OF viii. put tliuni.) Peel the vegetables.) a saltspoonful of and add it soup. pepper. look. 14 conts. 1 lb.) the usual houquct. about hour. cut in lialvcs and core a quart of apples. cut them in dice half an incii s({uare. Cabinet Puditituj. Put the soup meat over the fire in two ({uarts of cold water and bring it slowly to a boil. colory Seasonings fi 2 1 oz. (3. turnip. — Mutton RecUanffe. onion. Clam Frit tern. simmer it . dust them thickly with [)o\v(lored sugar. arrange them neatly on a dish. dust in half an them with powdered sugar. THE SECOND AJITISAN COURSE. " " cent. BRUNO ISE SOUP. - - - 5 1 Total conts. many small pieces of stale bread as there are pieces of (2. which will bo in a moderate oven. 88 (1. strain the Ijroth into season with a h^vcl desertsi)oonful of salt. ----- INGREDIENTS. put them over the fire to brown with the ounce of butter.) Lay a i)iece of apple on each piece of bread.) Make (4. Take the meat from the with the vegetables. and bake them When they are done. to the vegetables. (2. (3. skimming it clear. DruiioisG Soup.) cold. arrange them on a dripping pan. put a little sjiice on eacli. a teaspoonful of powdered sugar. and a rpiarter of (1.

remove the meat and bouquet. CLAM FRITTERS. tliem from grease.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. stir into it one ounce of flour.) the clams them it. ])rown. INGREDIENTS. (G. and stir until the sauce begins to cleave away from the sides of the saucepan. fry dropping fat. - - Total Chop (1. (5. first on one side. and one gill of boiling water. beat up an Qgg with a tablespoonful of cold water. 1 Qg^ flour. them golden them a moment on brown paper.) . into 5 Put the clams mix. beat in the yolk of a raw Qg^. and fry them in smoking hot into the fat by the tablcspoonfnl . Add a saltspoonful of salt. fine. 1 lb. '* 3 " 18 cents. and then serve the soup hot. and pour out the sauce on a dish. and serve them hot. Total (1. 89 until the meat and vegetables are tender. drain to free MUTTON RECHA UFFE. seasonings - " " 1 cent.) When all the slices of mutton have been covered with the sauce. butter 4 10 cents. (4.) Spread the slices of cold mutton with this sauce. (3. and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper.) Make a batter as di- rected for Parsnip Fritters on page 51. -----mGREDIENTS. and then on the other.) Make a sauce as follows: fry one ounce of chopped onion pale yellow in one ounce of butter. 1 bunch of clams Materials for batter Lard for frying - - - - - 10 cents. 18 cents. onion. laying the side first siiread on the dish.) Slice 3 2 the cold meat. 2 " " lard Bread crumbs. (2. cold mutton 1 oz. and then covering the other wi-th the sauce.) Oil the bottom of a shallow dish. (2.

(8.) Slice tlie bread. and stir into the sauce half a teaspoonful of corn starch dissolved it come to a boil. first in Lightly bread the ment on brown paper them with a few sprigs to free them from fat. and pour over them a custard made as directed on page 72. in the crumbs. finally.) pudding mould. the bread and servo of parsley to garnish the dish. and a couple of tablespoonfuls of currant jelly over the fire in half a pint of boiling water. (2.) Set the mould containing the pudding in a saucepan half full of boiling water. — Jelly Sauce. - _ 3" 20 cents.) slices by dipping them beaten egg.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. wash tliem In the colander with plenty of cold water. 3 cents. milk - Currant jelly 4 eggs 3 oz. cover the Meantime saucepan and let the pudding steam an hour. the in then crumbs. (4.) Wlien all the slices are breaded. . INGREDIENTS.) Butter a plain clean towel. make the sauce as follows. CABINET PUDDING WITH JELLY SAUCE. put the bread and currants into it in alternate layers. fry them in smoking Lay them for a mohot fat until they are golden brown. table thickly with sifted (7. be ready for use. (1. sugar - - - - - - 4 " " 4 3 " " 3 ------. Total Pick over the currants very carefully. Stale bread lb. dried currants X 1 pt. and dry them on a (3. Let . Melt one ounce of sugar. and. 90 Dust the bread crumbs. in lialf a and then it will cup of cold water. - .

— Beef and Vegetables. and other the ordinary dinner of the satisfies of equal cost. which com- bines the soup and the bouilU. and then put in the beef and turn it in a . POT-AU-FEU. small white tuniips 1 " onions Celery and jiarsley Leek. --------4" --------5" ------------ 3 lbs.) Choose a tender piece of the round of beef. or boiled beef. French Pancahes. herbs. and vegetables. CIIAPTEK 91 IX. put the drippings into the bottom of a saucepan to heat. NINTH LESSON OF THE SECOND ARTISAN COURSE.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. that constitute people. bind well together with tape or narrow strips of cloth. and the greatest care should be given to its cooking. (1. amber-colored soup of delicious flavor. When it is finished and served it gives a clear. for carefully prepared nutriment. drippings 30 cents. rump 4 carrots 1 qt. it yields a larger amount of the appetite better than almost any It should be made of perfectly meat and vegetables. INGREDIENTS. the popular dish of France. Pot-au-Feu. beef - - - - - - - - is " 5 " " 2 1 cent. and an inviting dish of brown Jo^^^7/^ garnished with fresh-col- fresh ored vegetables. to keep it it compact shape. and seasonings 1 oz. Total Pot-au-Feu 3 50 cents. Devilled Crabs. when Its excellence it is disli French cannot be too highly esteemed.

) all these ingredients in cold water until wanted. and one sprig each of thyme and marabout nutil it is of a quarts of boiling water. or rXGREDIENTS. At the end of three hours. " . add the vegetables to the soup. and make a iouquet of the celery. ten pep- boil it gently until If crusts. (2. scrape and quarter tlie carrots. (6. and serveboth dishes hot. 6 crabs Butter.) Meantime. season per corns. slice some stale stamp it in rounds Avitli an apple-corer.) Take off the back shells whole. three bay-leaves.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and set the saucepan where it will simmer gently. parsley. peel tlie onions and the turnips. strain the soujd into the tureen. Take them up with a skimmer. and arrange the vegetables around it. throwing in a wineglassful of cold water every fifteen minutes until it is clear. lay (4.) Add four and a teaspoonful of salt. a handful at a time. are make them as follows. and boil them rapidly until they are red. heavy in proportion to their size. bread. Then simmer it gently for three hours.) . bread crumbs. desired for the soup. (3.5 20 cents. take out the bouquet. joram. then take them out and cool them a little. (5.) and salt. and seasonings Total - - 15 cents. and put them in the soup tureen. stick ten whole cloves in one onion. or croutons. plunge them head first into a large pot two thirds full of well salted boiling water. the vegetables are tender. cut it in small dice. put the meat on a platter. DEVILLED CRABS. so as to avoid cooling the broth too rapidly. about fifteen minutes. and fry them golden brown in smoking hot fat. and a it lump with a tablespoonful of of loaf-sugar. and (1. leek. Choose live crabs. which should not be larger than the onions.) When the vegetables are tender. 92 uniform brown color. lay them on brown paper for a moment to free tliem from grease. (2. remove tlio scum as fast as it rises.

and brown them quickly in a hot oven.) a froth. The for directions for this dish are included in the receipt Pot-au-Feu. ) Butter six tin pieplates. BEEF AND VEGETABLES. pick out over the all 93 the meat and mix it ounce of butter... with an bread soaked in cold water and dot them over with bits of butter. and stir it quickly into the above named mixture. dust the to23 other. Serve them on a napkin with a few sprigs of parsley or slices of lemon as a garnish. - butter Flour and jeUy Total 2 cents. and bake the pancakes brown in a quick oven.) As soon as this forcemeat is hot fill the shells with it. a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. two wrung dry in a clean towel.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. the yolks to a cream and the whites to (1.) Stir the milk into these ingredients. dust them with bread crumbs. (2. put the batter quickly upon the buttered plates.) Dust them with powdered sugar. (6.) Sift two ounces of flour with a teaspoonful of baking powder. (4. arrange them on a pan. (5. lay them one over the tween. and add the yolks to the butter and sugar. with the Avhites of the eggs.) Beat the eggs separately. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream. and as much cayenne as can be taken up on the jDoint of a small penknife blade. (3. 2 *• - milk granulated sugar y^ pt.-. FRENCH PANCAKES. 2 ------. a level saltspoonful of pepper. a eggs - oz. 2 2 4 5 " " " " 15 cents. wash them thorouglily. slices of fire in a saucepan. (3. .-. with a little jelly be- with sugar and servo them hot. a level teaspoonful each of dry mustard and salt. INGREDIENTS.

boil two ounces of well-washed rice in boiling water and salt. (5. and fry it one ounce of butter. and add them to the tomatoes. tomatoes 1 oz. onion. level saltspoonful of pepper. ------INGREDIENTS. 94 CHAPTER X. Salmi of DucTc. Baroness Pudding. Total broAvn " " 1'" Onion. - - - - Slice one onion.) 5 cents. for fifteen minutes. (2. with a houquet made of one sprig each of parsley. drain it and keep it a little Avarm until wanted. until the grains are soft but not broken. TENTH LESSOR OF THE SECOI^D AllTISAJT COUKSE. " 1 12 cents. Peel and slice one carrot and one turnip and to the tomatoes.) Add two quarts and simmer slowly for two hours. CREOLE SOUP. one blade of mace and six whole cloves. Boiled Hay 'with Piqiiante Sauce.) Meantime. thyme and marjoram.) Wash one quart of break tliem in the hand. butter 2 a " rice 2 1 carrot 1 turnip - 1 cent. rub them through a sieve of boiling water with a wooden spoon. (4. and serve . 1 qt. quite thick add to it. two bay-leaves. (6. parsley and seasonings (1. season them with a level tablespoonful of salt soup is and half a put the rice into it hot. it a simmer it little If the boiling water or broth.) When the vegetables are tender.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. in (3. Creole Sotij).) add them put it in a sancepan.

) Then take it carefully out of the water in which the it fish. are and in the late winter. and the young fisJi are delicate and tender. capers and vinegar - - 2 5 - Total '< " 33 cents. one lemon sliced. quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. — Piquante Sauce. a houquet of herbs. because the real merits of the fish are comparatively unknown.. In cool weather the fisli improves by being hung a day after it is caught. which are used in the same way. put it into enough cold water to covei. and stir them until the vinegar evaporates. 3 lb. was boiled. Skate. pickle. it.. of salt. and a gill of vinegar. the skin should be removed either before or after cooking.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. RAY WITH PIQUANTE SAUCE. while the fish is cooking. Ray - butter ^ -----. Herbs and seasonings Onion.) Wash the side. (2. Both . the fish after cleaning sauce as directed in the next paragraph. and boil gently for fifteen minutes.) Make the (1. then add one ounce each of butter and flour. with two tablespoonfuls of salt. capers. as enne as can be taken up on tlie much caypoint of a small penknife- . remove the skin witliout breaking pour the sauce over it and serve it hot. The fish should be broad and thick.it. a teaspoonful pickle. 1 oz. put them over the fire with a gill of vinegar. The Ray and similar fish. with firm fiesh. may often be found at large fish markets at a very reasonable price. skate and ray are very wliolesome. Chop fine a tablespoonful each of and onion. INGREDIENTS. (3. and creamy under upper side is rather dark. The fins and liver are the best parts. bring slowly to a boil. one onion peeled and stuck with ten cloves.2" - cents. and the fish served with a sharp sauce. If 95 canned tomatoes and broth are used for will be more expensive than when made BOILED this soup it as above.

1 - - - - - " 5 - 2" Total 2 " 1 cent. yC bliide. raisins G suet 4 granulated sugar pint of milk 4 2 Total " '' " " 18centw. SALMI OF DUCK.(> a large |>ul .COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. }4 lb. garnish croutons. INGREDIENTS. and brown them in a (5. iis for fricassee. 35 cents. dust it thickly with iloni. add the onions to it.uul luilf to II boil ii i)iiit and pour it of boiling wiiter. a cents. Cut the bread a level salt- and in let it sim- heart-sha])ed on a baking pan. . put it into II saucepan with the butter. ])ut it in(. for one hour.) Shred the suet and chop it fine. bread crumbs. remove the pieces. and serve it with the it hot.) Seed and chop the raisins. tic the ]»mlding up m it. .) When the duck is done. bouquet. -----. BARONESS PUDDING. J<^ stale bread crumbs - . and a (4. INGllEDIENTS. lay (3. butter Stale broad Flour. (3. and fry it brown ((uickly.) Meantime. with enough boiling water to cover. (4. raisins. K" X" 6 oz.) Mix together the suet. half hou(pict of herbs.) VVlien the duck is brown. lay tlieni (juick oven.) Wring a pudding clotii out of boiling watei". Pluck the duck. cut it in joints. (1.-. pour the sahni ujion a dish. wild duck 1 jjiut button onions 1 oz. (2.) salt. or browned bread. peel a pint of button onions and tlieni in cold water. four ounces of sugar. let the sauco over the come lisli. and seasonings 25 cents.) season with a level tablespoonful of s})oonful mer (^f pep2:)er. . (1. and the milk. (2.

Cut the meat from a neck dice. and cut them into half inch dice. season with a tablespoonful of salt. INGREDIENTS. of boiling water. (3.) Peel the carrot and turnip. —Kroincskies. (2. neck of mutton - peurl barley - - - - 18 cents. 3 ** . add the barley and vegetables. - Total (1. TUB SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. (4. — Fricddeh. (5. MUTTON BROTH.) Icent. ^ << 24 cents. plain. barley. Fish Pie. and vegei.ISECOND ARTISAN COURSE. Mutton Broth. Ajrple Charlotte. and boil it it slowly and steadily for three hours. peel the onion and stick it with ten cloves. and bring it slowly to a boil. sauce may be served with CHAPTER ELEVEOTH 97 LESSOI^ OF it if desired. skim- ming it carefully until clear. and quarter of a saitspoonful of pepper. of mutton into two-inch put both into a sauce-pan with three quarts of cold water. " 1 . break the bones. dust gar and serve it Any pudding (5.) When the soup is quite clear. 3 lbs.) Meantime pick over and wash the barley and lay it in hot water. or until the barley is the bones and bouquet. Turn it mid boil it steadily for four hours.ables in the soup tureen. XI.) thickly with powdered su- it hot. soft.) Take out . and make the \xm^\ boiiqicct. - - - 1^^»'^«<^ 1 turnip 1 onion and seasonings - . }>i lb. and serve the meat. out of the cloth.

add to it an ounce of flour.) (2. ) Put in the cold meat. (5. (4. season well with pepper. make a top crust of the potatoes. When (4.) of When the onion is yellow.) the potatoes are done. lard Materials for batter 1 egg - - - - ---- 2 " 2 " 3 " 5 *' 1 cent. mash them through a colander. cold. and stir until the sauce is ready to boil. (3. butter Onion.3" --------1 INGREDIENTS. ------------. 98 FISH PIE. cut it in strips an inch Avide and two oiled platter. INGREDIENTS.) (2.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. 23 cents.) Put the fish and bread in alternate layers in a pudding dish. salt of chopped lay parsley.) (5. salted water. potatoes cent. " 3 bread 1 qt. aud tbe yolk of one raw egg. then until the mixture is scalding hot. (1.) it .) Cut the cold meat in small dice. aud stir until smooth. stir add half a pint of boiling water. meat 10 cents.) Boil the potatoes in boiling water and in cold water. 2 lbs. and season them with salt and pepjier. in cold it (3. 1 " codfish stale 15 cents. Seasonings 22 cents. towel. and let it cool. cold 1 oz. a teaspoonful of salt.) and wring it dry in a clean and a tablespoon ful Cut the fish in small slices and Soak the bread it salt. KROMESKIES. and bake the pie an hour in a moderate oven. When it is Turn it out on an an inch thick. 1 lb. spreading (G. or cold gravy. Total (1. peel them. Total Chop one onion and fry it pale yellow in one ounce butter. flour and seasoning 1^ lb. a tablespoonful of chopped parsley.

---3" - - Total - - - - - _4<' 17 cents. lift them out with a fork and drop them into smoking hot fat to fry golden brown. bread 1 lemon 2 oz. Mix and in cold water. core. pile them nicely on a clean napkin. and season it with one teaspoonful of salt. (3. and spread them with butter. roll them again in cracker dust. apples 1 lb.-.. sausage meat 4 " stale bread 2 eggs 4 oz. PLAIN. and serve them as directed in the last receipt.3" - . and slice . APPLE CHARLOTTE.) Dip the hands in cold water. and serva them hot. and quarter of a saltspoonful each of pepper and nutmeg. without washing off the crumbs.) towel.) Butter a plain pudding-mould rather thickly. shape the fricadels in the form of lit(1. butter 4 '* sugar 5 cents. lay them on brown paper for a mo- them from grease. 1 qt. (1. INGREDIENTS. drop them into the Plain Frying Batter. (2. and wring it dry in a with the sausage meat. (7.) tle corks. 4 oz. (3.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. 12 cents. garnish them with sprigs of parsley. 99 them inches long. dip them in beaten Qgg. lard - -•- - Bread crumbs and seasonings - - - - Total Soak the bread 2" 2 " 2 " . - - - - -3" 2" ---. - -- - - -. pat into even shapes with a knife blade dipped in cold water. to free FRICADELS. 3 cents. -----INGREDIENTS. it roll them in sifted bread crumbs.) Cut to fit the mould enough slices of bread to half fiJl it. (2. and one Qgg.) When ment they are done.) Pare. given on page 51.

) Cover the top of the mould sugar and to prevent burning. Sago Pudding. it up. CHAPTER XII. fish 10 cents. (5.) Fill the mould witli alternate and butter and apple. add the fish.. 100 the apples. and rub it through a sieve with a wooden spoon. butter 4 Flour and seasonings 1 Total (i. 3 qts. PUREE OF INGREDIENTS.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. . take remove the skin and bones. Boil a pound " " " 31 cents. sprinkling plenty of lemon between. ing water and salt. milk - - 16 3 oz. (6. season the soup with a level tablespoonful of salt. TWELFTH LESSON OF THE SECOl^D ARTISAN COUItSE. mix together over the fire two ounces each of butter and flour until they bubble. (2. Baked Cod Curried Trijje. witli Cream Sauce. turn it out on a dish. sprinkle it well with powdered sugar and kiycrs of bread serve it hot. JLiicc of (-i.) While it is cooling. cool it. and gradually add to them two quarts of boiling milk. of any fish in season in plenty of boil- when it is done so that it flakes.) Grate the yellow rind and squeeze the the lemon. and quarter of a saltspounful each of })epper and mitniL'g. and serve it at once. Puree of Fish. bake it three quarters of an hour. -- 1 lb.) FISH.

(2. then lay it on a clean. cold boiled cod 16 cents. 101 BAKED COD WITH CREAM SAUCE. then stir in gradually half a pint of boiling milk. INGREDIENTS. dust it thickly with bread crumbs. and hot. Total Make (1. 1 oz. and seafire son the sauce with a teaspoonful of salt and half a saltspoonful each of white pepper and grated nutmeg. mUk - - - . stirring occasionally to pre- . and brown (3.) teaspoonful of salt. (2. quarter of a level teaspoonful of pepper. and one tablespoonful all of vinegar. lay on a baking dish which can be sent with a little salt and pepper. butter ----- Bread crumbs and seasonings }4 pt. 2 lbs. frying them in two ounces of drippings. pour the it to the table. (4. tripo 16 cents. curry. CURRIED TRIPE. add the tripe and cook together for fifteen minutes. Thoroughly wash two pounds of tripe. (3. season with one (1. dry cloth to drain.) Cut the tripe in pieces two inches square. season it sauce over it. drippings.) Reskin and bones from the fish. and boil it fast for twenty minutes. and seasonings Total - ------ 5 " 5 " 26 cents.SECOND ARTISAN COURSE. INGREDIENTS.) Set the dish containing oven. put it into boiling water and boil it until tender. 3 lbs. }4 lb. parboil it in well salted water. serve it it it it in a quick on a clean dish. dot over with some small bits of butter. about one hour. Cream Sauce by a 2 stirring together over the one ounce each of butter and llour until they bubble. .) " 2 2 " «' 22 cents. the tear move it in flakes with two forks.) Slice two onions.) Then put half a pound of rice into the same water. rice Onions.

) Stir in of Vanilla or Lemon bits of butter. .) done add a tableDrain the rice into out into a dish. - 3 cents. milk. dot the it one hour in be used either hot or cold. Total Soak the sago in water or milk over night. --------4" --_--. 18 cents. Beat together (3. and a teaspoonful pudding over with a moderate oven. if that is impossible. is (6. SAGO PUDDING.) hour. put it over the fire in enough water or milk to cover it. shake it the tripe stir it well. 102 vent burning. until it is soft. It flavoring. or. When (5.) spoonful of curry and a colander. 4 " 1 cent.) eggs. and serve it with the tripe. sugar 6 eggs 1 pt. INGREDIENTS.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. which will be in about an (1.-6" ----- sago 6 oz. and bake may in the pudding-dish the sugar the sago. milk Butter and flavoring }i lt>. and (2.

FIRST LESSON OF THE PLAIN^ COOKS' COURSE. 103 PART UK CHAPTER I. In the Kew York Cooking School this course of repeated throughout the entire season. The kind of instruction given iu this course is a combin- ation of plain and middle class cookery.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. but do not wish to increase their expenses to any great extent. points not covered by the receipts proper being explained in notes appended to them. rephicing in the successive courses those wliich they have missed in the preceding ones. even though they wish to master it all. . lessons are so arranged that the entire course can be taken by pupils needing the full instruction. by pursuing this plan they are enabled to attend all the lessons. In this. introductory matter will be dispensed with. which affords a fair variety for the use of persons who appreciate nice dishes. for for girls at service to it is some- attend the entire times inconvenient course in successive lessons. of lessons In the is desigued to serve a double re- New York Cooking School it has been found to meet the wants of young housewives beginning married life in comfortable or moderate circumstances. This course quirement. extra lessons being given to girls needing any training which it lessons is does not include. and to serve for domestics wishing to take service in families where the table The is nice without being too expensive. as in the Second Artisan Course. or certain lessons can be chosen to cover specific points.

104 STOCK. while that which it retains makes it available for highly seasoned meat croquettes. soaking it for one hour in cold or luke-warm water. Pot liquor in which meat has been boiled makes good soup ing it is stock if frcsb. or macaroni. (1. which are found in every kitchen. it the fat removed. INGREDIENTS. as they are apt to sour. Experiments made by European chemists show that tlie flavor and nutriment of soup can be heightened by chopping the meat fine. understand the principles of soup-making to a sufficient extent to enable them to prepare a good variety at any season of the year. bones and remains of poultry and game.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. rice. This method is admirable where all the nutritive elements of the meat are desired for the use of invalids or convalescents. 4 lbs. vinaigrettes and similar entrees. but vegetables should not be put into it. provid- and from any fresh vegetables. under such treatment enough of the nourishment contained in the meat passes into the broth.) Where there is a family of any size it is well to keep a clean pot or saucepan on the back of the stove to receive all the clean scraps of meat. 30 cents. Total Good soup can be made from the . If pupils will closely follow the directions here given. scraps of meat. piece. it has been needs to have all skimmed clear at its first boiling. or cereals. and then boiling it in tlie same water. The proper proportions for soup are one pound of tliey cannot fail to . to be seasoned and finished by the addition of cereals. -5" ---1 - - cent. but under ordinary circumstances it is far better to cut the meat from the bones in a solid and make the soup according to the directions given below. soup meat and bones Soup vegetables - - - - - - Seasonings - - 24 cents. dumplings.

(2. unless .— The flavor of soup stock may be varied by using in it a little ham. and the bones to be well chopped and broken up. carefully skimmed and being maintained rises.) When the soup is to be boiled six hours. the stock is then ready to heat and use for soup or gravy.) When stock has been darkened and clouded by careless skimming and fast boiliug. two quarts of cold water must be allowed to every pound of meat. sausage. then remove it to the back of the fire where it will not boil. Two gills of soup are usually allowed for each person at table when it is served as the first part of the dinner. add to it one carrot and one turnip pared. and put over the fire in cold water. follow it. mixing first with a gill of cold water. sugar or a calf's foot. and all the fat removed and saved to clarify for drippings. Herbs in the whole spices should be used in seasoning. until it looks clear. 105 meat and bone to one and a half quarts of cold water. this will be reduced to one quart in boiling. from one side. Flavoring. it can be clarified by adding to it one egg and the shell. All delicate flavoi-s and sprig. for rapid and irregular boiling clouds and darkens the stock as much as imStock should never be allowed to cool perfect skimming. (3. as they can be easily be strained out. and* wine should bo added to son}) just before serving it. and let it stand until the white and* shell of the egg have collected the small particles clouding jar. Thickening and Coloring Soup. the meat to be left whole. then strain it once or twice.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. in the stock-pot. and meats are to Care should be taken that the stock-pot boils slowly and constantly. anchovy. the soup. one onion stuck with three cloves. as time permits. and stirring it briskly into the soup until it boils. then with a gill of boiling soup. as often as at a steady boiling point from two to six hours. one hour before the stock is done. being brought slowly to a any scum boil. and a bouquet of sweet herbs. but should be strained into an earthen and left standing to cool uncovered.

but sometimes a deep dish containing poached eggs. a quarter of make a ounces of macaroni. beans or lentils. as all these give Caramel can be made as directed on page a bad flavor. through a piece of flannel or a napkin until it is bright and clear. The meal of peas and beans can be held in suspension by mixing together dry a tablespoonful of butter and flour. but avoid burnt flour. sago. 106 the contrary is expressly directed in the receipt. tapioca. use a teaspoonful of caramel. is sufficient to pearl barley. soup meat Soup vegetables 7 eggs Seasonings - 4 24 cents. Co7isomme is sent to the table clear. of which a scant teaspoonful will be about the proper quantity. one gill of wine is usually allowed to every three pints of soup. Two quart of thick soup. 87 cents. arrow root and potato flour are better than wheat flour for thickening soup.. of the Second Artisan Course. one for each person. and color it to a bright straws color with caramel. and stirring it into the soup. . with enough consomme to cover them. OR CONSOMMA INGREDIENTS. rice or oatmeal are usually al- lowed for each quart of stock. and onion. carrot. CLEAR SOUP.. If you wish to darken soup. - - - - - . accompanies it. 67. using at first a teaspoonful. vermicelli. then season it to taste with salt.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. use an egg. if this does not entirely clear it. Corn starch. This is made by straining two quarts of stock. which has been cooled and freed from fat.. as directed for clarifying soup in paragraph 3 of the preceding receipt.Total - -5" 7 _>i " cent. and a very little fine white pepper. say a quarter of a saltspoonfnl. because boiling would almost entirely evaporate them. Soups which precede a full dinner should be less rich than those which form the bulk of the meal. lbs. a pint of peas.

cut up the rest in small pieces. Then sprinkle into it a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. chop four ounces of onion. adding two and a Jialf quarts of water and the barley. and put these with the meat. 1 " &5 cents. and simmer it one hour. Put four ounces of barley to soak in cold Avater over (2. into a deep saucepan half full of boiling water. (4. Poached Eggs for Consomme'. and but not ten minutes be- of liot. 4 lbs. and half a gill of vinegar.) From four pounds of the neck of mutton. and set it on the back part of the lift them fire until the whites of the eggs are firm.) night. and make a stock as directed in the receipt for stock on page 104. . (1. INGREDIENTS. fore serving. slip them boiling off oval shape.) Cut ill dice a yellow turnip and a carrot. where they mast stand for rougli edges. and serve it. and boiling and skimming for two hours. seasoned with a teaspoonful of salt.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. carefully trim off the making each egg a regular the skimmer into a bowl water. then separately on a skimmer. season the broth with a teaspoonful of salt and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. neck of mutton pearl barley ------ 24 cents. cut the lean meat in dice half an inch square. X" 2 oz.) At the end of an hour and a half put the dice of meat into a saucepan with two ounces of butter. add the barley and the stock strained. and fry them brown. which should be very fresh. cover the saucepan. flour and seasonings Total - - - - - - - - 2 " " 1 cent. SCOTCH BROTH.— ^^'^^^ 107 the eggs. 3 " 4 butter Carrot and turnip Soup greens Onion. (3. and then stir in one ounce of flour.

vegetables and seasonings egg 1 The ^omviS. (3.) " 5 - ----- Total 24 cents. as for from con- fat. it (1. . sliced thin. and three ounces each of carrot. free following 24 cents. Vermi- of blanched as follows: put the paste into plenty of boiling water. with one tablespoonfnl of salt to each quart of water. tle practice. then drain it. and stringbeans.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. in an ounce of butter before being put into the soup. and boil until tender.5 made clear. The stock for this soup is made as for To every quart of stock is added one oimce (1. pared. cabbage. How to difficult are Shred Vegetables.) (2.) It should be placed cold water until required for use. ----- INGREDIENTS. white and yellow turnips. and finely added to it. of the stock fox Jtilienne (2. soup meat Soup vegetables and seasonings Egg and Vermicelli - ~ - - 34 cents. 4 lbs. below we give plain directions for shredding the Sometimes the vegetables are slightly browned vegetables. -----INGREDIENTS.) Tlie soup is gently simmered until the vegetables are tender. celli. 10 " cent. upon the table in little. uvcn piles. and then it is served.) - the Soup is is 1 3. quarter of an ounce of celery leaves. vegetables.— 'rh is process matter. the seasoning is tested. cents. 5 " conso^nme. enough in the hot soup long to heat thoroughly before serving. shredded. JULIENNE SOUP. half an ounce of onion. 108 VERMICELLI SOUP. soup meat --------- Soup.) and is not really a only requires a steady hand. - - ----- Total (1. and a The laid lit- vegetables should be washed. and put it in (3. 4 lbs.) When the stock proper color.

16 '* 2 " 1 cent. ) - - - - Wash and trim one quart of green . tender. ------ Flour and seasonings Total (1. the vegetables. and the knuckles nearest the ends of the fingers projecting outward. flat against the lower the point of the knife resting upon the and the broadest part of the blade being held over (4.. while boiling press under the water with a wooden spoon.) The blade should then be brought down upon the vegetables.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. put it in- to a saucepan holding at least three quarts of boiling water. (2. 109 about half an inch high. ) They should be pressed firmly down on the table with the tips of the fingers of the left hand. milk 1 oz. (2. and rub it through a sieve with a wooden spoon. 2 qts. the tips being bent in toward the palm of the hand. (3. spinach 1 qt.he an ounce of butter and an ounce and a half of flour un- they bubble. butter ------------. the knuckles of the The knife should then be taken in the blade laid left. SPINACH SOUR INGREDIENTS. Mix together over t.) right hand. to prevent fire til burning. moved back fingers should be gradually. first putting into the kettle a gill it is it of cold water. so as to afford a surface for the knife to cut into the vee-eta- and the knuckles being always kept bent outward to bles. then gradually add the boiling milk. 24 cents. until it is and boil it rapidly with which will be in from three salt.) While the spinach is boiling prepare the soup as follows: put the milk over the fire to boil. protect the tips of the fingers. according to the age of the spinach. 5 cents. cutting off thin slivers at each table. run plenty of cold water over it from the faucet. As soon as it is tender drain it in a colander. The stroke. season . chop it fine. spinach. and three tablespoonfuls of tlie cover off. to seven minutes.

