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Part of the Lecture Particle Physics II, UvA Particle Physics Master 2013-2014

Date:

October 2013

Lecturer: Ivo van Vulpen

Assistant: Ivan Angelozzi

Disclaimer

These are private notes to prepare for the lecture on the Higgs mechanism, part of the of

lecture Particle Physics II. The first two sections almost entirely based on the book ’Quarks

and Leptons’ from the authors F. Halzen & A. Martin. The rest is a collection of material

takes from publications and the documents listed below.

Material used to prepare lecture:

o Quarks and Leptons, F. Halzen & A. Martin (main source)

o Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions, C. Quigg

o Introduction to Elementary Particles, D. Griffiths

o Lecture notes, Particle Physics 1, M. Merk

Introduction

On July 4th 2012 the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN presented their results in the

search for the Higgs boson. The data collected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during

the first run clearly indicated that a new particle had been observed: the illustrious and

long sought after Higgs boson. The search for this particle was one of the main reasons the

LHC was constructed as the Higgs boson. It is not ’just’ a new particle in particle physics,

but really forms one of the foundations of the (electroweak sector of the) Standard Model:

it allows to give masses to both fermions and gauge bosons in a local gauge invariance

theory, it is at the heart of electroweak unification, quark mixing etc.

The importance discovery was clear a bit more than a year later when, on October 8th 2013,

Fran¸cois Englert and Peter Higgs were awarded the Nobel prize in physics:

”for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the

origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERNs

Large Hadron Collider”

In these lectures we will discuss the basics of electroweak symmetry breaking and the role of

the Higgs mechanism in the Standard Model in quite some detail. We build on the lectures

Particle Physics I where the electroweak sector if the Standard Model was presented and will

only briefly touch on Quantum Chromo Dynamics. The last lecture will be a presentation

on the experimental search, all extracted properties, it’s interpretation and an overview

of the open questions and problems. Despite the remarkable experimental confirmation of

the Standard Model, even with the Higgs boson present, it is not able to explain several

observations like dark matter, the special role of gravity and the expansion of the universe.

It is these ’irritating’ open questions that make particle physicists believe that the Standard

Model is only a simplification of a more complex underlying structure.

3

1

Symmetry breaking

**After a review of the shortcomings of the model of electroweak interactions in the Standard
**

Model, in this section we study the consequences of spontaneous symmetry breaking of

(gauge) symmetries. We will do this in three steps of increasing complexity and focus on

the principles of how symmetry breaking can be used to obtain massive gauge bosons by

working out in full detail the breaking of a local U(1) gauge invariant model (QED) and

give the photon a mass.

1.1

Problems in the Electroweak Model

**The electroweak model, beautiful as it is, has some serious shortcomings.
**

1] Local SU(2)L × U(1)Y gauge invariance forbids massive gauge bosons

In the theory of Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) the requirement of local gauge invari0

ance, i.e. the invariance of the Lagrangian under the transformation φ → eiα(x) φ plays a

fundamental rˆole. Invariance was achieved by replacing the partial derivative by a covariant

derivative, ∂µ → Dµ = ∂µ − ieAµ and the introduction of a new vector field A with very

0

specific transformation properties: Aµ → Aµ + 1e ∂µ α. This Lagrangian for a free particle

then changed to:

1

LQED = Lfree + Lint − Fµν F µν ,

4

which not only ’explained’ the presence of a vector field in nature (the photon), but also

automatically yields an interaction term Lint = eJ µ Aµ between the vector field and the

particle as explained in detail in the lectures on the electroweak model. Under these symmetry requirements it is unfortunately not possible for a gauge boson to acquire a mass. In

QED for example, a mass term for the photon, would not be allowed as such a term breaks

gauge invariance:

1 2

1

1

1

1

mγ Aµ Aµ = m2γ (Aµ + ∂µ α)(Aµ + ∂ µ α) 6= m2γ Aµ Aµ

2

2

e

e

2

The example using only U(1) and the mass of the photon might sounds strange as the

photon is actually massless, but a similar argument holds in the electroweak model for the

W and Z bosons, particles that we know are massive and make the weak force only present

at very small distances.

2] Local SU(2)L × U(1)Y gauge invariance forbids massive fermions

Just like in QED, invariance under local gauge transformations in the electroweak model

~ µ + ig 0 1 Y Bµ

requires introducing a covariant derivative of the form Dµ = ∂µ + ig 12 ~τ · W

2

introducing a weak current, J weak and a different transformation for isospin singlets and

¯ but

doublets. A mass term for a fermion in the Lagrangian would be of the form −mf ψψ,

such terms in the Lagrangian are not allowed as they are not gauge invariant. This is clear

