1

Unit One
We the People
1.1

Trace the origins of American Government

The Earliest Inhabitants of the Americas
 By the time the first colonists arrived here, indigenous peoples have already been living here for
more than 30,000 years
o From present-day Russia through the Bering Strait into North America and then dispersed
o Or crossed an ice bridge from Siberia, or arrived on boats from across the Pacific
 A diverse group of many cultures, customs, and political systems, there may have been as high as
100 million people, but many died due to the intruding settlers
The First Colonists
 For money or religion but mostly money
o English commercial settlements – Virginia
o 1609 Dutch New Netherlands Company – Hudson and lower Delaware Rivers
o Later Dutch West India Company (trading posts) – Hudson River
o People from Finland, Germany, and Sweden went to New Amsterdam (NY), including free
blacks
A Religious Tradition takes Root
 1620, A group of Protestants calling themselves Puritans (Mayflower) landed Plymouth
o Families bound together by religion: Old Testament told them to create “a city on a hill”
o Strict code of authority and obedience with importance of individualism
 1631, Roger Williams arrived in Boston, Massachusetts questioning extreme separation from the
Church of England and even Europeans right to settle on Indian lands
o Puritans overreach themselves, not their right to punish people, only God’s
o Banished, established Providence in Rhode Island
 Later, Anne Hutchinson (midwife) believed that the churches in Massachusetts had lost touch with
the Holy Spirit
o Religious tolerance, equality/rights for women, popular sovereignty
o Banished, Portsmouth, Rhode Island
 Thomas Hooker at odds with Calvinist Puritans in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, all men should be
able to vote regardless of religion or property
o Relocated, Connecticut, settlement in Hartford
 1632 (later colonies built with religious tolerance), King Charles I granted George Calvert catholic
colony Maryland
 1681, King Charles II gave William Penn (Quaker) Pennsylvania
o “holy experiment”: persecuted Europeans, including German Mennonites, Lutherans, and
French Huguenots

Types of Government
1.2
Monarchy
Totalitarianism

Evaluate the different types of governments countries may employ
Power is vested in hereditary Kings and Queens
Power resides in a leader who rules according to self-interest and no regard to individual rights and
liberties

 King James I allowed some local participation -> first elected colonial assembly: 1619 Virginia House of Burgesses. informed of charges. 1629 the elected General Court of Massachusetts Bay Colony .1 Trace the historical developments that led to the colonists’ break with Great Britain and the emergence of the new American nation. Occupy) Roots of the New American Nation 2. beliefs. no universal consensus on what it means Securing the Blessings of Liberty  Americans enjoy a wide range of liberties and opportunities  Freedom to criticize and petition (Tea Party.2 Oligarchy Republic Democracy Direct Democracy The right to participate depends on wealth. military position. whether direct or elected Members meet publicly to discuss decisions then decide by majority rule Devising a National Government in the American Colonies  American colonists rejected a strong ruler and replicating aristocracy so they wanted a Republican form of government o Most colonies used indirect democracy Functions of American Government 1. national guards. tried in court with impartial judge Ensuring Domestic Tranquility  Department of Homeland Security  Police forces.3 Political Culture Personal Liberty Explain the functions of American Government Commonly shared attitudes. the government take threats to domestic tranquility very seriously Providing for Common Defense  A major purpose of government is to defend its citizens o President is commander in chief of armed forces. The independence and diversity of the settlers complicated the question on how to best rule the colonies. Freedom from governmental interference. or achievement Based on consent of the governed Power is given to the people. armed services. a considerable defense budget Promoting the General Welfare  Really an ideal. demands for freedom to engage in a variety of practices without governmental interference or discrimination Establishing Justice  Laws allow a rational distribution of justice by acknowledging authorities  Constitution authorized Congress to create a federal judicial system  BOR: trial by jury. and core values about how government should operate A characteristic of US democracy. state militia  Crises allow for extraordinary measures. social status.