) this broth is the spinach to color (4. one turnip. of settling stir into it . tli'^ni well. and simmer three hours.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. set in auotlier half full of boiling hot without boiling. When (3. half an inch square. Total Use a pint of dried peas for every four quarts of Put them in six quarts of cold water. this will prevent settling. pass the soup through a sieve with the aid of a po- tato-masher. The onion is sometimes sliced and fried in an ounce of butter in the bottom of the saucepan before the peas are put into it. table. (2. return it to the fire.) If it is it prepared before the saucepan containing water to keep it done stir into it enough a delicate green. no with a level tiiblcspoonful of salt. - Soup vegetables and seasonings Bones and stale bread - - - 5 5 " " 15 cents. meantime cut some dice of stale bread. brown tliem in the oven or fry them. half a saltspoonfiil of white pepper and quarter of a saltspoonfiil of grated nutit meg. 1 pt. and serve it it is needed at the it of hot. dried peas 5 cents. and if it shows any sign one tablespoonful each of butter and flour mixed together dry. and one carrot peeled. or bit of ham. after washing ?oup. one onion stuck with ten cloves. PEA SOUP. INGREDIENTS. bring them slowly to a boil.) bone. about two slices. add a bone.) Then take out the (1. stirring occasionally to prevent burning. and put them in the bottom of the soup tureen in which the pea soup is served.

BOILED COD WITH HOLLANDAISE SAUCE. it - 2 5 34 cents. put is over - " " " is properly cooked in sea not always obtainable. some which are exceed- of ingly delicate. Fish boiled a la Hollandaise water. well salt- generally used. and stir constantly until it bubbles. it is Fisii try. one at a time. it will be done when the fins can easily be pulled out.) While the fish is boiling. (2. in worth all flavors of the dikerent varieties. stir in the yolks of three eggs. CmVPTER Ill 11. remove the sauce from the fire.— I^i^t one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour in a saucepan over the fire. take the fish up on a napkin. buttor Flour and seasonings ' 3 - - - - Total ed water is ing the fish. is the trouble that can be taken in preparing it for Care should be taken to have the utensils used the table. and in this connwliere it is so excellent and so abundant. INGREDIENTS. but as sea water 24 cents. 5 lbs. make the sauce according to the receipt given below. - (1. it slowly to a boil. (4. then add gradually two gills of boiling water.) After the sauce is made. (3.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE.) tlie fire After thoroughly wash- in cold water. an itiiportant article of diet. and send it to the table witli the sauce in a sauce boat. order to preserve the ill cooking it perfectly clean. SECOND LESSON" OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE.) Set the pot off the fire. well salted. garnish it with some sprigs of parsley. and let the fish stand in the water in which it was boiled until and bring it is wanted for use. add one saltspoonful of dry inus- . codfish 3 eggs 1 oz. Hollandaise Sauce.

made as di- lay rected below.5 Total " " 25 cents. tiird. INGREDIENTS.) of of salt. INGREDIENTS. broad and seasonings Materials for sauce 4 oz. put it into the onion with two tablesjioonfuls of chopped parsley. seasoning and lard Materials for sauce - - - - - - - - - - 8 . ually.) Chop the following ingredients. and mix them with a saltspoonful of salt. one teaspooiiful (4. quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper. 32 and 33. fine. graddrop by drop. and one .) Put four ounces of stale bread to soak insufficient (1. 113 one tablospoonful of vinegar and three of oil. Choose a fresh bass. bass - ------ Vegetables. — Caper Butter. (2. and wipe it with a clean. Egg. 3 lbs. - 5 5 " " 3*' 58 cents.) cold water to cover Fry one ounce it. BAKED BASS. and either hot or cold. Chop one tablespoonful of capers very rub them through a sieve with a wooden spoon. them on a dish on a little Caper Butter. it FILET OF SOLE WITH CAPER BUTTER. chopped onion in one ounce of butter until it is light brown. one teaspoonful of chopped capers or pickles. Prepare and cook the Jilets as directed on pp. stirring constantly till smooth. (3. Serve with the fish. salt pork Total - - 45 cents. dry cloth. bread. garnish them serve them with a few whole capers. Put a layer of this butter on a dish and serve the fish on it. wash it well.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and an ounce of cold butter. stuff it with tiie following forcemeat. then wring the bread dry in a clean towel. one ounce of salt pork chopped fine. flounder 12 cents. quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. A 2 lb.

have it cleaned and split down the back. a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. you prepare a hot while is done. and quarter of a saltspoonfnl of pepper.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. and bake it in a moderate oven for half an hour. and one fourth that quantity of pepper. weighing about three (2. put it on a dish to keep sauce by straining the drippings in the pan. ) Lay a little butter to prevent sticking.) AVhen it occasionally with a little butter. spread over i fc it some maitre Mahre d' hotel butter. or melted butter. it in a dripping pan on one ounce of carrot and one ounce of onion sliced. Ishad 1 oz.) pounds. Total Choose a medium-sized shad. d'Hofel Butter. and serve the rest with it in a bowl.) Then stuff the fish with it. and spread it over the broiled shad. WorcesterPour a shire sauce. season it with a saltspoonf ul of salt. after laying it on a hot dish. and chopped parsley. and lay of the saucepan. a teaspoonful of lemon juice. - Lemon and seasonings 3 " 30 cents. rubbed with spoonful of pepper. or stock. This butter is excel- . and adding to them one tablespoonful each of Walnut catsup. INGREDIENTS. (3. an hour for Turn it occasionally made of one tablespoonful of salad oil. lent for any kind of broiled fish. one ounce of butter. - butter --------3" 25 cents. marinade or in a more.) Cover tlie fish with slices of salt pork. chopped capers. BROILED SHAD WITH MAITRE D' HOTEL BUTTER. doing the inside first. and quarter of a salton a gridiron. (1. basting it (7. broil it slowly.) one of vinegar. one bay leaf and two sprigs of parsley. stir this 113 forcemeat until it is scalding hot. (6. little of this sauce in the bottom of the dish under the fish. a saltspoonf ul of salt. gill of broth or hot water.— Mix together cold. when it will cleave from the bottom and sides (5. and.

and quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg. . -----INGREDIENTS. when the sauce has boiled up well. veal and cook gently for thirty or forty minutes is tender. vegetables and seasonings Total Cut three pounds (1. 114 CHAPTER III. sautes. butter Floui'. stirring occasionally. as represent certain methods that may be applied to other inlesson gredients. a few mushrooms fire. ragouts. BLANQUETTE OF VEAL. one teaspoon- ful of salt. 3 lbs. until they are smooth. THIRD LESSOR OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. season with a little more salt and pepper if they are required. The pupils should pay special attention to the two last dishes of the lesson. stir into it with an eggwhip the yolks of two raw eggs. a houquet of sweet herbs. This devoted to such entrees. then adding a pint and a half of the broth gradually. of the breast of veal in pieces two inches square. cur- and broils. and an onion stuck with three cloves: bring slowly to a boil. of butter and one ounce of flour. ries. half a carrot scraped.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. or side-dishes. put in the meat and cook for five minutes. put tliem in enough cold water to cover tliem. a turnip peeled. until the returning the broth to the and washing the meat in cold water. is and may be considered typical dishes indicating the proper preparation of an extended range of stews. then drain it. with one saltspoonful of white pepper.) Meantime make a white sauce by stirring together over the fire one ounce . for they are seldom well done. breast of veal 2 eggs 1 oz. skim carefully until no more scum rises.) - - 24 cents. even by professed cooks. 2 " 2 " 5 *' 33 cents. (2.

and (1.) Pour enough boiling water on the chicken to cover it. 5 " - 5 " 46 cents.) Peel and slice an onion. Unless you have broken the gall. season it with a level teaspoonfiil of salt. on page 72. and brown it completely. loosen the heart. (5. cover it closely. wipe it with a damp towel and see that it is properly drawn by slitting the skin at the back of the neck. with the entrails. ) Serve the curry on a platter and the rice on a separate dish. CHICKEN CURRY. and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. onion.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. or until the chicken is tender. ----- INGREDIENTS. (6. liver and lungs by introducing the fore- and then draw them. from the vent. (4. and brown it slightly in the bottom of the saucepan with an ounce of butter. add a bouquet of herbs. pluck it. 115 improvement to tlie hlanquette\ or it may be served with two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley sprinkled are a great over after it it is put on a hot platter. or the entrails in drawing tlie bird. in joints.) Choose a tender fowl. time boil the rice as directed in the receipt for Mulliga- tawny Soup. (3. remove the pin-feathers. do not icash it. or a few drops of alcohol poured on a plate and lighted. or enclose the curry in a border of rice. put in the chicken. for this greatly impairs the flavor. 3 lbs. singe the bird over the flame of an alcohol lamp.) When the chicken is nearly done add half an ounce of curry powder to it. (7. chicken - yi " rice Curry. carefully taking out the crop without tearing the skin of the breast. and partly destroys the nourishing qualities of the flesh. and let it finish cooking. flour and seasonings Total ----- 36 cents. Cut up the fowl as for a fricassee. butter.) Meanfinger at the neck. and simmer it for an hour. . (2.) Then stir in an ounce of flour and brown tliat.

In the absence of such a utensil an ordinary frying-pan may . and make a houquct. --------i" 3 Total To be ally the able to saute)% or mark of a " 15 cents.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. or slices of bread fried or browned addition of a may be placed around it.) of them.) that brown. chopped parsley may bo sprinkled over it.) " 33 cents. (]. which the cook grasps. round of boef --4" 24 cents. carrot. to be rare williout being raw. flour and seasonings - - Total Cut the beef in pieces brown in the butter. and serve the rmjoiU. with a level tablespoon- ful of salt. see if A high enough. SAUTt. seasoning is tal)lespoonful of saltspoonful of a to cover (5. and simmer Then take out and i:)epper. (3. 2 oz. MUTTON CHOPS. aud giving the pan a quick toss. and Stir in Out a carrot in pieces an inch square. turns the pieces of meat over. (2. (4." a mutton chop is usu- good cook. 116 RAGOUT OF BEEF. 13 cents. 1 lb. mutton chops butter Seasonings 1 oz. INGREDIENTS. The smite- pan has two handles. '* jumii. and to have all its juices preserved. because the meat requires to be very quickly and delicately cooked. All ragouts are little nice table sauce often liighteiis tlie tlieir flavor agreeably. mid fry it two ounces of flour. butter Onions. or some heart-shaped croidons. brown stews. 2 lbs. in the oven. INGREDIENTS. the till the houquet. rather highly seasoned. quarter enough boiling water beef tlic is (|uite tender.) peel three medium-sized onions Add these ingredients to the beef.) let 5 two inches square.

until it is done to the required degree. but it must be smooth and clean. spread it over the sieak after you have laid it on a pressure is hot dish. upon it. put the gridiron over a hot fire. How Meat should be Broiled. Do not cut into it to ascertain this. toss them quickly over the fire for about ten minutes. 2 lbs. as both of these processes are useful only to extract and waste those precious juices which contain nearly all the nourishing properties of the meat. heat it over the fire. sirloin steak 30 cents. if removed it is done tips of the fingers it springs up again after the remains heavy and solid it is well done. and garnish cresses. or season a little butter. salt and serve them hot. rub the bars of the gridiron smooth. that the meat should be exposed to a clear. and the meat must be turned over without piercing it with a fork. parsley. put the chops into it. if it approached slowly to a poor fire.— In broiling all meats remember that the surface should not be cut or broken any more than is absolutely necessary. in order to confine all its juices. broil the steak. To broil a beefsteak nicely. -----INGREDIENTS. and then grease them slightly. BROILED STEAK. turning it frequently so that it cannot burn. or water salt. Put an ounce of butter into a clean pan. quick fire. and spread it with with pepper and . season them with and pepper. while it is being broiled prepare some maitre dliotel butter according to the receipt given on page 33. but test it by pressing the is cooked. 117 be used. if the fire is not clear throw a handful of salt into it to clear it. garnished with parsley or cresses. lay on a sirloin steak weighing about two pounds. close enough to sear the surface without burning. if it with sliced lemon.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. it it rare. or seasoned before it is it will be comparatively dry and tasteless.

four allspice. six cloves. The large meat dishes which compose this lesson are in- tended to replace the too frequent roast-beef and boiled leg of mutton of ordinary family dinners. 4 }i lbs. add to these one level tablespoonful of salt. always keeping it in a cool place.) Dauhe a piece of round of beef. this can be . and about half an inch square. slice one lemon. of which we all grow woefully tired. by inserting.) Lay the beef in a deep bowl con- two inches apart. rOUKTH LESSOK OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. pieces of larding pork. 118 CHAPTER IV. if in season. for the beef.5" -------5" ___--. and then tlirusting the pork in with the fingers. and use the 7narmade for beef. with the grain. 5" 3 " 5 " 5 '* 1 pt. two blades of mace. (2. *' 48 cents. one saltspoonful of pepper. two ounces of turnip and one ounce of leek. and which many mistresses would be glad to vary with new and equally substantial joints.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. one inch of cinnamon. ents thoroughly. chop a quarter of an ounce each of parsley and celery. cut as long as tlie meat is thick. or pickle.) Prepare a viarinade. setting the strips of pork about stick done either with a large larding needle. as follows: cut in slices four ounces each of carrot and onion. JL LA MODE BEEF. (1. game or poultry. spice. button onions 1 " string beans Carrots and turnips - - - Lemon. seasonings Oil and vinegar Total - - - - - - - 76 cents. INGREDIENTS. a pint Mix all these ingrediof vinegar and one pint of water. one gill of oil. round of beef fat pork -----. (3. called a somUy or by first making a hole with the carving-knife steel. herbs.

) When it has been cooking three hours. then tender. saltspoonful of sugar. cover it with hot stock or water. in separate all each containing a teaspoonful of vessels. cut about four ounces each of carrots and tur- nips in the shape of olives. herbs.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. put these vegetables on the fire in boiling water. (5. by cutting the 3 " 3 3 " " 1 cent. taking care to leave three outer sides meat whole. pare two dozen button onions.) Then put it into a taiuiiig the deep pot just large enough to hold it. keep them and pour all it it up and has been cooked. salt pork Bread.) warm. 3 lbs. drain the vegetables and sauce. together with the marinade. turning it over every day. of scraps of vegetables. flesh of the in a three-pound breast upper side free from the breast bones. or pickle. and simmer it gently four hours. thick enough to coat the them let scald up in the over the beef. given in the previous paragraph.and cut one pint of string beans in pieces one inch long. (3. lay it on the vegetables. -----------INGREDIENTS.) Prepare a bed and pork in the dripping so as to hold the stuffing. boil in cold water to keep their color until ready to use them. Stuff the veal with forcemeat ) made as below. and let lay them and stir it When (6.) 34 centB. (4. of the (2. put four ounces of salt pork cut in thin slices on the top. sew it up. and let it stand from two to ten days in a cool place. pan. season it with a teaspoon- . X breast of veal lb. Make what is called a pocket (1. and turn it occasionally over the fire until it is nicely browned. STUFFED. onion. butter 1 - - - - eg^ Total of veal. take is strain the sauce in wdiicli over the until fire it is spoon. BREAST OF VEAL. it the meat salt till and half a tender. and seasonings 1 oz. 119 marinade. 33 cents.

together witli the vegetables. shoulder of mutton Carrots and turnips Bread. and add it to the butter and onion. breaking it off midway between the first and second joints.) Wring the bread fry it yellow in one ounce of butter.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. (3. and seasoning properfill of salt. and bread in cold water. serve it with a brown gravy made by rubbing the dripping in the pan. 120 and a quarter of a saltsi)ooiif iil of i)epi)or.) Stuff the shoulder with the following forcemeat. and truss it so as to (1. cut out the first (i. adding a little boiling water. quarter of a saltspoonf ul each of pepper and powdered thyme.) (Jliop one ounce of onion. butter - 2 eggs - 4 - 3 " " " -^ 35 cents. and stir till scalding hot.'gctaljlc. 3 1 oz. season with one saltspoonful of salt. ly. dry in a towel.i duck's bill. 4 lbs. CANTON OF LAMB. cut out the shoulder blade.) Trim off the end of tlie .) (2.) length of the fore leg bone and half the second. on the table with the inner part up. turn it over. then remove from the fire. onion. then with a sharp. till tliorouglily done. or mixed spices. is a very good stuffing for poultry or lamb. Forcemeat for Eoast Steep four ounces of Veal— (i. Total Jjay the shoulder. through a sieve. thin-bladed knife. stir in the yolk Thid of one raw iigg. and stuff the breast of veal with it. and bake it in a moderate oven about one hour. or cut through the bone to look like . f<jw scni})s of v«. which should come from the market uncut. INGREDIENTS. and beins' careful not to mandc the meat. (3. 'Mn\ bake it in a (juick skin. (2. and boil it to clean it thoroughly. sew it up.s and lierl)>s.) I'ut it into the dripjving pan on a look like a duck. and seasonings - - - - - - - - 24 cents.

- - - - - - - - - 10 " 3 '* 13 " |!1. ROAST HAM WITH MADEIRA SAUCE. the yolks of two raw eggs. changing the water once. put the shoulder blade.) M^hen ready to preceding receipt for Breast of Veal. and half a saltspoonful of pepper. it hot without drying. mix use.THE PLAIN COOKS' COVHSE. and if the odor which follows the cut is sweet the ham is good.) Scrape it well. while keep and dish. one level teaspoonful of and salt. in the tail of the Canton^ and serve it. Carrots and turnips Onions. (S.) Meantime and turnips. cut- them only till tender and laying them in coM water balls.34 cents. 7 lbs. stuck (1. . . and bring them to a boil in three different waters. ham - One gill Madeira Wine Total . and trim otf any ragged parts. Sage and Onion Forcemeat. add them to the bread. in to the ('(nrhn k done take it {(^.s them ting in little 131 (5. bread. soak eight ounces of stale bread in tepid watcj'. which must be scra}>ed after it is boiled. boiling well-salted boiling water. soak it in cold water for twenty -four hours. arrange them around the Canhni. uj) on a hot (T. heat the vegetables in the sauce. which will be in about half an hour. and have the broad end notched to resemble featlicrs. chop them with the sago leaves. ) Make the sauce as directed in the the sauce is made. put it in enough cold water to cover it. with one ounce of butter. serve the Oauton. oven about tvvent}' minutes to each pound.) . (2.— Pare six ounces of onion. Choose a ham by running a tliin-bladed knife close to the bone. when the onions are tender. with an onion vvei<'hinir about one ounce. and beasouings - - - 98 cents.) When keep their color. INGREDIENTS. ju-cpare the garnish bypai'ing the carml. and wring it dry in a towel: scald ten sage leaves.

Vegetable Gamisll. the seasoning must depend on the flavor' when Madeira wine. send it to the table with if a gravy boat full of Madeira sauce. 122 and a bonqtief^ and boil it four liours.— (l-) P^^'c some large carrots and white turni])S. brown gravy. \z. then strain through a is thick enough to fine sieve. Nothing ini>- is more disagreeable tiian to find that a nice look- dish of poultry or i^amc lacks delicacv or cleanliuess of . (4. and a vegetable garnisb nuide as below. FIFTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS^ COURSE. and of the gravy. hot.) Heat them in the sauce. and cloves of garlic. seasoned with salt and pepper to taste. (3.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. if she can draw her birds Without mangling or soil- ing them. CHAPTER Y. and its preparation is a good test of a cook's skill. remove the skin. P^^t over the fire in a thick saucepan one pint of any rich. witli six cloves. and then put them into cold water to retain their color until wanted. and serve hot. i>erve it either hot or cold. with a little of the sauce poured over them. and then arrange them around the ham in alternate groups. boil them in well salted boiling water. she proves that she has pursued her ai-t with taste and discretion. Poultry constitutes the substantial dish of most of the winter Sunday dinners of American families in moderate circumstances. — Madeira Sauce.) Then take it np carefully. cut tliem in the shape of olives. scalding hot fidd quarter of a pint of stir till the sauce coat the spoon.) 'I'akG it from the fire and let it cool in the pot-li(|nor. dnstitAvith sifted bread or cracker crumbs^ and brown it in thaoven. and then prepare them so as to combine an inviting appearance with an enjoyable flavoi*.

(G. ful of flour . prevent bruising it. browning it on all sides by turning it about in the pan.) Baste it frequently. of the wings back under the shoulders. Salad sauce X lb. Lay them first close to laying a a thin slice of pork over the breast to baste it until sufficient drip})ings run from the bird. Total Bend the " a " 2egg-s (1.) When the sauce is ready. trussing and roasting will aj>2)ly to other poultry and game.) breast as possible. singe and draw a duck as directed in the re- Chicken Curry on page 115. so it will the iiistriictions IIOAST DUCK WITH WATERCRESSES. 3 duck water cresses lb. 123 bo well for pupikto iittcud carefully to given in this lesson. butter Bread. but do not run a fork into it or ijoih ivill waste its juices . and put it in a hot oven.) When it has cooked about fifteen minutes to each pound. legs as far up toward the (3. » - - - loz. then bring the legs the vent. use a clean towel to turn it with. when it is half done season it with two teaspoonfuls of salt and one saltspoonful of powdered herbs.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. directions for drawing. se- cure the thigh bones in that position by a trussing cord or skewer. dish it and keep it hot while you make a gravy by adding half a pint of water to salt the drippings in the pan. (4. and thickening taking it if off a little of the su- desired with a teaspoon- mixed with two tablespoonfuls of cold water.) stuff Twist the tipii the bird with according to receipt given below. first perfluous fat. 1 pt. (7. (2.) towel over it to Pound down and fasten the breast bone down. Ilie same strain this sauce and serve it in a sauce-boat. ceipt for forcemeat made 3 66 cents. Ihivor. herbs and seasonings - - - - 4 3 " *' '• Pluck.) 5 5" ------- cheese 45 cents. ----- INGREDIENTS. (5.

bird on a disli with a if no sauce boi'der to be used. Canvas Back Ducks Prepare a pair of ducks as directed in above not stuff them. or use instead.00 - % Lemon and 3 cents. cheese.) .5 - Flour. - - - - - - 2 - l " " cent.) 38 cents. 00 cents. 1 qt.) INGREDIENTS. add the bread. ROAST WILD DUCKS. to the table. but should be ovl?r the breasts tie recei})t. a saltspoonful of pepper.ast j)re- (2. and send it slightly and a oil. season with a saltspoonful of powdered hei'bs. (2. })Mriug ro. 124 or when the duck is done. ForcemeatforEoast Poultry. mix well and use. ducks are usually served underdone. rather drv Fry one ounce of onion in one ounce of butter to a light yellow color. slices of rare. 3 lb. 1 oz. seasoning. or grate eight ounces of good. seasoniugs - _ - 3 - '' $1. and wring dry in a clean towel. Prepare a fowl in accordance with receipt for duck on page 123.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.06 Totid do pork or bacon. and two whole eggs. roast fifteen minutes to the pound. meat or cheese. but do not stulf it.) Meantime chop fine four it ounce? each of fresh veal and pork. a teaspoonful of salt. salt pork 1 - - - - $1. BOILED FOWL WITH OYSTER SAUCE. (3.— (1-) Hteep eight ounces of stale bread in cold water for live minutes. fowl oysters butter 3. of dressed with a tablespoonful of vinegar. eight ounces good sausage meat. two of little pepper and salt. pair Mallard ducks lb. hiy the is watercresses. - - and parsley Total (1. serve with gravy Wild in a boat and quarters of lemon on the same dish. -------INGREDIENTS.

drain them. fifteen nearly done. directed below. pepper. quarter of a salt-spoonful of white pepper.) Season the flesh lightly with salt. -------INGREDIENTS. keeping it entire. lay it skin down upon the table. saving the water and set them away from until you are ready to use them.) When it own by bringing liquor. (3. and with a sharp knife make a clean cut down the length of the back. (3. and the same of grated nutmeg. vskim until clear. 2 pigeons sausage meat and seasoning 3i lb. put in the oysters and a sauce as thick a^^ serve.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. leaving the wing and thigh bones in the flesh.) . (4. Egg Total Ho cents. and being carefnl not to cut through the skin. with a teaspoonful of chopped parsley. stuff it with a piece of highly-seasoned sausage meat mixed with one e^g. and roll the flesh over the forcemeat to imitate the (2. stir one ounce of wash them fire it — Blanch one quart of oysters tiiem to a boil in their the minutes to a make an oyster sauce as on the same dish with the fowl.) Now proceed to cut all the flesh from the carcass of the bird. 3 " 3 '' 30 cents. tjiblespoonfal of salt to eacli quart of water.) WHien it is all removed.) Next cut towards and disjoint the thighs. pound. liquor. BONED BIRDS. Oyster Sauce. and boil slowly until tender. Put into it })oiling water CBoiigh to cover 125 with a level it. (5. and take out the wing and thigh bones without cutting thron gh the skin! (6. and serve sprinkling about in cold butter and one ounce of flour together over the fire until they form a smooth paste. to make melted butter. (1. and a little spice. strain into them enough of the oyster Fu^uor and that in which the chicken was boiled. Lay a bird on its breast on the table.) Without cutting through the skin cut towards and disjoint the wings. season witb a teaspoonful of salt.

CHICKEN FRICASSEE. put the chicken into it to heat.) maybe tied tightly in a clean cloth. and seasonings - - - 38 cents.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. Dress a chicken and cut it in joints as directed in Put it (2.) scum add a desertspoonful of salt. half a dozen peppercorns. BROILED BIRDS. 2 pigeons Pluck and Avipe clean with a damp cloth.) Strain out the vegetables.. (3. 1 o7. and then Half a can of mushrooms greatly dish it on a hot platter. fowl Flour. hour. stirring the sauce with an egg-whip until it is quite smooth. (4. and served Or it may be baked in a pie cold with a garnish of jelly. 5 " 3 butter Total - - - - - - " 45 cents. and served hot or cold. over the fire in boiling water enough to cover it. boiled two hours with herbs and spices.) Broil the birds over a moderate fire for twenty minutes. on pnge 115. INGREDIENTS. is and the chicken until mer slowlv then take it up to keep hot while the sauce is made. 25 cents.) Simabout an tender. mix one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour together over the lire until they become a smooth paste. half a carrot peeled. add a pint and a half of the broth. vegetables. -------INGREDIENTS. (2.) Split down the back and carefully remove the entrails without breaking them. . lay each on a slice of toast. 126 form of the bird. skim it as (1. then gradually often as any rises. 3 lb. and serve (1. an onion peeled and stuck with ten cloves and a bouquet (3. season it to taste with salt and pepper. It (7. and set the broth to boil.) them with maitre dliotel butter or watercresses. improves the flavor of x\q fricamee. .) the receipt for Chicken Curry.

potatoes 1 oz. ^ 4. SIXTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' to stiuly the inpupils taking this lesson are desired VIIL.) Dip the hamts in them upon thccnicki-olls like corks.) Fry them golden into shape.) them Roll them first in m moment smoking hot fat. COURSE.^ iqt potatoes Bait - - - - - Total - _ 3 cents. mix (2. toes in little the cnw^ker dust. on page 40. boiled potatoes. CTIAPTEII VT. 3 cents. before practising these tisan Course. but do not wash off brown (6. beginning on The receipts. of the First Artroductory matter of Chapter page 45. and the beaten egg. and beat up an i^... INGREDrENTS. A. seasonings and lard Total (1.... 4. <and toss salt to taste. - 1 ----" - - .a little pde on a a in them from grease. *ic^n*s. er dust then roll (5. the cracker dust. and then serve them to free . lay them on brown papoi. (4. butter 3 eggs - - ' - - - - ~ 3 5 ' Bread crumbs. 1 qt. Boil according to receipt given POTATO CROQUETTES INGREDIENTS.) Mash them through on p^ge 46.127 THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. turamg dip them into them lightly under the palm of the hand. with a tablespoonful of bread crnmbs. quarter of a saltspoouful each of white and thickly with (3. cent..) Dust the table pepper and nutmeg. . form the potawater.g% cold water. and season them witli with tiiem the butter and two yolks.) Peel and ----- boil tlic potatoes " '* according to 1^*=^«^- i-cceipt given a fine colander.

stir all these ingredients over the Then fill tire until the potato skins they are scalding bot. season them with pepper. KENTUCKY POTATOES. and serve them on a bot dish covered with a napkin. ------------INGREDIENTS. finish baking them in the oven. V>utter Seasonings and mint Total " '6 ' 30 cents. Put a saucepan two thirds full of water over the fire boil. Wash (1. or use them to garnish roast chicken or some meat dish. (3. oz. slice them. adding a tablespoonful of salt to every quart of (1. Potatoes.) to ------ 2 . salt and nutmeg. }4 peck of green peas 1 15 cents. never to cover a baked {>otato unless you want Observe to be it heavy and moist. potatoes cream Seasonings and butter }4 pt.) and seasonings - 12 cents. Serve them hot. STUFFED FOTATOES. put INGREDIENTS. " 10 2 Total " 15 cents.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. BOILED GREEN PEAS. the potatoes with a brush. 1 qt. butter. them in layers in a baking dish with a little cream. and bake oiUy until they Cut begin to soften. not more than them half an one end. hour. and two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese. the potatoes being laid on the napkin. Peel the potatoes. INGREDIENTS. press the potatoes gently in shape. one tcaspoonfnl of salt. 3 cents. scoop out the inside with a (2.) teaspoon into a saucepan containing two ounces of butter.) with the mixture. off one saltspoonful of white pepper. cheese. and kike them an hour in a quick oven. put on the ends. 128 napkin.

) Throw the boiling the peas into them only Then drain them. and 129 shell them. turuij)s 1 oz. and serve them in the sauce. and salt. STEWED TURNIPS WITH BECHAMEL SAUCE. 3 2 " " 7 cents. water.) Drain the turnips from the boiling water. half a pint of boiling water . Pare the turnips. water until and of the cold water in which the is to harden the surface sufficiently to prevent the escape of the coloring matter. cut them in half inch dice. pepper. season with a level teaspoonf ul of salt. and so to preserve the bright green hue of the vegetables.) Meantime make a chdinel sauce as follows: stir together over the fire one each of butter and flour until ^t^'- ounce they bubble.) the peas. butter Flour. The action water. and boiling wat6r boil them until they begin to grow soft (1. (2. gradually add and a gill of milk.) Five minutes before they are to be sent to the table they should be Avarmed quickly with a little butter. -------- - and se^^ouings - - - - Total 3 cents. and quarter of a saltspoonful ench of white pepper and nutmeg. of the salt in boiling. drain.) m \vith a tablespoonful of salt. INGREDIENTS. (4. peas are subsequently placed.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. and put them into cold wanted to prepare for tlie table. simmer them until tender. {%. put them into the sauce. Take the bruised or decayed pods from among wash the good ones in plenty of cold water. milk. (3. 1 qt. and boil until tender. (3. with two sprigs of green mint. or with any sauce which is desired to <lress them.

butter " Parmesan cheese Tomato sauce 1 - - - - - - Total (1. (1. 2 2 (3. 180 CHAFfEK Vn... put it cheese.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and serve it hot.) water. 1 oz. Boil the macaroni as directed.) (2. mncarori Scents. Boil the macaroni as jilready directed. Mak^. a!id meg. Tub pupil is referred to page 40 for directions for choos- ing and boiling macaroni.) " *' 5" 17 cents. MACARONI WITH PARMESAN CHEESE. INGREDIENTS. in alternate Parmesan cheese and Tomato Sance. to Sauce as directed on page 74. (2. brown a hot oven. )4 1 oz. Parmesan cheese - - - - 3 - Flour and seasonings Total 13 cents. mesan serve After draining the macaroni from the cold into the sauce with an ounce of grated Par- (3. 3^ lb.) Make a Toma- Put the macaroni in a baking dish which can be sent to the table. and then hot.) a white sance by stirring together over the fire one ounce each of butter and flour until they bubble.-. SEVENTH LESSON OP THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. -. " 2 . lb. adding half a pint of boiling water.) *' 1 cent. and seasoning with a level teaspoonful of quarter of a saltspoonful each of pepper and nut- salt. INGREDIENTS. layers with the it quickly in . stir it it until thorouglily heated. MACARONI i VITALIENNE. " I macaroni butter 8 cents.

THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. 8 eggs - i^oz. 4ind enough gravy to moisten it. (2. }4 macaroni lb. butter Toniato sauce Chicken or tongue 1 oz. put the butter into it.) Boil Finish the the mjw\*iroiii a^ alroad^' directed. omitting the as for the disli Pnrmesan cheese. 2 5 " 10 * • 25 cents. and pupils are referred to it for preliminary information. of the Several of P^irst tlie receipts given tJicrc are repeated ]iere.) {1. _-.ly with salt and pepper.-.) Make M Toniato Sauce accovdjng to the receipt on page 74. - - - cent. Heat a clean frying pan. and adding some cohl i:hicken or tongue €ufc in dice. INGREDIENTS. THE PLAIX OOOKs' EIOIITH LESSON OF Tfte pi-eparation of eggs is COl^R-Sr:. butter Seasonings - - - - - Total - - - - - - - B cents. SCRAMBLED EGGS. CHAPTER Vlll.ii MACARONI A LA MILANAISE. then tlte eggs. and tlie stir briskly until proper degree. r. . - - - - g cents. season light. IV. (3. broken into separate saucers.-------------INGREDIEATS. 1 1 - ----- •' 5 cents. Total - - - - - - . heginning On page ol. the eggs are cooked to Serve tiiom on a hot dish. all classes EGGS. quite Inllv treated in Chapter Artisan Course. account of their importance to POACHED on of cooks. preceding dish. See page 35 for receipt.

) cent. -------INOREDIETnTS. " . 4 " I ----- Total (1. fold it over and in their finish Jl as directed on page 06. (2. OYHTEB. ---------------INGREDIENTS. . HAM OMELETTE. Sen'e consistency. and finish as directed on page 36. Heat the omelette pan. 8 eggs Herbs. (2.5 Scents. put them in the middle of a plain omelette. and the liam. OMELETTE. drain them. theti the eggs broken separately. FINE HERBS OMELETTE. butter - - cents.) - quite fine. put in a bit of butter as large as a walnut. Break the eggs sepanitely. 132 BAKED EGGS.) When they just boil.) 3 centa cent. cent. a gill of oysters over the fire to come to a boil own liquor. ---------6 ----INGREDIENTS. 1 1" Seasonings Total 8 cents. --------IK (i RED TEXTS 3 eggs cooked ham Butter and seasonings oz. 7 cents. for omelette. - - - 3 cents. 8 cents.. COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. dot the surface with bits of buttei\ and bake the the required eggs until they are of them hot. ii - (!hop the ham - - - - 3 cents. 3 eggs Oystei-s Butter and seasonings ----- Put " 3 i Total (1. put them into a dish wliicli can be sent to the tabic. butter and seasonings Total -. season them lightly with pe[)per and ?alt. 6 eggs >2 oz.

(1.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSl!!. 3 eggs 3 cents.---- Preserves Butter ami sugar Total - - - - 1 cent. and so we refer the pupils to that part of the book for the directions.. This lesson is FRUIT CAKE. TENTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN roORS' COrRSli. put two tablespoonfuls of preserves into the middle. devoted to good.) aiul Chop fine a teaspoonful any green herbs made omelette each of parsley. and if pupils will take care to learn these receipts thoroughly. 3 "^ o ' " ' . This lesson is CHAPTER X. a repetition of the fourth lesson of the First Artisan Course. 5 «' . Make an CHAPTER NTXTTI LE-SSOX OF IX. INGRICDIENTS. 6 6 " flom* 2 " butter oz. - a cents. -----INGREDIENTvS. OMELETl'E WITH PRESER###BOT_TEXT###quot;ES. and mix them with an in seaison. and iinish it like the sweet omelette in the receipt on page 37.5 cents. hut rather plain cake and pastry. mushrooms. on page as directed 133 86. they will find but little difficulty in following out the more intricate methods of the next course. omelette as directed on jiage 36. given on page 37. sugar 5 eggs - - -.

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

1^4

% raisins
X " currants

-.--

2

oz. citi'on

3 cents.

-

lb.

'

-

-

-

-.g*-

-

-

-4"

TotaJ

(1.)

SCJtrents.

Set two ounces of butter near enough to

i\e fire

to

without becoming oily. (2.) Line a cjike pan
with buttered paper.
(3.) Seed the raisins, wash and dry
citron in small, thin slices.
and
cut
the
the currants,
(4.)
Beat the sugar and two of the eggs to a cream; add two
more eggs, and beat two minutes; then add the remaining
i^gg^ and beat two minutes more.
(5.) Sift in the flour
and beat the mixture smooth; then add the butter and
fruit, beat one minute, and put into (he pan.
Bake in a

grow

soft,

moderate oven for about half an houi-. l^e careful not to
burn the cake. Test it by running a clean Ijrooni straW
into it when it seems nearly done; if the straw eomeS out
elemi the eake

is

sufficiently baked.

POUND CAKE,

.---.-.
INGREDIENTS.

\/^

K
K

lb. flour

"

sugar

" butter
6 eggs

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 centSk
6 "
8 "

.

w

G

-

Total

LineaCak6 panwiih buttered

"

22 cents.

patper.
(2.) Put the
and one Q,gg into xi bowl and beat them with
the hand to a cream; then add the rest of tlie eggs, one at
ti time, beating the cake with the hand two minuter?
after
each Qgg IS added.
(3.) Flavor with twenty drops of Vanilla essence^
(4.) Sift in the flour, beat smooth, put into
the cake pan and bake about half an hour in a moderate
oven.
Test the Cake with a clean broom straw.
The practice of beating the cake with the hand is in Vogue
with many excelleUt pastry cooks; extreme cleanliness is
indispensable when this method is employed.
The above

(1.)

buttei\ sugar,

THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE,
receipt

is

that of one of

tlic

best chefs of

135

the

New York

Scliool of Cookery.

SPONGE CAKE,
INGKEDIENTS.
^' '"''•

--------5'<

fl'^"''

-

" sugar

Ceggs

Lemon

-

rind

2 cents.

.

*

--.-....
Total

(5

u

i

^ent

14 cents.

(1.) Line a cako pan with buttered
the yellow rind of half a lemon.
(3.)

paper.

(2.)

Grate

Put the sugar and
two eggs into a bowl, and beat them for two minutes; add
another Qgg and beat two minntes; then add three yolks
and beat three minutes. (4. ) Beat the whites of three egg^
to a stiff froth.

(5.)

Sift the flour into the cake,

mix

it

smooth, add the whites, pour the cake into the
buttered
pan, and bake it in a moderate oven for about half
an hour.
Test the cake with a clean broom straw.

CRANBERRY

PIE.

INGREDIENTS.

y^^^-^^^T
4

K
1

butter
Ih. sugar

oz.

--'.--...Qtt

^c6nts.

^

qt cranberries
Total

-

-

*

-

.
.

-

5

«c

lo

*'

35 cents.

(1.) Pick over the berries, wash them in cold water, s^t
them over the fire with enough cold water to cover them>
and simmer them gently for fifteen minutes; add the sugar
and simmer the berries until they are quite soft. Then nib
them through a sieve with a wooden spoon, and cool them.

Make

a plain paste as directed in the receipt for Apple Tarts, on page 63^ lino a pie plate with it,
building a
rim of paste around the edge; fill with cranberry
sauce,
(2.)

made

put some strips of paste across the top in
diamond-shaped figures, and bake in a moderate oven.
as above,

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

i;3t>

APPLE

PIE.
INGREDIENTS.

^

flour

lb.

-------

2 cents.
8 "
5 "

4 oz. butter
1 qt.

-_._------3"

apples

-

-

}^ lb. sugar

IjBmon

]

Total

(1.) Thc^

-

-

-

-

should be pared,

apples

cent.

10 cents.

,

cored,

ai)d

sliced;

sometimes they are stewed until tender with the sugar, and
the yellow rind of half a lemon; and sometimes are simply
sliced thin and baked in the pie.
(2.) Line a pie plate
with pastry made as directed on page 03, put the api)les into
pastry, and bake it brown in a moderate
it, cover it with
oven.
Just before it is done dust it with powdered sugar,
and return it to the oven for five minutes to glaze the surface.

CREAM MERINGUE

PIE.

INGREDIENTS.

lb. flour

1 oz.

-

-

-

-

1

a

''

cents.

butter
eggs
3^' pt. milk

Total

(1.)

"

1

2 " sugar

(->

cent.

--------4
---------6"

corn-starch

Mix together

in

-----

4

"

3

"

18 cents.

a sauccp.ln one ounce

of corn-

starch, two ounces of sugar, the yolks of two eggs, a tea-

spoonful of Vanilla essence, and about half a pint of tnilk;

put them over the fire, and stir them constantly until they
have boiled jd)out five minutes. (2.) Line a pie-plate with
pastry made as directed on page (53, fill it with the ci-eam,
made as above, bake it in a moderate oven. (3.) Meanlime beat the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth, aiid mix
gently into it three ounces of powdered sugar.
(4.) When
the pie is done, spread the merwfiue on it, and set it in a

moderate oven only long enough to just color the

mav

be used either

warm

or cold.

top.

It

THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE.

137

CHAPTP:?t XL
ELETEXTII LESSONT OF THE PLAIJST COOKS' COUESE.
This

lesson treats of the dislies suitable for sick persons

which are generally ordered by physicians in illness; and if
studied in connection with Chapter XII, of the First Artisan Course, beginning on page 58, will give a fair variety
It must always be
of wholesome and nourisliing dishes.
kind should be
of
any
remembered that no food or drink
given in cases of dangerous illness, except under the direction of the doctor in attendance upon the patient.

MUTTON BROTH.

-----

INGREDIENTS.
2

lbs.

neck of mntton

12 cents.

2 oz. pearl barley

3

""

Seasonings

1

cent.

-

-----

Total

15 cents.

Pick over the barley, wash it well in cold water, and
let it soak in hot water until wanted.
(2.) Cut the meat
from a lean neck of mutton, in small dice, put it over the
fire in two quarts of cold water, and bring it slowly to a
(1.)

boil,

skimming

it

carefully until

it is

quite clear. (2.)

Add

with a teaspoonful of salt,
and let it simmer gently for two hours, until the barley is
soft.
(3.) If the invalid is not strong enough to eat the
the barley to the broth, season

meat, remove

it

it

Follow the ad'

before serving the broth.

vice of the physician

upon

this point,

and

in regard to sea^

soning the broth.

CHICKEN BROTH.
INGREDIENTS.
S

lbs.

chicken

-

^38

-

2 oz. rice and seasonings

Total

-

-

-

-

-

3

cents.

"

40 cents.

<:00K1NG SCHOOL TEXT BOOK,

138

T^

Dress a chicken as directed for fricasMet on page
84, carefully removing every particle of fat; put it over
the fire in three quarts of cold water and bring slowly
Pick over and
to a boil, skimming it until it is clear.
(1.)

wash

\\Q-

add
and simmer

rice in cold Avater,

spoonful of

salt,

Serve the chicken in the broth
the doctor to eat a

it

to the broth wn'th a tea-

it

slowly for two hours.

the patient

if

little of it.

(2.)

Make

directed above, omitting the rice, strain

two hours, and

sei-ve it

U^c the directions

with

Graham

it

is

allowed by

the broth as

at the

end of

crackers.

BEEF TEA.
for making Beef Tea, given on page

60.

BEEFSTEAK

JUICE.

INGREDIENTS.
tender
Toast
1

11).

sij'loin

steak

.

.

-

-

14 cents.
1 cent.

Total

!•'>

cente?.

on a
hot platter, cut it in pieces, press out the juice, and pour
Be
it over a slice of toast, made as directed on jxige 58.
Broil a juicy ?teak as directed on page 117; lay

it

very careful not to season the steak, except with a little
salt, or use butter with i\Q^ toast, unless both tu'i^ allowed

by the physician.

OATMEAL PORRIDGE.

------INGREDIENTS.

X

oatmeal
Sugar, milk, and
lb.

Scents.

3

salt

-----

Total

'*

Scents.

Stir the oatmeal into one quart of boiling water, with

teaspoonful of salt; let

it

boil gently

one

one hour, stirring

it

Use it cither hot or cold
occasionally to prevent burning.
with a little sugar and milk, if permitted by the physician.

Total smooth with Grate one ounce of sweet chocolate. 14 oz.------' milk '^ Sugar and lemon Total " 1^ cei^ts. ^ cents. Chocolate V milk sugar ^ pt.) taste.) Drain it. Scents. This the reasons. moss . CHAPTER XIL TWELFTH LESSON OF THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. strain it through a fine sieve. nnderstand common cook properly for children. then and serve jt it. and After boiling. and simmer it gently (3. in a mould. we can only in this place we cannot discuss . put it over the for one hour. 1 oz. INGREDIENTS. 1 oz. Serve it with milk and sugar. * ^^•^"*- - Scents. vided for the adults of the family. cold milk to cover it. INGREDIENTS. It is the served be custom in tbis country for tlie little ones to how to at the same table and from the same dishes that are pro- is all wrong. which should be adding the chocolate all stir the beverage over the fire until sweeten the grains are dissolved in the milk. to Soak the moss over night in enough cold water fire with enough well cover it. ICELAND MOSS BLANC-MANGE. Very few cooks. (2.THE rLAIN COOKS' VOURSE. Iceland 1 qt. 'even among professionals. of the half pint of milk.) Sweeten it to with the yellow rind of half a lemon. 139 CHOCOLATE. mix it stir it with the rest three tablespoonfuls of cohl milk. and cool it (1. but.

little butter. according to variety and ripeness. given on page IIT.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. " 5 Scents. Carefully study the directions for broiling meat. mutton chops butter and salt 14 oz. even-sized potatoes. S cents. wash them well with plenty of cold water. sugar Spice and butter Total Wash 2 - - - - - - cents. eaten with a little butter and salt. season them lightly with w. and if They should be they are covered they will be watei-y. 1 qt. the fruit. properly cooked. " 1 cent. INGREDIENTS. and should never be covered. BAKED APPLES. if they stand after they are done they will become heavy. 13 cents. first trimming off all superfluous fat. BAKED POTATOES. - - - 12 cents. and serve them Avitli baked potatoes. remove the cores without breaking? the . they are done wlien tliey yield easily to pressure between They should be served the moment they are the fingers. Butter and salt - - - - - - - Total 3 cents. pepper and salt. --------. Put them on a hot dish. 140 give directions for prepjiring a few simple and palatable dishes which are perfectly wholesome for children. and a brush or cloth. - - - - - - - - ----- Total 1 cent. . and put them into a quick oven to bake: they will cook in from twenty to thirty-five minutes. Choose smooth.5 -------INGREDIENTS. INGREDIENTS. and cook the chops in accordance with them. potatoes 1 qt. apples 3 oz. BROILED CHOPS. 1 lb.

them over the with the sugar and enough cold water to cover them. >^ lb. them set in 141 a pan just large enough to hold the cores with sugar. and stew them gently only until tender. ---. gether the eggs and sugar. tapioca sugar 3 eggs V4 pts. ------. and put a very little spice and a small bit of butter on each apple. add the cold milk and the tapioca.) When the tapioca is beat to- soft. and serve them either hot or cold. and bake the pudding about half an hour in a moderate oven. 5 " 3 *' 13 cents.) Pare. put it into pleuty of boiling water containing a ta- fire and boil it rapidly until tender. APPLES AND RICE. but do not let them break.) let it prevent burning. wash it in cold water. and bake the a])ples until tender in them. and core the apples. - - 3 cents.) Shake the rice out on a dish. Total Put the tapioca over the fire in a pint of milk. • . and apples. and heat and soften gradually. into the dish in which they are to go to the table. put half a cup of hot water in the pan. rice - - - 3< " sugar Total (1. halve.) Meantime pick over the rice. handling it lightly and quickly. (2. {"2. INGREDIENTS.THE PLAIN COOKS' COURSE. put 5 cents. pour the juice in the pan over them. (3. stirring it often enough to (1. Use either hot or cold.----------- 1 qt. form it into' a mound with a couple of forks. milk 4 oz. lay the blespoonful of salt.-----------INGREDIENTS. TAPIOCA PUDDING. fill Do not break them in changing them a moderate oven. 3 '* o (> *' 15 cents. api)les >^ lb.

. 5" 8 " 5 " 23 cents.-. and stew them until tender. of a quart of milk.-INGREDIENTS. set in a receipt on i)age 72. 5 cents. .. then put them in a pudding dish without breaking. five eggs.. fill the centers with sugar. set the a baking-^])an half full of water. . apples sugar 1 qt. 1 qt.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and bake hour* Serve it either hot or cold at the pudding-dish in about half an it noon dinner. 142 apples on it and pour over them the syrup in which they were cooked^ APPLE CUSTARDS. Total them pan with a very little water. and a very little nutmeg. milk 5 eggs 6 oz. four ounces of sugar. and pour over them a custard made according to the Pare and core six apples.

lirst reading of the bills of fare may seem to indicate the necessity for the possession of considerable culinary skill on the part of our pupils. they may begin this course of lessons with perfect confidence in their ability to surmount its seeming difficulties. We believe that no explanation many is needed of the foreign Americans are beginning to comprehend the economical and gastronomical advantages of European Cookery. FIRST LESSON OP THE LADIES' COURSE. and it has been our satisfaction to make most of them plain to our pupils.THE LADIES' COURSE. There have been too many mysteries attached to culinary proliciency. because in most instances tlicy character of of the dishes. we have not attempted to Anglicize the names. Tins courso of lessons lias been Ciiref ally adapted for the use of those ladies who desire to combine some of the elegancies of artistic cookei-y with those ecunomical interThe ests which it is the duty of every housewife to study. PART 143 IV. but four years' experience lias proven that any intelligent hidy who understands the simpler dishes of the preceding courses. . because are indicative of the peculiarities of the dif 'erent dishes. need not hesitate to attempt the making of those included in the present one. if they will only take pains to master the instruction we have already given in this book. CHAPTER I.

) of a delicate straw color. cover it.) that Make it is 31 cents.) ing to Make it - - - - - - . INGREDIENTS. {2. Apple Meringues. or in half inch dice. 144 Consomme a. (2. 3 lbs. la Royale. Put this custard into a buttered.) Dress a carp. or into a moderate oven. - 45 cents.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. half a pint of consom- and quarter of a saltspoonful each of salt and gi-ited nutmeg. taking care clear and bright. until the custard is firm. Salade a la Rom aim. 40 cents. Baked Carp loith Spanish Sauce. shallow mould. in strips an inch long and quarter of an inch wide. cut it in \o\^ diamoiids. add- a teasi)oonful of sugar. 8 " 1 cent. a consomme as directed on page lOG. set the mould into a pan containing warm water enough to reach half way up its sides. INGREDIENTS. lightly seasoned. BAKED CARP WITH SPANISH SAUCE. caip - - Materials for Bailee Total (1. and using good stock in- stead of water to boil the vegetables in. and serve it in the hot consomme. 15 - - " 60 cents. a Spanish Sauce as directed on page 71. 'tne. Lamh Bechamel Sauce* Cauliflower au gratuu Roast Beef. --------------- Consomme 8 eggs - Seasonings Total (1. Breast of itntli CONSOMME A LA BO YALE. Make a Royale and very paste as follows: beat together the yolks of eight eggs. . and put it over a very slow tire. Then cool it. turn it from the mould. Potatoes a la Royale.

Pare some large. lay it iii a dripping pan on a few scraps of vegetables. Total Bone a breast of lamb by cutting from the under (2. pour over it a gill of stock or (3. season it with a teaspoouful of salt and half a saltspoonful of pepper. ----- INGEEDIENTS. the bones of the lamb and a few scraps of soup vegetables.) Strain a little of gravy. it into a saucepan with the butter. and bake it half an hour. and send it to the table with more of the Sauce in a sauce boat. sound potatoes.) Put it up compactly and secure it with a stout cord. lay the fish in it witho-ut breaking. brown them in the oven. POTATOES A LA ROYALE. and simmer Cover it it gently for one hour. the pork sliced and laid in the bottom of the pan. breast of lamb 1^" pork 1 oz.THE LADIES' COURSE. lay the potatoes a la Rot/ale around it on the dish. 1 qt. gold-colored fish of rather dry is flesh. and four cloves. and taking care not to mangle the flesh. and use them with the Baked Carp. season it with a teaspoonful of salt. (3. -------3 INGBEDIENTS. . BREAST OF LAMB WITH BECHAMEL SAUCE. laying the meat on the other ingredients. the Spanish Sauce on a dish. ) Make little of it . put on the cover. put a (4. potatoes cents. for baking.) Roll part. lay a cloth over the saucepan.) with hot water. butter 1 24 cents. (1. a Bechamel Sauce as directed on page 129. 3 lbs. which 145 a spocies of hirge. cut them in balls about three quarters of an inch in diameter. and squeezing the juice of one lemon over it. four pepper corns. a blade of mace. or until the lamb is tender. garnish it with parsley. 3 3 " " 2 4 " 3" lemon Vegetables and seasonings Materials for sauce - - - - '* 37 cents.

-----INGREDIENTS. bread crumbs and seasonings - - 15 cents. Take it up with(3.) Trim " " 31 cents. as the unnecessary holes they make permit the meat-juices to escape. hot. dust it with sifted bread crumbs and grated Parmesan. -3" 3 - - 3 • Total (1. INGREDIENTS. half a tur- thyme. ROAST BEEF. secure it if it is desirable to in place with stout twine. cut in small pieces. a cauliflower. about twenty minutes. its temperature can Jiot rise to a degree equal in heat to that nip. after removing the pour some more Becliawel over it. and serve it disli. to freshen down top it and in cold. (3.) Have ribs of - 96 cents. --. one sprig of of the fat outside of the beef. CAULIFLOWER AU GRATIN. do not use skewers. with a tablespoonful of salt. pour a gill of Bechamel sauce over it. " 4 $1. do not put any water in the dripiying pan. and can not assist in its cook- . and seasonings - - Total (1.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. 6 lbs. half a carrot. ribs of beef Vegetables. all the bones being taken out carve a clean slice off the top. lay it on a gratin dish. and lay salted water for one hour. (2. Serve it it.) Put it to boil in boiling water enough to cover it.. strings. 146 a Oil juid lay the lamb on it. and three bay leaves. one small onion.) out breaking.00 prime beef prepared by the butcher for roasting. or one that can be sent to the table. dot it over with bits of butter.) Lay it in the dripjoing pan on a bed of the following vegetables. free it hot. from insects. three sprigs of parsley. 1 cauliflower - Bechamel sauce 1 oz. Parmesan cheese Butter. and brown it quickly. and boil it only until tender. flour.

after the vegetables have been removed. ) the salad in a dish and pour over follows. 1 head of lettuce Materials for Romaine 5 cents. some persons thicken it with a teaspoonful of flour. (3. (2.) When gravy is made. .) it the dressing Grate half an ounce of onion. If salt applied to the cut you use a roasting oven be- fore the fire. half a pint of hot water sliould be put into the dripping pan. INGREDIENTS. a saltspoonful each of salt and powdered sugar. (3. and the gravy should be boiled briskly for a few minutes. as that impairs their crispness and flavor. mix made it as with a teaspoonful of lemon juice. it should be which will be twenty minutes to each pound of meat. 147 ing. - dressing - - Total - - 5 " 10 cents. and consequently to soften the surface and extract the juices. the joint should be kept hot until served. sufficient drippings for basting will flow from seasoned in from when half done. until it is thick enough. but should be (4. arrange (1. but do not cut them. entirely done. the meat should be similarly prepared by tying in place and it should be put on the spit carefully. but serves only to lower the tempeniture of the meat. and seasoned to suit the palate of the family. where it touches it. and then gradually stir into these ingredients three tablespoonfuls of oil and one of vinegar. as libers draws out their juices. Freshen a head of lettuce as directed on page 49. a level saltspoonful each of white pepper and dry mustard. ) Do not season it until the surface is partly carhonized hy the heat.THE LADIES' COURSE. which sliould be mixed with a gill of cold water before it is stirred served as soon as possible to be good. into the gravy. SALADE A LA ROMAINE.) Tear the leaves apart ^\t\ the fingers. fifteen to when and it.

--» 1 " " " 46 cents. a little (2. 1 qt. SECOND LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. 1 lb. Rizotta a la Milanaise. 16 4 2 oz. Filets of Bass a la Royale. . 5 cents. stir three ounces of powdered sugar lightly into it.) ii« it cools. CHAPTER 11. just color it in a moderate oven. remove the cores witliout breaking a dish that can be sent to the table. rounding it well. Use either hot or cold. them on 3 1 cent. " ---------4'* powdered sugar ------ 13 cents. Crmne Reverse. put it over tlie apples. 4 eggs - - - - - Butter and spice (1. lay a bit of butter and a very little spice on each one.) Pure the set apjiles. Fricandeau of Veal. Celery a la Garclinale. Total them. INGREDIENTS. and bake them jnst tender. but do not let them Beat the whites of four eggs to a stiJff froth. salmon 3 qts. Puree of Salmon. Julienne Potatoes. PUREE OF SALMON. The meringue will fall break. INGREDIENTS. milk 25 cents. Roast Ham with Chamjjagne Sauce.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. butter Flour and seasonings Total - - - - - _-. fill them with sugar. small apples yi lb. 148 APPLE MERINGUES.

Prepare the filets of bass as directed for the filets of flounder on page 32. season the soup with a level teaspoonful of salt. stir the salmon puree into it. bass Materials for marinade Materials for batter Prawns and parsley Lard for frying - - - - - - - ----- Total - - 30 cents. and fry them golden brown in smoking hot Lay them on brown paper for a moment to free them from fat. minutes. lift them out with a fork. turning them over every twenty minntes. (1. and a plate two tablespoonfuls each of teaspoonful of salt. (3. and rub it through a sieve with a wooden spoon. JULIENNE POTATOES.) As soon as the soup boils. garnished with parsley and prawns. 1 qt. potatoes Lard for frying -- Total 3 cents. FILETS OF BASS A LA ROYALE. then gradually add the boiling milk. and quarter of a saltspoonful each of white pepper and nutmeg.) oil and vinegar. a level and half a saltspoonful of pepper. 5 " 5 " 7 *' 3 " 50 cents. (2. lay the filets in it. .THE LADIES' COURSE.) Make a white soup as follows: milk over the fire to boil. boil it fifteen- remove the skin and bones. cool it. and let it come to a boil.) Make the marinade by mixing in (1. --- INGREDIENTS. (3. put two quarts of (2. - 3" 6 cents. Make ) a frying batter as directed on page 51. mix together over the fire two ounces eacli of butter and flour until they begin to bubljle. INGREDIENTS. fat. and serve it at once. then take it up. and serve them on a napkin. Drop the filets into the batter.) Put the salmon to boil iii 149 boiling water with a level tablespoonful of salt to each quart of water. lay them for three or four hours in the following marinade or pickle. 2 lbs.

------INGREDIENTS. as you draw the needle out the Insert strip of poi'k.) Choose a thick. rice 1 oz. veal X lb.) Meantime dress the spinach as directed on page 109. (4. will remain in the meat. them from fat.?(n% of spinach neatly on a dish. and lay them in them thin with slice a crimping cold Avater for at least Avell-salted an hour. (1. (3. or take strain its the 7. butter 5 cents.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. (3. % lb. and take a stitch with it in the upper surface of the veal. lay the cutlet on them and cook it in a moderate oven.) knife. taking care not to let it burn. (2. " " -20" Total 67 cents. and dry them on a clean towel.) Fry them golden brown in smoking hot fat. lay them on brown paper a moment to free and serve them hot. just when the veal is done. --------40 INGREDIENTS. (1. and warm tlie spinach in it. (2. 150 Pare the potatoes. FRICANDEAU OP VEAL. 2 lbs. from about the middle of the leg. RIZOTTA A LA MILANAISE. larding pork - Vegetables and seasonings 3^ peck spinach - - - - - - - 5 - 2 - cents. lay the veal on a folded towel on the left hand.) Put into a pan some scraps of vegetables and the trimmings of pork. with white pepper and salt. put a strip of pork in the larding needle. and two inches long.) Arrange ful of salt. lay the fricandeau on the spinach and serve it hot. making as many rows as its widtli Avill permit. and lard it as follows: cut the pork in strips an eighth of an inch thick.) Wash them through two waters. or lardoon. compact slice of veal thelardoons in even rows along the cutlet. 2 *' . warm the spinach with a tablespoonful of butter and a saltspoon- up the meat and keep it hot while you gravy. and seasoning it when half done.

ROAST HAM WITH CHAMPAGNE SAUCK -. uncooked rice. ------------INGREDIENTS.-_-. then add a pint of gravy. vinegar and seasonings Total - - - - - - - - - 15 (»nts. substituting lialf a pint of native Champagne for the Madeira Serve as directed on page 122.) chicken for tlie Cook tongue. American champagne Total (1. and stew fifteen or twenty minutes until the rice is tender. and then drain fore serving.INGREDIENTS.) Cook the ham - - - - - - 3 25 " " $1. shredded apart with two forks. with one ounce of chopped onion in a tablespoonful of butter. 7 lb. it is sometimes well shaken down in a buttered mould. heated in tiie oven.THE LADIES' COURSE. - 98 cents. Boil the rice until tender in (2. wine. and turned out beboiling water. Cold tongue Fat for frying " 3 - Total 20 cents. dry.26 - . 1 bunch of celery 3 eggs 1 lemon 1 red beet Oil. pepper. . fry it as for The number dish is it 2. CELERY A LA CARDINALE. }4 pt. - as directed on page 121. stirring it constantly until brown.) Make the sauce as directed for Madeira Sauce. Cooked in either way and mixed with cold tongue. on page 122. ham Onions. (1. and then pour gravy over it.) golden brown in plenty of smoking-liot fat. and cayenne. bread crumbs and seasonings ^ pt. any of wliicli makes a delicious dish. (2. season with salt.) Fry half a pound of dry. gravy 151 --------------5" ------- 5 cents. substituting cold excellent in any of these forms. There are several metliodsof cooking rice after the Milanaise style. (3. 3 " 15 " 2" 2" 37 cents.

tender stalks of well. and add. ---------------i powdered sugar - - - - ----- Total - 3 4 " " cent. 152 Choose the white. then spread it thickly over the salad and keep it cool for use. the juice of half a lemon. powdered sugar in the bottom on the stove and turn it about as the sugar melts. boil it until tender chop it fine. so that it can run evenly over the bottom of the mould. stirring constantly. INGREDIENTS. As soon as it browns slightly. eggs. to make it ?. — Cardinal Sauce. CREME REVERSE. if desired. Decorate the salad with the young leaves of celery. cut in quarters. then add. Mix these ingredients smooth with a wooden spoon. milk Flavoring 1 pt. one level teaspoonful each of salt and dry mustard. and as much cayenne pepper as can be taken up on the point of a small penknife-blade.) Put one teaspoonful of a plain tin mould. peel it. using in all four tablespoonfuls. bright red color. take the (1. drop by drop. celery. When the oil is twothirds used begin to add vinegar. in boiling water. 6 eggs }4 lb- 6 cents. Make a mayonnaise* sauce as follows: put into a bowl the yolk of one raw Qgg.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. three gills of saladoil and the juice of half a lemon. prepared as above. 14 cents. . lay them in a pile and cover them with Cardinal Sauce. Wash a red beet without breaking the skin or cutting off the top or roots. and i^ut it on a saucer. one level saltspoonful of white pepper. arranging them so that light and dark leaves contrast prettily. wash them cut them in three-inch lengths. two cold hard-boiled in the middle of the salad bowl. set * In of it French mayonnaise^ no mustard is used. well salted. rub it through a sieve with a wooden spoon. When the mayonnaise is thick and smooth stir in enough of the beet.

