IRREGULAR VERBS

INFINITIVE

SIMPLE PAST

PAST PARTICIPLE

abide

abode, abided

abode, abided

arise

arose

arisen

awake

awoke

awoken

be

was, were

been

bear

bore

borne, born

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

befall

befell

befallen

beget

begot

begotten

begin

began

begun

behold

beheld

beheld

bend

bent

bent

beseech

besought, beseeched

besought, beseeched

beset

beset

beset

bespeak

bespoke

bespoke(n)

bestride

bestrode

bestridden

bet

bet, betted

bet, betted

bid

bid, bade

bid, bidden

bind

bound

bound

bite

bit

bitten

1

bleed

bled

bled

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

breed

bred

bred

bring

brought

brought

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

build

built

built

burn

burnt, burned

burnt, burned

burst

burst

burst

buy

bought

bought

cast

cast

cast

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

cling

clung

clung

come

came

come

cost

cost, costed

cost, costed

countersink

countersank

countersunk

creep

crept

crept

crossbreed

crossbred

crossbred

cut

cut

cut

deal

dealt

dealt

dig

dug

dug

do

did

done

draw

drew

drawn

2

dream

dreamt, dreamed

dreamt, dreamed

drink

drank

drunk

drive

drove

driven

dwell

dwelt, dwelled

dwelt, dwelled

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

flee

fled

fled

fling

flung

flung

fly

flew

flown

forbear

forbore

forborne

forbid

forbad(e)

