Program Objectives
 Understand how to read Piping & Instrumentation Diagram
 Understand how to generate Piping & Instrumentation Diagram

P & ID

– What is a P&ID

P & ID

A Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID) is a detailed, pictorial
representation of a process showing

All equipment including spares
All piping and valving
All instrumentation

Necessary to design, construct, and operate the facility.
Normally shown as side elevation
Other names

Engineering Flow Diagrams (EFDs)
Mechanical Flow Diagrams (MFDs)
Utility Flow Diagrams (UFDs)

P & ID

Process Industry

Electrical. Civil. Piping Process engineer sizes equipment and piping Drawing done electronically by CAD Group – AUTOCAD – Intelligent P&IDs – Zyqad . Mechanical.P & ID     Responsibility for the technical integrity of the process design resides with Process Technology up through the Issue for Design revision Input also from I&C.

construction. . The Practice is independent of time in a facility life cycle and encompasses design. and maintenance. operations.1Purpose This Practice provides criteria for the development of Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs). 1.P & ID 1. • This Practice covers the generation of new P&IDs and does not apply to the revision of existing P&IDs.2Scope • This Practice addresses the format and content shown on a P&ID. This Practice also applies to P&IDs provided by packaged equipment vendors. Introduction 1.

P & ID 2. References – Applicable parts of the following Practices. 2. and references shall be considered an integral part of this Practice.3 Metallic Piping Systems PIP PNSM0001 – Piping Line Class Designator System .1Process Industry Practices (PIP) – – – – – PIP INEG1000 – Insulation Design and Type Codes PIP PCCIP001 – Instrument Piping and Tubing Systems Criteria PIP PCSIP001 – Instrument Piping and Tubing Systems Specifications PIP PNE00001 – Design of ASME B31. industry codes and standards.

5 .P & ID Flange Rating – From ASME B16.

1 – Instrumentation Symbols and Identification (R1992) – ISA S5.P & ID Industry Codes and Standards • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – ANSI/FCI 70-2-2003 – Control Valve Seat Leakage • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) – ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII – Pressure Vessels • The Instrumentation.01 – Application of Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industries • Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) – TEMA Standards .2 – Binary Logic Diagrams for Process Operations (R1981) – ISA S5. and Automation Society (ISA) – ISA S5. Logic and Computer Systems – ISA S84.3 – Graphic Symbols for Distributed Control / Shared Display Instrumentation. Systems.

Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals .119 – Occupational Safety and Health Standards.P & ID Government Regulations • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – OSHA 29 CFR 1910.

sample systems.g.Examples – auxiliary P&ID: Used to show details to un-clutter other P&IDs (e. lube oil system. instrument details) .P & ID Definitions ..

4 Text .3 Lines 4.2.2 Symbology 4.2.P & ID 4.2.2. Requirements (expanded index) 4.1 General 4.2 Format 4.1 Layout 4.

P & ID 4. vessel data sheets) are not recommended for inclusion on P&IDs. instrument loop diagrams.g. – Most details that are available from other types of documentation (e.1 General – Provide a balance between the desire to show all data on P&IDs with the need to make P&IDs legible and easy to read. ..

g.2. Show flow through equipment relative to actual arrangement • Show equipment arrangement relative to its elevation to grade (e. . pumps at bottom of P&ID)..P & ID 4.2 Format 4. • Show primary flow on each P&ID from left to right. Show no more that three pieces of major equipment.1 Layout • Layout each P&ID to avoid clutter and allow future modifications.

• Show normally closed manual valves using a darkened solid symbol. • Show on/off valves in normal operating position. equipment. • Do not show control valves or relief valves normally closed. use the abbreviation for Normally Closed (NC) directly below the valve in a horizontal line or to the right of the valve in a vertical line. A-2. A-3. .2. piping and instrument symbols in accordance with Appendixes A-1. and A-4.2 Symbology • Show format..P & ID 4.g. – If darkened in valves cannot be used because of symbol type (e. • Show equipment internals using a short dash/space line. butterfly valve).