4

isospin singlet.Introduces a fundamental scalar → the Higgs boson ! 1.when we decompose the expression in helicity states: ¯ = −mf ψ¯R + ψ¯L (ψL + ψR ) −mf ψψ = −mf ψ¯R ψL + ψ¯L ψR . spontaneous symmetry breaking of a local gauge invariant theory (or Higgs mechanism). member of an isospin doublet. This energy dependency clearly makes the theory nonrenormalizable. The Higgs mechanism: . we need a very high degree of symmetry (local gauge invariance) in the model. L = T(kinetic) − V(potential) The Euler-Lagrange equation then give you the equations of motion: d ∂L ∂L − =0 dt ∂ q˙i ∂qi 5 . since ψ¯R ψR = ψ¯L ψL = 0 Since ψL (left-handed. in detail in this section. like WW-scattering (some Feynman graphs are shown in the picture on the right) violate unitarity at high energy as σ(WW → ZZ) ∝ E2 . I = 21 ) and ψR (right-handed. We will explore this idea.Solves all the above problems . W Z + W W Z W Z W Z How to solve the problems: a way out To keep the theory renormalizable. I = 0) behave differently under rotations these terms are not gauge invariant: 0 ψL → ψL = eiα(x)T +iβ(x)Y ψL 0 ψR → ψR = eiβ(x)Y ψR 3] Violating unitarity Several Standard Model scattering cross-sections. Dropping the requirement of the local SU(2)L × U(1)Y gauge invariance is therefore not a wise decision. but will make the vacuum not invariant under this symmetry. Fortunately there is a way out of this situation: Introduce a new field with a very specific potential that keeps the full Lagrangian invariant under SU(2)L × U(1)Y .2 A few basics on Lagrangians A short recap of the basics on Lagrangians we’ll be using later.

We can investigate in some detail the two possibilities for the sign of µ2 : positive or negative. the term linear in the field has no direct interpretation (and should not be present as we will explain later). Using expression (1) we see that the Lagrangian describes a free particle with mass µ that has an additional four-point self-interaction: V(φ) L= φ 1 1 (∂µ φ)2 − µ2 φ2 |2 {z 2 } free particle.3 Simple example of symmetry breaking To describe the main idea of symmetry breaking we start with a simple model for a real scalar field φ (or a theory to which we add a new field φ). 1.e. the Lagrangian for a real scalar particle (φ) is given by: L= + . In expression (1). the constant (potential) term is for most purposes of no importance as it does not appear in the equation of motion. the quadratic term in the fields represents the mass of the field/particle and higher order terms describe interaction terms.. 4-point int. The vacuum is at φ = 0 and is symmetric in φ. i.1 µ2 > 0: Free particle with additional interactions To investigate the particle spectrum we look at the Lagrangian for small perturbations around the minimum (vacuum). mass µ 6 1 − λφ4 | 4{z } interaction . + δφ4 (∂µ φ)2 + |{z} C + αφ + + γφ3 βφ2 |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} | {z } mass term 3-point int..For a real scalar field for example: Lscalar = 1 1 (∂µ φ) (∂ µ φ) − m2 φ2 → Euler-Lagrange → 2 2 (∂µ ∂ µ + m2 )φ = 0 | {z } Klein-Gordon equation In electroweak theory.3. kinematics of fermions. ? kinetic term constant (1) We can interpret the particle spectrum of the theory when studying the Lagrangian under small perturbations. 1. with a specific potential term: 1 (∂µ φ)2 − V(φ) 2 1 1 1 = (∂µ φ)2 − µ2 φ2 − λφ4 2 2 4 L = (2) Note that L is symmetric under φ → −φ and that λ is positive to ensure an absolute minimum in the Lagrangian. spin-1/2 particles is described by: ¯ µ ∂ µ ψ − mψψ ¯ → Euler-Lagrange → (iγµ ∂ µ − m) ψ = 0 Lfermion = iψγ | {z } Dirac equation In general.

i. the perturbations around the minimum are not symmetric in η. to investigate the particle spectrum in the theory.2 µ2 < 0: Introducing a particle with imaginary mass ? v V(φ) φ η The situation with µ2 < 0 looks strange since at first glance it would appear to describe a particle φ with an imaginary mass. To do this it is more natural to introduce a field η (simply a shift of the φ field) that is centered at the vacuum: η = φ − v. if we take a closer look at the potential. However. 2 Kinetic term: Lkin (η) = 1 1 Potential term: V(η) = + µ2 (η + v)2 + λ(η + v)4 2 4 1 1 = λv 2 η 2 + λvη 3 + λη 4 − λv 4 . Rewriting the Lagrangian in terms of η Expressing the Lagrangian in terms of the shifted field η is done by replacing φ by η + v in the original Lagrangian from equation (2): 1 (∂µ (η + v)∂ µ (η + v)) 2 1 = (∂µ η)(∂ µ η) . Although the Lagrangian is still symmetric in φ. 2 η 7 .2 we see that this describes the kinematics for a massive scalar particle: p √ 1 2 2 2 2 m = λv → mη = 2λv = −2µ Note: mη > 0. Neglecting the irrelevant 14 λv 4 constant term and neglecting terms or order η 2 we have as Lagrangian: 1 1 1 (∂µ η)(∂ µ η) − λv 2 η 2 − λvη 3 − λη 4 − λv 4 2 4 4 1 = (∂µ η)(∂ µ η) − λv 2 η 2 2 Full Lagrangian: L(η) = From section 1.3. we see that it does not make sense to interpret the particle spectrum using the field φ since perturbation theory around φ = 0 will not converge (not a stable minimum) as the vacuum is located at: r µ2 − = v or µ2 = −λv 2 (3) φ0 = λ As before.1. since ∂µ v = 0. we have to look at small perturbations around this minimum. V(−η) 6= V(η).e. 4 4 where we used µ2 = −λv 2 from equation (3).

