Spring 2009

Fluid Characterisation
One of Infochem’s long term aims has
been to develop a new model for reservoir fluid characterisation which
would take the novel approach of
splitting the SCN distribution into several generic distributions with fixed
physical properties. Any given fluid
could then be represented as a mixture
of these generic compounds. While
trying to find the time and data to
move this forward we have been incrementally improving the fluid characterisation already offered by Multiflash. The two most recent extensions
have been the additions of using True
boiling (TBP) and ASTM D86 data as
input to the characterisation procedure
and allowing blending of already characterised fluids.

Petroleum fluid blending
The blending option in Multiflash allows mixing, or blending, of already
characterised petroleum fluids to provide a new fluid characterisation, for
example when two pipes intersect. The
facility allows up to four separate fluids to be blended together in relative
amounts by mass, mole or volume, to
produce a new fluid described by its
own set of pseudo-components. The
properties and relative amounts of the
blend’s pseudo-components are automatically calculated by the blending

TBP and ASTM D86
The TBP distillation values are entered against the cumulative amount
distilled as a volume percent. If available the molecular weight and spgravity may be entered or will be calculated if they are not. The characterisation then proceeds as for an analysis
by gas chromatography.

For D86 the cumulative volume distilled is entered in the table together
with the temperatures, but unlike TBP
curves, there is no option for entering
molecular weights or specific gravities
as these cannot be measured by the
D86 procedure.

The procedure has the advantage that:
• It is automatic and requires no user
• It works for any type of fluid that
can be represented in Multiflash, although it does work best if the fluids
and the pseudo-component distributions are similar.
• The properties of the blend change
smoothly with changing blend ratios.
• The method of averaging the properties of the blended pseudocomponents is exactly the same as
that used to create the pseudocomponents used to represent the
properties of the original petroleum
• The method also handles waxy and
asphaltenic crudes thereby predicting
the likely wax or asphaltene formation from the fluid blend.

Multiflash was launched as a Windows program (MF2.3) 14 years ago.
Although Windows is still our main
development environment and the
working environment for most of out
customers the growing importance of
Linux has become evident.
The Linux operating system was initially created by a young student,
Linus Torvalds, at the University of
Helsinki in Finland. It’s a Unix-like
system and the ‘kernel’ (base system)
is developed by a group of workers
around the world. Linux is important
because it is generally well supported
and very robust and most versions are
freely available. It has relatively modest hardware requirements but can
fully-exploit modern processors and
large amounts of memory.
Although Multiflash itself does not
need huge amounts of memory or ultra-fast processors we have a number
of customers that use Multiflash
within large-scale simulation programs. Examples are Pipesim, a product of Schlumberger Information Solutions, and gPROMS, a product of
Process Systems Enterprise Ltd. Pipesim provides steady-state, multiphase
flow simulation for oil and gas production systems while gPROMS is an
advanced general-purpose modelling,
simulation and optimisation tool. The
increasing scale of these applications
means that there is a demand for very
large simulations. As a result we have
produced a Linux version of Multiflash in collaboration with both
Schlumberger and PSE for use alongside the existing Windows technology.
We are always happy to discuss new
applications of Multiflash with our
customers. If you have a need for reliable advanced physical property modelling please get in touch.