Canton of Lamh a la Jardiniere. (2. or until it is quite firm.) Then cool it. and then. MOCK TURTLE SOUP STOCK. and serve it cold. set it on the ice until very cold. mould off the fire and let it cool. In turning it out of the mould. Moch Turtle Soup Stock. - Choose a fresh calf's *' 55 cents. Broiled Potatoes. Salade a la Russe. set the mould in a dripping-pan containing sufficient hot water to reach two-thirds up the sides of the mould. quarter of a pound of powdered sugar. which may be known by . holding both firmly. Halibut Neck a la Creole. Lift it off carefully. 1 calf's head Soup vegetables and seasonings - - - 50 cents. It is very pretty in appearance and very nice. THIRD LESSOi^ OF THE LADIES' COURSE.) 5 head. one pint of milk.--. of Vanilla. turn them over. Cabinet Pudding. choose a dish the center of which will just cover the top of the mould. and bake the custard in a moderate oven about thirty minutes. Total (1.) and one teaspoonful of the essence Strain this custard into the mould.--INGREDIENTS. so that they cannot slip. Oyster Plant Saute aux Fines Herhes. . (4. the mould remaining upside down on the dish. (3.THE LADIES' COURSE. and the custard will remain on the dish.) 153 Make a custard by beating together six eggs. put it over the mould. it is CHAPTER III. Salmon Croquettes.

with a clean damp cloth. (3.) When the broth is quite clear. dip them for an instant in scalding hot water.) (4. together with one ounce of salt and as much cayenne pepper as can be taken up on the point Boil slowly and steadily. which will be in about one hour. and lift the piece out carefully.) Roll the tongue in with twine. and lay it on the roll loosely the skin. As the head gets stale the skin becomes discolored and muddy in appearance. keeping it as whole as possible. the kettle over the fire and bring tlie contents slowly to a boil. savory. and the yellow rind of one lemon pared off in a thin strip. and the Carefully remove all hairs. (7.) When the skin and tongue are tender enough to pierce easily with a fork. one large bay-leaf.) Eemove the tongue whole. Lay the head upon its face. and lay that in cold water. so as to take out the brain without breaking it. (2. three blades of mace.) With a sharp meat-saw cut out that portion of "the head between tlie ears and above the eyes. {See receipt for " Tongue and Brains. skimming off all the scum that rises. houquet by tying tightly together one ounce each of celery and parsley. and put into the soup. remove them. tie the Cover them with eight quarts of cold water.^^ in next cliapter. then cut the skin carefully from the head. and lay it in cold water. . and Make a half a nutmeg broken up.) Cut tlie head through the center. and tan-agon. and add it to the soup. carrot. remove the kettle to tlie side of the Pare and fire. turnip. one and one medium-sized add to it one Tie up in a fine cloth onion stuck with ten whole cloves. then put it in the bottom of the soup-kettle. and wipe odor betrays its age. (6. eight allspice. well salted. Set bones. make a cut from the throat to the edge of tlie lower jaw. one sprig each of thyme. where it will boil slowly from one side. (5. remove the lining of the nasal passage and scald it thoroughly.154 COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. in a bowl by Lay itself. of a small penknife-blade. the clear wliite skin. the brain in cold water.

THE LADIES' COURSE.

155

remove the skin from the tongue, Lry them on a dish and
cover them with a wet cloth, to keep them moist until
wanted for use. Boil the soup six hours in all. (8.) Then
If you do not wish to use the
strain it and let it cool.
head and brains until the soup is cool, put them in the
bottom of the earthen jar or bowl into which the soup is
They will be perfectly preserved by this method.
strained.

HALIBUT NECK A LA CREOLE.
INGREDIENTS.
8

lbs.

..--- -2"
--•
5"
-----

halibut neck

Tomatoes

-

-

1 oz. butter
Vegetables and seasonings

-

-

-

-

-

-

18 cents.

-

-

-

27 cents.

Total

Halibut neck
is

much

generally

fish,

and

is

is

"

3

esteemed quite liighly by gourmands. It
cheaper than the more solid parts of the

wash and

delicious wlien cooked as follows:

trim three pounds of halibut neck; put

into a dripping-

it

pan, with two ounces of chopped onion, one teaspoonf ul of

one saltspoonf ul of chopped garlic, half that quantity
of white pepper, and one pound of peeletl sliced tomato,
either fresh or canned; dust the fish well with powdered
salt,

crackers or dried bread-crumbs, dot

over with one table-

it

twenty minutes in a quick
When done, lay the fish on a hot platter, put the
oven.
tomato, etc., around it, and garnish it with a few cresses
spoonful of butter, and bake

it

or sprigs of parsley.
"

BROILED POTATOES.

.------3
INGREDIENTS.

1 qt, potatoes

Butter and seasonings
Total
(1.)

Wash

jackets,

and

them rather

-

_

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

the potatoes thorouglily, boil
let

them

moist.

cents.

2

"

5 cents.

them

in their

cool before peeling them, to keep

(2.)

Peel the potatoes, slice

them half

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

156

an inch thick, broil them on a buttered gridiron, and
serve them hot with butter, pepper, and salt.
SALMON CROQUETTES.
INGREDIENTS.

--

)4 lb- salmon
1 pt.

milk

3

butter

oz.

4 eggs
1 gill

12 cents.

--------

-----

and bread crumbs

Lard for frying

-

-

"
"

13

"
"
"

4"

Madeira

Flour, seasonings,

4
4

-

-

Total

5

3
-

45 cents.

Tear some cold salmon in shreds with two forks.
(2.) Chop a level teaspoonful of onion, put it over the fire
in a saucepan with the butter, and let it begin to turn yellow. (3.) Stir two ounces of flour into the onion and butter,
and when the mixture begins to bubble, gradually add one
pint of boiling milk, and stir till smooth.
(4.) Add tlio
(1.)

salmon, a level teaspoonful of

salt,

quarter of a saltspoon-

and nutmeg, the yolks of four i-aw
eggs, and a gill of wine, and mix over the fire for two minutes.
(5.) Turn the croquette mixture out an inch thick
on an oiled dish, and let it cool. (6.) Make up the croquettes as directed on page 87, fry them golden brown, and
garnish them with fried parsley.
Fried Parsley is prepared by washing some nice sprigs of
parsley, shaking it in a clean cloth until it is quite dry, and
plunging it into fat heated to about 400° Fain*., only until
it is crisp.
Parsley is also crisped by laying it on paper
before a clear fire, and turning it frequently, until it is
ful each of white pepper

done.

OYSTER PLANT SAUTE AUX FINES HERBES.
INGREDIENTS.
1

--------

bunch oyster plant

butter
Herbs and seasonings
1 oz.

Total

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

10 cents.
2 "
3 "
15 cents.

157

THE LADIES' COURSE.

Scrape the oyster plant, splitting each root and layto keep it
ing it in cold water as soon as it is scraped,
boiling water conwhite, and when all is done, boil it in
(1.)

it is tender.
(2.)
taining a tablespoonful of salt, nntil
onions and
Chop line one tablespoonfnl each of parsley,
mnshrooms, and heat them over the fire in a frying-pan
(3.) Meantime dry the oyster
of butter.

with an ounce

is hot, throw
plant on a clean towel, and when the butter
about nntil it is
the oyster plant into the pan, and toss it
and serve
brown. Season it lightly with salt and pepper,
^

^^

*

CANTON OF LAMB A LA JARDINIERE.

-----

INGREDIENTS.
4 lbs. shoulder of lamb
Materials for forcemeat
Vegetables for garnish

5
-

-

-

Total

(1.)

50 cents.

-

'

20

"

'^5

cents.

Prepare a canton from a shoulder of lamb, as di-

Meantime, make the jardiniere
turnip, and cut them in
as follows: peel a carrot and a
diamonds; cut half a pint of string beans in the same
a caulishapes; cut half a pint of small flowerets from

rected on page 120.

(2.)

heads;
flower; use half a pint of green peas, or asparagus
water and salt
boil all these vegetables separately in boiling

and then lay them in cold water until wanted.
the sauce as directed on
(3.) When the lamb is done make
page 121, heat the jardiniere in it, and serve arranged

until tender,

around the canton.

SALADEA LA RVSSE.
INGREDIENTS.
10 cents.

Vegetables
Salad dressmg

'

Total

15 cents.

one pint of green peas, pare one carrot and
them
two white turnips, slice them one inch thick, stamp
(1.) Shell

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

158

and boil tlieni as
Arrange them neat-

in little cylinders with a small tin tube,

directed in the previous receipt.

(2.)

on a salad dish and dress them with the following salad
sauce: mix together one tablespoonful of vinegar, three
of oil, half a level teaspoonful of salt, and a very little pepPour it over the salad just before you serve it.
per.
ly

CABINET PUDDING.

------------4"
-10"
------------- -3"
INGREDIENTS,

X lb. candied cherries
2

oz.

citron

X lb- macaroons
Sponge cake
1 pt.

milk

20 cents.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

15

"

4

"

-

}4 oz. gelatine

lemon
3 oz. powdered sugar

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

"

2

'*

60 cents.

Total

Soak the gelatine in two tablespoonfuls of cold
water until it is soft, and then put it over the fire in a saucepan with the milk, sugar, and the yelloAvrind of the lemon
(1.)

cut very thin, and

let it

heat thoroughly, stirring occasion-

Cut
Butter a plain pudding mould
the citron in thin slices.
rather thickly with cold butter, and ornament the bottom
and sides bv placing some of the fruit against them in some
pretty shape.
(3.) Place the remaining fruit and the cake
in the mould in alternate layers, and then strain the milk
Set it where it will cool and grow firm,
into the mould.

ally until the

which
the

gelatine and sugar are dissolved.

will be in four or five hours,

mould and serve

it cold.

and then turn

(2.)

it

out of

THE LADIES' COURSE.

CHAPTER
FOURTH

IV.

THE LADIES' COURSE.

LESSOif OF

Moch

159

Turtle Sonp.

Crimped Cod a

la Colbert.

Parisienne Potatoes.
Calf's Tongue and Brains ivith Tartar Sauce,
Jerusalem Artichokes.
Artichokes with Butter 8auce.
Calf's

Head a

la Poulette.

Anchovy Salad.
Omelette Soufflee

— Chocolate

MOCK TURTLE

Souffiee.

SOUP.

INGREDIENTS.
Calf's

Head

-

stock

---------------

2 cents.

1 oz. butter

2 eggs
1

lemon

Madeira wine

1 gill of

-

-

Soup vegetables and seasonings

-

2
-

-

2'

-

13
3

"
"

22 cents.

Total

which has collected
upon the surface must be removed, and then the stock will

When

tlie

stock

is

quite cold,

tlie fut

be ready to finish as follows:
(1.) Take out the skin and tongue, and heat the stock.
about
(2.) Cut the best part of the skin into regular pieces
Calfs
for
ears,
the
two inches square, and save it, with

head in half inch
dice. (3.) Put an ounce of butter and half an ounce of flour
in a thick saucepan over the fire, and stir until light brown.
When the flour and butter are brown gradually add one

Head a

la Poulette.

quart of

tiie

Cut the

rest of the

stock to them, stirring the mixture until

it is

spread them lightly with . Boil two eggs hard. remove the shells and Avhites. then add the wine. Thin slices of lemon may be passed with the soup. boil the essence rapidly until it is re- duced to a gill. and cut the them in well salted cold water for one hour. and pour the soup over them. lay pint of hot water. Boil all these ingredients slowly for half an hour. remove the bones. Skin the codfish. a small onion stuck with three cloves. two ounces of carrot.) Bread the slices of fish and fry them as directed on page 33. and the following seasonings: two sage leaves. a houquet of herbs. then strain and add to the soup stock. one sprig of thyme. remove it instantly. one small blade of mace. INGREDIENTS. (3. and put them into a soup tureen. . and three sprigs each of parsley and marjoram. (2.) 5 - - " " " - - - " 40 cents. CRIMPED COD A LA COLBERT. chop the yolks in small dice. then add to it a small bay-leaf. and keep it hot by setting the saucepan containing it into another half full of boiling water. with one gill of Sherry or Madeira wine and the juice of one lemon.) Meantime make a fish essence by boiling the skin and bones with half a carrot and an onion sliced. Eeserve a quart of the soup should be clear and bright. the stock for Calf's Head a la Poulette'. which must meantime have been set by the side of the fire. strain it. 3 lbs. two bay leaves and a fish in small thin slices. six cloves. cool them. then put in the dice of Calf's Head already cut if the soup is not brown color it with a little caramel. 160 smooth. for boil very gently. codfish -12 cents. - Egg and bread crumbs 2 Materials for ?77ai/re d'/io^eZ butter Vegetables and seasonings for sauce 1 gill M bite wine - - - - 5 - - - - - - -13" Fat for frying 3 Total(1. to If any scum rises.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.

161 maitre dliotel butter. CALF'S TONGUE AND BRAINS WITH TARTAR SAUCE. and allowed to parboil It will then be ready for use.THE LADIES' COURSE. lay them for a moment on a clean. fifteen minutes. made as directed on page 34. Total The method 5 cents. Calf's --------------- INGREDIENTS. one quart of cold water. in the same receipt. then drain them. laying them in cold water as fast as they are cut. sprinkle them with chopped j^arsley. (2. After it has been in the water one laid in salted water. described in the receipt for hour. and salt and serve them hot.) grow tender. of preparing the tongue has already been Mock Turtle Soup.) When all the balls are cut. witli The tongue and brains are generally served cold — the . Total Pare a quart of potatoes. and fry them a golden brown in smok-^ ing hot fat. drain them on brown paper. fire. 6 cents. 3 cents. ------__-----3" INGREDIENTS. and serve them on a little of the fish essence on a hot dish. cut them in balls about an inch in diameter. 1 qt. 7 cents. drop water. potatoes Fat for frying Parsley and salt 1 cent. on page The brain. either with a knife or with a round vegetable scoop. was directed to be 159. tongue and brains Materials for sauce Vinegar and parsley 1 cent. only until they begin to boiling them into salted (1. one teaspoonful of salt and one tablespoonful of vinegar. dry cloth. and saving all the trimmings in water for mashed or Duchesse potatoes. PARISIENNE POTATOES. the thin skin or membrane covering its soft inner substance must be removed so carefully as to avoid breakIt should then be put into a saucepan over the ing it.

- - 6 " somewhat resemble large thistle heads. only and then put them into a Bechamel Sauce. which 50 cents. stirring the time. stir these ingredients with a wooden salad-spoon or spatula until they are smooth. When the sauce is thick and smooth. 162 tongue being hiid in the center of a dish. one level saltspoonful of salt. 2 " butter into two vinegar. capers and gherkin. boil them " 25 cents. as directed ARTICHOKES WnH BUTTER SAUCE. and some Tartar Sauce pat around them on the base of tlie dish. Flour. and one teaspoonful of chopped salad oil quickly all onion. (1. add the following ingredients to it and keep it cool until wanted for use. Wash - the artichokes. changing the water sev- . throwing quarts of cold water containing a made - - ----- Total (1. to keep gill of in boiling water well salted. the brains cut in two pieces and placed at the sides of the tongue. then add. JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES. P^^t the yolk of a raw egg into a bowl with one level teaspoonful of dr}'^ mustard. one gill of and three tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice. artichokes 1 oz. vinegar and seasonings 3 - them white. — Tartar Sauce. in cold water. on pnge 41. one tablespoonful each of chopped parsley.) 20 cents.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. 1 qt. - - - 57 cents.) 3 artichokes 3 oz. ___-_-INGREDIENTS. Total _ . Serve them hot. Some bits of parsley may be used for garnishing the dish. them Scrape the artichokes. until tender. butter Flour and seasonings - - - » - 1 cent. a few drops at a time. ______ INGREDIENTS. taken up on tlie and as much cayenne pc^^pcr as can be point of a small penknife-blade.

a saltspoonful of salt.--. or more if required by taste. from half an hour boiling water. (2. or stalk ends. stirring until smooth. remove the clioke. and add to it two ounces of butter and a tablespoonful of lemon juice. or fibrous substance in the center of the leaves. dish them on a napkin.done. flour. then gradually add a pint of hot stock.\ce 129. Total (1. and seasonings 2 oz. according to the age of the artichoke. Calf's head butter 3 eggs Parsley.) again in boiling water to heat while Put the artichokes the sauce is being made. and pressing the leaves apart at the top with the handle of a tablespoon. - cents. (5. and as much cayenne pepper as can be taken up on the point of a small penknife-blade. - - .) Drain the artichokes from the hot water. over the (2. if it comes away easily tlie artichoke them on a five is .) Make a B echa7)iel sa. (4. -43" INGREDIENTS. Let the sauce begin to bubble after saucepan over the fire . minutes. and send the rest in a sauce-boat to the table with them. season with quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg. pull out a leaf.THE LADIES' COURSE.) Mock stock. trim tlie leaves and put them with the leaves down in plenty of well salted Boil them until tender. enil times. (3. 163 and the bottoms.) Make fire to 3 - " 10 cent^ in making the heat in a quart of the a sauce as follows: stir together in a two ounces or tablespoonfuls each of butter and flour until they are smoothly blended. for left hand. -------_. to an liour and a half. drain and then let them lay in cold water Take eacli artichoke successively in the sieve. - _ _ Put the pieces of the head reserved Turtle Soup. to test tliem. as directed on page CALFS HEAD A LA POULETTE. put a tablespoonful of the butter sauce in each one.) When they are done.

(3.) OMELETTE SOUFFLEE. ANCHOVY SALAD. and cut them in thin pieces. dusting it with powdered sugar when it is half done.-_---_-_5" __-- 20 cents. it in the yolks of three eggs. keeping the whites and yolks separate. and a teaspoonful of Vanilla essence. INGREDIENTS. oil. sprinkle a little raised. and parsley in alternate layers upon a salad dish. the yolks of two eggs. When it the sauce boil. (1. powdered sugar Vanilla flavoring - Total (1. then move and stir Then pnt in the to the side of the fire. ready to nse. .) Eemove the scales and bones. a cream the sugar. Soak the anchovies over night in cold water. cut three of them in quarters for the garuish. (2.) Beat four whites to a stiff froth. one at a time. remove the shells. and chop two fine.) Gently stir the yolks and sugar into the whites.) Mix to - - - - - - - - - ^ - 2 - - - - 1 cents. and serve the salad. __----_--4 4 eggs 3 oz. garnish not little chopped parsley over it. - - Total 5 " 30 cents. put the mixture by the tablespoonful on a buttered gratin dish. (4. or it will fall. . calf's (3. INGREDIENTS. or let it may curdle. " " 7 cents. and seasonings vinegar. cool them. serve it the instant it is done. and bake it golden brown in a moderate oven. dish with the ears in the middle.) a Do head. and with sprigs of parsley. Anchovies 5 eggs Parsley. eggs.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. dress with two tablespoonfuls of oil and one of vinegar. (2. 164 it is seasoned.) Lay the anchovy filets.) Boil five eggs hard. (3. or soufflee pan.

a white soup as directed for . (3. butter Flour and seasonings 2 cents. Red Haricots Saute a la Bordelaise. and serve 151. 4 eggs 3 oz. Grate the cliocohite and mix sugar. and finish the soufflee as directed in the previous receipt. (2. Cream of Beets. ----. CREAM OF BEETS. it (2. (1. 1 i cent. FIFTH LESSOX OF THE LADIES' COURSE. Salade a la Macedoine. Saratoga Potatoes.) at once. INGREDIENTS.--. Fried Oysters.) 7 cents. 165 CHOCOLATE SOUFFLEE. on page 149.) Beat the whites it with the yolks and to a stiff froth. 16" -----. red beet 2 qts. ) Stir into the white soup enough of the puree of beets to color it to a delicate pink. CHAPTER V.THE LADIES' COURSE. Baron of Lamh tuith Mint Sauce. milk 2 oz.4" INGREDIENTS. on page Make Puree of Salmon.) Boil a red beet and rub it through a sieve as directed in the receipt for Celery Salade a la Cardinale. Oysters a la Poulette. Cream Fritters. 2 " -1" Total (1. ----- powdered sugar J^ oz. Total 23 cents. Broiled Oysters. chocolate - - - - - 4 cents.

(2. and turn them on a platter to serve. come Examine the to a boil.. --------25 ----_--_2" .) Peel a quart potatoes. ------INGREDIENTS. oysters - Fat for frying Egg and bread crumbs Total - . 3 " Fat for frying Total 6 cents. let them heat until their edges begin to curl. aud the juice of a lemon. as they spoil by standing. stir in three raw yolks. scatter over them a teaspoonful of salt. them in very thin slices. - - and seasonings - - - - - - Total (1. shake them well about. 1 qt. the broth and set (2. one at a time.. FRIED OYSTERS. oysters 1 oz. (3. (4. and fry them liglit brown. cut of INGREDIENTS.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and then serve them at once. and lay them in cold water and salt for an hour or more. 166 OYSTERS A LA POULETTE. ful of salt. throw them into a deep kettle of smoking hot fat. potatoes 3 cents. ----INGREDIENTS. .) Then dry them on a towel. in the oyster liquor.) Strain 3 fire to one ounce gradually stir fire and season the sauce with a teaspoon- and quarter of a saltspoonful each of white pepper and nutmeg. " 35 cents.. take them out of the fat with a skimmer into a colander. two tablespoonfuls of oil. - - - - - - _ - - _ 3 - ^ 25 cents. butter 1 lemon 3 eggs Oil - cents.) them. 1 qt. 3 «« - " 30 cents.) Put the oysters into the sauce. (1. 1 qt. SARATOGA POTATOES.) no oysters to see that 3 " " 3 Mix shell adheres to over the it together over the each of bntter and flour until they bubble.

50 lamb Vegetables and seasonings Mint. (1. bread tliom as directed on page 33. boiling an onion stuck with six cloves. and a bouquet of herbs with {'Z. sprinkle them with chopped parsley and serve them hot.60 . dry tliem slightly. and toss them over the fire of butter. Total Dress the beans as directed on page 44. add a teaspoonful of salt. INGREDIENTS. $1. " 2 5 - ------ " 32 cents. Prepare the oysters as directed in the preceding receipt. and vinegar Tot^ - - - - - . Turn them out on a hot dish. 1 qt. 6 lbs. and serve them hot.. lay them for a moment on brown free them from grease. RED HARICOTS SAUTE 1 LA BORDELAISE.. INGBEDIENTS. broil them on an oiled gridiron. put them into a frying-pan containing two ounces (1. 1 pt.) Lay the lOT oysters on a clean towel.) and a tablespoonful each of chopped parsley and any green herb in season. INGREDIENTS. over a moderate fire. drain them. Red Haricot beans 2 oz.5 5 - - $1. gar- nished with a few sprigs of parsley. BROILED OYSTERS. and serve them with some maitre cVhotel butter. until they are hot.THE LADIES' COURSE. BARON OF LAMB WITH MINT SAUCE. . oysters Eggs and bread crumbs Materials for maUre - - - d/hotel butter Total - - 25 cents. made as directed on page 34.. " 4 2" Herbs and seasoning 12 cents. to smoking fat. them.) When they are soft. but not broken. and fry tiiem golden brown in paper. sugar. butter - - - - ' - - « cents.. and a level saltspoonful of pepper.

or use canned ones. 168 A baron of lamb the entire loin.) Boil a red beet as directed for Cardinal Sauce. and boil them only until tender. small white turnips }>{ pt. cooking it in all twenty minWhile it is roasting.2" 20 cents. vegetables over the fire. in boiling water in separate ves- with half a teaspoonful each of salt and sugar. and latter soft until the sugar is Serve dissolved. then season it with salt and pepper. Shell the peas. then throw them into cold sels water in separate vessels until wanted for use. . on page 152. make the following utes to a pound. and one bay leaf. - - - - - - - - - 3 " - - 10 " -. and stamp it out in small cylinders with a tin tube. one slice of onion. sauce. 1 qt. and finish baking it in a moderate oven. mint and two of stir same the is as for cold put one tablespoonful of chopped sugar into half a pint of vinegar. Cut four small white stalks of celery in half inch lengths. (2. time. not divided at the is back bone. make (5. celery Materials for sauce 5 cents. carrot.) Put all these like little cups. (4.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. SALADE A LA MACEDOINE.) Pare the turnips and hollow them out (3. Put it into a quick oven long enough to brown. Total (1. one sprig each of thyme and parsley. and the upper part of both legs. — made both hot and cold. green peas. made of an ounce of carrot and turnip sliced. with the sugar when the sauce is sauce 'J'his the vinegar being scalded is to be hot. Lay the lamb in a dripping-pan on a little bed of vegetables. otherwise the process For the sauce. INGREDIENTS. it in a gravy- boat. Mint Sauce.) Slice the carrot half an inch thick. or beans Beet.) Mean- a mayonnaise as directed for Cardinal Sauce.

(3. and use them to bread the pieces of cream. (5. and some of the desired. (4. on an oiled dish and let it cool. stirring the yolks in one at a time. butter. bits of celery macedoine. lay the cream upon it and cut it in diamonds. omitting the puree of beet which colors it. and a teaspoonful of flavoring.) Drain the vegetables which form the macedoitw. 4" - 3 '* butter 8 ** powdered sugar - '- 4 eggs Bread crumbs and flavoring Total (1. (6. INGREDIENTS. and beating the cream till it is smooth with an Qgg whip. com starch 4 6 cents. and serve them.) Dust the table thickly with bread crumbs. and lay them on brown paper to free them from grease. about an inch tliick. dry them on a clean towel. .) Arrange them on a dish. if leaf. arrange them with the mound on a salad dish. CREAM FRITTERS. cornstarcli. dust them \vith powdered sugar.) Beat one egg and the remaining whites just enough to mix them. Fry them in smoking hot fat. yolks of three eggs from the whites.THE LADIES' COURSE. yolks.) Separate the As soon as the milk boils up add to it the sugar. Place a pint of milk on the stove to heat. - * in half a pint of milk. milk oz. let it simmer gently for five minutes and then pour it out.) * - * Dissolve the corn starch > - 6 4" - ^ " -5" 2 " 37 cents. (2. and cover mayonnaise* The salad may be ornamented them in a with hard boiled eggs. 1)4 pts.

an onion stuck with six cloves. and boil until the chicken is tender. cut off the white meat from the breast.) Add it slowly to a boil. chicken 50 cents.) Strain the soup. return with the white meat of the chicken.) ful of salt. Broiled Trout with Maitre iV Hotel Butter. Rice Croquettes loitli Vanilla Cream Sauce. a tablespoonful of salt. and put it into a saucepan with four quarts of cold water. 170 CHAPTER VI. skimming until it is a carrot. bring clear. adding half a pint . Dress a chicken us directed on page 123. cut off the legs and thighs without separating them. Cliiclcen Salad. POTAGE A LA REINE. and use it for the soup. (3. saving the rest of the chicken for the salad. SIXTH LESSOR! OF THE LADIES' COURSE.) Return the soup to the fire to heat. Breast of Lamh a la Marechale. Duchesse Potatoes. and quarter of a saltspoonful each of white pepper and grated nutmeg. (4. and it to the fire the rice well washed. Soup vegetables and milk 1 pound rice - - - - " 5 10" Total 65 cents. boil these ingredients slowly until they are tender enough to be rubbed through a sieve with a wooden spoon. (2. then take it up. Canton de Rouen. ' INGREDIENTS. a bouquet of herbs. and a teaspoon(1. Celery a la Villcroi. 4 lbs. Pot age a la Reine.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and free it from fat and skin.

potatoes butter 2 eggs and seasonings - - - 2 3 - - Total " " 8 cents. made as directed on page 34. broil it over a moderate fire on an oiled gridiron. and serve it with some maitre d' hotel butter. brush them over the top with white and color them golden brown in a moderate oven.i saltspoonful of white pepper. it is needs to stand set the saucepan containing some boiling water partly filled with If (5.) a fine one ounce of butter. cooking the inside first. CANTON DE ROUEN INGREDIENTS. 3 " 10 " 5 " 20 cents. splitting it down " 5 - 55 cents. trout Materials for maitre cChotel butter - - 50 cents. ----- Total Dress a trout. the back. mash them through colander with the potato masher.) it in another keep the soup hot. 1 oz. Legs and thighs of chicken Parslej". lay them on a buttered tin. 3 cents. pork and seasonings _ }{ lb sausage meat Vegetables for Macedoine }4 pt.) Turn with a knife two inches long and one inch wide. 3 lbs. is it then i-eady to serve. 1 qt. of boiling bid do not milk. and then form into small cakes. it (2. the potato out on a plate. half . to U HOTEL BROILED TROUT WITH MAfTRE it ------- BUTTER. DUCHESSE POTATOES. quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg. until 171 sciilding hot. Bechamel sauce Total - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 cents. mix with them Boil one quart of potatoes and (1. and the yolks of two raw eggs. of egg. INGREDIENTS.THE LADIES' COURSE. and stirring let it boll. one level teaspoonful of salt. -----------------INGREDIENTS. .

made as directed on page 51. and sew them up. and INGREDIENTS. dip them in frying batter. INGREDIENTS.) and thighs legs of the chicken. securing the leg with a trussing needle. - ----- Vegetables. (4. ----------- sauce. and seasonings - 3 2 - - 3 " " . 1 breast of lamb - - - - Ejrg-&& and bread crumbs Fat for flying - - - ' - - - - - 35 cents. remove the thigh bone. on page 168. be cut off make them resemble just below the knee joint.) bone in place for the head. described on the same page. cutting them away from the flesh with a sharp knife Trim off the ends of the leg bone to avoid mangling it. dish them on a bed made of the vegetables and serve them hot. season them lightly with salt and pepper. and finish them like the (1. }4 bunch of celery Materials for batter Fat foi.) Parsnip Fritters. which must without separating them. - - - " 3 " 16 cents. (2. Prepare some vegetables as directed for the salade h la Becliainel sauce as Macedoine. 172 Lay the (1. - ^ 5 Trim the celery stalks.) strings.frying - - Total - _ - - 8 cents. BREAST OF LAMB A LA MARECHALE. boil them until tender in boiling water and salt. Dry them on a clean towel. and half the leg bone. on the table. (3. turn them over and pat them into the shape of a bird. and bake them one hour in a moderate oven. to bill. with the skin down. CELERY 1 L 1 VILLEROI. and heat the vegetables in When remove done the cantons are the it.) ^hikQ i\j directed on page 129. herbs. cut them in two inch lengths.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. Lay the cantons in a pan on some scraps of pork and vegetables. and tying it securely. Stuff the thighs with a a duck's delicately seasoned little forcemeat or sausage.

lamb over the in boiling Avater fire with a bouquet of herbs. and dry it on a clean towel. of 43 cents. (4. CHICKEN SALAD. and again in crumbs.) Pour the sauce on a dish. omitting the beet coloring.. (1. Spanish sauce Mushrooms 5 cents. remove all the bones. (4. and lay breast of the lamb on it with the mushrooms around it.5" -----__. Total (1. skin and bone. and dress it with a tablespoonful of oil. half a carrot. " 15 -. under a weight.) Trim and wash the salad. Decorate the salad with olives. and cut it in half-inch dice. When the lamb is tender enough. and put half a pint of mushrooms in it to heat.) Make a Mayonnaise as directed in the receipt for Cardinal Sauce. and fry it in smoking hot fat. and let it cool. (3. and cover the salad with it. INGREDIENTS. lamb by dipping it first in sifted bread crumbs. capers and hard boiled eggs cut in quarters. and boil it until the bones can be pulled out easily.) Mix the chicken and salad in a salad bowl. 173 -----.THE LADIES' COURSE. 3^ pt. break it in small pieces. from fat. then in beaten Q^g. press it flat between two cloves. an onion stuck with six and a turnip. - Total - - ^ - - - - - - - 10 cents.) Put a breast to boil.) Make half a pint of Spanish Sauce as directed on page 71. Cold chicken Olives and capers Materials for Mayonnaise - Celery or lettuce 8 eggs -. (2. Free the cold chicken remaining from the soup. a teaspoonful of vinegar and half a saltspoonful of salt and pepper.5" 3«' 33 cents.) Bread the platters. (3. (2.) .