4 Breaking a global symmetry In an existing theory we are free to introduce an additional complex scalar field: φ = √1 (φ1 + iφ2 ) (two degrees of freedom): 2 L = (∂µ φ)∗ (∂ µ φ) − V(φ) . mass µ particle φ2 . under φ0 → eiα φ since φ0∗ φ0 → φ∗ φe−iα e+iα = φ∗ φ. the vacuum is not symmetric in the field η: spontaneous symmetry breaking.1 µ2 > 0 V(Φ) This situation simply describes two massive scalar particles. 1. positive mass) with three. Note that we have added a single degree of freedom to the theory: a scalar particle. φ2 ) = (∂µ φ1 )2 + (∂µ φ2 )2 − µ2 (φ21 + φ22 ) − λ(φ21 + φ22 ) 2 2 2 4 There are again two distinct cases: µ2 > 0 and µ2 < 0. i. adding a V (φ) term as in equation (2) to the Lagrangian implies adding a particle with imaginary mass with a four-point self-interaction. As in the previous section.4.and four-point selfinteractions. each with a mass µ with additional interactions: L(φ1 . The Lagrangian in terms of φ1 and φ2 is given by: 1 1 1 1 2 L(φ1 . 1. we see that it actually describes a massive scalar particle (real.e. when examining the particle spectrum using perturbations around the vacuum. Although the Lagrangian retains its original symmetry (symmetric in φ). we investigate the particle spectrum by studying the Lagrangian under small perturbations around the vacuum. with V(φ) = µ2 (φ∗ φ) + λ(φ∗ φ)2 Note that the Lagrangian is invariant under a U(1) global symmetry.Executive summary on µ2 < 0 scenario At first glance. φ2 ) = φ2 φ1 1 1 1 1 (∂µ φ1 )2 − µ2 φ21 + (∂µ φ2 )2 − µ2 φ22 |2 {z 2 } |2 {z 2 } particle φ1 . However. mass µ + interaction terms 8 .

ξ) = µ2 φ2 + λφ4 1 1 = − λv 2 [(v + η)2 + ξ 2 ] + λ[(v + η)2 + ξ 2 ]2 2 4 1 4 1 1 1 = − λv + λv 2 η 2 + λvη 3 + λη 4 + λξ 4 + λvηξ 2 + λη 2 ξ 2 4 4 4 2 Neglecting the constant and higher order terms. the full Lagrangian can be written as: L(η. 9 . −v φ1 ξ η Looking at the symmetry we would use a αeiβ .2 When µ2 < 0 there is not a single vacuum located at 0 . ξ) = 1 1 (∂µ η)2 − (λv 2 )η 2 + (∂µ ξ)2 + 0 · ξ 2 + higher order terms 2 2 {z } {z } | | massive scalar particle η massless scalar particle ξ We can identify this as a massive η particle and a massless ξ particle: p √ mη = 2λv 2 = −2µ2 > 0 and mξ = 0 Unlike the η-field.2): φ2 [2] φ1 [1] ξ η circle of vacua 1 φ0 = √ (η + v + iξ) 2 1 Using φ2 = φ∗ φ = 2 [(v + η)2 + ξ 2 ] and µ2 = −λv 2 we can rewrite the Lagrangian in terms of the shifted fields.5. This is a direct consequence of the U(1) symmetry of the Lagrangian and the massless particle ξ is the so-called Goldstone boson. but an infinite number of vacua that satisfy: 0 V(Φ) r q −µ2 =v φ21 + φ22 = λ φ2 From the infinite number we choose φ0 as φ1 = v and φ2 = 0. 2 2 Kinetic term: Lkin (η.µ2 < 0 1. To see what particles are present in this model. since ∂µ v = 0.4. with: η = φ1 − v and ξ = φ2 . which means that the (perturbations around the) vacuum are described by (see section 1. describing radial excitations. the behaviour of the Lagrangian is studied under small oscillations around the vacuum. ξ) = Potential term: V(η. 1 ∂µ (η + v − iξ)∂ µ (η + v + iξ) 2 1 1 = (∂µ η)2 + (∂µ ξ)2 . When looking at perturbations around this minimum it is natural to define the shifted fields η and ξ. there is no ’force’ acting on oscillations along the ξ-field.

Local U(1) gauge invariance is the requirement that the Lagrangian is invariant under 0 φ → eiα(x) φ. When we break a local gauge invariance something special happens and the Goldstone boson will disappear. each satisfying φ21 + φ22 = −µ2 /λ = v 2 .5. 1. From the lectures on electroweak theory we know that this can be achieved by switching to a covariant derivative with a special transformation rule for the vector field. As promised in the introduction. 1. As we will see. Using again the shifted fields η and ξ we define the vacuum as φ0 = √12 [(v + η) + iξ]. this will allow to add a mass-term for the gauge boson (the photon). 10 .e.4. Because of local gauge invariance some important differences appear. for each generator that connects the vacuum states one massless spin-zero particle will appear. Extra terms will appear in the kinetic part of the Lagrangian through the covariant derivatives.Goldstone theorem: For each broken generator of the original symmetry group. In the situation µ2 < 0 we have an infinite number of vacua.5 Breaking a local gauge invariant symmetry: the Higgs mechanism In this section we will take the final step and study what happens if we break a local gauge invariant theory.1 Lagrangian under small perturbations The situation µ2 > 0: we have a vacuum at 00 . Executive summary on breaking a global gauge invariant symmetry Spontaneously breaking a continuous global symmetry gives rise to a massless (Goldstone) boson. The particle spectrum is obtained by studying the Lagrangian under small oscillations using the same procedure as for the continuous global symmetry from section (1. In QED: ∂µ → Dµ = ∂µ − ieAµ 1 0 Aµ = Aµ + ∂µ α e [covariant derivatives] [Aµ transformation] (4) The local U(1) gauge invariant Lagrangian for a complex scalar field is then given by: 1 L = (Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) − Fµν F µν − V (φ) 4 The term 14 Fµν F µν is the kinetic term for the gauge field (photon) and V (φ) is the extra term in the Lagrangian we have seen before: V (φ∗ φ) = µ2 (φ∗ φ) + λ(φ∗ φ)2 . The exact symmetry of the Lagrangian is preserved in the vacuum: we have QED with a massless photon and two massive scalar particles φ1 and φ2 each with a mass µ. we will explore its consequences using a local U(1) gauge invariant theory we know (QED). i.2).