3 Lines • Show flow arrows at corners and intersecting lines. • Break vertical primary process lines if crossing horizontal primary process lines. • Break instrument lines for all process and utility lines. where there is a change in direction. • Avoid routing lines across equipment or text. • Avoid doglegs .P & ID 4.2.

titles. P-601A/B).2. • Show line numbering with the orientation of the line. titles. and data for rotating equipment. blowers.. i.4 Text • Show equipment numbers. title. • Show equipment number. .g. title. pumps. and on the same horizontal plane as other equipment identification. and data once for identical equipment with the same number. e. and data for equipment directly above the equipment. and compressors directly below the equipment and on the same horizontal plane as other equipment identification.P & ID 4.. • Show equipment numbers. and service (e.

3 Blowers 4.1 Equipment General Information 4.3.6 Heat Exchangers Equipment Data .Equipment 4.10 Vessels 4.11 Tanks 4.3 Equipment (expanded index) & ID .2 Agitators 4.3.8 Pumps 4.12 Classification of Equipment 4.3.4 Compressors 4.3.7 Furnaces 4.9 Packaged Equipment 4.5 Drivers 4.

sample systems) on auxiliary P&IDs. heat conservation) for equipment. lube oil systems. personnel protection. unless the size is implied by piping connections.. but shall be shown as a size sufficient for clear understanding. including spares. seal flush systems. . on equipment as single lines.Equipment 4.. • Identify equipment shown on the P&ID by a classification letter and sequence number. Show manways as double lines. Do not label process and utility nozzles. • Show nozzles. • Show the type of insulation (e. • Do not show equipment elevations unless they are necessary to specify process requirements for associated equipment location or orientation relative to one another • Show auxiliary system requirements (e. turbine gland leak-off piping.3.g.1 Equipment General Information • Show equipment with simple outline representation. Show nozzle sizes. Equipment symbols shall not dominate the drawing. Do not draw equipment to scale.g.P & ID .

4.3.P & ID .4 Compressors • Show the compressor symbol for each stage of multistage compressors. Multistage compressors may be shown on multiple P&IDs.3. .Equipment 4. diesel engines.5 Drivers • Show drivers with driven equipment using the symbols for motors.3. Show equipment number for driver if driving more than one piece of equipment or if the driver number is different from the equipment being driven.3 Agitators Blowers • Show blower symbols as centrifugal or positive displacement as required. and turbines. Equipment numbers for drivers are normally not required. 4.3.2 4.

P & ID . multiple bundles.Equipment 4. • Air-cooled exchangers are generally of two basic types. Show shell and tube exchangers following the TEMA convention (e. multiple fans.3. variable (automatic or manual) fan pitch. variable louvers or steam coils.. reboilers. BEM) for the type utilized in the process. Each type may have recirculation. coolers. Symbols may be modified to represent the type of air-cooled exchanger used. forced draft or induced draft.6 Heat Exchangers • The term heat exchanger includes unfired heat exchangers.g. AEL. . • Orient exchanger nozzles to indicate the flow path through the exchanger • Show the total duties for multiple exchangers utilized in series or parallel configurations for common service. vaporizers and heating coils. condensers.

P & ID .Equipment  TEMA Types .

high temperature shutoff switch).P & ID .3.Equipment 4. • Show external piping and instrumentation for pump seals. • Show vendor supplied instrumentation or controls (e.g. • Show drains and lines to oil and/or water sumps.7 Furnaces • Show the radiant coils and convection coils for the furnace to distinguish between the respective sections. .8 Pumps • Do not show base plates unless panned and drained.3. 4. relief for a positive displacement pump..

P & ID . Packaged equipment can be shown generically as a “black box” until vendor drawing/information becomes available. • Show packaged equipment in its entirety. .Equipment 4. • Identify as vendor package by enclosing in broken lie. etc.3.9 Packaged Equipment • The term packaged equipment includes units such as air driers. • Assign Equipment/Item Numbers (reference Section 4.3.12) to individual equipment in the package. refrigeration systems.

hand holes and nozzles.3. Show the top and bottom trays. Show other equipment (e. • Show manways. spheres) supports only if needed.Equipment 4.10 Vessels • Show vessels as representative of actual vessel shape and orientation.11 Tanks • Show tanks as representative of actual tank type ..g. • Show trays at process connection points.P & ID .3. 4. Number trays in accordance with the project convention.