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. then on an oiled platter. one ounce of sugar. - ----- Total (1. rice in tablespoonfiil of one quart salt until into half a pint of milk with half the yellow rind of a lemon. then add half a pint of boiling milk. put them on a dish. lay them on a napkin for a moment to free them from grease. 14 lb.) When it out of the platter upon some cracker one inch Avide and three inches long. dust a little powdered sugar (4. 174 RICE CROQUETTES. with a level just tender. --------5 _______ --------3 --------------INGREDIENTS. and dusl. rice 1 oz. is and in. dip them first in cracker. and boil for half an hour. or two inches of stick cin- namon.) Take it one at a time. turn it enough to handle. and fat for frying pound half a of well of boiling Avater. cracker dust. butter 4 " sugar }4 pt. milk 2 4 eggs 4.) Boil cents. cut it in strips and fry them golden brown in plenty of smoking hot fat. (3. and a teaspoonful of Vanilla Essence. and serve them with Cream Sauce. . Flour. fire for two minutes to set the egg-. let it get cool cool enough. WITH VANILLA CREAM SAUCE. one ounce each of butter and flour together over the fire until they bubble. then in crackerdust spread on the table. then in beaten Qgg. drain it. (2. the yolks of three eggs. with the croquettes. and two ounces stirring it of sugar. serve as soon as it boils up. stir and return to the thick. 2 pnt it washed 7 23 cents. occasionally to prevent burning.) Stir over them. roll them into the shape of corks. laying it about an inch spread the rice from the fire.

MOCK TERRAPIN SOUP. a la Bordelaise. (3. . it is a wooden spoon. or division. and keep it hot over the fire. poach in strips. the yolk make an inch thick. stock % pt. 5 Total 13 2 ^^ ' ** a5 cents. with a tablespoonful of salt and a bouquet of (1. Calfs liver 2 qts. add the liver to it. Braized Beef a la Printanilre.) Heat two quarts of stock and half a pint of Spanish Sauce. and a very little salt enough flour to them a teaspoonful of and pepper. CHAPTER 175 VII. take off the smallest lobe. ----------------------INGREDIENTS. and bring it to a boil in boiling water. Spanish sauce _ 3 eggs ~ 1 gill Madeira wine Flour. Macaroni a la Napolitaine. Calfs Liver. oil ' - ' and seasonings - - ' - - ~ - ~ ' - - - 13 cents.) done chop it in quarter inch dice. (2. roll this out about half and then in dice. French Pancakes. and roll under the palm of the hand. In preparing the calfs liver a la Bordelaise. Salade a la Suede. SEVENTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. Potatoes au gratin. cut I mix them with it into little balls of oil.THE LADIES' COURSE. Mock Terrajnn Soup. a raw egg and a stiff paste.) Make some egg-balls as follows: rub the yolks of two hard boiled eggs through a sieve with when herbs. Bouillabaisse. made as directed on page 71.

(3. a gill of wine. Serve it at once. Thin slices of lemon ai'e passed with this soup. " perch 1 " bass 2gUlsoil 1 gill of white wine Onion. flour and seasonings - 1 ~ - " 15 " " " 10 - - ^- 15 13 - ------------------ 3 '* Bread and lemon 3" 3 eggs 3 " - - - - Total Chop (1. with the Juice of a lemon. and simmer while the fish is being fried. warm them in half a pint . and two quarts of boiling water.) a small onion and fry it 70 cents. XN6B£X)I£NTS.) When ready to nse the soup. season it witli pepper and salt. add the wine to it. Parmesan cheese Bread and seasonings - - - - - - - - - Total Slice some cold boiled S cents. Bdchamel sauce 1 oz. potatoes. potatoes }4 pt. (4. 5 " 2 " ----- - 2 " 12 cents. (2.) Cut some stale bread in half-incli dice. on a clean towel. ------INGREDIENTS. and then stir them into the rest of the soup. fry them golden brown and put them into the soup tureen. and lay it on brown paper to free it from grease.) Dry the fish. which should be sliced.) COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. a iouquetoi herbs. roll it in flour. and then put them into the sonp. cod fish 8 cents. POTATOES AU GRATIN. Mix the yolks of three raw eggs with two gills of the soup. and pour it into the tureen. gill of salad oil. golden brown in a two ounces of flour until it bubadd one clove of garlic chopped fine. 1 qt. 1 lb. stir into it bles. Put the fish into the tureen and strain the soup over it. BOUILLABAISSE. (4. 176 the egg-balls in boiling water for five minntes. fry it brown in a gill of oil. as with Mock Turtle. a tablespoonfnl of saffron.

put them 177 into a gratin dish.) Make a (4. of Bechamel sauce.) Out any remains of game in half inch dice. add a little boiling water or stock to baste it with every twenty minutes. Serve the sauce on bake it the dish with the liver. dust them thickly with bread crumbs and grated Parmesan cheese. and sift an eqnal qnantity of bread crumbs with it. macaroni - - }i pt. 1 calf's liver }i lb. dust it .) Grate an ounce Spanish Sauce as directed on page 71. larding 5" pork Soup vegetables -"^ Total . the scraps and a di-ipping pan on a bed of soup vegetables (1.THE LADIES' COURSE. (5. . (3. 50 cents. - - 2 " " ** 25 cents. (2.) When it is done take it from the pan and keep it hot while the sauce is being made by passing the vegetables and dripping through a sieve with a wooden spoon. MACARONI A LA NAPOLITAINE. season it an hour and a half in a moderate oven.) 5 10 - Bread crumbs and Parmesan cheese 8 cents. and of larding pork. sauce.) Lay it in ceipt for Fricandeau of veal on page 150. or one that can be sent to the table. Boil the macaroni as directed on page 40. (3. INGREDIENTS. INGEEDIENTS. CALF'S LIVER 1 LA BORDELAISE. - 60 cents. and brown them quickly in a hot oven.) with a teaspoonful of salt and a quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper.) Put the macaroni. of Parmesan cheese. season them with salt and white pepper. lard it as directed in the re(3. - - * After cutting off the smaller lobe of the liver to use for Mock Terrapin Soup. }4 lb. and game in layers in a dish suitable to be sent to the table. Spanish sauce Cold game - Total (1.

oysters Total ----- 5 2 - - 2 cents. heat warm boiling water. fit on the lid.) Pare the turnips. (3. small turnips - - - - - -5" 5 " - - - - - 5 " }4 pint green peas Parsley and seasonings Total 40 cents. egg. and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. . Put it into a saucepan on a bed of vegetables. roll it up compactly. - ----- 55 cents. the turnips in When the vegetables are wanted. put a clean cloth over the top of the saucepan and Let the beef simmer slowly for three hours. and seasonings - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 pt. SALADE A LA SUEDE. _--___ INGREDIENTS. remove the string. with a gill of vinegar and ten whole cloves. and Serve quickly in a hot oven. season it with two teaspoonfuls of salt. 4 lbs. it BRAIZED BEEF 1 LA PEINTANI^JRE. 3 5 " " " 13" 30 cents. (2. strain the gravy over it. cover it with broth or boiling water. ------ Cold potatoes Olives and capers 2 pickled herrings Apple. and garnish on each side with tufts of it i:)arsley. and pickled beet Oil. boil them only until tender in Avell-salted boiling water.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and fill the turnip cups with them.) them Trim the fat in cold water. (1. and tie it tight. and skin from the flank of beef. brown it hot. and then lay them in cold waBoil the peas in the same way. the peas with a tea- spoonful of butter. scoop them out in the form of little cups. or until quite tender.) When the beef is tender lay it on a dish. vinegar. flank of beef 1 qt. thickly witli the cheese and bread crumbs. INGREDIENTS. and lay ter until vranted. arrange the little cups of peas around it.

THE LADIES' COURSE. capers.) hard boiled egg sliced. tablespoonfuls of oil. spread it with jelly.) Put them into a salad bowl. and add it to the batter with one ounce of sugar. " 2 8" ---~-_-_2'* - - JeUy Total - - - - - 2 " 10 " 30 cents. 179 Skin and slice the herrings. FRENCH PANCAKES. roll it up. . Beat together till smooth six eggs and half a pound (2. and beet. INGREDIENTS. a teaspoonful of salt.) Melt four ounces of butter. running the batter evenly over the surface of the pan by tipping it about.) Peel and slice the potatoes. one of vinwith two them dress and egar. (2. and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. a hot frying-pan. and half a pint of milk. and serve hot. and fill the center with the olives. apple. (4. milk 3 - oz. ) Lay one pint of freshly opened oysters around the salad. dust it with powdered sugar. 6 eggs }4 X lb. and beat till smooth. (3.) of flour. fry the pancake light brown. sugar 6 cents.) Put by the tablespoonful into (1. flour - - - - - - - - " butter }4 pt. and a (1. slightly greased. (3.

COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. lettuce and beet 32. MI-CARilME SOUP. put until wanted tor use.Car erne JSoup. (5. put these vegetables over tlie fire in a quart a half of cold water. and throw tuce leaves in little rounds them into well salted bcilmg water for one minute. Chocolate Eclairs.) Stamp half a dozen letwith an apple corer. a VIndienne. filets them between two platters to cool. 2 lbs. with the filets. Kemove (2. . Mi. boiled as directed in the receipt for Cream of Beets. and rub the remains of aside them salt. the filets of the flounder as directed on page Pare a carrot. . on page 165. . -----INGREDIENTS. - .) Stamp the filets in the same sized rounds. Halibut filets a la Marechale. milk 2 butter oz. . 180 CHAPTEK VIII. Cakes. and onion. flour and seasonings Soup vegetables. Boast Turkey.) 12 cents. Cream. flounder 1 qt. . then drain them and put them into cold water until needed. . turnip. Curry of Duck. lay . carefully. and and a teaspoonful Then remove the of and bring them to a boil. Bread.) - - 8 4 " " 2 " " 5 31 cents. and let the vegetables simmer slowly. French Salad.) Stamp similar rounds from thin slices of a cold beet. Potatoes a la Creme. (4. (3. make a bo^iqiiet of herbs. Kale ivitJi Butter Sauce. - - - - Total (1. EIGHTH LESSON OF THE LADIES' COURSE. .

) When ready to use the soup. an inch wide. (8. cover the upper side with the sauce. lay that side down on an oiled platter.) Stir together and flour until milk. HALIBUT FILETS A LA MARECHALE. - - 5 - 4 5 butter Flour. cover one side with the Allemande Sauce. so may that the brightness of the contrasting colors not be impaired. out moving them. let it will them stand five it to the fire. two ounces each of butter they bubble. INGREDIENTS. and. (7. Remove yolks of two eggs. add half a pint of boilino^ water. (3.) Make an Allemande Sauce as follows: ounces of butter and one and a half ounces of flour over the fire until they bubble. gradually add the boiling quart of the water in which the vegetables mering. and boil the sauce three minutes. lettuce and beet. --------- Halibut 3 eggs 1 lb. stirring it constantly. and about three inches long. (2. mushrooms and seasonings - 20 cents. stir two (1. minutes. stir in the two minthen be ready for use. over the more fire salt if it is required.THE LADIES' COURSE. Bread crumbs and lard for frying 2 oz. add the rounds of fish. and utes longer. and let tlie Then. or the essence from a can of mushrooms. season with a level saltspoonful of salt. season the soup with quarter of each of white pepper and grated nutmeg. return it from the and fire. the filets ISl through the sieve with a wooden spoon.) stir it Dust the table thickly . Put one quart of milk over the fire to boil. withfilets stand five minutes to harden the sauce. mix the soup smooth with an egg whip. stir in the joi^ree ) (6. quarter of a saltspoonful each of white pepper and nutmeg. and serve instantly.) Cut the hiiXWmt in filets quarter of an inch thick. and one have been sima saltspoonful adding a little made from the trimmings of the filets. 3 *» Total " " " 37 cents.

and fry them golden brown in smoking hot fat. lemon-juice and seasonings Total (1.. and quarter of a saltspoonful each of white pepper and nutmeg. pnt them into a sance-pan with a gill slice two onnces of butter. peel them thin. flour and seasonings 5 - - - 60 cents.) Stir . " 4 l cent. 25 cents. butter. potatoes 2 oz. if hot.) - - 20 cents. and a tart apple. cored. INGREDIENTS. Boil as directed for Green Vegetables on page 50. Total Make 5 " " " the curry as directed on page 115. duck }4 " rice 5 Cocoanut and apple Curry. INGREDIENTS. and serve with Butter Sauce made as follows. 3 lb. (2. butter Plooir and seasonings Total (1. and Cook and serve the rice as directed in the same sliced. and toss them over the fire till Croufo7is of fried bread may be used as a garnish.. - - - - - 3 cents. garnished with parsley. ---------INGREDIENTS. desired. 1 qt. KALE WITH BUTTER SAUCE.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. Lay them for a moment on brown paper serve them on them from to free grease. CURRY OF DUCK A VINDIENNE. of receipt. and a folded napkin. 4 " 3 " . 183 with bread crumbs. 45 cents. a saltspoonful of salt. }4 peck purple kale 2^oz. adding a cui)ful grated cocoanut. - - 10 cents. beat up an egg. of milk. a teaspoonful of lemon juice. butter Milk. peeled. bread the filets. POTATOES A LA CR^ME.) and - Boil some neAV potatoes as directed on page 47.

and pour over them the following dressing. Turkey )4 " cheese Bread. FRENCH SALAD. 7 lb. ---.) Chop the kale. a level tea- and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. secure the thigh bones in that position by a cord or skewer. . legs as far up toward the breast as possible.) Thoroughly cleanse the cress and lettuce. ROAST TURKEY. (2. and quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper. pour it wilts by standing after it has been dressed. head lettuce Materials for Salad Dressing 1 - - - Total 5 *' 15 cents. arrange them in a salad bowl.40 Dress a turkey as directed in the receipt for Chicken (1.. and season witli a teaspoonful of salt.) Eoast the bird as directed in the receipt for Roast Duck. (1.56 - . (2. 183 two ounces of butter and one of flour until they bubble. and then fasten the legs down close to the vent. . making the gravy as for that dish. watercress Scents. --.-•----------INGREDIENTS. and warm together over the it fire in the sauce before serving. The salad over the salad and serve it at once. twist the tips of the wings back under the shoulders. on page 123.) Mix to- gether a tablespoonful of vinegar. $1. egg and onion Total - - - 8 5 3 - $1.THE LADIES' COURSE.) Carry on page 115. (3. herbs and seasonings Butter. two of oil.-------5" INGREDIENTS. shake them dry in a clean towel. 1 pt. then add half a pint of boiling water. spoonful of salt. stuff the bird with a forcemeat made as di- Bend the rected on page 124.

and use them. flavor it with a five minutes. made as follows. put the batter by the tablespoonful on a baking-sheet. 3 Total (1. (3. and beaten. brush the tops with Chocolate Icing. fill . pour it into a bowl to cool. two ounces of powdered sugar and the yolks of two eggs. and fill them with Pastry Cooks' Cream. (2. let them cool. (4.) Make the batter for the eclairs as dij-ected for Cream Cakes. 8 eggs 8 cents.) baked and cooled. " 1 oz. 5 " 25 cents. brush the tops of the puffs with beaten Qgg. and then fill the pufls with it. stirring Eempve it from - - " " " melt in one four ounces it constantly and beat When thoroughly mixed six eggs into it.) Put one ounce pint of water. (3. and when let it - - - - 20 cents.) Cool them. made as directed in the following receipt.) Mix together in a sauce-pan two ounces of corn starch. of flour. put the cream over the fire and stir it constantly until it has boiled Remove it from the fire. (1. then gradually stir in a pint of milk. 184 CREAM CAKES. two at a time. INGREDIENTS. - of butter over the fire to the water boils beat into cook five it minutes. When them with Pastry Cooks' Cream. to prevent burning.) tlie fire INGREDIENTS. butter 2 Flour and corn starch - - - - 3 - milk Sugar and flavoring 4 1 pt. cut them open at one side. putting it upon the baking-pan in strips three inches long and an inch and a half wide.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. first buttered and then floured. teaspoonful of Vanilla Essence. Mateiials for Cream Cakes Chocolate and sugar Total - - 20 cents. CHOCOLATE ECLAIRS. and bake them in a moderate oven about half an hour.

in the mouth of a rather and serve them. - - a White Soup as directed - 15 cents. NIlfTH LESSON" OF THE LADIES' COURSE. on page 148. Galantine of Chichen... Potatoes a la Maitre cV Hotel. Asparagus Peas. if the sugar forms a clear.. (2. qts. 1 2 2 bunch celery oz. Cumberland Pudding with Rum Sauce. Braized Capons with Tongue..) Trim six of the white stalks of celery. butter milk Total Make - . Lobster Salad. and brush candy brittle it is the eclairs with it. PUREE OF CELERY. Puree of Celery. and then into cold water.THE LADIES' COURSE. . boiling at once by dipping the sauce-pan containing the sugar into another pa^'tly filled with cold water. 36 cents." which may be decided by dipping a small stick first into the boiling sugar. CHAPTER IX. Eels en Matelotte. . ia5 Make a Chocolate Icing as follows: put four ounces of sugar and a gill of water over the fire and boil and skim it until it reaches what is called the '* crack. now stir in an ounce of finely grated and sifted chocolate. - Flour and seasonings (1. - m 4" 16 " i cent. boil them until tender in well salted boiling water..) - r. the receipt for Puree of Salmon. INGREDIENTS. cool them. Dry them cool oven. rub them through a sieve with a wooden spoon. Check the ready for the chocolate.

matelotfe and simmer it one hour. toss ful each of butter POTATOES A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL. potatoes MaUre d' Hotel butter Ipt. butter - • button onions Bread. and then add them to tlie If the sauce evaporates.) Peel a pint of button them over the fire until brown with a teaspoonand susrar. (3. 186 and blend is tlie done. eels 2 oz. if it as soon as it it be kept hot. add a glass of wine to it. -----INGREDIENTS. two inch lengths. broth - - - - - Total slices. put and bring them to a boil in plenty of cold water containing a tablcspoonfnl of salt. season the mafelotte with a teaspoonful of salt.) " 3 2 " 5 ----- Total Clean the them over the eels. (4. fire cut them in cents. INGREDIENTS.----34 lbs. minutes. 3 " 3 " 9 cents - Boil the potatoes as directed on cut them in quarter inch - page 47. and two tablespoonfuls of vinegar. 4 " " 38 cents. roll of a saltspoonful of pepper. add enough boiling water to make up the original quantity. and quarter (2. 2 ---.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. or taining it Puree with the Soup. - - - - - - - Wine (1. flour and seasonings }4 pt. take them up. onions. ~ - - S cents.) Boil them fifteen a clean cloth. and serve witii some crotUons of fried bread. When the matelotte is done.) When they are brown add a lonqnet ot herbs and a pint of boiling water. set the sance-pan con- to is Serve into anotJier partly filled with boiling water. 1 qt. EELS EN MATELOTTE. Pare them. dry them on them in flour and fry them brown in a sauce-pan with two ounces of butter. an onion stuck with ten cloves. and put them into a sauce- .

put the forcemeat on it. clean cloth. made as directed on page 34. finely minced. skimming it clear. an onion peeled and stuck with ten cloves. the larding pork and tongue cut in one inch dice. Toss them over the fire till hot. The conchision of this receipt is given in the next lesson.THE LADIES' COURSE. nutmeg. (3. replenishing the stock Avith boiling water. chicken into the water containing the carcass. 24 " 5" 13" $1. chicken 2 " forcemeat *' larding pork }i " cold tongue }i 1 gill wine 2 eggs - Soup vegetables and seasonings Total (1.) Lay the flesh of the chicken on the table. so as to have the chicken entirely covered with it._---------------------. (4. and mix it tiioroughly. with a bouquet of herbs. Season the forcemeat highly with a teaspoonful of mixed ground cloves. 187 pan with some mattre cVhotel butter. ---. fasten to Roll the ends firmly with strong twine. taking care make the roll compact and perfectly Put the and boil it secure. and fold the chicken up over it in the form tie it of the bird. two raw eggs. and near the ends of the roll.add to it the wine. INGREDIENTS. and bring it to a boil. mace and allspice. slowly for three hours. it tightly in a strong. 4 lbs.) - Bone the chicken Boned Birds on i^age 125. 50 cents.08 directed in the (2. skin down.) " " 2 4 - .) Either make a forcemeat of one pound each of fresh veal and pork. and serve them at once. . or the butter may become oily. and a pint of broth.. andasaltspoonful of peppei. as - - . GALANTINE OF CHICKEN. a teaspoonful of salt. with tape in the center.-. " 10 receipt for Put the carcass over the fire in four quarts of cold water. or use an equal quantity of nice sausage meat. a carrot and turnip peeled.

) cnion stuck with ten cloves. r. half a level teaspoonful of salt. -----INGREDIENTS. about two hours. an (1.20 Prepare a capon for boiling as directed in the receipt for Boiled FowLon page 24. lay them in cold water for five minutes to set Chop them fine and rub them through a their color. INGREDIENTS. and put it over the fire to simmer gently in sufficient boiling water to cover it.) When ready to use it. cut is 3 it tender.) Wash two small fresh calfs tongues. Keep enough salt.) gus. BEAIZED CAPONS WITH TONGUE. drain them. (2. -20" - 5 " 3 '» 13 " 2 2 " *' $1. in half inch lengths as far clown the stalk as and boil it as directed for it Green Vegetables on page 50. and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper.75 - broth - - - - - ^ ' Igillwme 1 oz. 1 capon 2 small tongues ^ Soup vegetables and herbs 1 pt. - Total " 18 cents. boiling water in the sauce-pan to cover the capon and tongues all the time they are cooking. Thoroughly wash a bunch of youug green aspara- (1. bunch asparagus Butter and seasonings 1 - - - - - 15 cents. (2. sieve with a wooden spoon. a level tablespoonful of and ten peppercorns.) Put a handful of any green herbs in season into boiling water and salt. put them with the capon to simmer until both are tender. heat it over the fire with one ounce of butter. 188 ASPARAGUS PEAS. a carrot and turnip peeled. butter Flour and seasonings ----- Total cents.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and serve it at once before the color changes. use them to color the sauce. with a bouquet of herbs. (3. boil them three minutes. .

189 which is made as follows. gi'een fat. dish them on a little of the sauce laid on the bottom of a platter. llobgtef Materials for Mayonnaise Eggs.) Make a Mayonnaise as directed in the receipt for Cardinal Sauce. and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. with dish of capon. If there is any coral. a saltspoonful of boiled eggs cut in quarters. capers. (2. spoonful of salt and quarter of a saltspoonful each of pepper and nutmeg. LOBSTER SALAD. on page 152. cover the salad with it. garnish the dish with parsley. (5. (1.THE LADIES' COURSE. Remove it from the shell. or spawn. olives. and add thQ 2ntree of herbs to it. and send the remainder of the sauce to the table in a sauce-boat." a hard. and the stomach. add the wine and half a pint of the broth from the capon. pour two tablespoonfuls of salt. INGREDIENTS. often called the 'Hady.) Stir together over the fire one ounce each of butter and flour until they bubble. and two hard over the salad a dressing oil. and Season the sauce lightly with a saltstir until smooth. Serve it as soon as it is . - - - 10 *' 5 " " - - Total 10 50 cents. shake fingers. and decorate it with olives.) When the capon and tongues are done. of one of vinegar.) Boil a lobster as directed on page 31. round membrane lying near the head of the lobster. placing a tongue on each side of the capon. save them to decorate the salad with. reserving dry in a towel. (3. the white lettuce leaves. made. the coral or spawn. and capers Lettuce and salad dressing ' - - - * - * 25 cents. tear it and arrange it the white it apart with the in the salad bowl with the lobster. inner leaves for made decoration. throwing away the intestine which runs through the center of the tail. (4.) Wash the lettuce. when it is required for use.

) Put all these ingredients. eggs. Grate the rind of the orange and lemon. add the bread crumbs. set it in buttered a saucePut the pudding into a pan containing boiling water enough to reach two-thirds up its sides. (4. except the lemon juice. thin slices. into a bowl. and serve it with Rum Sauce. -----------INGREDIENTS. 190 CUMBERLAND PUDDING WITH RUM SAUCE.) mould. set it over the fire. add the rum. and squeeze their juice into separate cups. and steam it three hours. and mix them together thoroughly.) Melt two ounces of sugar over tlie fire with the lemon juice and a gill of boiling water. 4" rum - - - - - 6" - 4 13 Total " " " " " " 47 cents. Then turn it from the mould. . dust it with powdered sugar. (3. Pick over and wash the Pare and chop the apple. and use the sauce at (1. (2. 6 oz. six ounces of sugar.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.) once. Shred and chop the siiet. Cut the citron in currants. made as follows. bread crumbs 6 " currants 6 " suet 6 " apples 8 " sugar 4 " citron 6 eggs 3 2 gUl 5 - -_-_-_-_ 8 - - Orange and lemon 1 2 cents. and a teaspoonful of salt.

1 partridge or prairie 1 rabbit 1 - - 50 cents. flour and seasonings Total cents. substituting the veal. Shad-roe Salad. and a rabbit for the soup meat. GAME CONSOMME A LA DESCLIGNAC.) Royale Paste. butter Vegetables. Galantine of Chicken. Oyster Patties. carp }£ lb. TEi^TH LESSOlSr OF THE LADIES' COURSE. a partridge.) Make - ----- 25 3 10 5 7 $1. a to the Consomme a as directed in the receipt for Serve as soon as Royale. CHAPTER 191 X. hen - - knuckle of veal Soup vegetables 7 eggs Total (1. 3 lbs. la la Cliamhord. larding pork }4. INGREDIENTS. Shoulder of Lamh a la Financiere. 5 - - - 25 13 2 3 93 cents.-45 -----INGREDIENTS. and add consomme tlie paste it added. (2. ham. -----.00 a conso^nme as directed on pages 105 and 106. Make la . Game Consomme a Carp a DescUgnac.THE LADIES' COURSE. is CARP A LA CHAMBORD. as directed on page 144. and clearing it perfectly. ------------------- " button mushrooms 1 gill wine 1 oz. Potatoes a la Provent^ale. - - ----------------- ham }i\h. Macedoine of Fruits.

Chicken 2 eggs 2 oz. and flour until they bubble. 192 Dress a carp for baking.) When the carp is done transfer it to a platter without breaking it. --------25 gelatine ^ pt. them with a little salt. season it with a teaspoonful of salt. and serve them hot. butter Shallot - - and seasonings Total (1. and half a saltspoonful each of white pepper and nutmeg. (3. cents. of cold boiled potatoes in little balls with a vegetable scoop or knife. which - « (2. on page 150.) dripping-pan on a little bed of herbs and vegetables. and fry yellow in an ounce of butter. (2. closely covered.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. the one ounce each of butter fire add half a pint of boiling water gradually. and bake Mix together over it half an hour in a moderate oven. potatoes 1 qt.) Chop one shallot.) Lay it in a (1. and simmer gently. and serve it hot.) pepper.*=--- 3 cents. " 3 " 2 7 cents. garnish it with parsley. ---------------2 -------15" INGREDIENTS. remove the skin from the upper side. wine Total 42 cents. stirring the sauce smooth Avith an Qgg whip. (4. GALANTINE OF CHICKEN Sprinkle (to finish). and lard it as directed in the receipt for Fricandeau of Veal. loz. a small onion of intense flavor.) Cut a quart ^ ^ - ^ ' is - - .) it Put the potato pale balls into the frying-pan with the shallot and butter. add the button mushrooms and wine. POTATOES A LA PROVENgALR INGiREDIENTS. and toss them over the fire until they are pale brown. season it with a teaspoonful of salt and quarter of a saltspoonf ul of (3. for twenty minutes. pour the sauce over it. .

flour 2 cents.THE LADIES' COURSE. into the well drop the ounce of butter reserved. are the sole extraneous aids to the manipulator's skill. on page 106. Boned Turkey is prepared in the same way. (1. (4.) was boiled. smooth about two feet long and two and a half inches in diameter. " butter 16 " oysters 25 " " 1 qt. and lay it upon some ice. white flour. roller work out all the salt and buttermilk by kneading it with both hands. and then keep out about an ounce of the butter. % X lb. Materials for sauce - . a round. sift of fine. Serve it cold. so that all the boiled threu hours. it the stock in which night. Make a Puff Paste as follows: some ice. fold the rest in a floured napkin. and the yolk of one Qgg. under a heavy in it. and let all luis 193 fat. and a smooth stone or marble slab. putting aside about two ounces to dust the slab with. lay upon it half a pound of butter.) remove the up again the chicken it up.) Lay the Galantine. cut in fanciful shapes. and garnish it with the jelly. and clarify it as directed in the receipt for consomme. pour it into two shallow moulds. add to it two ounces of gelatine dissolved in a pint of cold water. take cloth. (3. Strain it through flannel until perfectly clear.) Wet the slab with a little water. and cool until the jelly is firm. Strain (2. INGREDIENTS.) Remove it put the stock over the fire. wash it in cold water. a (2. and let that stand over the fat can be removed. weight. color one dark brown with Caramel. OYSTER PATTIES.) pound Next dry the slab thoroughly. and tie the chicken put it between two phitters. and work them to a cream with the tips . - - - Total 10 53 cents. form upon it half this in a circle or well. or boned chicken on a dish. stand over night to cool. When (1.

fold lay it fall in a long and place upon pan it it upon the the flakes. lay the paste on it. or part next the roller. down upon the slab. this process toughens it so that the butter will not break through in the subsequent ipulations. more or less.) Now raise man- the paste and dust the slab again with flour.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. and fold the paste up and over it so as to cover every part. flatten it doAvn. and beat it with the roller for five minutes. lay on the paste. as all the air-cells that can be gathered unbroken in the paste assist its rising. and roll out to a square of about eight inches. accordinfj to the body of the flour. will he used. lift its outer edge and gently lap it over the roller towards you. *The paste is now ready for forming turn the facedown. so ice. in three thicknesses lengthAvise. it it up and in a ball dust the slab lightly with flour. now tui-n the sheet of paste gently about on the slab. roll it gently inward. being sure not to tear it.) this. pan filled with pan of ice. tunitheface of the paste. gently unwind it from the roller. turn the ball thus formed upside doAvn. that the paste will be completely surrounded with ice. in turning the paste. set this in a larger a third slab. so that every part may be rolled to the same thickness of about one-quarter of an inch. or the part which has been next the roller. keeping it around the roller. when you wish to replace it upon the slab. lay upon it the lump of cold butter. taking care not to break through the latter. let the pans . letting the face. take clean and free. paste about on the slab until it leaves and does not cling to the fingers. 194 from of the fingers. and lifting it clear from the board when you wish to turn it or change its position in any Avay. roll it out gently and evenly until the butter is incorporated Avith the paste. (3. to do (4.) now Avork the well. turning and doubling it constantly. to this grudually acid the flour tlie with enough ice-cold water poured on from time to time. floured. as required to form a dough about the consistency of short-cake {about one cup of water.