When writing down the full Lagrangian in this specific gauge. ξ) = (Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) = (∂ µ + ieAµ )φ∗ (∂µ − ieAµ )φ = . However..5. ξ) = (∂µ η)2 − λv 2 η 2 + (∂µ ξ)2 − Fµν F µν + e2 v 2 A2µ − evAµ (∂ µ ξ) +int. In general.2. we will see that all terms involving the ξ-field will disappear and that the additional degree of freedom will appear as the mass term for the gauge boson associated to the broken symmetry. ξ) = λv 2 η 2 . the Lagrangian also contains strange terms that we cannot easily interpret: −evAµ (∂ µ ξ).e. See section 1. when choosing this gauge (phase of rotation α) the field φ changes accordingly (see first part of section 1.-terms |2 {z } |2 {z } |4 {z 2 } | {z } ? η-particle ξ-particle photon field (5) At first glance: massive η. This prevents making an easy interpretation. to redefine Aµ and remove all terms involving the ξ field. taking α = −ξ/v. i. see Exercise 1 Potential term: V (η.4. up to second order in the fields. ξη) ): 0 φ → e−i ξ/v φ = e−i ξ/v 1 √ (v + η + iξ) = e−i 2 ξ/v 1 √ (v + η)e+i 2 ξ/v 1 = √ (v + h) 2 Here we have introduced the real h-field.Kinetic term: Lkin (η. Of course. massless ξ (as before) and also a mass term for the photon. is called the unitary gauge. We can exploit this freedom..1 and dropping terms of O(ξ 2 . we see that we can rewrite them as: 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 2 1 1 2 µ (∂µ ξ) − evA (∂µ ξ) + e v Aµ = e v Aµ − (∂µ ξ) = e v (Aµ ) 2 2 2 ev 2 This specific choice. Aµ and φ change simultaneously. 1. The full Lagrangian can be written as: 1 1 1 1 L(η. η 2 . 11 .2 Rewriting the Lagrangian in the unitary gauge In a local gauge invariance theory we see that Aµ is fixed up to a term ∂µ α as can be seen from equation (4). Looking at the terms involving the ξ-field.

i. γ 2 2] e vA2µ h: h photon-Higgs three-point interaction γ 3] 12 e2 A2µ h2 : photon-Higgs four-point interaction h h γ γ Executive summary on breaking a local gauge invariant symmetry We added a complex scalar field (2 degrees of freedom) to our existing theory and broke the original symmetry by using a ’strange’ potential that yielded a large number of vacua.4 Expanding the terms in the Lagrangian associated to the vector field we see that we do not only get terms proportional to A2µ . a mass term for the gauge field (photon).5.3 Lagrangian in the unitary gauge: particle spectrum Lscalar = (Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) − V (φ† φ) 1 1 = (∂ µ + ieAµ ) √ (v + h) (∂µ − ieAµ ) √ (v + h) − V (φ† φ) 2 2 1 1 1 1 = (∂µ h)2 + e2 A2µ (v + h)2 − λv 2 h2 − λvh3 − λh4 + λv 4 2 2 4 4 Expanding (v + h)2 into 3 terms (and ignoring 14 λv 4 ) we end up with: = 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 (∂µ h)2 − λv 2 h2 + e v Aµ + e2 vA2µ h + e2 A2µ h2 − λvh3 − λh4 |2 | {z } |2 {z } {z2 } | {z 4 } massive scalar Higgs selfgauge field (γ) interaction Higgs particle h with mass and gauge fields interactions A few words on expanding the terms with (v + h)2 1. are a consequence of the Higgs mechanism. when expanding 12 e2 A2µ (v + h)2 we get: 1] 21 e2 v 2 A2µ : the mass term for the gauge field (photon) Given equation (1) we see that mγ = ev. These interactions.e. In our model. 12 . The additional degrees of freedom appear in the theory as a mass term for the gauge boson connected to the broken symmetry (mγ ) and a massive scalar particle (mh ). but also automatically terms that describe the interaction of the Higgs field with the gauge field. related to the mass of the gauge boson. QED with a massive photon.1.5.