physical separation. Quartering Act. 7/5/1755 Olive Branch Petition 1776. post war colonial depression –> 1765 Stamp Act. at its head. but not levy taxes  1756-1763 Seven Years War – to pay for war –> 1764 Sugar Act. not allowed to regulate commerce  Lacked a real executive branch and judicial system  Needed a strong central government .000 people reading) Common Sense The Declaration of Independence  1776. the colonists had no choice but to revolt The First Attempt at Government 2.2    Identify the key components of the Articles of Confederation and the reasons why it failed. Congress didn’t have a written constitution or legal terminology to base their new system on 1777. disintegrated when no longer united by war 1789 Problems under the Articles of Confederation  People unwilling to replace/change their loyalty to their state in favor of a national identity  States felt no obligation toward each other. Thomas Jefferson (and many others) drafted reasons for separation o Locke (social contract theory): government exists based on consent of governed  The Philosophical Basis – limited governments are formed receiving powers from the consent of the governed  The Grievances – makes the case  The Statement of Separation – saying that though risky. Articles of Confederation o “loose league of friendship”/national government drawing powers from the states 1781. –> 1770 Boston Massacre Committees of Correspondence First Continental Congress Second Continental Congress  1772 Organization to keep colonist informed about developments with the British. boycott goods. nor any need to compromise  Nothing to back up money (“not worth a continental”). development of colonial industry. molded public opinion against the British 9/5-10/26/1774 All colonies but Georgia against Coercive Acts. Ratified.. ect. and relative self-governance weakened ties to the crown Trade and Taxation Mercantilis Economic theory used to increase a nation’s wealth through developing commercial industry and a m favorable balance of trade  Justified Britain’s strict control on the colonies’ imports/exports (1650 – navigation acts)  British Parliament could regulate trade and conduct international affairs. boycotts.3  1760s. “no taxation w/out representation”. children of liberty/violence/boycotts First Steps toward Independence Stamp Act Meeting of representatives from 9/13 colonies in NYC 1765 to write an angry letter to the king Congress  1766 Parliament repealed Stamp Act and revised the Sugar Act –> 1767 Townshend Acts. Declaration of Rights and Resolves 4/10/1775 Decided to raise army with G.W. Thomas Paine issued the popular (120.

S. then series of differences all settled with compromises quickly The Characteristics and Motives of the Framers  So serious they followed Ben Franklin to meals  Mostly 20s.4  Lack of foreign policy: Barbary pirates. common people (George Mason and Richard Henry Lee) o The ones that pushed for a Bill of Rights to prevent the Constitution from creating an economic elite of abusive federal government Shays’s Rebellion  1786 Massachusetts required all payments in cash  1787 Daniel Shays + 1.4 Analyze the underlying principles of the U. 17 had slaves. able to do again  Electoral College The U. Constitution The Basic Principles of the Constitution .0 o Wanted to keep states separate and stupid (Supreme Court members appointed for life by the executive) Constitutional Compromises  The Great Compromise. Jay.3  Outline the issues and compromises that were central to the writing of the U. the issue of slavery Unfinished Business: The Executive Branch  4 year terms. 30s except Ben. 31 went to college  Favored order and stability The Virginia and New Jersey Plans  Virginia Plan o Central government with the 3 branches o Bicameral legislature and executive and a judiciary chosen by national legislature  New Jersey Plan o Articles 2. Madison = Federalist Papers) o Defended the Constitution and a Republican government  The Anti-Federalists – farmers. vulnerable borders from English and Spanish Positive Outcomes  Northwest Ordinance abolished slavery in Northwest territories  A new middle class was forming o Small farmers began to dominate state politics –> start of opposing political parties The Birth of Political Parties  The Federalists – elitist. Constitution 2.500 Armed Angry Agriculturalists –> convention in Philadelphia The Miracle at Philadelphia 2. 3/5s compromise. upper class (Hamilton.S. Constitution 5/25/1787 Prepared to take some major steps o Virginia Plan wins over New Jersey Plan.S.