4.6 Piping Fittings 4.4Piping (expanded index) 4.4.7 Connectors and Tie-in Symbols 4.3 Piping Line Symbols 4.9 Notes .Piping 4.4.4.P & ID . Valve Symbols Line Service Codes 4.8 Drain Connectors 4.1 Line Data Identification 4.5 Piping Specialty Items 4.

• Do change the sequence number if there is a line class break. • Assign different sequence numbers to the inlet and outlet of pressure relief valves. • Show insulation code changes.4Piping 4.P & ID .1 Line Data Identification • Sequence numbers typically originate and terminate at equipment.4.Piping 4. Assign different sequence numbers to line branches that terminate at different equipment numbers or lines. No Pockets) with a note . • Do not change the sequence number if the line flows through a piping specialty item or a control valve.. • Show special layout requirements (e.g.

label the line as “future. jacketed or double containment. and future lines in accordance with Appendix A-3. . secondary. In addition to using the dashed symbol for future lines. utility. Additional line service codes can be added as required.” • Show piping for above ground (AG) and underground (UG) lines using an AG/UG line break.Piping 4.3 Piping Line Symbols • Show piping for primary.4. page 2. page 3.P & ID .4.2 Line Service Codes • Line service codes are listed in Appendix A-3. 4.

The exceptions are a blinded. use a gate valve or rotary valve symbol as the generic symbol. Do not show reduced size valve symbols for drain and vent valving. If the control valve body type is unknown. Additional valve symbols may be added as required. page 4. • Do not show valve size unless the size can not be clearly identified from the P&ID. • Do not indicate valve end connections.4 Valve Symbols • Show valve symbols in accordance with Appendix A-3. • Show all valve symbols as full size. • Use the listed valve symbols for defining control valve body types.P & ID .4.Piping 4. . capped or plugged valve and any design where this requirement is critical.

P & ID . . Designate the tag number as “SP-XXXX” where SP indicates a special piping item and XXXX is an identifier up to four characters.Piping 4. Additional piping specialty symbols may be added as required. • Show piping specialty items in accordance with Appendix A-3.5 Piping Specialty Items • Piping specialty items are items typically not specified in piping material specifications. • Piping specialty items may be tagged as equipment or instrument items.4. page 5. • Assign a tag number to each piping specialty item if it is not included in the piping material specifications.

Additional piping fitting symbols may be added as required.P & ID .. • Show all reducers on the P&ID. at vessel nozzles).g. .Piping 4. • Show weld connections if appropriate (e.6 Piping Fittings • Show typical piping fittings in accordance with Appendix A-3 page 6.4.

Use the utility connector for lines which enter/exit a P&ID from a utility distribution type P&ID. Designate Tie-Ins as “T-XXXX” where T indicates a Tie-In and XXXX is an identifier .7 Connectors and Tie-in Symbols • • • • • The off-page connector is used for lines that continue to/from another sheet of the same unit or system.g. Utility primary systems include utility headers and non-distribution type utility lines (e. Use the off-plot connector for lines that cross unit or battery limits. raw water treatment lines).Piping 4. A service description and equipment number reference are not required for utilities. Use the off-page connector for utility lines if these lines are the primary system represented on the P&ID.P & ID .4..

• Show specific design notes on the applicable P&ID . page 9 represent typical design notes.8 Drain Connectors • Show the closed and open drain connectors in accordance with Appendix A-3.4. page 8 4. These are shown on the cover sheets (Appendix B).9 Notes • The notes listed in Appendix A-3.P & ID .4.Piping 4.

P & ID .5.4 Safety/Relief Devices 4.5.6 Interlocks & Alarms 4.5.7 DCS Points 4.2 Measurements 4.5 Instrumentation & Controls (expanded index) 4.Instrumentation 4.5 Equipment Start/Stops Symbology 4.5.3 Valves 4.8 Miscellaneous .5.

page 1 through page 8.1 for additional detail.Instrumentation 4.P & ID . .1 Symbology • Show instrument and control symbols in accordance with Appendix A-4.5. Reference ISA S5.