with ’old’: mh for the normal Higgs potential. a) The normal Higgs potential: V (φ† φ) = µ2 φ2 + λφ4 Show that 12 m2h = λv 2 . much less work. c) Draw all Feynman vertices that are present in this model and show that Higgs three-point (self-)coupling. Just ignore this little detail for the moment and compute the ’prediction’ for the Higgs boson mass. d) Higgs boson properties: how can you see from the Lagrangian that the Higgs boson is a scalar (spin 0) particle ? What defines the ’charge’ of the Higgs boson ? Exercise 3: the potential part: V(φ† φ) Use in this exercise φ = √1 (v 2 + h) and that φ is real (1 dimension). How many vacua are there? b) Why is V (φ† φ) = µ2 φ2 + βφ3 not possible ? How many vacua are there? Terms ∝ φ6 are allowed since they introduce additional interactions that are not cancelled by gauge boson interactions. where (φ0 = v). 2 c) Use V (φ† φ) = µ2 φ2 − λφ4 + 34 δφ6 . 13 .58) in Halzen & Martin.Exercises lecture 1 Exercise 1: interaction terms a) Compute the ’interaction terms’ as given in equation (5). with µ2 < 0. making the model non-renormalizable. Hint: you can either do the full computation or. µ2 q Show that mh (new) = 32 mh (old). or h → hh. b) Are the interaction terms symmetric in η and ξ ? Exercise 2: Toy-model with a massive photon a) Derive expression (14. b) Show that in this model the Higgs boson can decay into two photons and that the coupling h → γγ is proportional to mγ . λ > 0 and δ = − 2λ . just insert φ = √12 (v + h) in the Lagrangian and keep Aµ unchanged. is proportional to mh .

14 .

2) Add a potential V(φ) for the field that will break (spontaneously) the symmetry: 2 V (φ) = µ2 (φ† φ) + λ(φ† φ) . 15 . leaving only the photon massless. In writing down this vacuum we immediately went to the unitary gauge (see section 1.5). we can only add SU(2)L × U(1)Y multiplets. The electric charges of the upper and lower component of the doublet are chosen to ensure that the hypercharge Y=+1. Here we add a left-handed doublet (like the electron neutrino doublet) with weak Isospin 21 . I3 = − 21 and with our choice of Y = +1 we have Q = I3 + 12 Y =0. with µ2 < 0 The part added to the Lagrangian for the scalar field Lscalar = (Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) − V (φ). where Dµ is the covariant derivative associated to SU(2)L × U(1)Y : 1 ~ µ + ig 0 1 Y Bµ Dµ = ∂µ + ig ~τ · W 2 2 3) Choose a vacuum: We have seen that any choice of the vacuum that breaks a symmetry will generate a mass for the corresponding gauge boson.1 Breaking the local gauge invariant SU(2)L × U(1)Y symmetry To break the SU(2)L × U(1)Y symmetry we follow the ingredients of the Higgs mechanism: 1) Add an isospin doublet: φ= φ+ φ0 1 =√ 2 φ1 + iφ2 φ3 + iφ4 Since we would like the Lagrangian to retain all its symmetries. With a specific choice of parameters we can obtain massive Z and W bosons while keeping the photon massless. We will see that this choice of the vacuum breaks SU(2)L × U(1)Y . The vacuum we choose has φ1 =φ2 =φ4 =0 and φ3 = v: 1 0 Vacuum =φ0 = √ 2 v+h This vacuum as defined above is neutral since I = 12 .2 The Higgs mechanism in the Standard Model In this section we will apply the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking from section 1 to the model of electroweak interactions.but leaves U(1)EM invariant. This requirement is vital for reasons that will become more evident later. 2.

In the lecture on electroweak theory we have seen that the W1 and W2 fields mix to form the charged W + and W − bosons and that the W3 and B field will mix to form the neutral Z-boson and photon. For the photon to remain massless the U(1)EM symmetry should leave the vacuum invariant. Looking at the symmetries we can already predict this is the case. Under infinitesimal rotations this means (1 + iαZ)φ0 = φ0 → Zφ0 = 0. U(1)Y and U(1)EM generators: 0 1 1 0 0 i 1 0 SU(2)L : τ1 φ0 = τ2 φ0 = τ3 φ0 = U(1)Y : Y φ0 = 1 0 √ 2 v+h 1 −i 0 √ 0 2 v+h 1 0 0 √ −1 2 v+h 1 0 √ Y φ0 2 v+h 1 v+h = +√ 6= 0 → broken 0 2 i v+h = −√ 6= 0 → broken 0 2 1 0 = −√ 6= 0 → broken 2 v+h 1 0 = +√ 6= 0 → broken 2 v+h This means that all 4 gauge bosons (W1 . W1 W2 | {z } + W and W− bosons W3 B | {z } Z-boson and γ When computing the masses of these mixed physical states in the next sections.2. W2 . 2) W3 and B mix to form massive Z and massless γ. with Z the associated ’rotation’. And indeed: 1 1 1 0 0 √ = 0 → unbroken U(1)EM : Qφ0 = (τ3 + Y )φ0 = 0 0 2 2 v+h It is not so strange that U(1)EM is conserved as the vacuum is neutral and we have: 0 φ0 → eiαQφ0 φ0 = φ0 Breaking of SU(2)L × U(1)Y : looking a bit ahead 1) W1 and W2 mix and will form the massive a W+ and W− bosons.2 Checking which symmetries are broken in a given vacuum How do we check if the symmetries associated to the gauge bosons are broken ? Invariance implies that eiαZ φ0 = φ0 . What about the SU(2)L . 16 . W3 and B) acquire a mass through the Higgs mechanism. we will see that one of these combinations (the photon) remains massless. 3) Remaining degree of freedom will form the mass of the scalar particle (Higgs boson).