with each having its own fully staffed branches and constitutional equality/independence Checks and Balances o To diminish tyranny The Articles of the Constitution  Preamble and 7 separate articles o 1-3 established the branches of government o 4-7 defined relationships between states. lawyers.5     Montesquieu (French philosopher) o Separation of powers w/ a system of checks and balances Federalism o Divided power between a strong national government and individual stated with the national power supreme o Powers not given to the national government are given to the states or people Separation of Powers o 3 distinct branches: executive. Constitution 2. judicial.5   Explain the conflicts that characterized the drive for ratification of the U. sets president term and explains the Electoral College o Section 3 sets powers and duties of president  ARTICLES III THE JUDICIAL BRANCH o Establishes a Supreme Court and defines it  ARTICLES IV THOUGH VII o Anticipate problems – full faith and credit clause o Admitting states o Adding amendments o Supremacy clause The Drive for Ratification of the U. debated over proposed Constitution o State politicians feared a strong central government o Farmers and other working class people feared a distant national government o Debtors feared more debt o Rich bankers. also called the Necessary and proper elastic clause clause || Powers that come from the above Implied powers  ARTICLES II: THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH o Authority to execute laws. legislative. “spirit of compromise” 1787-1788.S. declare national law to be supreme and set out methods of amending and ratifying  ARTICLE I: THE LEGLISLATIVE BRANCH o All legislative powers in Congress with bicameral system  Senate and House of Representatives Enumerated powers The powers of the national government granted specifically to Congress + Gives Congress the authority to pass all laws “necessary and proper”.S. Constitution They tried to not think from just one state’s side to avoid injuring another. bankers tended to favor the Constitution .

New Jersey.6 James Madison: “Whether or not the Union shall or shall not be continued”  June 21 1788. Constitution   2. and Pennsylvania were the fastest to ratify  Took a Bill of Rights to convince everyone The Bill of Rights  A couple amendments didn’t make it but the remaining ten were ratified in 1791 and became the Bill of Rights Towards Reform: Methods of Amending the U. and too theoretical to have much impact but explained the reasons for the new governmental structure and its benefits o Anti-Federalists wrote under “Brutus” and “Cato” (romans that wouldn’t stand for tyranny Ratifying the Constitution  Delaware. Took three years for all 13 states approved it Federalists Versus Anti-Federalists  The Federalist Papers o “Publius” (the people) 85 papers. Constitution Formal amendment process is slow to avoid rash/impulsive amendments from the Constitution o Only 17 has been added since the Bill of Rights Formal Methods of Amending the Constitution  Article V created 2-stage amendment process o Methods of Proposal  2/3s vote in both houses of Congress  National constitutional convention called by Congress at the request o Methods of Ratification  Legislatures in 3/4s of the states  By conventions in 3/4s of the states (done once. 21st amendment) Informal Methods of Amending the Constitution  Judicial Interpretation o Marbury v.6 Distinguish between the methods for proposing and ratifying amendments to the U.S. mostly Hamilton and Madison o Dry. no amendment specifically promises equality for women but federal courts interpret it to prohibit gender discrimination o Societal change has also caused alterations in the way institutions of government act  Technological Change o Brings up questions concerning privacy and our rights under the Constitution o Allowed political institutions to expand in areas previously unexplored Roots of the Federal System . Madison: federal courts had the power to nullify acts of the nation’s government when the courts found such acts to conflict with the Constitution o “a constitutional convention in continuous session”  Social and Cultural Change o For example. rhetorical.S.