* Ee^ieat the process described between the asterisks six times in succession. or large pastries. or vol-au-vents. and wet the under layer with a soft brush dipped in cold water. . and put in a moderate oven five minutes. have the paste one quarter of an inch thick. and the process gives the pastry a beautiful golden glaze. putting them together as for patties. always bearing in mind that the cooler kept the better ic will be. wet the baking-pan with water instead of greasing it. or the butter will lie unevenly in baking. set it for five minutes upon the ice in order that the layers may adhere.. or in the coolest phice command. or they patties are done before taking (7.) Lastly. and cut out in shape with a sharp tin cutter of the size reqnired. In forming vol-au-vents. at one side. and be sure that the them from the oven. have it about one third thicker. (5. lay the paste upon it.. this is called doree. will fall.) Cut a little circle in the center of the and fill them with Oysters a la Poulette. For small tarts. patties. or patties. and every time folding in an opposite direction. made as' directed on page 166. then finish at a heat of about oOC^ Fahr. After will rise the sixth time of folding. brush the top of the second layer with an egg beaten up. every time turning the face of the paste with the folds down to the paste is the slab. use three or even four thicknesses of the paste. stand for you Ctin five 195 minutes in the ice-box. and gilding the top. or gilding. so that all the air-cells will have a chance to expand. marking a circle an inch in di- ameter on the top of each with a small pastry cutter. brushing the under layers with cold water. for patties use two layers of paste. put one over the other after cutting out.for large ones. every time setting the paste in ice for five minutes. (6. roll the paste out to the thickness of onequarter of an inch.THE LADIES' COURSE.) To and the paste finish.

shoulder of lamb 3^ can of mushrooms 3 lbs. then adding half a pint of the broth from the lamb. cents. the end of the knuckle^ shoulder as directed for Canto7i of Stuff it page. SHAD-ROE SALAD. and a slight seasoning of nutmeg and pepper.) with a forcemeat made as directed on the same (3. - - - broth larding pork Total(1. Boil the roe.03 - . Cock's-combs and truffles are part of the regular Financiere ragout._ ------ IgUlwine - and bone the on page 120. lard it as directed in the receipt for Fricandeaio of Veal.) - ---_-. --------10 -.) Sew it np in the form of a cushion. garnish it frill on the end of the bone. the mushrooms and the liquor in which der lay it with the following sauce. and serve it hot. place them in a salad bowl. (4. (5. tomatoes 1 Lemon juice. shad-roe 1 head salad Ipt. 36 cents. - - - - - - - butter Eggs. with one " them in vin- head of tender . Trim off - . separate the grains by washing egar. (2. lay it in a saucepan on a bed of the trimmings of the larding pork and some scraps of vegetables and herbs. INGREDIENTS.) When it is ten- on a dish after removing the string. 196 SHOULDER OF LAMB A LA FINANCIERS.) Make the sauce by stirringtogether over the fire one ounce each of butter and flour until they bubble. oil. sive and difficult to obtain. the wine. but they are expensalt.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. bread crumbs and seasonings 1 oz. -------3" ------ and seasonings - - 5 - Total 23 cents. }£ lb. 18 " 13 " 3 5 Lamb 24 " " " 5" $1. 2 qts. cover it with broth and simmer it for four hours. put a paper they were preserved.5" INGREDIENTS.

and one fords. poured into an oiled mould and allowed to become firm. lettuce MACEDO INE OF FRUITS. 20 '* 20 " " " " $1.THE LADIES' COURSE. dress them with two tablespoonfuls each of oil. - - . and then the monid should be set upon the ice nntil the macedoine is perfectly firm. - - '« 25 *' 25 25 Total of fruits 20 25 U U A macedoine 20 cents. and strained tomato pulp. }4 pt. Serve the salad as soon as it is made. the effect upon the contrast of color which it afThe jellies must be melted separately.candied cherries " oranges }i " " " grapes " " currants - - - . More fruit and jelly should be added uutil all are used.80 may be made of any fresh fruit in season. seasoned with cayenne pepper. currant jelly K 1^ " orange " wine " - '• X X " lemon " lb. or of candied fruits of contrasting colors. It may then be turned from the mould and served. Some of the frnit shonld be laid npon it. of the dish depends . lemon juice. then another jelly poured in and allowed to set. im and one pint of ripe tomatoes cut thin. ----- INGREDIENTS.

stirriug salt it smooth over tlie fire.) 10 cents. Scallops of Sturgeon aiix Fines Herhes. Make . Potage a la Hollandaise. in boiliug water and salt. and put them into cold water to keep their color. vessels. Shrimp Salad. so that they will not lose their color. Pudding Diploni atique. put the vegetables into serve it it it lightly with to heat. turnips. aud grndnally add them to the soup. a clear stock as directed on page 105. POTAGE A LA HOLLANDAISE. seasonings and herbs 1 pt.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. cut the string beans in diamonds.) Cut the carrot and turnip in the shape of olives. (3. 37 cents. - - 3 " 5 ** 5 4 " " butter Total (1. knuckle veal Carrot. and hot. Brussels Sprouts a la Maitre Roast Pigeons.) Beat the yolks of six eggs with half a pint of milk. green peas 1 " string beans 1 " milk 1 6 eggs 2 oz. - . in separate the knuckle of veal. . cV Hotel. and shell the peas. Potatoes ivitli Sauce Piciuante. from (2. of. season and pepper. 198 CHAPTER XL ELEVEN^TH LESSOI^ OF THE LADIES' COURSE. . at once. boil all these vegetables till tender. Chichen Saute a la Marengo. -----__--__ ---------------6" -----__ 4" INGREDIENTS. .

- wine Flour. dry them on a clean towel. POTATOES WITH SAUCE PIQUANTE. 1 gill - - - - - 38 cents. 5 5 - Cut some cold boiled potatoes in slices. capers and vinegar 1 pint of broth Total - _ - - " " 15 cents. sturgeon Materials for Marinade Oil for frying - Fried parsley - - Make ing anotlier a gill 30 cents. and a gill of oil. toss them over the fire in a sauce made according to the directions given on page 95. 1 quart of potatoes 1 oz. page 118. - - . pickle. and toss them over the fire till brown. and serve them hot. butter -- 3 cents. dried.) Cut the sturgeon in small slices. 2 lb. _-_. - - - - - - Marinade *' 15 " 55 cents. with the following ingredients. a level teaspoonful of chopped onion. - Onions.. .INGREDIENTS. and garnish them with parsley which has been washed. add- as directed oii of oil to it 15 -5" - ----- Total (1. CHICKEN SAUTE A LA MARENGO. (3. chicken }^ can mushrooms 3 lbs.THE LADIES' COURSE. substituting a pint of broth for the boiling water.) Arrange the scallops neatly on a dish. (2. -_----XNGREDEENTS. which must first be made hot: a tablespoonful each of chopped parsley and mushrooms. AUX SCALLOPS OF STURGEON 199 FINES HERBES.) - and lay the sturgeon iu it for two days. _____ -2" INGREDIENTS. and dipped for one minute in hot oil to crisp it. oil and seasonings Total - - - - - 18 *' 13 " " 5 74 cents.

INGREDIENTS. see if When (3. Brussels Sprouts Materials for maitre d'hote! butter - - - 20 cents. a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper. - Total - - - -- 5" 5'* &5 cents. half a pint of broth or water. and stir in an ounce of flour. the beans slivers.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. a teaspoonful of salt. maitre beans (V hotel butter. boil 34. ROAST PIGEONS. (2. and roast them twenty minutes. one ounce of butter. but do not wash them. and enough boiling water to cover the chicken. salt. before cooking. When the livers are done. Total Cleanse the sprouts in plenty of cold water and them as directed for Green Vegetables on page ready to use them. put in the mushrooms.) . and put over the fire Meantime chop the them to simmer with the grated rind of one lemon. is add the wine.) Tie a slice of larding pork over the breasts. 6 pigeons - 75 cents. it until it tender. or and when with some 50. one clove of garlic and a bouquet of herbs. ----- INGREDIENTS. reserving the livers. String same way. 5 " 25 cents. when the flour is brown add Prepare a (1. 1 qt. is is and serve the dish with a garnish of croiltons of fried bread. «00 Chicken Curry on page 115. and simmer tender. add (1. BRUSSELS SPROUTS A LA MAITRE UHOTEL. - larding pork Materials for sauce }4: lb.) cliickeii as directed for one teaspoonful of quarter of a saltspoonful of jjcpper.) Brown it in a sauce-pan with a gill of oil.) livers. may being cut in diamonds.) the seasoning the cliicken palatable. Pluck the birds and dress them. (2. warm them over the fire made as directed on page be cooked and served in the salt. (3.

and dried by shaking spoonful of parsley. ------. lb. INGREDIENTS. 1 " butter - - - - - - - . .--_. - - Total (1.) Make a sauce by dissolving a teaspoonful of corn starch in a cup of cold water. 1 pint of shrimps head lettuce 1 Materials for Mayonnaise - - - - Total (1.) and dress the salad with it. . well buttered. citron 6 eggs 1 pt.. the raisins. containing enough boiling water to reach twothirds up the sides of the mould. in layers with the fruit. PUDDING DIPLOMATIQUE. 5" 15 " 35 cents. raisins *' currants 3 " 4 " 2 " 2 oz.) Beat wash and dry the into a plain mould..----3" --------4" -------6" _-____. slice the citron. it with a (2. (4. four ounces of sugar. put it made as follows.) Stone currants. ----INGREDIENTS. made as di- in a clean towel. Chop a tableMayonnaise. SOI the lemon juice. whicli must be well washed. a custard - and pour over them six eggs with a pint and a teaspoonful of Vanilla essence. adding two tableof milk. 50 cents. (3. 15 cents.THE LADIES' COURSE. and serve the sauce in a sauce-boat. milk 4 sugar oz. SHRIMP SALAD. Gar- nish the pigeons with watercresses. put an ounce of butter on the top in small bits. mix rected on page 152.) Slice the cake. and arrange them in a salad dish with the lettuce. (2. set the mould in a sauce-pan. Boil the shrimps five minutes in boiling water and remove the heads and liard shells.3" Sponge Cake X X 25 cents. and pour the custard over the pudding. and simmer the pudding an hour.) salt.

to the Y/ater in which the carrots were boiled. dust send it to the table with the sauce in a sauce-boat.) Boil a pint of green peas in boiling water and salt till tender. THE LADIES' COURSE. wash them in cold water to set their color. --------------5" -----.) slice in . Mutton Cutlets a la Milanaise.) Mix one ounce each of butter and (lour together dry. PUREE OF CARROTS. To Glace Fruits and Nuts. (2. green peas Carrots 4 oz.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. French Beans saute aux Fines Herhes. XII. Puree of Carrots. Turhan of Flounders a la Hollandaise. Filet de Boeuf a la Macedoine. and turn TWELFTH it. it with powdered sugar. CHAPTER LESSON^ OF and Y/hen the pudding is done. 202 spoonfuls of currant jelly and a glass of wine to bringing it to aboil. mould. (3. and stir them into the puree to keep it from settling. 1 " 2 1 pt.) it out of the. (5. Total Pare and " the carrots and boil 16 cents. Italian Salad.3" -----------INGREDIENTS. Potatoes saute a la Barigoule. butter Flour and seasonings 1 cent. them two quarts of boiling water till tender enough to rub through a Return tlie puree thus made sieve with a wooden spoon. sausage meat 5 cents. and put them (1. Gateau de Princesse Loidse.

bake them fifteen when rolled. flounders - - Hollandaise Sauce - - 12 cents. ------------4" ----INGREDIENTS. - 3 cents. and balls them over tlie put them into the tureen with the peas.THE LADIES' COURSE. MUTTON CUTLETS A LA MILANAISE. . and 1 lb. into the soup tureen. of pepper. potatoes Oil and seasonings - - - . (2.) - - - Filet the flounders as directed " 10 22 cents. Total 16 cents. 1 qt. pt.) 203 the sausage about quarter of an inch in diameter.) Season the soup with two teaspoonfuls of salt and quarter of a saltspoonful pour it into the tureen upon the peas and forcemeat balls. pour it over filet up. Cut cold boiled potatoes in the shape of olives. roll each it in place with a little wooden skewer. POTATOES SAUTE A LA BARIGOULE. ) Make a Hollandaise Sauce as directed on page 111. and toss them over the fire till brown in hot olive oil with a tablespoonful of chopped green herbs. INGREDIENTS. 2 lbs. and serve it at once. Parmesan cheese Bread crumbs. secure set tliem ov turbans J as they are called tlie filets. and serve them hot. 4 fat for frying - - - - - - - 6 " " 30 cents. and minutes in a moderate oven. (5. on page 32. and on a dish that can be sent to the table. meat into make ^Icautiuie (4. ------INGREDIENTS. mutton cutlets X " macaroni 2 oz. - Total 10 " 13 cents. TURBAN OF FLOUNDERS A LA HOLLANDAISE. - - - - ----- Total (1. egg. drain them on brown paper. }4. toss fire in a frying-pan until they are brown.

1 pt. deau of Veal.-5" INGREDIENTS.) Lard the _ - - - - - - - - 5 - . serve them hot. toss them over the fire till hot with an ounce of butter. 204 Trim (1. and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper.) the cutlets free from bread tliem as dion pages 32 and 33. put in a mound in the center of a dish. arrange the cutlets ai-ound it. Cover it with stock and simmer it an hour. rected in the receipts for fried filets mixing a little grated Parmesan cheese with the bread crumbs. S lbs. the beans in diamonds. FRENCH BEANS SAUTE AUX FINES HERBES. and fry them light brown in half an ounce of butter. (2. a saltspoonful of salt. -----.) Meantime cut the carrots and turnips in the form of olives. boil the macaroni as directed on page 40. seasoning them with a teaspoonful of salt. --------------INGREDIENTS. or until tender.) Meantime. a teaspoonful of chopped onion. Total Cook the beans as directed in the receipt for boiling Green Vegetables on page 50. a tablespoonful of chopped green herbs. larding pork 1 pt. stock }£ lb. beans Butter and herbs 5 cents. it . string - - - - - - 10 cents.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK.92 filet as directed in the receijit for Frican- Lay in a sauce-pan on a bed of scraps of vegetables and trimmings of larding pork. of filet otheet $1. fiit.10 5 - ----- Cauliflower and asparagus Carrots and turnips - - - 5 . FILET DE BCEUF A LA MACEDOINE. half a cauliflower in little branches. and serve the dish hot. dust it with the rest of the grated Parmesan. string beans - - Total (1.12 - 5 $1. (2.50 Soup vegetables 1 qt.

dish it and arrange them around it in little groups.) Boil all these vegetables (3. page 152. and cook 50. Cut the cauliflower in and lay them in cold water (2. hot. -----INGREDIENTS. and cut them in cylinders quarter of an branches.) 30 cents.THE LADIES' COURSE. bunch half a them 205 peas. strain over and serve it it enough of the broth to moisten it. Shell the peas. pepper. tcaspoona witli two tablespoonfuls of oil.") Arrange all the vegetables on a salad dish. and then peel off . heat as in separate vessels. these vegetables separately in a little of the broth it has been cooked in. in lu " of loaf sugar the nuts about twenty Cut the the shells and skins. one of vinegar. and fuJ of salt and quarter of a saltspoonful of serve the salad. and cut it in cylinders like the carrot and dress them (4. inch thick nip. turnip and beet Cauliflower and asparagus Oil. Sauce on the beet as directed in the receipt for Cardinal turnip. of asparagus in aspr^ragus Green Vegetables on page directed in the receipt for When the Jilet is done. green peas 1 " string beans Carrot.) 5 cents. as directed on page 50. Cut " 3 - - - - - - - ----- Total (1. roast minutes. --------------INGREDIENTS. vinegar and seasonings 1 pt. shells. the asparagus heads. TO GLACE FRUIT AND NUTS. Cut Peel and slice the carrot and turthe beans in diamonds. '^ off 10 * 5 ' 28 cents. ITALIAN SALAD. Total (1. 1^ " Malaga 2 oranges 3^ lb grajpes French chestnuts - - Slit the chesnut - " ^^ 49 cents.) Boil to preserve their color. IW lbs. little and an inch long.

Total - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 - - - - 10 cents. and the rest by the tea(1. and bring it slowly to a boil. Sponge Cake sheet Material for Cream Cakes cream Sugar and flavoring }4 lb. dip the fruit into the sugar. Peel and quarter the oranges. taking care not to break the inner skin.COOKING SCHOOL TEXT BOOK. because dampness softens the sugar and makes it run. and dry them by Put the sugar into a copper sn gar boiler.put part of the paste on the baking pan in a hollow ring as large as a dinner plate. (3. and the sides of the and Avhen the sugar boils it. an instant longer The moment the proper point is reached than necessary. glace fruit and nuts - 1 pt. take the boiler from the fire and glace the fruit. It may be necessary to test it several times.(4. in large air bubbles dip a little stick into proper point. up lift the boiler an instant to when it falls wipe the sngar from Have a boiler with a clean. ------ INGREDIENTS.00 and cream as for Cream Cakes . and then pieces touch.) A clear day should always be chosen for preparing fruit in this way. and then up quickly into the cold water. wet cloth. if the sugar crackles and breaks easily away from the stick it has boiled to the bowl of cold water by the fire. the fire. 25 - - 5 40 " " ** " $1. (2. and lay the skewer on a sieve so that the fruit hangs over the edge.) Have each nut and piece of fruit stuck on a thin skewer. and care should be taken not to let it boil may be laid on a dish until required for use. The may be held by the stem and moved about in the the fruit grapes sugar until they are covered with it.) Make a pafe-cJioux paste . 206 grapes in small bunches.) with three As gills of cold water. and so that no two The sugar will harden quickly. gAtEAU DE PEINCESSE LOUISE. often as the sugar boils check the boiling.

keep the gateau very cold until wanted for use. them with the Cream Cakes.THE LADIES' COURSE. taking off it tlie froth as fast as sieve. (3. (5.) When it it appears firm. and whip it to a stiff froth. When all . draining it on a second the cream is whipped fill the gateau with it. and finish sieve. edge of Cut the sponge cake sheet to fit the outer the rim of imte-choux paste. syrup. and draining is half it upon a done color the remainder bright pink with a few drops of raspberry or strawberry whipping it.) Sweeten and flavor the cream to taste. (6.) Glace the little puffs. and fasten them upon the rim.) with a little of the glacL (4. spoonful in cream little puffs. blending the white and pink cream tastefully. and as directed in the receipt for 207 fill Glace some nuts and fruit as directed in the previous receipt. ornament it profusely with the glace fruit and nuts. and fasten the rim to (3.) bake them. (7.

In order to comprehend the possibilities of frugal living. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF NUTRITION". School of Cookery underlie the mere culinary treatment of food. Y. CHAPTEK I. The economic value of food. The principles of economy which form the basis of the system of instruction followed in the N.PART V. we must ask perfectly clear. To make our system tion for an outline wliich at saic. The effect of cookery upon food. as velopcd and practically illustrated. We it is de- shall successively discuss the following points: The physiological composition of the body and the ele- ments necessary to the maintenance of health which are supplied to it through the medium of food. The action of the digestive organs upon food. The alimentary action of condiments. some study must be made of the proportionate nutritive value and economy of the This appendix in a form is best known alimentary substances. . designed to present these facts to pupils sufficiently popular to admit of their application to every-day use. Beverages and their nutritive values. APPENDIX. The requisite amount and variety of food. but will srrow interostino. first sight may seem atten- rather pro- but wliich will be found not only indispensable to the success of oLir teaching:.

CORRESPONDIN^G ELEMENTS PRESENT IN POOD. and various fatty and organic trin. In order to fully explain our meaning. soda. cheese. silica. The liver unites water. and potash. phos- phorus. albumen. and fats. Bone contains and the salts of lime. acids. milk. All these elements exist in our we common foods. the cereals.PHYSIOLOGY OF NUTRITION. Cartilage consists of chondrin. Edward Smith's summary of physical constituents: Flesh and blood are composed of water. iron. sugar. potash. another analogous to casein. cholestrin. eggs. Bile has in its substance water. bumen. and albumen. The lungs are formed of a substance resembling gelatin. fat. soda. magnesia. water. lime. fat. 209 PHYSIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE BODY. matters. and lime. magnesia. exists in butter. even in Fat fish. and some extractive gelatin. fat. fibrin. with phosphoric and other acids. wliich resembles gelatin. and potash. combined with phosphoric and other acids. phosphorus. eggs. potash. magnesia. and salts. choles- some fatty and organic acids. iron. iron. Thus find water in the different beverages. iron. cartilage. cheese. we briefly recapitulate Dr. lard. and albumen. in fruits. . osmazome. soda. al- and the compounds of lime. and the salts of potash^ and soda. fat. drippings. fat. The brain is made up of water. soda. suc- culent vegetables. fibrin. resin. phosphoric acid. and iron. gelatin. and thus clearly points out the elements we must supply to it through the medium of food. meat. Experimental physiology plainly indicates those substances which enter into the composition of our bodies. soda. together with the salts of sulphur.

Of course. gelatin. fish. Siili)huris both present in meat. 210 fish. and An voice of the physical system it may its always be trusted to indicate the foods necessary to the preservation of health. and gluten are the chief nitrogenous. milk. the cereals. but also exists in common with potash in many variou>3' in Potash is vegetables. Soda is largely present in ^sh. flesh. Iron abounds in found in fibrin. and is more or less Starch. common salt. but it is the fact that different races of men habitually use those foods which are best suited to enable them to resist the physical waste Nature has given us an uner- caused by labor or climate. Upon the first consideration of this subject. and are found both in ani' 1 and vegetable substances. salts exist and fruits. and chocolate. starch.APPENDIX. Fat. the greater proportion of LOur the first elements being present in flesh. the cereals. nuts. Fibrin. SUITABLE CHOICE OF DIET. Sugar abounds in fruits and vegetables. and are found chiefly in vegetables and cereals. cess of digestion is changed into glucose or grape sugar. meat. is present in vegetables and cereals. casein. it might seem possible that errors in judgment might arise pending selection from such varied food resources. which in the proapparent in milk and cereals. and vegealbumen. tables. and the latter cocoa. the leguminous vegetables. albumen. amount of nutriment required by their occupations unperverted ap- making known and habits. or flesh foods. ring guide to a proper choice of diet. the individuals will vary with as well as with their mental conditions. petite is tiie needs. and casein. /egotables. but this does not preclude the desirability or necessity for fixed dietaries and specific bills of fare. and magnesia are found in meat. in veoetables- The animal and vegetable Phosphorus. and sugar are the principal heat foods. and potatoes. ^ods. lime. It only .

A plain. For. When the dinner is eaten at noon. or tea. DINNER. or less. accompanied by an equal quantity of bread and half a pound of vegetables. Graham pound some warmed-over potatoes. involves discrimination in their use. Cereals in any form are a flour. of a pint of hot coffee or cocoa. of butter. circumstances and occupation affect the choice of food.PHYSIOLOGY OF NUTRITION. (i. e. quarter of bread. The following is our plan for the dietary of healthy adults. A little done. for BREAKFAST. required early in the morn- two reasons. SUPPER. and the activity of the digestive organs demands a fresh supply of alimentary matter for distribution throughout the system. the hours of sleep are tliose in which the vital forces draw upon the nourishment stored in the blood for their reenforcement. A mid-day dinner obtain it. serious physical disarrangements can be largely counteracted by the judicious selection of aliment- ary substances. or half a pint of choco- with a palatable addition of milk and sugar. the supper. 211 wliile. bread . made of whole meal. when it is possible to because the burden of the day's labor is not yet demands abundant nourishment in order to accomplish it. should consist of a pint of tea or milk. valuable addition to this meal. or three ounces of fish and a quarter of a pound of meat. or quarter of a pound of fresh or salt meat or fish. ing. one ounce. on the other.. AMOUNT AND VARIETY OF FOOD REQUISITE Plenty of nutritious food is TO HEALTH. and the system strong coffee or cheese may be often used with advantage to digestion. with sugar. is preferable.) if possible. nutritious pudding and some fruit may conclude the meal. The repast should consist of half a pint of soup. on the one hand. One late. and two eggs.

and plain biscuit or crackRich cake and pickles should be avoided. many of us have forgotten it. from choice or occupation. after the eating.APPENDIX. but we do not always remember the fact that the delicate food which lias exercised the skill of both caterer and cook is only the comparatively raw material which we are forced to draw upon for the daily are all sensible of the attractions supply of our physical needs. some farinaceous food. ACTION OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS ON FOOD. as we do forget most of the abstract knowledge of school before we have been a year away from of the workings of the digestive system. this particular . for the possibility of a comfortable or healtliy slumber. as a relish. The labor of procuring food and preparing it for the table fails to answer the end for which it was undertaken. We which a well-spread table possesses for a hungry man. so that the labor of digestion can be completed before the hour of retiring. Til ere are many persons who. dine at a late hour. times this meal should be light and eaten early in the evenand butter. at all impaired. we can derive from it those elements we need to maintain us in health and strength. In that case the meal should not be and should be comparatively light an accumulation of if the digestion is undigested food in the stomach and intestines will preclude later than seven o'clock. ing. in order to meet the requirements of life. 212 and a couple of ounces of meat or cheese. unless. have already said regarding the close relation between food and health. The importance must be apand after what we of this part of the subject parent to the most careless observer. we think all our pupils and readers will follow us with interest in our endeavor to give a popular resitme If we have studied branch of physiology at school. At all ers. All nutriment must travel the road from the stomach to the blood without hindrance.

. which the absorbent system can take up and transmit to the blood. Even in the case of substances whicli solidify in the temperature of the stomach. Digestion is a complicated process. Before half their allotted term of life has expired they are unable to its functions. by decry- is ing our physical attributes and disregarding our daily necessities in ostensible care for our spiritual or intellectual parts. Hence. through which the food must pass during digestion. the first office of the digestive organs is to disintegrate the particles of food and resolve them into a sort of emulsion. and they lose their hold npon it perform before their time. but the revival of some of sary if enjoy we want know to it8 points is the meaning of 213 absolutely neces- and intend life to it. ments be changed. who seek to cast discredit chanism. WHY FOOD MUST BE DIGESTED. it. the stomach. but it must also be reduced to a semiliquid state. consists of many comthat much-abused organ. which upon this wonderful the greatest work in nature. THE USE OF APPETITE. npon others recoils The wrong thoy do themselves and their own heads. are ence quite sure to pay the penalty of their indiffer- or neglect. not confined solely to That part of our bodies called the alimentary canal.PHYSIOLOGY OF NUTRITION. It is a pernicious habit of thought which leads persons Those vain reasoners human me- to disregard the claims of appetite. or of the foods with — which they are combined in cooking such as milk. where nutriment is stored preparatory to the renewal of the wasted atoms — of the body. Food is generally of a solid consistency and needs to undergo definite changes before its nntriment can be Not only must some of its eleimjiarted to the blood. blood and eggs they must undergo reliquefaction before they can be digested.

or the proper mixture of the alkaline saliva with food. until it is reduced to a soft paste. Ave can understand at once the important office of the saliva. i:n^salivation. by food. it readies tlie must acquire before it can leave the The soft coats and yielding tissues of that orstomach. 214 partments. tlie MASTICATIOJ^. gan are forced to do the grinding and tearing work inthe consistency it The time tended for the teeth. fluids of the . digestion which one whicli is is left to indifferently is the our discretion. hence. Each compartment has its own specilic work to do in the This process process of changing food into nutriment. Insalivation serves a double purpose. by moistening food and helping to dissolve its most soluble parts.APPENDIX. and mins^les with the The saliva. and from this overtaxation spring seeds of dyspepsia. united to each other by tubes and openings. instead of being reduced to that even moist pulp upon which the gastric juices of the stomach can act. When food is 'Mjolted. and. Mastication. AVlien food is is greatly the first properly divided by the teeth." instead of being thoroughly mas- stomach in lumps of different sizes. It is called insalivation. It would be impossible by simple mastication to reduce food to that semi-liquid condition in which it can be noted upon by the stomach. the second step toward digestion takes place in the mouth. and thus becomes the fruitful parent of countless bodily ills. or chewing our food. mouth. which flows freely into the mouth durino: mastication. performed in only part of It is also tlie many cases. wher6 food beo-ins in the jected to is masticated and sub- action of the saliva. softening and partly dissolving food. It is taxed beyond its powers in reducing these lumps of food to ticated. enables the organs of The loii2:er we chew a morsel taste to distino^uish flavors. of digestion lengthened.

PHYSIOLOGY OF NUTRITION. being enough to average proportion as follows: with the use of juicy fruit. and thus besfin the transfood. may be A tlic influence of and the alkaline intesti- familiar instance of this elementary change chewed longbecome well mixed with the saliva." The quantity of the secretion depends upon the character of food. acquii-es a very sweet taste. The food passes from the mouth into a tube or canal. of circular contraction. four per cent. The much as fifty per cent. This fact alone sliould teach us the importance of thorough mastication. Brinton gives the cited in the case of bread. ENTRANCE OF FOOD INTO THE STOifACH.. from the fact that the starch it contjiins has undergone the partial change into sugar. for it is an obvious proof that Nature designed the process to be pleasant enough to indnce us to the more we heigliten lis flavor prolong Insalivation mingles globules of air with our it. iind tliemore thoroughly we mix it witli 215 thesfdiva. formation of food. '* makes the mouth water. the universal promoter of chemical chanoes in the system. The flow of saliva seems to depend upon either the sight Even the idea of a palatable meal or the thought of food. which has the power and forces its contents down into the stomach. which. with meat. and with one hundred and fifty use of spices augments the secretion of sa- liva. v. arrested during the passnge is of food through the ncid gastric juice of the stomach. or its digestion. as per cent.. is resumed under nal fluids. These contain oxygen. and increase our own enjoyment.hich is a pouch-shaped enlargement of the The largest part lies under theoesophaalimentary canal. about hard bread or crackers. . the blood. called the oesophagus. or swallowing. Mastication and insalivation are followed by deglutition. This change or grape sugnr. of food. which is its change into the elements of nutriment which are to be mingled with It also ])artly transforms starch into glucose.

until all its nutritive properties available in stomach digestion are converted into tlie milky substance called chyme. In this condition some portions of it are absorbed by the stomach. which is caused by the action of two layers of muscles. On around it by a kind of churning motion. during which time the gastric juice is poured out and mingled with it. such as the lean part of flesh. the gluten of bread and cereals. nor oil undergo any chemical change of elements in the stomach. AND STOMACH GASTRIC JUICE The gastric juice is a compound fluid DIGESTION. when food but not when the stomach is is in- empty. and prepared for passage into the small intestine by being reduced to a semi-liquid consistency. It only that class of elements which we have familiar under the name made of nitrogenous foods. connected with the small intestine. the food carried is explain. The stomach generally larger when the food is of left. Neither starch. which is about 100 degrees. running lengthways and crossways. The celluof milk. situated toward the is holds about three pints. the fish. Starch is hyd rated or gelatinized by the moisture and heat of the stomach. . the fiber of and the white of eggs. but a coarse texture and bulky consistency. the chief of which are pepsin and lactic acid. The object of the motion is to change the relative position of tlie particles of food. aud capable of expansion and contraction in all directions.APPENDIX. and the motion continues from one to three hours. and the fats are melted by the same temperature. sugar. 218 gus. so that they are brought successively into contact with the digestive fluid. made up of several substances. Tlie food traverses the stomach in about three minutes. as we shall now entering the stomach. is and the smaller end. It is secreted by the walls of the stomach troduced into affects it. the casein albumen or gluten of vegetables. on the right side of the body.

which is tlie third compartment of the alimentary canal. Here the starch is acted upon by the mixed intestinal and l)ancreatic fluids. the passage of fluids through animal membranes. into this semi-liquid state may by the digesand prepared for ab- be classified ns follows. The gluten while of bread and the albumen or casein of cheese are digested. which is produced by the action of the gastric juice upon nitrogenous matters in the stomach. chyme and undigested food pass or upper part of the small intestine. 1. called chyle. INTESTINAL DIGESTION. Glucose. while the starch of the former and the oil of the latter remain undi- gested until they reach the small intestine. Albumenoid substances. lar tissue of fat the lean is meat is dissolved converted into chyme. The fats and oils. and completed in the duodenum by the alkaline in- testinal fluids. These fluids are capable of digesting any nitrogenous matters which may have escaped the action of the gastric juice. both animal and vegetable. now remain to be digested. Heretofore. that is. or grape sugar. and entirely changed into sugar and prepared for absorption. The different elements of food. or chyme. tion of food really begins in the stomach. suspended in the stomach by the acid reaction of the gastric juice. opaque fluid. . the formation of which is begun in the mouth by the alkaline action of the saliva. converted tive fluids sorption. as we have already said. they have only been melted.PHYSIOLOGY OF NUTRITION. and the 217 oil set free. 2. The absorp- where some of its extremely liquid portions pass at once into the blood by a process known as osmosis. now they pass the upper pjirt of the small intestine and unite with the pancreatic juice. From into the the stomach the duodenum. which can be absorbed. which changes the oil globules into a white.

carries it upward. ca- into the circulation by this The chyle which passes medium. which lies in the left side of the neck. IS substances and glucose lose tlieir identity passage through the thoracic duct. osmotic and lacteal. milk-white emulsion. its duct. Here the large vessel called the thoracic duct takes up the nutritive fluid. so that during their when its con- tents arrive at the entrance to the general circulation. and the lacteal absorption of chyle. close to the spine. when they remain are gradually trition. and discharges it into the general circulation through the left sub-clavian vein. little change of elements. they are already so perfectly prepared for assimilation with the blood that the union results in a well-nourished fluid. under the collar-bone.APPENDIX. unless they have been used in excessive quantities. 3. HOW NUTRIMENT ASSIMILATED WITH THE BLOOD. Thence the oily matters are carried to the right side of the There they lose heart. We hare already referred to the osmotic absorption. is not assimilated to any great extent during passage through the thoracic pable of revivifying the body. which lies in the abdominal cavity. and that part of membranes rectly it which is absorbed through the of the intestines by the capillaries passes di- through the with but liver. an oily. perceptible in the blood until they withdrawn to meet the requirements of nu- . and is continued in the intestine wherever chyme or glucose is present. yielded by fats under the action of the intestinal fluids. which takes place in the stomach. is the mingling of the nutritive fluid with Some physiologists believe that the albumcnoid Assimilation the blood. which is performed by a set of vessels terminating all along the inner surface of the intestine. Thence the nutritive matters enter the receptacle for chyle. There are two kinds of absorption. and subsequently into the lungs. HOW kutkime:nt is absorbed ixto the blood. their identity. 218 Chyle or lymph.

by increasing the volume of food. contact causes a local irritation. and rendering it less compact and solid. permits nothing to ex- without a use. through the alimentary canal its nutritive matters are undergoing absorption. and then lower them as they relax. continued from above down v>'ard. and the diameter of the intestine until its contents are forced tion. second. draw its contracted portions upward. being a rigid economist. peristaltic action would almost entirely cease. is part of digestion which the beginning of the mechanical known is as peristaltic action. where they become feces. The contraction is decreased at that point downward into another secdownward passage of follows the the food. These pass into the of the food large intestine. thus causing a peculiar writhing. by increasing peristaltic action by the irrita- it tion they cause during their passage through the alimen- were not for the presence of this waste matter. whicli perfects the down- ward movement of the During the passage food. The churning movement already spoken of as taking place in the stomach. At the same time the straight muscular fibers of the intestine. they expose ist more thoroughly to the action of the digestive fluids. from the effects of which the circular muscular fibers of the intestine contract. so tliat by the time it has reached the end of the small intestine nothing remains but the indigestible portions. as tary canal. creeping motion is its former proportions. Nature. THE USE OF WASTE MATTER IN FOOD.PHYSIOLOGY OF NUTRITION. If it . which cannot be converted into food. This action is continued in the intestines wherever food This comes in contact with their mucous membrane. which pass from end to end of it. and. 219 THE MECHAXICAL PART OF DIGESTION. These indigestible portions facilitate digestion in two ways: first. worm-like motion. while the part originally contracted is rehixcd to Thus a slow.