5.3. (−gW3 + g Yφ0 Bµ ) and we get the following expression for the kinetic part of the Lagrangian: i 1 h 0 (Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) = v 2 g 2 (W12 + W22 ) + (−gW3 + g Yφ0 Bµ )2 (7) 8 2.3 Scalar part of the Lagrangian: gauge boson mass terms Studying the scalar part of the Lagrangian To obtain the masses for the gauge bosons we will only need to study the scalar part of the Lagrangian: Lscalar = (Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) − V (φ) (6) The V (φ) term will again give the mass term for the Higgs boson and the Higgs selfinteractions. working out the (v + h)2 -terms from equation (6) will give us three terms: 1) Masses for the gauge bosons (∝ v 2 ) 2) Interactions gauge bosons and the Higgs (∝ vh) and (∝ h2 ) In the exercises we will study the interactions of the Higgs boson and the gauge boson (the terms in 2)) in detail. but since we are here primarily interested in the masses of the vector bosons we will only focus on 1): 1 1 1 0 0 ~ µ + ig Y Bµ (Dµ φ) = √ ig ~τ · W v 2 2 2 h i 0 i 0 = √ g(τ1 W1 + τ2 W2 + τ3 W3 ) + g Y Bµ v 8 h i 0 i 0 Yφ0 Bµ 0 0 W1 0 −iW2 W3 0 = √ g + iW2 + 0 −W3 +g W1 0 0 0 Yφ0 Bµ v 8 0 i gW3 + g Yφ0 Bµ g(W1 − iW2 ) 0 = √ 0 v g(W1 + iW2 ) −gW3 + g Yφ0 Bµ 8 iv g(W1 − iW2 ) = √ 0 −gW 3 + g Yφ0 Bµ 8 0 We can then also easily compute (Dµ φ)† : (Dµ φ)† = − √iv8 g(W1 + iW2 ) .2. 17 . Z and γ since that are the gauge bosons that are observed in nature. The (Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) terms: 1 1 0 01 ~ Dµ φ = ∂µ + ig ~τ · Wµ + ig Y Bµ √ 2 2 2 v+h will give rise to the masses of the gauge bosons (and the interaction of the gauge bosons with the Higgs boson) since. W− .4. as we discussed in section 1.1 Rewriting (Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) in terms of physical gauge bosons Before we can interpret this we need to rewrite this in terms of W+ .

1] Rewriting terms with W1 and W2 terms: charged gauge bosons W+ and W− When discussing the charged current interaction on SU(2)L doublets we saw that the charge raising and lowering operators connecting the members of isospin doublets were τ+ and τ− . The two eigenvalues and eigenvectors are given by [see Exercise 3]: eigenvalue eigenvector g0 g 1 =p (g 0 W3 + gBµ ) = Aµ photon(γ) → p 2 g2 + g0 g2 + g02 1 1 g 2 02 λ = (g + g ) → p =p (gW3 − g 0 Bµ ) = Zµ Z-boson (Z) 0 2 2 −g 2 0 2 0 g +g g +g λ=0 1 Looking at the terms involving W3 and B in the Lagrangian we see that: 2 (−gW3 + g 0 Yφ0 Bµ )2 = (g 2 + g 0 )Zµ2 + 0 · A2µ 18 (9) . 2 If Yφ0 = ± 1. Bµ ) Bµ −gg 0 Yφ0 g02 When looking at this expression there are some important things to note. especially related to the role of the hypercharge of the vacuum. In our choice of vacuum we have Yφ0 = +1 (see Exercise 4 why that is a good idea). In particular. we see that: 2 2 g 2 (W12 + W22 ) = g 2 (W + + W − ) or. Looking at the terms involving W1 and W2 in the Lagrangian in equation (7). the W3 and Bµ fields mix. the determinant of the mixing matrix vanishes and one of the combinations will be massless (the coefficient for that gauge field squared is 0). W − using W ± = 1 (τ W + τ2 W2 ) = √12 (τ+ W + + τ− W − ). In the rest of our discussion we will drop the term Yφ0 and simply use its value of 1. 2 1 1 √1 (W1 2 ∓ iW2 ). alternatively. W2 terms as W + . 2g 2 W + W − (8) 2] Rewriting terms with W3 and Bµ terms: neutral gauge bosons Z and γ g2 −gg 0 Yφ0 W3 0 2 (−gW3 + g Yφ0 Bµ ) = (W3 . + τ+ τ− 1 = (τ1 + iτ2 ) = 2 1 (τ1 − iτ2 ) = = 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ν W e− − ν W e− We can rewrite W1 . linear combinations of τ1 and τ2 and that each had an associated gauge boson: the W+ and W− . Yφ0 : 1 Only if Yφ0 6= 0.