or making crimes if it was legal at the time Interstate Relations Under the Constitution  Article II: disputes between states are settled by U. and the registration of lands. borrow money. putting duties on exports. charter banks. and parks . and spend money for general welfare Powers Denied Under the Constitution  Article I of the Constitution denies some powers to the national government or states  No favoring of states. courts. birth. schools. Supreme Court  Article IV: full faith and credit clause.S. declare war o Necessary and proper (elastic) clause  Article VI: National government supreme State Powers Under the Constitution  Article I: each state gets 2 senators and to decide the time. section 8 o Ex: coin money. water.1 Trace the roots of the federal system and the Constitution’s allocation of powers between the national and state governments The United States was the 1st country to adopt a federal system of government Federal System: states <– people –> government Unitary System: people –> government –> states Confederate System: people –> states –> government National Powers Under the Constitution  Enumerated powers: powers stated in Article I. establish courts. or taking of gifts from foreign heads of states to government employees  No bill of attainder. granting of nobility. extradition clause Local Governments Under the Constitution  Local governments have no express power under the U.S. conduct foreign relations. or declaring something illegal without trial  No expost facto laws.7      3. army/navy. sewage. and deaths  MUNICIPALITIES o City governments created in relatively densely populated areas  TOWNS o Smaller communities run by a mayor and town council  SPECIAL DISTRICTS o Local governments restricted to specific functions o Libraries. says that powers not given to the government is the states’ or the people’s Concurrent Powers Under the Constitution  Where national and state powers overlap  Taxing. and manner of elections  Article II: each state appoints electors to vote for president  Article IV: guarantees each state a republican form of government  Tenth Amendment is the reserved powers. place. privileges and immunities clause. Constitution o Dillon’s Rule: local governments created and abolished by state governments o Needs charter  COUNTIES o Basic administrative units of local government o Welfare and environmental programs.

Baltimore (1833)  Enumerated rights in the Bill of Rights bound only national government Dual Federalism: States’ Rights. the Civil War. dual federalism.  Reconstruction.2 Determine the impact of the Marshall Court on federalism Defining National Power: McCulloch v. and others suggested states had the right to nullify any federal law that to the states. ect. and borrow funds.3 Describe the emergence and decline of dual federalism The States Assert Their Powers: Nullification  Jefferson.  Supreme Court favoring national government. taking the economy with it Cooperative Federalism: The Growth of National Government  3. and Reconstruction  3. enhancing state powers Reconstruction and the Transformation of Dual Federalism  Civil war destroyed concepts like nullification. issue currency. thus Congress can charter a bank  Maryland wanted to tax a national bank which violated the supremacy clause Affirming National Power: Gibbons v. violated the Constitution  1828 with the Tariff of Abominations State’s Rights and the Dred Scott Decision  Court decided that Congress couldn’t ban slavery in territories.4 Explain how cooperative federalism led to the growth of the national government at the expense of states . Ogden (1824)  The Supreme Court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce  Both NY and NJ wanted to control shipping on the lower Hudson River Limiting the Bill of Rights: Barron v. Maryland  The first major Supreme Court decision to define the relationship between the national and state governments  The Constitution enumerates that Congress can levy/collect taxes. Madison.S.8 o Independent budgets Federalism and the Marshall Court  3. involving in projects  Congress passed laws like the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act Amending the National–State Relationship  16th amendment: allowed Congress to enact a national income tax  17th amendment: put election of senators in hands of people instead of state legislatures  Economic events that led to the Great Depression o 1920s: many bank failures o 1921: slump in agricultural prices o 1926: declining construction industry o 10/29/1929: crashing stock prices. and a confederacy in the U.