Ave clearly shall choose it as the standard for that class of substances. because they promote the action of the relaxing foods are preparations of unbolted and corn breads. and Nature would lose a valuable agent for removing the worn-out matter which This fact proves that food ought accumulates in the body. we can see the comparative All highly conA^alue of constipating and relaxing foods. We shall treat simultaneously the chemical composition and the economic value of food. milk. but their general characteristics can be ascertained enough from the following matter to answer the ordinary requirements of our pupils and readers. THE CHEMISTRY OF FOOD. and fruit CHAPTER and vegetables. such as eggs. not to be all nutrition and capable of entire absorption. if daring their passage through testine. beef being the best-known and most important animal food. For instance. In considering the economic value of food we must fix upon some well-known article in general use as the standard to which we can compare others. . rye first class. belong to the afford no indigestible matter to bowels. COXSTIPATIN^G A^D EELAXIi^G FOOD. limit of space precludes the admission of of analysis of different alimentary sub- stances. The flour.APPENDIX. centrated nutriments. II. constipation it is to serve the purposes of health. meat. The chemical composition of various articles of food so closely indicates their economic value that the study of these two points The present sj^ecial tables must be identical. and the gluten of wheat. For the reasons given above. 220 the nutritive portions of food are constantly being absorbed the stomach and small inwould follow.

unless w^e intend to consume with our half pound of meat nearly a pound dry weight of either at one meal.CHEMISTRY OF FOOD. coffee. we najne wheat because it is much more familiar to the public generally. We use such comparatively small quantities of these articles of diet that their real nutritive value is very low. as it will be seen by a glance at the following table that they are the most nutritious of all vegetables. Wheaten flour jind dried peas will serve as the represent- The comparison would be atives of vegetable aliments. However. This table of the nitrogenous (i. closer if 221 we could take lentils as our standard. their alimentary use being due to the sense of warmth and comfort which we derive from them. 5 - - - 2 2 We must - - - - - coffee — 5 7 wheat - " 1 " 5 ounce - - - 10 15 much importance " " " " " " to the seeming value of tea. England.. the flesh-forming) value of different foods is compiled from the catalogue of the Food Gallery at South Kensington. e. and cocoa.) Cost about of lean beef 11 " " 12 " cocoa-nibs 14 " tea 15 " oatmeal 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 dried lentils di'ied peas or beans poimd " " " " " 1 flour " rye meal " meal Indian meal buckwheat flour wheaten bread 5 13 2 " " 6 3 " 3 13 8 " " 10 " 15 " 15 7 10 " " " " " " " " " " - - cabbage onions - parsnips - - not attach too 5 5 - 10 10 - - - - - - - - 15 15 9 turnips potatoes carrots 5 - - " 4 - - 20 30 - - - - - - 10 40 5 - - - - - - - - - 20 - - - bai-ley rice - - - " " " " " " " " " " " " 7 - - - 3 - - 6 cents. as indicated by this table. We must also re- . About an equal quantity of nitrogenous elements exists in 8 ounces (X lb.

that the above weights are supposed to be of the uncooked material. going table to prove the importance of peas. or flesh-food is nearly equal. of cooking al- two The half pound of meat in Take. especially if it is kept in brine. for this reason. first articles. In buying pork and bacon. beans. with the pot closely covered. or heat-food. the fact will show at a glance that a poor man would exercise the greatest economy in buying the fat bacon. as well as for the valuable antiscjotic effect of the smoke. in baking. Meats cured partly of its excess of carbon. 223 member dry. so far as their concerned. The young animals contains less nutriment than full-grown ones. on account of the water it presents. etc. the boiling will lose about one-fourth of its substance. such We need only to refer to the foreas peas. on account salt and in combining cooking with vegetables which contain an excess of nitrogen. while This amount of nitrogen. so that it will be seen that the quantity of food when cooked must be considered. from equal weights of fat pork or bacon as'^from the same quantity of beef. for instance. In full-grown meats the waste in boiling or stewing. and lentils in this connection.APPENDIX. is about one pound in four. excessively salt brands should be avoided. as well as its price. by smoking are preferable to it in the pickled sorts. We get nearly three carbon. because all the salt used in excess of that required to preserve the meat extracts many of its valuable juices and mineral salts. aud that the process ters their weight considerably. while the lentils will be augmented at least three times in volume. cabbage. VALUE OF DIFFERENT MEATS. The different kinds of comparative nutriment times as much meat vary is greatly. meat and lentils. and to justify our persistent recommendation of them to those persons who wish to choose economical as well as wholesome food. one pound . and its shrinkage in cooking is flesh of that of greater.

because Bones are exceedsmaller and the amount of fat greater. tender. liealthy animal is about one-third of varies in its in the loin. which contain periments made by Dr. fibrous ter point is important. Game and poultry arc much leaner than meat. and a quarter. The difierent joints of as well as the density or looseness of their texture. Edward Smith proved that three pounds of bone would yield as much carbon. the largest quantity being present The percentage of fat is a little less than one- half in prime mutton and three-fourths in fat pork. sliin. nearly one-half the entire weight in parts of the carcass. The especiingly useful in the preparation of soups and stews. The percentage of bone varies in different joints.CHEMISTRY OF FOOD. one The waste much is pound and greater in careless cooking. The latpiece of meat of a loose. Another very important part of the animal structure is . open or the cover is not kept on The flesh of mountain sheep and cattle is said to the pot. and distribution. meat vary in economic value according to the quantity of fat and bone which they contain. These facts prove the use that can be made of a part of the animal very generally considered as refuse. especially for soup. EDIBLE ENTRAILS. the ally the bones of the leg. chopped fine and boiled slowly for nine hours. when the oven-door is left when consequently. there is very little bone in the loin and the part of the leg. and about one-tenth in the other proportion of bone in prime mutton and pork is much the bones are much less than that present in beef. preferable. PERCENTAGE OF FAT AKD BONE. be richer in nitrogenous elements than any other. A texture shrinks more in cooking in proportion to than one that has a close. its weight Tlie fat of a full-fed its entire weight. a half. 323 in roasting before the fire. firm fiber. Exmarrow. For upper instance. and. and six pounds The bones were as much nitrogen as one pound of meat.

diet. probably because they do not have all they want of it. We have been thus explicit in regard to meat because it is so highly and so unduly esteemed as an article of food. especially by the poorer classes. and these organs are very where the meat supply try. EGGS. 334 too often it thrown aside as useless. more limited than in this coununderstood. cereals. onions. such This portion of the animal yields as the haslet. On the other hand it is much more abun- dant and cheaper. in order to induce people to satisfy themselves by experiment of the Combined with actual nutritive value of this sort of food. and many varieties are well-flavored and It. refer to the edible entrails. It has long been held at its true value in Europe. while the cost is far less. and the point to be considered in relation to them is their price. FISH. except We yields in the mass.APPENDIX. and in some cases exceeds that of meat. more. Estimating the nitrogenous elements present in fish on the basis of the South Kensington Food Catalogue. of it i\s. MILK. potatoes. tripe. or leguminous vegetables. generally used as food. and that its value as food is less than that of meat. Cheese is au exceedingly valuable food. much —the nitrogen as the solid flesh. etc. and some parts liver. especially upon the seaboard and in lake and river towns. and also because they do not understand the real nutritive worth of vegetable foods. we find that a pound of red-blooded fish is equal to about eiglit pounds of potatoes. the nutritive value equals. AND CHEESE. becomes an important article of palatable. who attach an exaggerated importance to it. which varies with the season. quite perhaps for the fat is We have thrown all our influence into the scale of public opinion on this point. for instance this fact is — much In Europe. The nutritive value of milk and eggs is very generally understood. and is beginning to be . therefore.

but it is. autumn and advanta2:e of beino. its wholesome character. and of a pound of medium quality of flour. and more As compared with wheat flour. together with plenty of supply. however. contains when we consider all the fact that 8 pounds of potatoes the nitrogen a than enough carbon. while the anv season of the It is year makes it invaluable to the household purveyor.000 The avenige graiiis of carbon and 120 grains of nitrogen. even Its actual nutritive merit depends upon the for a laborer. as to its From two our army ration-list proves. 4 cents. cost of a pound of potatoes is 1 cent. and has begun to lose its value when it has become sharp or bitter. Dr. the fact that they are one of the most valuable and economical of foods. The mild and agreeable flavor of the potato. while wheat flour contains to each pound 2. of cheese. That which has been improperly made or badly kept is not so good as the prime quality. By reference to the preceding table of food values. make it a favorite vegetable. It is at its best stage when it is about six months old. Edward Smith says that the in west of Ireland la- borers are allowed 10 1-2 pounds of potatoes per day as a ration. it will be seen that potatoes occupy a comparatively low position in the scale. pota- and 24 grains of nitrogen pound. The economic compai-ison can easily be made. English dairy and American factory cheese of good brands are the best for economic use.CHEMISTRY OF FOOD. Cream cheese is the most nutritious. with plenty of bread. even considering the variation from this standard of cost which must occur at different seasons. nevertheless. and the possibility of combining it witli toes contain 770 grains of carbon to a various other foods. buttermilk. ECONOMIC AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE POTATO. properly estimated in this country. an abundant man needs for health. in summer. best. When winter. percentage of fat and casein which it contains.able to obtain it at . 225 recent addition to four ounces makes a hearty meal.

Waxy potatoes are less digestible than mealy ones. unless raw potatoes are than in others. A grown person absolutely requires from a quarter to half an ounce of salt daily to keep him in good health. The actual value of salt cannot be more forcibly illustrated than by citing that oft-quoted old Dutch punishment of congive salt the first demning criminals to a diet of unsalted food. ending . while one-fiftli. New potatoes. because of the Potatoes that length of time they remain in the stomach. allowed to stand and shrivel. in their jackets. and value is diminished. and it is the case that in localities where less nutritious potatoes form the staple diet of the laboring classes they are preferred rather underdone e. but there is a greater waste in some For instance. are a little underdone are more satisfactory to the appetite for this reason. While young people do either to stimulate taste or ful to persons not require condiments. the waste is nearly one-fourth the entire weight. (i. but more hearty. large and very carefully peeled.. while if they are peeled after cooking the waste different will not exceed one-fifteenth. are than mature ones. on account of its important bearing on the general health. The effects are said to have been unmitigated physical torture. appetite. if its nutritive not full grown. and if even if tliey are if if potatoes are boiled more than one ounce they are baked the loss will be about they are eaten the moment they are done. '^with a bone in them. ALIMENTARY ACTION OF CONDIMENTS.— APPENDIX. SC6 the spring approaches a change of elements takes place preparatory to germination or sprouting. Again. the loss will be nearly onefourth.'') The methods of cooking potatoes do not affect their nutritive value. they will not waste in a pound. they are very use- whose digestion and desire for food is im- paired. We rank among condiments.

All condiments increase our relish for food by simulat- ing the How of saliva and gastric juice and by enhancing When the flavor of the food. ly used as a condiment. and garlic. which <)nter into many among condiments digestion. and always in moderation. upon the system is marked and im- . leeks. As Ave have already indicated. particularly in very wai-m climates. shalots. its 227 excessive use hinders de- structive assimilation. in we have already attributed to salt. pleasure of eating is this effect is produced. as well as to fortify the system against the approach of local diseases. increase the solvent properties of the gastric juice. Many condiments possess actual medicinal properties. and of the table-sauces properly included dispel nausea. a carminative stimulant. These be ranked as condiments. WATER AND The action of water OTHErl BEVERAGES. Lemon assist especially valua- hot weather and in juice and vinegar. the We greatly increased. especially in the mountain districts. so that we more really derive more nutriment from well-seasoned food than from that which is so insipid as to create disgust with the readily first taste. Its flavor is marks the based upon the same alliaceous principle which taste of onions. for they are generally used simply for seasoning purposes. Ginger is ble as a stimulating tonic. all condiments should be vegetables may used with reference to their direct effects upon individuals. and its action is to aid and to prevent or abate flatulence. In very hot climates condiments are used habitually and excessively. such as fevers In Asia asafoetida is largecaused by malarious influences. the other hand. digest our food and assimilate it more perfectly. On in death.CHEMISTRY OF FOOD. used in mod- eration. and are believed to counteract the languor produced by the extreme heat. which are grateful stomachics. The spices addition to that which Pepper is digestion.

the both to blood and tlie necessary.APPENDIX. - Skim milk Carrots Cabbages New milk Apples Beets - - - . and necessary tliat it is should understand with students of cookery upon food when effect its all it is used it. PEK CENTAGE OF WATER IX 100 POUNDS OF FOOD. Lettuce Onions Beer 96 pounds. its following table of the proportion of water iH'esent in ordinary foods has been compiled from thorities. and body with also to afford for the discharge of its worn-out particles. and the blood. The it. no ordinary food is without a large proportion of and absolutely dry food should have at least four times for quantity of Avater used with it. 228 portant. tlie deductions of the eminent Englisli au- Smith and Church. tlie great circulating medium by which the nourishment derived from food is distributed throughout This the entire system. and the bones The best scientific to about one-tenth part. in order to enable new material. Wa- ter enters also into the composition of the solid portions of The muscles and the body. contains nine-tenths of water. authorities fix the quantity of water or fluid required by a healthy adult at about The quantity five pints of water taken a day. "Water indispensable to is physical functions. at least. to is fluid condition secretion. two-thirds of its substance. to repair an avenue its them to supply the daily waste. healthy operation of our tlie It enters into the composition of the body to the extent of. more tent of and teeth cartilages contain it to the ex- than one-half their substance. into the system during a given time cannot be estimated by that which is drank.

Fish (dried) - - Fat and lean mutton Bread Cheese - - Bacon Peas and beans - - - 50 pounds. AVater is usually obtained from springs and rivers. its use will be innocuous. or where it is kept in cisterns or tanks passes through leaden pipes. it lai'gely into the is composition of our important that in orcler to serve the purposes for it which should be pure. freshly. where the water passes through lead pipes. together with certain inorganic matters. When the quantity of the latter present in a gallon of water does not exceed thirty gi-ains. it should be run long enougli before using to insure a supply of fresh . the table is only ap- quantities of water present in different food vary with their age and method of preser- For instance.CHEMISTRY OF FOOD. Where water lined with lead.gathered vegetables contain maximum quantity of water. absorb Even vegetables and meats. " Rice 13 " Indian corn meal 13 " Crackers 13 " Butter 10 " Pure lard and drippings 1 Thus we see tliat we receive a large pro23ortioD of our supply of fluid in combination with our solid food. and those which have been stored some time in a dry place the minimum. It must be remembered that the above The proximate. meats which are exjiosed to the action of the tion of their moisture by evaporation. such as the mineral salts. Since water enters so daily nourishment. and where we make use of soups and stews we obtain an additional quantity. for domestic uses it is apt to be impregnated with the salts of lead to an ex- tent capable of producing lead-poisoning. " 43 " 40 " 34 23 '• 14 " (dried) 229 Flour 14 pounds. Fresh air lose a por- puri'Ty of water. For this reason. it is designed in the wise economy of Nature. when cooked more or less of its bulk. especially if these substances are dried. articles of vation. and always contains more or less organic impurities. in water.

its taste quality in water tains It is This largely due to the gases which it last con- freshly drawn from present in the form of air. This fact should be remembered in the making of tea and coffee. and it gases are nitrogen. '30 water. the second dull. and when should have no smell should be pleasant and refreshing. Hard water surface of meat or vegetables boiled in an extent us render them witli lime to such difficult of digestion. they should be freshly Soft or rain-water is filled at least much more to hold once a day. which has not lain for any length of time in the and where lead-lined reservoirs are employed pipes. Much which of the success of is cooking depends upon the water used during the process. it. Very which contains no mineral salts.tasteless and insipid. of lead than Another metallic substance which is frequently imparted to water in its passage through cisterns and pipes is iron. A familiar point may be. before it has had an opportunity to lose all its valuable gases by continued ebullition. If we want them prime.boiled.APPENDIX. made by comparing the which are in its natural reservoir. oxygen illustration of this appearance and taste of a glass of fresh spring water with some which has been lono. Drinking water should appear clear and colorless when seen in small quantities. but it imparts a disagreeable color and taste. is not healthy cooking or drinking. on account of this deficien- soft water. almost exhilarating. and should present a pale-blue or bluish-green tint in the mass. . QUALITY OF WATER FOR DRINKING AND COOKING. fresh water is more wholesome than that which has been standing in a warm or close room or exposed to the rays of the sun. This is not absolutely injurious. either for to it coats the . Cool. susceptible to the action hard water. we must make them the instant the water boils. The first will be clear and sparkling. These and carbonic acid.

Those which are boiled in unsalted soft water are soft. soft valuable solvent of animal and vegetable food during the process of digestion. in connection with tea. lose their firmness and flavor to an unpleasant It is impossible to restore either taste or degree. the body requires immediate nourishment early in the morning.CHEMISTRY OF FOOD. and nervousness. This is especially to be observed with green vegetables. connected with it. and even the solid roots. especially in the preparation of soups and stews. It also serves as a cy. and It is certainly a welcome accessory is In fact. is. while it increases the action of the skin lungs. The physiological action of this pleasant beverage is so w^ell known that any extended discussion of it would seem superfluous. discolored and tasteless. one point which should not be forgotten. however. clearness of mind. tlieni after consist- they have been cooked in this TEA.. Onions boiled in soft water without salt lose nearly all their flavor and aroma. such as turnijDS and beets.and for that reason tea. ency by salting way. which retards the action of the natural functions. therefore. it to every well-spread board. only recall some of the We all know that it causes cheerfulness. should be banished from the . We have already said that There. Salt added to soft water hardens it to a sufficient extent for the effect to be decidedly apparent in the cooking of vegetables. chief facts We shall. one of those luxuries wliich custom clothes in the gar- ments of necessity. peas and beans boil to a pudding in a very short time. and lowers the heart's pulsations. wakefulness. Medium 231 water helps the solution of the hard substance of food during the process of cooking. where the addition of salt to the water in which they are boiled maintains the firmness of their texture to such a degree as to preserve both color and flavor.

both on ac- count of their price. The usual mixture of black and green tea is four parts of excellent English mixture. and when used some extent. COFFEE. if Especially liked. tea. should they remember that high-priced teas are less desirable for general use than the medium qualities. in making coffee. they abound in deleterious properties. whose very aroma cheers and exhilarates. owing to their purity and strength. Therefore. which is excessively irritating to the delicate internal membranes. An which combines cheapness with fineness of flavor. fragrant infusion. employ milk as an adjunct. we must endeavor to secure the fragrant volatile oil the requisite strength Vv'ithout risking a corresponding lack . seldom well made tliat we very strong. it Avill we be sufficient to re- that the chief points of difference are lessening the action of the skin. is composed of one pound of Congo tea with a quarter of a pound each of Assam and Orange Pekoe. The best method for making coffee is that which yields a clear. The action of coffee need not consider mark it is so similar to that of tea that separately. in combination with the cream or milk coffee.APPENDIX. and should appear at lunch and after din- Certain rules should be followed by habitual tea ner. drinkers. Intense heat is necessary to the extraction of all the valu- able properties of the beriy. black to one of green. and because. cious mixture of several kinds of tea is A judi- often advisable. and sugar. and injurious effects. 232 breakfast table. aiding digestion to This favorite beverage is so advise our readers to remember the following points. if they wish to use their favorite beverage without They should use a moderate quantity of Always make the infusion with boiling water. usually served with coffee. but actual boiling dissipates and extracts the tannic acid of the This acid. hardens the albumen which they contain into an indigestible compound. increasing the action of the heart.

and sometimes a little when it is difficult to remove from its solution the oily cake which will colupon the surface as it cools. whicli are the husks of the kernel. If it is made in a pot containing a strainer. The water must be boilmc/ when it is poured on the coffee. the fleshy part of which i& sometimes used to produce a vinous liquor. and from a kind These kernels consist of gum. while they are much more nutritious. as cocoa shells. cocoa nibs. lect is . COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. It is so nutritious that a digest. for five or ten minutes before using. in order it to thoroughly saturate the and them so cause grounds with the boiling water. flavor of Mit must not boil afterward. The vessel in whicli the is made must stand near enough to the fire to maintain a temperature of about 200° Fahr. should be stirred for three minutes. We hbve tried Tarions coffee-pots. which consist of the crushed nuts. cup. vegetable oil. and chocolate. if it is made in an ordinary pot beverage or pitcher. to a stiff paste with It is sugar. and we are satisfied that good coffee can be made in any pot. about the size of a cucumber. and will be as stand for about ten minutes to settle. it clear as wine. starch. very nutritious. which is Next tlie to coffee these kernels ground fine. to sink. ranging from French percolators down to earthen biggins. and are marketed in four different forms. If the coffee is allowed to can be poured off carefully without disturbing the grounds. and of ground nut. two beverages find favor at the breakfast table. the finely ground powder from the kernels.CHEMISTRY OF FOOD. The right j^roportion of good coffee is one ounce and a half of the pure berry. ground cocoa. to each quart of water. Chocolate mixed starch. Both these articles are made from the kernels of a tropical fruit. it will be clear. ground very fine. they are produced from the seeds of the cocoa palm. or pitcher. Ld3 and extraction of tannic acid.

or of food is more wholesome if eaten while it is hot than after by the use of hot it The temperature of the has been allowed to get cold. heat it is application of heat greatly facili- is in close proximity to the applied to food either by placing fire. There are some conditions of illness in which sufficient nutriment can be supplied to the body by means of certain nourishing drinks. and are free from the possible injurious influences of tea and coffee. THE EFFECT OF COOKERY 0^ FOOD. The object of cooking tive elements may into healthy blood. used judiciously.punch. is when they are rapidly swallowed they are unaffected hy the alkaline action of the saliva. digestion is suspended. air. and severely tax that portion of the digestive system. Iceland-Moss These beverages chocolate. NUTRITIVE BEVERAGES. and egg-nogg. and. they pass through the stomach into the small intestine with their elements un- changed. beef-tea. begins the digestion of the starch If their starchy por- tion has not been affected by the saliva. hot water All cooked ing. The are exceedingly valuable. said. Both cocoa and chocolate are very nutritious. such as egg-tea. to prepare food so that its nutri- be changed by the process of digestion The tates this process. will satisfy hunger. should always be administered under the direction of a physician in cases of serious illness.APPENDIX. excessive use of teas and gruels tends to injure weak digestive organs. and the temperature must be regained before digestion into it .. as in baking. small cake of it. as we have already of which they are largely composed. of hot vapor as in steamas in boiling and stewing. milk. which. and when anything is introduced stom-ach which lowers that temperature. especially this fact true of gruels. for that reason it is a good lunch for travelers. 234 weighing about two ounces. as in broiling and roasting. is 102^ Fahr.

can and disintegrates is that which its fibers so that it and which make meat palatable and be easily digested. and bringing it slowly to the boiling point. that will go farther towards maintaining health and strength than any other article of diet of equal pecuniary value. will. or bones. vegetables. or beef tea.embered that they take more time for com- . The best method of cooking animal food retains all its juices. boiled for five minutes. if properly prepared. in order to preserve them it is necessary to coagulate the albumen of the cut surfaces by excessive heat. tainiup. food cannot be digested until its temperature corresponds with that of the stomach. the juices contain the flavors the valuable mineral salts nutritious. in broiling or meat should be exposed to the intense heat of the open fire until the surface is browned. by this process the flavoring and salts of the meat are preserved in it. the importance and economy of soup as food is not yet fully understood in The trimmings of meat. and then so far withdrawn that there is no danger of burning. for that reason.* which can be maintained until the soup is done. or even this country. In boiling and stewing it should be plunged into boiling water.it When it is desirable to extract them for soup. the object is best served by soaking the meat for a short time in cold water. 235 can recommence. The fact that hot food is a ph^^sical economy should never be Food should not be used while cold unless the forgotten. so as to prevent their escape. putting it over the fire in the same water. system is very much heated.' When vegetables alone are used for food it should be rem. for as we have already explained. This OYcrtaxes the whole system. the to finish cooking slowly. make a wholesome and hearty meal. and then the utensil conshould be removed to the side of the fire so that the meat can simmer until it is done. and allowed roasting. and even then the quantity should be limited.CHEMISTRY OF FOOD.

233 plete digestion. in a word. elements of the flour are lost by Thus we paring in its many see that it. as. while gratifies our gastronomic tastes. it . It and diversity of form upon increases the bulk of various aliments. it in- sures the fulfilment of the requirements of health. instances it and nutritive values and stews. making wheat and other cereals into bread. as in aerated bread. leavening. and must be supplied in greater quantities than animal food. the rapid introduction of carbonic acid gas by means In ferent and the mechanical introduction of air. or raising by means of fermentation. as in ordinary home-made or bakers' bread.APPENDIX. as none of the nutritive of baking-powders. three difmethods are employed. good cookery economizes food by pre- elements for direct absorption into the system. in soups gives that variety which the appetite of flavor so largely depends. for instance. the latter is undoubtedly the best means if it can be pro2:)erly accomplished.

etc. CHAPTER 237 III. D. and tliat containing sufficient water and waste age.. the selection of foods matter locally well known. 4 1879. At the period of cliildhood the transformation of the nutritive elements of food. necessary to study several leading points: first. PHYSICAL TRANSITION. . S.* The correspondence and orphan asylums of tliiis office with boiirding schools reveals not only the necessity of in- struction in cookery. Commissioner of E Incation. but the need of sup})lying certain practical information at once that can be furnished at pre- sent in no form dietaries. of those for whom they are designed. Department of the Iiiterir. TJ. the climate in which they live. John Eaton.DURING CHILDHOOD. and its publication was ordered by the Hon. Carl Schurz. nf the Bureau of E Incation. the and occupation of those for wliom the dietaries are intended.r. Superintendent of the New York School of Cookery. AVasliineton. a due variation of aliment. to supply the demands of the system without overtaxing the digestive organs. sex. The fol- lowing have therefore been supplied on request by Miss Juliet Corson. fourth. into thnt healthv and well nourished blood which is the source of physical and mental *Repritited from Circular No. DIETARY FOR SCHOOLS. third. second. Tliis Dietary was prpnared at the request of the Hon. whether upon a mountain or plain. and the location of their dwelling. whicli so well as by the specific suggestions of recognize the condition with respect to age. and their provision in quantities ade- quate to the requirements of the consumers.DIETARY FOR SCHOOLS. C. whether warm or cold. Secretai-y of the Interior. To plan it is dietaries which can be applied to special uses.

guardian. and the supply of nutritious food. 238 goes on with greater rapidity and persistence strength than at any other time of life.'re of the youth of either sex. Facts warrant us in of ffivinsr of who permuch his de- saying that the parent. The ordinary occupation at this time of life is study. hence the importance to children more than to grown persons of an abundant supThe underfeeding of a child is ply of wholesome food. It often is the case at this period of life that the appe- becomes abnormal. the . and of sending him to an untimely grave. ADOLESCENCE. or instructor mits a child to sutfer from innutrition Is as Bad effects can were ended at one blow.notion of the skin and bowels should be carefullv refrulntod. the greatest and most unremitting care is demanded. . if children are to grow up into healthy and well developed a time Ox rapid growth and and these conditions are atmarked physical changes. tended with the This is exhausrion of all that reserve force which mav have been accumulated during a well nourished childhood. should be ample. equivalent to tlie deliberate destruction of his mental faculties as well as tbe ruin of his health. but they can usually be easily remedied. cise in the open air and freedom from vexatious or severe tite fails perceptibly or stud V should be secured. while the effect of under-feed- stroyer as insf if life cannot always be counteracted.APPENDIX. making him an inefficient member of society. men and women. Especially from the age of twelve years up to eighteen. especially of flesh-forming materials. the task of meeting such contingencies is imperatively imposed upon Exerthose having the chnr. It is a sure means him a weak mind and a defective constitution. undoubtedly be produced by over-feeding.