the SM makes no absolute predictions for MW and MZ . Mass relation W and Z boson: Although there is no absolute prediction for the mass of the W. it has been possible to set a lower limit before the W . 19 (12) .2 Massless neutral gauge boson (γ): Similar to the Z boson we have now a mass for the photon: 12 Mγ2 = 0. from equation (10) we see that: 1 vg 2 q 1 = v (g 2 + g 0 2 ) 2 MW + = MW − = MZ Although since g and g 0 are free parameters.2 GeV.3] Rewriting Lagrangian in terms of physical fields: masses of the gauge bosons Finally. by combining equation (8) and (9) we can rewrite the Lagrangian from equation (7) in terms of the physical gauge bosons: 1 2 (Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) = v 2 [g 2 (W + )2 + g 2 (W − )2 + (g 2 + g 0 )Zµ2 + 0 · A2µ ] 8 2. often used to describe the mixing of the W3 and Bµ -fields to form the physical Z boson and photon. which allowed us to relate e. g and g 0 (see Exercise 3): e = g sin(θW ) = g 0 cos(θW ) (11) In this expression θW is the Weinberg angle. 2. so: Mγ = 0.1 (10) Masses of the gauge bosons Massive charged and neutral gauge bosons As a general mass term for a massive gauge boson V has the form 21 MV2 Vµ2 . From equation (11) we see that g 0 /g = tan(θW ) and therefore: 1 vg MW = 1 p2 = cos(θW ) 2 + g02 MZ v g 2 This predicted ratio is often expressed as the so-called ρ-(Veltman) parameter: ρ= 2 MW =1 MZ2 cos2 (θW ) The current measurements of the MW .4 GeV and MZ = 91.4.4.and Z-boson. The measured values are MW = 80. there is a clear prediction on the ratio between the two masses.and Z-boson were discovered (see Exercise 2). MZ and θW confirm this relation. From discussions in QED we know the photon couples to charge.4 2.

the mass of the Higgs boson is not predicted in the Standard Model. part 1) when expanding the ((v + h)2 )-terms as discussed in Section 1. since λ is a free parameter. 20 . hZZ. hhWW.e. 2 νe Given GF = 1. This energy scale is known as the electroweak scale. the mass of the Higgs boson is given by: √ mh = 2λv 2 Although v is known (v ≈ 246 GeV. Exercise [2]: History: lower limits on MW and MZ √ Use the relations e = g sin θW and GF = (v 2 2)−1 to obtain lower limits for the masses of the W and Z boson assuming that you do not know the value of the weak mixing angle. EW: ∝ g2 2 8MW W g e Exercises lecture 2 Exercise [1]: Higgs .Z). show that the four vertex factors describing the interaction between the Higgs boson and gauge bosons: hWW.3. we We used MW = see that v = 246 GeV.166 · 10 . with (V = W. νµ Extra: how do we know v ?: µ GF νe Muon decay: g2 GF = √ →v= 2 8MW 2 s √ Fermi: ∝ 1 2GF G √F 2 e νµ µ g −5 1 vg. Looking now at the terms in the Lagrangian that describe the interaction between the gauge fields and the Higgs field. see below).Vector boson couplings In the lecture notes we focussed on the masses of the gauge bosons.5. i.2.4 and 2. Note: A vertex factor is obtained by multiplying the term involving the interacting fields in the Lagrangian by a factor i and a factor n! for n identical particles in the vertex.5 Mass of the Higgs boson Looking at the mass term for the scalar particle. hhZZ are given by: 3-point: 2i MV2 v g µν and 4-point: 2i MV2 v2 g µν .

the ’photon’ and ’Z-boson’ ? In such a model.Exercise [3]: Electroweak mixing: (Wµ3 . Zµ ). In this alternative model: a) Explain why the Higgs field φ needs to be an SU(2)L doublet. the electric charge. b) How many gauge bosons are there and how many degrees of freedom does φ have ? c) Determine the masses of the gauge bosons in this model. would 0 0 0 be the (mass-)eigenvectors Aµ and Zµ . 2 c) bonus: Imagine that we would have chosen Yφ0 = −1. Note that this is different from the SU(2)L ×U(1)Y symmetry of the SM involving also hypercharge. what would be their masses ? Compare them to those in the Standard Model. The mix between the Wµ3 and Bµ fields in the lagrangian can be written in a matrix notation: 3 2 Wµ g −gg 0 3 (Wµ . d) What property of the particles do the gauge bosons couple to and what defines the ’charge’ of the gauge bosons themselves ? 21 . Bµ ) −gg 0 g 02 Bµ a) Show that the eigenvalues of the matrix are λ1 = 0 and λ2 = (g 2 + g 0 2 ). Bµ ) → (Aµ . Exercise [5] Gauge bosons in a model with an SU(2)L symmetry Imagine a system described by a local SU(2)L gauge symmetry (iso-spin only) in which all gauge bosons are be massive. Exercise [4]: A closer look at the covariant derivative The covariant derivative in the electroweak theory is given by: Dµ = ∂µ + ig 0 Y ~µ Bµ + ig T~ · W 2 Looking only at the part involving Wµ3 and Bµ show that: gg 0 Y 1 2 02 Y Dµ = ∂µ + iAµ p + iZµ p T3 + g T3 − g 2 2 g 02 + g 2 g 02 + g 2 Make also a final interpretation step for the Aµ part and show that: gg 0 p = e and g 02 + g 2 T3 + Y = Q. b) Show that these eigenvalues correspond to the two eigenvectors: 1 V1 = p (g 0 Wµ3 + gBµ ) ≡ Aµ 2 2 0 g +g 1 and V2 = p (gWµ3 − g 0 Bµ ) ≡ Zµ 2 2 0 g +g c) bonus: Imagine that we would have chosen Yφ0 = −1. Show explicitly that in that case 0 the photon does not couple to the electric charge. What. in that scenario.

22 .