and even individuals o Providing state and local governments with more funds o Setting national standards for national problems (air/water) o Attempting to financially equalize rich and poor states and localities Categorical Grants  Grants for which Congress uses funds for specific purposes  May be used to alter states’ policy priorities or to coerce states to adopt particular policies o States’ neglect their own needs because of the large sums of money at state Block Grants  Large amounts of money given to states with only general spending guidelines  Mostly goes into education and health care Unfunded Mandates  Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995  Congress wanted to give more authority to the states but just ended up making it difficult  Many states have opted out of all or some of its provisions Programmatic Requests  Federal funds for special projects that direct specific exemptions from taxes or mandated fees  Controversial because people try to secure funds for their home districts Judicial Federalism  3. a collection of innovative programs that sought to stabilize the economy and reduce personal suffering  FHA. as a state problem o FDR and Congress responded with his “Court-packing plan”. and redistricting  Sided with national government . the national government provides grants from its general revenues to states. health care. CCC. repealing many anti-New Deal decisions Federal Grants to State and Local Governments   3.9 A Need for National Action Arises: The New Deal  FDR created the New Deal to combat unemployment.6 Explore the role of the judiciary as arbiter of federal–state conflicts The Rehnquist Court  Group of justices appointed by Ronald Reagan committed to states’ rights  “a reexamination of the country’s most basic constitutional arrangements The Roberts Court  Considered cases such as immigration. and NRA o Funding for housing. local governments. nonprofits. enlarging size from 9 to 13 justices  Courts backed off. work relief for farmers and homeowners.5 Describe how the federal budget is used to further influence state and local governments’ policies Today. AAA. and imposing restrictions on production in agriculture and many industries while providing subsidies to farmers  Forced all levels of government to work with each other  Courts often had a hands off attitude (laissez-faire) toward the economy.

and as such. the federal government is taking more responsibility for redistributive policies Progressive Federalism  A practical approach to federalism that views relations between national and state governments as both coercive and cooperative Unit 2 American Political Culture and the Basic Tenets of American Democracy 1. popular consent. individualism. majority rule. and identify the basic tenets of American democracy Political Culture  Commonly shared attitudes. and core values about how government should operate American political culture reflects values of liberty and equality.7 Assess the Challenges in balancing national and state powers and the consequences for policy making The Price of Federalism  Redistributive policies o Those whereby the government collects money from one group to finance a service for another group  Developmental policies o Designed to strengthen a government’s economic standing such as building roads and other infrastructure  Recently. Majority Rule. and Popular Sovereignty The principle that governments must draw powers from the consent of the governed   Majority Rule  Natural Law Derived from John Locke’s social contract theory Large numbers of nonvoters can threaten legitimacy of the system Central premise of direct democracy where the most supported policy will be made into law American system also stresses minorities though A doctrine that society should be governed by certain ethical principles that are part of nature. fair. and religious faith and freedom Liberty and Equality  The most important part of a Republican form of government  Concepts of personal liberty has changed from freedom from to freedom to  The 14th amendment emphasizes on due process and on equal protection of the laws.4 Describe American political culture. all individuals are deemed rational. beliefs. and endowed (DOI) . and popular sovereignty. can be understood by reason Individualism  An idea that may trace back to Puritans  Group-focused societies like Canada try to improve the lives of citizens by making services and rights available on a group or universal basis  In America. as well as guaranteeing civil rights and liberties allowed it to be expanded Political Consent Popular Consent.10 Toward Reform: Attempts to Balance National and State Power  3.

11 Religious Faith and Religious Freedom  Early conflicts led to Framers agreeing on religious freedom must be in the basis of the new nation  An ideal as large numbers of Americans equate Islam with violence The Changing American Public 1. majority with mother  More likely to support government-subsidized day care or after-school programs  Many prefer 2 or less children  17 states allow same sex marriage .S. most of which are Hispanic  Many government agencies print in both English and Spanish  Raised question whether everyone should speak English or both languages like Canada  Hispanics overtaking African Americans as second most common racial group  Asian Americans the fastest growing minority  Majority of babies in America are now members of a minority group  Minorities are majority in 9 states in 2013 Aging  More old people cause differences with the younger in what they want  Medicare . can be classified as immigrants.5 Analyze the changing characteristics of American Public  As a result of population growth. many citizens feel removed from the government and their elected representatives Racial and Ethnic Composition  Today. nearly 40 million people in the U. declining marriage and birth rate  25% children with single parents. money for schools  Can cause less benefits for elderly and more taxes for the young Religious Beliefs  Christion values still affect social and political systems  There are a great number of religious groups with their social and political demands Regional Growth and Expansion  Sectional differences  Religious differences  Immigrants tend to settle near other immigrants from the same homeland  North and South  Weird wild west  Rural and urban Family and Family Size  Aging population.