Scaling In MF36 we exploited our electrolyte model. CaCl2. New properties recently added by CO-LaN are now supported.The CAPE-OPEN interface gets a makeover The 2009 Review As. PRO/II and Simulis Thermodynamics. We still support versions 1. Hydrate Boundaries 40 No salt inhibition 35 Pressure / MPa 30 25 Salt inhibition without scaling Salt inhibition with scaling 20 15 10 D D DD 5 0 200 D D 210 220 230 240 250 D 260 270 280 290 300 310 Temperature / K Expanding the area between 260 and 268K shows the formation of NaCl. CaCl2.4H2O and CaCl2. part of our hydrate modelling facility. updated and tested with the collaboration of Scandpower to ensure compatibility of the tables with the latest versions of OLGA. His main research interests were polymer phase equilibria with non-cubic Equations of State. Interoperability between different software components can sometimes be problematic so we have added a convenient logging mechanism that allows the calls between Multiflash and the client application to be recorded. the ability to generate a hydrate boundary and/or a wax boundary A new recruit Scaling 40 35 HYDRATE2 l NACL. The model for H2S has also been improved. similar to that for water. Nuno Pedrosa. 9 Tanner Street. Nuno obtained his PhD degree in chemical engineering at Aveiro University in Aveiro. KCl.6H2O. K+. which allows scaling predictions to be generalised to halide scales including NaBr.infochemuk.0 and 1. Cl. Cofe. Contact Beryl Edmonds at 13 Swan Court.1 of the CO standard which allows the capabilities of Multiflash to model multiple liquid and solid phases to be exploited. We originally implemented version 1. Tables The OLGA PVT table generation has been reviewed. This makes it much simpler to model processes involving chemical reactions.2(H2O) Pressure / MPa 30 25 20 15 10 D 5 D D D 0 260 262 264 266 268 Temperature / K The effects on salt solubility of other hydrate inhibitors. Portugal in 2007.2H2O. Two new options have also been added. This year we have expanded our team to five by recruiting Dr. edited and saved by the application that is using Multiflash. including the ability to calculate enthalpy/entropy either excluding or including the enthalpy/ entropy of formation. The CAPE-OPEN (CO) standard defines rules and interfaces that allow CAPE (Computer-Aided Process Engineering) applications or components to interoperate. Installation is simpler because all software components are now packaged as a single Windows dll. With MF38 we have released a completely new version of our CO interface.6H2O at lower temperatures. The equivalent ions supported by MF38 are now Na+. regrettably. In MF 3. London SE1 3LE. More recently we have been active in supporting version 1. NaBr. with a high salt concentration NaCl and KCl form at temperatures above the scale of the graph and CaCl2. The latter is a 1978 modification of the Peng-Robinson equation which provides an improved treatment of heavy components. In the former the excess Gibbs energy is provided by the NRTL equation. UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7357 0800 Fax: +44 (0)20 7407 3927 Email: info@infochemuk. and part of the working group set up to maintain and develop CO standards for physical properties. This has allowed Multiflash to be used with a number of process simulation tools including Aspen Hysys. are also considered. Models We regularly review the models in Multiflash and have made some changes in MF37 and MF38. Ca++. we haven’t issued a newsletter since 2006 we thought we should bring you up to date on some of the other updates to Multiflash not mentioned in other items.6H2O. CaCL2. Changes have also been made for the cubic and non-cubic equations of state.1 of the standard but have taken the opportunity to improve performance and facilities. Infochem has been involved with the CO project for over nine years and is a member of the CAPE-OPEN Laboratories Network (CO-LaN).com Website: .2H2O. gPROMS. Aspen Plus. IAPWS-95. in conjunction with our freeze-out model to allow the prediction of chloride scales. Support for extra CO interfaces allows a Multiflash CO property package to be created.2H2O and the effect on the hydrate boundary.8 the electrolyte model has been extended to handle halide scales. He is currently testing our existing hydrate models against the most recent data and reviewing surface tension models to see where we can offer improvements. The high accuracy transport property models for CO2 have been added to supplement the reference equation for the thermodynamic properties and both have been made available as a separate model option. To complete the picture we have added flash calculations that accept the new enthalpy/entropy properties.2H2O. In this example. The scales considered were NaCl. The high accuracy equation of state package (CSMA) has been extended to include equations for R245fa and R143a. NaCl.and Br-. KBR or CaBr2.0 of the CO Thermodynamics and Physical Properties specification to produce the Multiflash CO interface. while the PSRK(NRTL) and PR(78) models have been added. such as methanol or MEG. The LCVM model has been removed. The introduction of formation of scales ensures that hydrate inhibition by salts is not over-estimated as salt concentration increases.