Instrumentation 4.P & ID .2 Measurements • Show all transmitters to avoid misinterpretations of physical and wiring connections between the transmitter and other devices or systems. contained in the cover sheets (Appendix B. Do not show root valves at other locations where these installation details can be adequately defined on a P&ID cover sheet. in accordance with the applicable piping line class. to identify the valve type. page 4).5. • Show root valves where an instrument is mounted on a vessel or other piece of equipment. Use typical details. . size. rating and materials of construction.

regardless of actual type. The symbols for automated valve bodies and for manual valves are identical.P & ID .3 Valves • Show valves in accordance with Appendix A-3. page 6. • Comment: Typically. page 4. diaphragm and piston) to distinguish automated valves from manual valves.g. • Use the symbols shown in Appendix A-4.” .Instrumentation 4. • Show automated valve fail actions with text (FC/FO/FL/FI). a throttling control valve is shown with a diaphragm actuator and an on-off valve is shown with a cylinder/piston actuator. page 7 for pressure and temperature regulators. Reference Appendix A-4. • For automated valves.. identify tight shut-off requirements by using the abbreviation “TSO.5. • Use the appropriate actuator symbols (e.

. 3K4).15 and 4. PSE and PSV).. page 7 (e. • Show the orifice size letter designation for relief valves between the inlet and outlet sizes (e.g.” “Conservation Vent.” “Explosion Panel”) located next to the tag.2. . Use optional explanatory text for clarification of the type and function of the device (e..g.1.P & ID . “Emergency Relief.1.5. Reference Sections 4.4 Safety/Relief Devices • Show and tag relief devices and conservation vents in accordance with Appendix A-4.Instrumentation 4.16.2. • Show relief device set pressures.g.

.5 Equipment Start/Stops • Do not show the local start/stop hand switch for motors without automated controls.P & ID . • Show all control room (DCS or panel board) hand switches with the appropriate bubble symbol and tag.Instrumentation 4.5.

5.6 4.8 Interlocks & Alarms DCS Points Miscellaneous .5.5.P & ID .7 4.Instrumentation 4.

P & ID  Review Appendices From PIP PIC001 .

P & ID  Appendix A – Tables & Symbols – A-1 Format Tables & Symbols • Abbreviations • Miscellaneous Symbols .

P & ID  Appendix A – Tables & Symbols – A-2 • • • • • • • • • Equipment Tables & Symbols Pumps Compressors & Blowers Drivers & Agitator/Mixer TEMA Type Exchangers Miscellaneous Exchangers Storage Tanks Storage Tanks Storage Sphere and Furnace Miscellaneous Vessel Details .

P & ID – A-3 • • • • • • • • • Piping Tables & Symbols Line Data Identification Line Service Codes Piping Line Symbols Valve Symbols Piping Specialty Items Piping Fittings Connectors and Tie-In Symbol Drain Connectors Notes .

P & ID – A-3 Piping Tables & Symbols • Line Data Identification .

.P & ID – A-4 • • • • • • • • Instruments & Controls Tables & Symbols Instrument Identification Letters General Instrument Symbols Instrument Function Symbols Instrument Line Symbols Primary Element Symbols (Flow) Control Valve Actuator Symbols Self-Actuated Devices Miscellaneous Instrument Symbols.

P & ID  Examples of Legend or Cover sheets      Appendix B – Cover Sheets Symbols & Nomenclature – Typical Piping Symbols & Nomenclature – Typical Instrumentation Symbols & Nomenclature – Typical Equipment Typical Details with Implied Components .

P & ID  Symbols & Nomenclature – Typical Piping .

P & ID  Symbols & Nomenclature – Typical Instrumentation .

P & ID  Symbols & Nomenclature – Typical Equipment .

P & ID  Typical Details with Implied Components .

P & ID     Appendix C – Example P&IDs Example P&ID 1 Example P&ID 2 Example Utility P&ID .

P & ID  Example P&ID 1 .

P & ID  Example P&ID 2 .

P & ID  Example Utility P&ID .