12 Roots of Public Opinion Research 10. demographics. party affiliation.1 Trace the development of modern public opinion research Public Opinion Public Opinion Polls What the public thinks about a particular issue Interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire group The Gallup Organization  Continues to correctly predict the winners of the presidential popular vote The American National Election Studies  Surveys have benefited from social science surveys  Ex. and opinions of major political parties and candidates  Before and after elections to better understand voters Conduction and Analyzing Public Opinion Polls Designing the Survey and Sample  Determining the content and phrasing the questions o Polls may ask about job performance. and specific issue areas o Carefully construct the questions o Questions that cross the line often result from ulterior motives Push Polls  Stratified sampling Polls taken for the purpose of giving information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate Selecting the sample A variation of random sampling the population is divided into subgroups and weighted based on demographic characteristics of the national population o Do not let people volunteer to be interviewed Contacting Respondents  Telephone Polls o Most frequently used o Tracking polls: continuous surveys that enable a campaign or news organization to chart support  In-Person Interviews o Allows surveyors to monitor body language and to interact in a more personal basis o May lead to interviewer bias  Internet Polls o Zogby the first to use a scientific internet survey o Relatively effective Analyzing the Data  Data is entered into a computer program where answers to questions are recorded and analyzed . How respondent voted.

poverty.3 Assess the potential shortcomings of polling Survey Error  Margin of error – makes predictions difficult  Sampling error – quality of the sample Limited Respondent Options  Yes-no questions aren’t sufficient to gauge the public Lack of Information  When the public is ignorant  First they ask whether they have thought about the question. and the environment o Negative about war and military intervention  Race and Ethnicity o Differences in political socialization appear at a very early age o Young African American children tend to become less positive about society then white children o Blacks and Hispanics more likely to support protecting the environment o Minorities more likely to favor government sponsored health insurance and Hispanics especially more likely to support liberalized immigration policies  Age o Young people resist higher taxes to fund Medicare while the elderly resist all efforts to limit Medicare or Social Security o The elderly have voted to defeat school tax increases and to pass tax breaks for themselves  Religion o Many American ideals (hard working and personal responsibility) are rooted in our nation’s Protestant heritage o Religious doctrine may effect political beliefs . capital punishment. allows researchers to exclude as many as 20% of the respondents  Questions on personal issues have less “no opinion” responses Difficult Measuring Intensity  Can’t measure passion Lack of Interest in Political Issues  When policies don’t affect us directly or do not involve moral issues Forming Political Opinions 10.4 Political Socialization Analyze the process by which people form political opinions The process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values Demographic Characteristics  Gender o Women tend to be more liberal about social issues  Education.13  Analysts pay special attention to subgroups Shortcomings of Polling 10.

14 Family. Peers. form opinions on public policy. obtain political knowledge. and receive new ideas o Fox News and MSNBC viewers more ignorant about political issues than citizens who consume no political news. Internet. online magazines. and blogs  Cable news. The Daily News and The Colbert Report have generally more knowledgeable viewers Cues from Leaders or Opinion Makers  Most Americans lack deep convictions in their beliefs Political Knowledge  Goes with political participation  Most Americans’ knowledge about history and politics is quite low o Also with foreign policy and geography Toward Reform: The Effects of Public Opinion on Politics 10. talk shows. and School  Family – communication and receptivity  Peers become increasingly important especially entering middle and high school  Schools teach respect for the nation and its symbols o Attempts to foster political awareness and civic duty  College has a liberalizing effect on students The Mass Media  TV. and social media o Often skewed. may affect the way citizens process political information.5 Evaluate the effects of public opinion on politics  “all government rests on public opinion”  Politicians often use knowledge of the public’s view on issues to tailor campaigns or to drive policy decisions .