In cold climates and during the winter season an abundance of heat food is required. Soups and stews. and nine-tenths of the volume of t]]e blood. All flesh foods conmore or less of it. A well housed and warmly clad person requires less food than one thinly clad and exposed to the severity of the elements. a healthy type of food must afford considerable waste matter or innutritions particles. as in midwinter.DIETAUY FOR SCHOOLS. healthy action of tion of waste The woody is it tlie cannot keep uj) the natural and digestive organs. The inhabitants consume more heat food than those who live in the lowlands. Irs office is to assist in i\e digestion and dis- tribution of food elements. The important part which water holds in the nourishment of the body can readily be comprehended if we remember that it constitutes at least two-thirds of the entire substance of the body. and all concentrated and dried of the tain foods should be cooked with a liberal addition of water. 239 and even the lighter studies are more arduous than the greatest amount of open air exercise or any manual labor which is not excessive. EFFECT OF CLIMATE AXD SEASON. and to forward tlie elimination worn out particles of the body. of hilly regions NECESSITY FOR WATER AND WASTE IN FOOD. so that even under the most favorahle physical conditions the system must be well nourished. Avhich are exceedingly wholesome and nutritious. If food is too highly concentrated or composed entirely of nutritive elements. In addition to water. usually contain about three-fourths of water. a certain propor- indispensable. fibre of vegetables and the bran or husks of . and a greater quantity of all kinds of food. The system demands the most generous supply of food when the season is coldest.

is indisponsablu to health. except salt. absolutely injurious to the expanding system. process of destructive assimilation as to render the sen- . but serve to render food less compact. and fresh fruits and Foods composed almost entirely of nutritious vegetables. but they should be used only by direction of a physician. exercise a pleasantly stimulating and '^staying" inflnence that is. Where physical debility is marked. as both appetite and digestion are usually normal in youth. The action of tea and coffee upon the system prolific of discussion. but the fact is is a theme conceded by the best authorities that both those agreeable boveraci^es. and the stimulus caused by their presence in the bowels promotes the excretion of the worn out particles of the body.APPENDIX. wlien used with food consists in their action in promoting the appe- and stimulating the digestive organs. and fine white flour. meat. A^D STIMULANTS. ACTION OF TEA AND COFFEE. tliej are not consumed system. they so far retard the in . and should be supplied in a sufficient quantity to meet the demands of an unperverted appetite. howare not required and should be used sparingly. Foods containing a wholesome quantity of waste matter are called relaxing foods. rye. milk. tating its are constipating in tiieir effect CO:S"DIMEXTS The vahie upon tlie system. a vigorous youth requires. when used moderation. carefully blended tite with his food. stimulants may be valuable. such as eggs. ever. about half an ounce of Alcoholic stimulants are salt per diem. because their tendency is to retard that change of tissue so essential to the process of growth. elements. condiments Salt. and corn meal. of all condiments. 240 cereals are waste matter. and include bread made from unbolted flour. thus in the facili- mingling with the gastric juices.

necessary heat is and. until it is at heated to this temperature. that orsfan must bo taxed to afford . establish the fact that Ffci-guson. In youth. of the for youth are moderately cool temperature of about 45^ F. about 100^ F. and bread enough to a child Avould be well nourished . unless the artificially supplied before its introduc- tion into tlie stomach.. satisfy the appetite. but after reaching the age of seven years.DIETARY FOR SCHOOLS.. an inspector of factories. but as they also possess considerable fat and nutriment. between the ages of thirteen and sixteen children grow nearly four times as fast. Actual scientific experiments. on milk for breakfast and supper. and plenty of sweet. pure milk. the physical requirements of children are best met by a plain mixed diet. But the proper beverages "water. so that the process of Food cannot be di£:ested diofcstion mav not be impeded. and become correspondingly strong. satiou of amount hunger less acute. MILK AS A NTTRIE^q^T. FOOD VALUE OF COCOA AJS'D CHOCOLATE. and sufficient strength should be supplied by food to meet all the demands of the bodv. With plenty of milk. The temporaiure which food is eaten should approach that of the stomach. made in England by Dr. PROPER TEMPERATURE OF FOOD. and to 241 a certain reserve of strength even during liard labor. change of the nutriment contained in food into well nourished blood should never be retarded. therefore the action of tea and the coffee is undesirable. Cocoa and chocolate have a somewhat similar stimulating effect. their moderate use in youth is less objection- able than the use of tea and coffee. about one quart per diem. as when ordinarily strong tea and coffee are used.

Monotony of diet is to be avoided because it restricts the supply of food elements essential to good health. and vegetables. rice. green corn. are all common and healthy foods. . coffee. Because the equal and adequate nourishment of the body influences the formation of both mind and character. Sngo. unless some physical idiosyncrasy justifies their indulgence. VARIETY OF FOOD NECESSARY TO HEALTH. unless combined with plenty of milk and eggs. tea. A wholesome .APPENDIX. "arrowroot. macaroni. 'J'oo also injurious to the di- gestive organs. car- and beans are wholesome. hot spices. are of but little use. fruits and are berries. means must be employed to increase tlie desire for food.and abundant variety of food can be obtained in almost any civilized locality: broiled and roasted meats. plentiful. besides tending to destroy the teeth. and sugar. lettuce. the utmost care should be given to the selection of the diet. and where vi- tality is impaired even in a slight degree. excellent. and cheap. EFFECTS Such indigestible bread. slight alimentary needs of the system. ice cold upon the water process great a degree of heat in food is of digestion. onions. except during illness. poultry and fish cooked so as to preserve all their natural juices. especially apj^les. when some bland. peas. and tapioca. all seed-bearing pears. such succulent vegetables as potatoes. by causing irritation and weakness. celery. grapes. eggs plain boiled and rather soft. simple food is required to satisfy the rots. but unfounded fancies about new or peculiar articles of food should be corrected firmly and kindly. unripe fruit OF INDIGESTIBLE FOODS. articles as fat meat. milk. spinach. rich pastry. 242 This fact accounts for the unwholesome effect of it.

spinacii. and their sjstems predisposed to inflammatory affections. tiiey should be alternated with a sufficient degree of open air exercise to insure it.% condiments. fish. or a visit occasion for botanical instruction to the green-house. the dinner at noon. Children fed upon such articles ofteia appear plump. celery. ap pies. but their muscles will be found to be soft. cauliflower. a short walk in some rural locality. eggs. asparagus.tmeal. and stimulants. STUDYING BEFORE BREAKFAST. the eyes will be bright. Tf part of an hour must be filled with some studious occupation. the cheeks rosy. especially milk should be supplied in a quantity satisfactory to the appetite. should be avoided. Any degree of health short of this shows that the amount of nutriment assimilated is insufficient to satisfy the daily demaiids of the system. When educational exigencies seem to interfere with this reserve of vital force. To counteract the deleterious effects of such di^t. would afford combined with healthy . The breakfast should be given soon after rising. meat. Studying before breakfast is not conducive to general good health. pickles. and bread in the daily fare should be increased. and the proportion of milk. both body and mind will be well developed in proportion to the age. plenty of lean meat. and permit that accumulation of force required for the vigorous development of the ^'owing body. oa. 34. and the supper at least two hours before retirino-. and salad vegetables should be given. PHYSICAL INDICATIOlfS OF COMPLETE NUTRITION. graham bread. but a moderate degree^ of open air exercise will promotx3 an appetite. their bones small and weak. it should be judiciously combined with relaxation. and the spirits exuberant. the form plump. eggs. If the supply of food auswers all physical requirements. onions.DIETARY FOR SCHOOLS. milk.

APPENDIX. it is only towards evening that the force of the vital functions is diminished and that the system becomes unable to assimilate an excess of nutriment. all butter. If the rising hour is about six in the morning. drawing. The danger of overeating at breakfast is provided against by the fact that it is usually composed of simple of food are and assimilation A viands plainly cooked. and consequently that the most nutritious food should then be supplied in abundance. NECESSITY FOR EARLY BREAKFASTS. a cup of milk and The a slice of bread slmuld be taken after dressing. music. easily healthy child never finds that a hearty breakfast causes indigestion. for. The healthy simply prepared. or fish. milk. actions are keenest fi*om rising until noon.ie day. Edward Smith and other eminent investigators prove that the greatest vital action takes place in the early part af t. fast of the night MIDDAY DITTISTERS BEST FOR HEALTH. The breakfast should consist of such plain fare as bread. and light gymnastics offer a choice of suitable occupations for both teacher and pupils. and the long has depleted the system of the nutriment derived from food during the previous day. and plenty of appetite should be completely satis- fied at this meal. 244 exercise. and in rainy weatiier. the breakfast should not be later than seven. Equally important with a hearty breakftist is a full and . if the meal is likely to be delayed beyond that honr. The experiments of Dr. as we have the vital nl ready said. esro's. the activity of the system makes ample provision for the nse of all the nourishment it can obtain. use of this slight refreshment does not warrant the deferring of the breakfast proper until ten or eleven o'clock. that the digestion most and naturally performed at that time.

345 wholesome early dinner of freshly cooked warm meat and vegetables. and di- in quantity sufficient to satisfy the appetite.v DIETARY FOR SCHOOLS. if fish is used. and red blooded fish. Bread with stewed fruits. together witli aghiss of milk or of moderately cool water. When any unusual exertion or excessive fatigue seems to demand a heavier repast. serve to vary the meal pleasantly. LIGHT AXI) EARLY SUPPERS. meat and eggs digest in about three hours. cool wat^r as a drink. sufficient time for digestion should be allowed before retiring. plenty of bread. because it is imperative to health that the hour for retiring should be early. these should be well mastic^ited. Abundantly nutritious guppers for boys may be made up of breuAl. The meal may be varied with nutritious soups. Suppers for both boys and girls should be composed of the most digestible foods. and aicommmied by about half a pint of fresh. and consequently the bedtime should be graduated accordingly. or a custard. aud should be eaten at least two hours before retiring. that . stews of fresh meat. and some plain pudding or fruit. a little warm milk or a cup of weak cocoa be added with advantage. and digestion should be well advanced before that time. a little tapioca or sago pudding made wiili milk and eggs. Boys from fifteen mucli food as diem. should be composed of light The supper gestible aliments. milk porridge. NECESSARY DAILY QUANTITY OF POOD. without overtaxing th^ digestive powers.' sleep should be deferred at least two hours. about six pounds per ^ men. as apples or prunes. For may girls. as to twenty years of age require n earl is.

much more closely it has be- more apt to be and should be watched. DAILY DIETARIES. The facts already cited warrant us in outlining the following dietaries for the youth of both sexes.APPENDIX. but the supply should always be ample and appropriate : . 246 Girls of the same iigQ require uboiic four pounds. tritious soups lire especially useful wheu there is Nu- any indi- cation of malnutrition in either sex» For both boys and girls the character of the food should be largely determined by the appetite^ unless come very much *^ perverted. of course the quantities must be varied to suit individual cases. Girls are far notional" about their food than boys.

roots and tubers at their early maturity. because the same kind and food presents quantity of different nutritive qualities at different seasons of the year: for instance. The tiie variation of figures represent a fair average. when they are generally full grown. juicy fruits are best at the point of ripening. but of course are not arbitrary. and meats and poultry in the winter. The following table shows what proportions are yielded of one pound of ai'ticles named: . succulent vegetables just before flowering. a little study will afford hints for everyday fare.DIETARY FOR SCHOOLS. 247 those articles of food in general use throughout the United States. and when the temperacurc permits their preservation until the hardness of fibre which exists in very recently killed meats has passed away.

the bly. cabbage. but poultry is abundant and fine fish is plentiful near the seacoast. celery. unbolted flour. and pies. and the other the abominable outgrowth of the dominion of grease. LOCAL DISTRIBUTION^ OF FOODS.APPENDIX. game. bles . the food in general use is somewhat carbonaceous and nitrogenous. the In the South the supply chief meats are beef and pork. salads. same kind of food is used as in the East. with the addition of pounded and fried meats. pickles. Two totally different kinds of cookery dispute for ascendancy: one derived from the genuine culinary ability of the early French and English inhabitants. but not sufficiently appreciated. Similar conditions are marked in the Middle States. cians in special dietaries. with the former in excess. Local dietaries in the Eastern States include too great a proportion of hot breakfast cakes. Bacon is the chief cured meat. except in some of the larger cities. while the supply of fruit and vegetables is limited. but the abundance of fruit and vegeta- and of excellent poultry modifies the diet consideraIn tlie West. 248 eggs. fruit and vegetables are abundant and early. throughout the United States. Brain and nerve food is found in fresh fruit. oysters. both in a fresh and dried state. the the seaboard and in the vicinabundance and variety of fish give the diet a phosphatic character. All nutritious and easily digested foods are included in these classes of nutrients. and corn is abundantly used. onions. and spinach. of fruit and vegetables is somewhat limited. and in certain chemical compounds usually employed by physicauliflower. succulent vegetables. asparagus. poultry. Inland. although several fine varieties of the latter are indigenous. cheese. ity of lakes and Upon rivers.

DIETARY FOR SCHOOLS. during which his diet has been composed his chiefly of salt or concentrated foods. 249 GEI^ERAL SUITABILITY OF LOCAL ALIMEJs-TARY PEODUCTIOisS. the farm laborer relishes a bit of fat pork or bacon with meal of vegetables or bread. Witliout understanding the rationale of the proceeding. this local the use of such alimentary combinations as serve to guide even the most inexperienced to caterer. and the tribes dwelling near eitJier pole eagerly devour fats in their simj)lest form. fected by . Despite these ruling facts. after a little study of the cliemical composition and nutritive value of different alimentary substances. variations in the character of dietaries are occasionally demanded by individual tastes and physical conditions. In accordance with that impartial justice which demonstrates the eternal fitness of nature's laws. instinctively feasts upon vegetables. every locality seems to favor the production of such foods as are essential to the health abundance has led of its inhabitants. and they can readily be eflocal any intelligent person. tlie native of the tropics craves those juicy fruits with which bountiful nature provides him. the sailor. returning from a long voyage.

" '• witliour.. broiled " " 32 fried " with Spanish Sauce 71 of Carrots of Celery of Fish of Salmon " " Scotch Broth witli Mear. Scallops. boiled. with Egg Sauce. d la Royale 176 Bouillabaisse 191 Carp. Soups. Sauce boilel. grilled 203 Flounders d la Hollandaise " 33 filets. 26 " *' '• prepare. 95 quante 156 113 31 Shell fish Sole. ..112 Sturgeon.'landaise . witli Caper Butter .. Chowder " 86 Croquettes " 224 food value of " 31 how to choose " 74 persillade of " 98 pie. d la Chambord " baked. baked . d la ('olbert 1(50 92 Crabs.181 " 155 Neck d la Creole " 77 fried 68 Herrings. baked " 149 filet. Meat Soup. Ho. 30 104 " Stock 109 'Spinach 76 Tripe 82 Turtle Bean 27 Vegetable Porritlge 108 Vermicelli 86 Wrexham j I : I I ' 1 Shell-fish. baked. broiled . devilled 186 Eels en Matelotte 83 Fish. f resli. with Span is u Sauce. Haddock. with Parsley 31 Halibut j^/efs d la Mar^chale.I N DEX. with Ci-eam Sauce. boiled Oysters d la poulette broiled fried Oyster Omelette Patties 31 166 167 166 132 193 125 Sauce Pike.. broiled Salmon Croquettes Shad.. Lobsters. 101 " " hoUed. 144 b9 Clam Fritters Cod. how to choose. Coloring of " Flavoring of " Food value of '^^ Creole " Pw^e 165 Crecy Mutton Pot-au-Feu II'O Consomme 28 TIG 198 170 91 202 185 100 148 107 29 105 " Ham Potage d la Hollandaise " dla Reine 137 106 106 144 Clear " Pea Soup with CroHtons 29 60 ^8 67 Beef and Vegetable 105 235 "• 105 Thickening of Soup-Materials. Index of Dishes. 80 " '• Sauce PiRay. 34 Fishbones. " Tea Brunoise Caramel for Coloring Chicken and Rice '• Broth " Cream d la Royale of Game of Beets '' 191 • Game Consomme d • • la Desclig- nac Gravy Julienne MiCar^me Mc^ck Terrapin •' Turtle " Stock Mulligatawiiv Brotii ^4 97 & Oxtail 191 79 198 IBO 175 159 153 72 137 67 Fish and 112 Bass. filet.111 " crimped.. with fine 199 herbs 171 Trout.

203 stuffed waste of in cookinp: 128 226 *' with Sauce Piquante. ' FISH. .124 French 152 Mayonnaise Salad Dressing '' " . boiled broiled ..nmp 123 Watercress 152 Cardinal Salad Dressing " " 183 . SAUCES FOR MEAT. effect of water on .231 food value of 223 garnish of 122 how to boil green.. . baked 50 " stewed . food value of 43 2-04 tnacedoine of . with Bui. 25X Vegetables. boiled fried 43 4i 45 Ovster Plant saute 156 156 51 43 128 127 182 186 Parsley. boiled Potato Croquettes " d la creme •' dla maitre d'hotel " dla Royale " d la Pi-oveugale " au gratin 145 192 176 140 . with Butter S. Anchovy JSalade d la " " German how to choose • " " " 172 128 50 182 77 Pe. . jniree of 150 Turnips. bakeii Macedoine 164 151 173 183 205 189 48 168 Romaine 147 Cardinale Chicken French Italian Lobster Potaro 157 " 178 Suede 196 Sha. fried Parsnip Fritters Peas. dried.162 ' Asparao:us Peas. Jerusalem 162 '* Globe. food value of Lentils.i..147 Romaine 15 Tarragon Vinegar '• '• *' " *' *• Biisse & on •* keep Jidienne Kentucky Lyonnaise Farisienne Saratoga saiUc a la Bariyoiile. percentage of wa229 ter in Salads and Sauces. Bordelaise sty le 46 155 171 226 225 48 45 46 149 128 47 161 166 . *' 151 ' Green effect of cookingfood value of *' 43 45 200 146 Duchesse " " * White Haricot. A lletnande Bechamel Butter 181 41 162 & 129 & 182 Caper Butter 112 Champagne 151 Creau) 101 80 Ill 122 113 168 125 E?g Hollandaisc Madeira Maitre d' Hotel Butter Mint Ovster Parsley Piquante Pculette Spanish Tartar Tomato White 33 & 32 95 163 71 162 74 74 .204 " Red Haricot. d la Cardincde " d la Villeroi HotSiaw Kale.is. French or String beans. stewed Brussels SpruiJts Cauliflou er on gratin Celery. . and Bacon " green. 129 j Vegetables. 188 Beans.lroe 201 Sl. 50 *' choose 49 '* keep 49 jardiniere of 157 leguminous.INDEX.ter Sauce Potatoes.ue Kolcannon Leijunies. Borde laise stvle " 167 ** Red Ki(iney. PAGE.199 Spinach. AND VEGETABLES... Artichokes. boiled SALADS...

125 126 187 171 Birds. boiled. " . Eggs. broiled 98 Kromeskies Lamb. Creole Spare-ribs and Peas Tripe. 196 68 . braised with Tongue. curried " stewed Veal. 124 Fricassee 200 '* Galantine of . 199 182 Duck. " Cutlets.. 252 Meats. for roasts " Sage and Onion Fricadels Ham. dia Milayiaise . 223 54 Bacon and Cabbage 118 Beef. 165 131 175 .187 & 192 Pigeons. stuffed and bahed 161 120 121 99 . d la Printaniere " filet.101 " with chocolate. 36 133 Onielette 132 with fine herbs 35 " ham 132 224 *' 81 orange 36 " oysters 132 34 " parsley 37 35 " preserves 133 34 37 sweet 35 164 Souffice . roast " 60 Jellv . roast 115 Chicken Curry " 126 Fowl. . d la poulette 163 d Za Bordelaise All Tongue and Brains. 55 f«od value of.INDEX. . .. breast of. Blanquette of " breast of. broiled " juice on toast Brains. uith Cliampagne. vvitli Liver.lTZ 52.20^ " 89 rechauffe Pork and Beans " curry of Potato pot Sausages. . fried " Lamb. boiling and stewing of I'^'S " combination dishes of 204 braised. curry d Vlndienne ' ' '• roast 123 " 96 salmi of Capons. d la Macedoine " ragoHi oi " roast Beefsteak. . d la Financier e Liver Rolls. d la Marechale. Tartar Sauce Forcemeat. with Oyster Sauce. roast. bai'on of. Meat.. ragoUt of Heart. '' food value of " how to broil " lard " " " . Eggs. 222. baked '• boiled " food value of " fiied " how to choose " *' keep " new *' poached " " " laid for scrambled Egg-balls for soup consomm^. witli " " with Bechatnel 145 Sauce " " Canton of 120 Mint 167 Snuoe & 157 Shoulder of.. " " " Madeira Haslet.188 " 124 wild. a la Mode: '• 53 " " de Victoria " 93 and Vegetables Animal " entrails as food " " 116 146 llj 138 'J^ 78 Bubble and Squeak Calf's Head. — . broiled " " 116 saute. stuffed " Fricandeau of 54 81 53 87 71 101 56 114 119 150 Poultry.235 &224 222 117 150 " 146 roast relative price and flavor 52 of 140 Mutton Chops.151 121 55 57 57 Kidne3^s. boned broiled Boned Cldoken Cantons de Rouen 84 Chicken Pie Saute d la Maren go.

Apple Cream Fiench Pancakes 93 & PUDDINGS AND CUSTARDS.1 INDEX. 253 Breads. to Puff Paste 193 205 Fruit..206 205 78 169 179 SWEET SAUCES.. d la Milanaise *' dla Napolitaine d Vltalienne farmer's St vie " how to choose 40 with Bechamel Sauce 41 " Parmesan cheese.. how Frying batter Macaroni. CAKES. food value of •* Baroness •' Cabinet *' 65 Sponge ' PASTRY AND Corn Starch Cream Rice • Cumberland " PIES. 37 Biscuit Bread. 130 Oatmeal Porridge 138 43 Rice.ss 135 136 ' 142 139 72 152 75 62 96 90 «& 158 69 85 63 190 201 102 62 TapiDca 1 141 j 63 Pies. 84 Cases for Patties CANDIED FRUIT AND NUTS. baker's " 37 Breakfast Twist home-made " how to prove and bake. 51 Macaroni. Leinon Rum Vanilla Creum 68 69 90 76 190 174 ... Apple " Cassel " 135 Tarts Cranbeiry Cream Meringue Pastry for Fruit Pies " Meat and Game Diplomatique 136 Sago 63 Swi. Cream Apple Custard Blanc-Mange Caramel Custards Crime Reverse Lemon Dumplings 184 184 Chocolate Eclairs •• Icing " 185 105 Souffler Fruit 13:j Gold 61 !34 Pound Silver Pudding. Cream Hard 141 140 99 87 Jelly. d la Milanaise 150 " and Apples 41 141 " Croquettes 40 174 131 177 130 baked " 39 40 39 38 to boil '[ '* Dessert. . Apples and Rice " baked Apple Charlotte " Croutes " Macedoine of Gdfeau de Princesse Louise. to candy or Glag^ i I ' ' I FRITTERS AND PANCAKES. 42 Milk Rolls " " 38 Yeast set " 236 methods of making Farinaceous Dishes. Nuts. 195 " Foiart vents. to candy or Gla^e . 195 '* " 205 Candy. 197 .

Beef Tea Beefsteak Juice Panada 60 lob 137 Cbicken Broth " Jelly Iceland Moss Blanc. how to make " 221 nutritive value of *' Cocoa " physiological action of.Mange 60 139 137 138 Mutton Broth Oatmeal Porridge 6! Toast Water '* Apple *' Barley Toast . .232 230 water for making 231 Tea 59 '* English mixture of 2S2 " nutritive value of 221 •' physiological action of 231 " proper time to drink 231 water for making 23U 230 Water.. Apple Water " Barley Beverages. for Drinking " physiological action of .INDEX.232 *' 233 Shells 232 Coffee.232 233 " 233 Nibs " 221 nutritive value of " physiological action of .227 " proportion of in the bodv 228 ' ' & ' ' .. 254 Dishes for Invalids. *' £8 230 61 61 for drinking 59 | Beverages. Nutiitive 139 Chocolate " nutritive value of & 61 61 234 233 233 physiological action of .

' 196 «' •< " Breakfast. indications of " use of Asafoetida as a condiment AssiniiJation of nutriment Cleaning brushes " copper ware " dish cloths " *' ' 16 & 16 24 24 25 sieves sinks ' " " 16 17 17 23 24 2i 25 steel fittings of stoves 17 " " knives 24 '* stove 17 Bay-leaves 15 • tables 16 Beverages.Vl20V 145.. alimentary action of 226 *' effect in relation •' to climate 227 *' medicinal prop- erties of 227 220 Copper cooking utensils 21 Cookery.58 137 " " working people.'217 Chyme Cleaning brast. copper 21 '* " how to clean. & 26 224 220 232 209 209 218 217 17 Coke 19 Coffee. 217 osmotic 217 «fe 219 & 218 & 218 Acid. anthracite 19 " " physical eleCocoa. human... 218 Absorption. 223 " foods. 233 ments of 209 *• *' proportion of water in Bone.. food value of Chemistry of food Chocolate. . 216 & 217 209 210 15 16 19 Casein present in food Celery.209 Coal. physiological notion of Cholesrrin & 237 Chondrin Chyle . 66 Cooking temperatures 20 '* utensils. Birds and poultry 228 223 222 & 187 125.*. physiological action of.. 217 Alimentary action of condi- & ments *' 16 22 17 25 24 drains 216 " enamelled ware 209 209 209 209 210 218 '• floors floor cloths " '* hearthstone '* ware japanned ware iron " " bags kitchen paint plated ware jelly " 226 19 210 213 227 218 Anthracite coal Appetite. 171 calf's iiead 153 ggj^ .' 173.'. .232 Condiments. . best methods of 234 •' effectofonfood 234 *' for children 62 139 ' " invalids .. dried '* salt Charcoal Children.". 23 " iron 23 tin 24 Cooks.. composition of. 32 meat . instruct ion for 103 Deglutition 215 Diet affected by occupation 211 *' choice of 210 " for children 62 «fc 139 " " invalids 137 58 *' physical effect of 211 Dietary for breakfast 211 " " dinner 211 • *• supper ail Constipation. 211 Carbonaceous elements in bone. 139 " instruction for Cheese. lacteal '* ofnutrimenc 213. physiological action of.INDEX.. cause of & & & . food value of " percentage in carcass Boning. lactic •' phosphoric Acids. cooker3' and diet for. 255 General Index. nutritive 234 '* windows 16 Body. early and nutritious. 62.210. .. fatty " organic Albumeji " present in food Albuiiienoid substances.

.. . present in food 210 & 217 Grape sugar 234 Heat.215 " " compositionof . . 214 *' " 215 oxygen on " absorption of...216 sugar ** & 217 & 217 212 216 process of " stomach Dinner. 222 '* 222 young 224 Milk cheese eggs & 214 214 210 from 19 & 217 Gastric juice.228 223 value of bone " " " *' «« ' «' •' " " " " " « " " *' •' • insalivationof mastication of nitrogenous 224 224 224 55 entrails 223 fat 224 fish 224 meat " mature. . use of in..216 '« " effect of on starch 216 '* '» nitroge- *' nous food on. .^Og Kitchen.212 waste matter.. food value of Fire. " general cleanliness of .215 *• normal tenipeiaturo »« of of fat '' starch " 234 216 216 . 219 water.. 217 & 218 " assimilation of 213. 256 affected Digestion. best materi21 als for " how to clean. action of digestion on « " gastric juice on. ^ by waste in 219 food 214 beginning of complete.. 217 & 218 " 217 210 carbonaceous « 220 chemistry of " 220 constipating ** effect of cookery on 234 & 235 " 209 elements of " 210 flesh " 210 & 217 heat ' " " " " " 210 requisite to health the source of vital force. relative values of relaxing present in food 218 & »2J9 216 143 192 150 209 310 . 210 13 25 16 to clean utensils. effect on food «' " 24 knives " 19 from fuel 15 Herbs. 235 " • " *» «' *» " « " • «• •* *• " • " condiments 226 on hot food on. abundant and early *' seven o'clock 211 211 224 Eggs & 224 209 216 & 217 digestion of 223 percentage in carcass 208 & 210 present in food Entrails. action of.. degrees of lieat & 219 221 Food.. how " «' Lacteal absorption Lactic acid Ladies' lessons Larding " fish meat Lime '' . clioice and fittings of. 216 209 210 Gelatin present in food ' * 210&217 Glucose 210 Gluten. . . necessary • •• 213 lo h*>alth effect of cold food on. 234 liquid food 234 on 226 salt on seasoning on 227 231 water on on food 212 & 213 217 intestinal mechanical opera- •• tions of . 15 214 Insalivation of food 26 Instruction for beginners " cooks 103 " *' 143 ladies u «» 66 large gills Intestinal fluids Invalids... proportion of in. how 209 209 210 224 17 to light " 18 *' " keep 210 Flesh foods " ' S20 relative value of 212 Food. bouquet or fagot of " 14 dried '• when to gather and dry... cookery for Iron. food value of Fat 55 " " " Fatty acids Fibrin " present in f oo*! Fish. 22 ' 258 list of •' & *' 220 * Fuel.7 INDEX. . " present in foods 215 58 & 21 & 1*)7 .213.

• 330 hard •' 839 iron pipes for '• 329 leaden pipes for •' 389 mineral elements in '* 238 percentage of in food •• 309 present in food " proportionof inthebody 828 '* 229 purity of •' quality of for cooking.8 Osmosis 217 218 Osmotic absorption 215 Oxygen....222 relative value of " '« " cured. . 234 " ' cocoa. & & & & . food value of Mineral salts in food .. best methods of cooking:. hard " 20 heat of different «« 19 hickory ' 19 soft Magnesia " present in food Mastication " " " •' •• " variatioji of textui*e in. 223 209 25 209 Soda *' 210 present in food .. 230 " quantitv requisite to 228 health " 230 rain '« 230 soft " 229 sources of 14 Weights 19 Wood.. how to clean & .223 waste of.. 231 *' foods.. physiological action of 322 Waste in cooking meats '* 219 matter in food *' 333 of meats Water. 233 224 210 Nitrogenous elements in bones . 230 « " " drinking.. food value of ' 309 309 309 310 209 210 225 Silica Sinks..309 Physiological <ction of chocolate. 257 309 210 314 14 Measures Meats..316 Nutriment. 232 •* ' < " " texture.338 " .222 young..334 " 215 effect of crackers on " " 215 fruit on •' " hard bread on... 215 " * meat on 215 " " 236 salt on 336 Salt. 334 " " foods. absorption of 318 213.234 " '* fish.231 effect of on digestion.... . considered hygienically . -233 " tea..233 " " entrails. 234 " 222 effect of pickling " " 223 salting " " 222 smoking ' 223 fat and bone in *• '... action of on food 217 Pancreatic juice 316 Pepsin Peristaltic action 319 Pliysical eleme^nts of the body .... 222 221 Relative values of foods 209 Resin 214 Saliva. " " " " coffee. necessary to health mature. light and early 231 Tea. 16 Spice salt 316 217 Starch. 317 " assimilation of 318 334 Nutritive beverages " elements in food 809 309 Organic acids 209 Osmazome 217 2. affected by age. action of on food •' " " gruels . . how to clean 216 Sugar. effect on gas317 tric juice . digestion of " 210 present in food 209 Sulphur " 210 present in food 211 Supper. digestion of " 210 present in food 17 Stove. 331 composition of the body Phosphcrio acid Phospho/^is " present in food Potash ' present in food Po'^rWes. 215 *' " hot food on.INDEX. 334 Milk.

) Colanders. Larding and trussing needles. Dishes of all kinds. Dredging box. 6 " cloths. large and small. Graters. " Bread Scale Tea Chocolate pot. Steak gridiron. large 3 dripping-pans small. Soap. " Dish Vegetable cutters. Cleaver. " " Fish Ham Frying Bean *' and 6 sauce-pans. 6 pudding cups. large and small. " plain and fancy. and " " Rolling pin. Towels. and sifter. dish cloths. " cutters. dustpan. shovel. sand. emery paper. up. Skimmers. large and small. . Knife board. brushes. scuttle. Meat saw. " brush. Omelette pan. Whiting. Twine. Knives and forks. borax. Soup tureen and ladle. Potato masher. 1 " cloth. Egg whip. and weights from }4 oz. large. Pie plates. Corkscrew. corer. small. Puree sieve (heavy wire. Brooms.OF KITCHEN LIST UTENSILS. Pastry board. 3 cake Apple pot. blacklead. " '* 2gratin " 2 frying " " " " " Biscuit boiler. Wooden and metal spoons. Coffee pot. with mill. Mortar and pestle. Coal pot. Pudding " " " " Jelly 6 custard cups. LIST OF KITCHEN UTENSILS REQUIRED FOR USE IJS^ ALL THE COURSES OF LESSONS. Meat pie moulds. Strainers " Biscuit Sugar Jelly bag. soda. large " Bolting cloth strainer. " Fish ** Oyster Soup kettle. large and small. small. floor cloths. Flour sieve. bathbrick.