forbidden

forecast

forecast, forecasted

forecast, forecasted

forego

forewent

forgone

foresee

foresaw

foreseen

foretell

foretold

foretold

forget

forgot

forgotten

forgive

forgave

forgiven

forgo

forwent

forgone

forsake

forsook

forsaken

forswear

forswore

forsworn

3

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grind

ground

ground

grow

grew

grown

hang

hung, hanged

hung, hanged

have

had

had

hear

heard

heard

heave

hove, heaved

hove, heaved

hide

hid

hidden

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt

inlay

inlaid

inlaid

interweave

interwove

interwoven

keep

kept

kept

kneel

knelt, kneeled

knelt, kneeled

knit

knitted, knit

knitted, knit

know

knew

known

lade

laded

laden

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

lean

leant, leaned

leant, leaned

4

leap

leapt, leaped

leapt, leaped

learn

learnt, learned

learnt, learned

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

light

lit, lighted1

lit, lighted

lip-read

lip-read

lip-read

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant

meant

meet

met

met

miscast

miscast

miscast

misdeal

misdealt

misdealt

mishear

misheard

misheard

mishit

mishit

mishit

mislay

mislaid

mislaid

mislead

misled

misled

misread

misread

misread

misspell

misspelt, misspelled

misspelt, misspelled

misspend

misspent

misspent

mistake

mistook

mistaken

misunderstand

misunderstood

misunderstood

outbid

outbid

outbid

5

outdo

outdid

outdone

outgrow

outgrew

outgrown

outrun

outran

outrun

outsell

outsold

outsold

outshine

outshone

outshone

overbid

overbid

overbid

overcome

overcame

overcome

overdo

overdid

overdone

overdraw

overdrew

overdrawn

overeat

overate

overeaten

overfeed

overfed

overfed

overfly

overflew

overflown

overhang

overhung

overhung

overhear

overheard

overheard

overlay

overlaid

overlaid

overpay

overpaid

overpaid

override

overrode

overridden

overrun

overran

overrun

oversee

oversaw

overseen

oversell

oversold

oversold

overshoot

overshot

overshot

oversleep

overslept

overslept

overspend

overspent

overspent

overtake

overtook

overtaken

6

overthrow

overthrew

overthrown

overwind

overwound

overwound

partake

partook

partaken

pay

paid

paid

prepay

prepaid

prepaid

proofread

proofread

proofread

put

put

put

quit

quit, quitted2

quit, quitted

read

read

read

rebind

rebound

rebound

rebuild

rebuilt

rebuilt

recast

recast

recast

redo

redid

redone

redraw

redrew

redrawn

remake

remade

remade

rend

rent

rent

repay

repaid

repaid

rerun

reran

rerun

resell

resold

resold

reset

reset

reset

resit

resat

resat

retake

retook

retaken

retell

retold

retold

rethink

rethought

rethought

7

rewind

rewound

rewound

rewrite

rewrote

rewritten

rid

rid

rid

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

saw

sawed

sawn

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

seek

sought

sought

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

set

set

set

sew

sewed

sewn

shake

shook

shaken

shed

shed

shed

shine

shone, shined

shone, shined

shoe

shod

shod

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

shown

shrink

shrank

shrunk

shut

shut

shut

sing

sang

sung

8

sink

sank

sunk

sit

sat

sat

slay

slew

slain

sleep

slept

slept

slide

slid

slid

sling

slung

slung

slink

slunk

slunk

slit

slit

slit

smell

smelt, smelled

smelt, smelled

smite

smote

smitten

speak

spoke

spoken

speed

speeded, sped

speeded, sped

spell

spelt, spelled

spelt, spelled

spend

spent

spent

spill

spilt, spilled

spilt, spilled

spin

spun

spun

spit

spat

spat

split

split

split

spoil

spoilt, spoiled

spoilt, spoiled

spread

spread

spread

spring

sprang

sprung

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

stick

stuck

stuck

9

sting

stung

stung

stink

stank, stunk (US)

stunk

strew

strewed

strewn, strewed

stride

strode

stridden

strike

struck

struck

string

strung

strung

strive

strove

striven

swear

swore

sworn

sweep

swept

swept

swell

swelled

swollen

swim

swam

swum

swing

swung

swung

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

throw

threw

thrown

thrust

thrust

thrust

tread

trod

trodden

unbend

unbent

unbent

unbind

unbound

unbound

underbid

underbid

underbid

undercut

undercut

undercut

10

underfeed

underfed

underfed

undergo

underwent

undergone

underlie

underlay

underlain

underpay

underpaid

underpaid

undersell

undersold

undersold

understand

understood

understood

undertake

undertook

undertaken

underwrite

underwrote

underwritten

undo

undid

undone

unfreeze

unfroze

unfrozen

unmake

unmade

unmade

unsay

unsaid

unsaid

unwind

unwound

unwound

uphold

upheld

upheld

upset

upset

upset

wake

woke

woken

waylay

waylaid

waylaid

wear

wore

worn

weave

wove

woven

wed

wed, wedded

wed, wedded

weep

wept

wept

win

won

won

wind

wound

wound

withdraw

withdrew

withdrawn

11

withhold

withheld

withheld

withstand

withstood

withstood

wring

wrung

wrung

write

wrote

written

Remarks:
a

The verb be has two forms in the simple past tense:
I, he, she, it→was; you, we, they→were.

b The past participle of get is got in British English, but
gotten in American English.
c

A verb such undergo has two elements under + go.
In
this
case,
we
form
the
simple
past
and
the
past participle in the same way as the verb go without under:
go
went
gone
undergo
underwent
undergone
An exception to this rule is get:
get
got
got
forget
forgot
forgotten
But
in
America,
people
say
gotten,
already seen above.

as

we

have

d

Burn, dream, dwell, kneel, lean, leap, learn, smell,
spell, spill and spoil can be regular or irregular.
In British English, we usually prefer the irregular
form (burnt, dreamt, and so forth). Americans use the
regular ones, that is to say, the ones with -ed. As we have
seen above, a verb such as misspell should be treated as
spell, that
is,
Americans
would
say
misspelled;
but
British people, misspelt.
They are also pronounced differently:
dreamt
/dremt/
dreamed
/dri:md/
(Also kneel, lean and leap. Since leap ends in a
voiceless sound,
-ed
is
pronounced
/t/:
leaped
(/li:pt/), but leapt (/lept/).)
spelt
/spelt/
spelled
/speld/
(Also burn, dwell, learn, smell, spill and spoil.)
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e Abide, cost, hang, heave, knit, shine, speed, and a
few other verbs, can be regular or irregular, according to
the sense we use them. Bid has two forms; each of them
with different meanings. If you are in doubt about which
form to use, look the verb up in a dictionary.
f Lie is regular when it means ‘not to tell the truth’,
but it is irregular when its meaning is ‘to be in or put
your body into a horizontal position’:
She lied to me. (= She didn’t tell me the truth.)
She lay down a bit, as she felt sick. (= She put
her body into a horizontal position.)
g The infinitive of the verb read is pronounced /ri:d/; the
simple past and the past participle, /red/.
h Note that the past participle of bear in be born: He
was born in 1920, that is, He was brought into the world in
1920.
i Modal verbs are not included in this list because
they are defective, that is, they have not all the forms.
For
instance,
we
may
say
I
can
play
football
(present ability), or I could play football (past ability);
but we may not say I have could play football since I was
a child; we have to say I have been able to play football
since I was a child.
____________________
1
In British English, the simple past and the past
participle is usually lit. Lighted is used before
nouns: a lighted cigarette.
2
Especially in British English.
( Miquel Molina i Diez / polseguera.org)

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