¯ Chirality and a closer look at terms like −mψψ ¯ = −m[ψ¯L ψR + ψ¯R ψL ]. Even though the Higgs boson has been discovered. 23 . This is the case as φ0 = √12 v +0 h as before. a decomposition in chiral states (see exercise A term like −mψψ 1).e. where λf is a so-called Yukawa coupling. It can be shown that the Higgs has exactly the right quantum numbers to form an SU (2)L and U (1)Y singlet in the vertex: −λf ψ¯L φψR .1 Fermion masses ¯ were not gauge invariant. 3. it would remain invariant. 0 ~ ~ left handed doublet = χL → χL = χL eiW ·T +iαY 0 right handed singlet = ψR → ψR = ψR eiαY This means that the term is not invariant under all SU(2)L × U(1)Y ’rotations’. In the previous section we have seen how the Higgs mechanism can be used to accommodate massive gauge bosons in our theory while keeping the local gauge invariance. As we will now see. They transform differently under SU(2)L × U(1)Y . Such a term in the Lagrangian is not gauge invariant since the left handed fermions ) and the right handed fermions form isospin form an isospin doublet (for example νe L singlets like eR . Since these In section 1 we saw that terms like 12 Bµ B µ and mψψ terms are not allowed in the Lagrangian. This can be done using the complex (Higgs) doublet we introduced in the previous section. both gauge bosons and fermions are massless.a term: ∝ ψ¯L φψR is invariant under SU(2)L × U(1)Y We have constructed a term in the Lagrangian that couples the Higgs doublet to the fermion fields: ¯ L] Lfermion-mass = −λf [ψ¯L φψR + ψ¯R φψ (13) When we write out this term we’ll see that this does not only describe an interaction between the Higgs field and fermion. but that the fermions will acquire a finite mass if the φ-doublet has a non-zero expectation value.3 Fermion masses. Executive summary: . Higgs decay and limits on mh In this section we discuss how fermions acquire a mass and use our knowledge on the Higgs coupling to fermions and gauge bosons to predict how the Higgs boson decays as a function of its mass.a term: ∝ ψ¯L ψR is not invariant under SU(2)L × U(1)Y . we also discuss what theoretical information we have on the mass of the Higgs boson as it reveals the impact on the Higgs boson at higher energy scales (evolution of the universe). Constructing an SU(2)L × U(1)Y invariant term for fermions If we could make a term in the Lagrangian that is a singlet under SU(2)L and U(1)Y . i. the Higgs mechanism can also give fermions a mass: ’twee vliegen in een klap’.

1 Lepton masses Le = = = = 1 0 ν ν . with 1 φ˜c = −iτ2 φ∗ = − √ 2 24 (v + h) 0 (14) . The mass-term for the up-type fermions takes the form: Lup = χ¯L φ˜c φR + h.5 · 10−21 4 4MW Quark masses ¯ L The fermion mass term Ldown = λf ψ¯L φψR (leaving out the hermitian conjugate term ψ¯R φψ for clarity) only gives mass to ’down’ type fermions.3.. only to one of the isospin doublet components.1.2 gme /2MW gMW 2 = m2e ≈ 1. so proportional to the mass of the fermion. v + h) −λe √ (¯ v + h e L 2 λe (v + h) − √ [¯ eL eR + e¯R eL ] 2 λe (v + h) − √ e¯e 2 λ λe v √ e¯e √e h¯ − ee − 2 2 | {z } | {z } electron mass term electron-higgs interaction λe v λ √e ∝ me me = √ 2 2 A few side-remarks: √ m 1) The Yukawa coupling is often expressed as λf = 2 vf and the coupling of the m λ fermion to the Higgs field is √f2 = vf . c. e¯)L eR + e¯R (0. we need another term in the Lagrangian. Γ(h → ee) λ2 ∝ 2 eeh = Γ(h → W W ) λW W h 3. using again the complex (Higgs) doublet in combination with the fermion fields. In that sense the Higgs mechanism does not say anything about the electron mass itself. 3) The coupling of the Higgs boson to electrons is very small: gme ) is very small The coupling of the Higgs boson to an electron-pair (∝ mve = 2M W compared to the coupling of the Higgs boson to a pair of W-bosons (∝ gMW ).e. that is gauge invariant under SU(2)L × U(1)Y and gives a mass to the up-type quarks. i.1. Luckily it is possible to compose a new term in the Lagrangian. t). To give the neutrino a mass and give mass to the ’up’ type quarks (u. 2) The mass of the electron is not predicted since λe is a free parameter.c.

−2) lRi left handed quarks right handed up-type quarks right handed down-type quarks left handed fermions right handed fermions In this notation. . ub ug . weak iso-spin. 1. QILi (3. this is not the whole story. dIg . cr . dIb i dIg . If we focus on the part of the SM Lagrangian that describes the dynamics of spinor (fermion) fields ψ. The superscript I implies that the fermion fields are expressed in the interaction (flavour) basis. we see that: ¯ µ γµ )ψ. sIb bIg . 25 . +1/3) = = . ur . d¯L )φ˜c dR = λu (¯ uL . The subscript i stands for the three generations (families).c. term): down-type: λd (¯ uL . It is instructive to realise that the spinor fields ψ are the three fermion generations can be written in the following five (interaction) representations: general spinor field ΨI (color.Mass terms for fermions (leaving out h. sIr . d¯L ) v 0 dR = λd v d¯L dR uR = λu v u¯L uR As we will discuss now. d¯L )φdR = λd (¯ uL . d¯L ) 0 v up-type: λu (¯ uL . 3. 2 2 I I ¯ ¯ I I = −md d d − mu u u . For up and down type fermions (leaving out the hermitian conjugate term) that would allow us to write for example: Lquarks = −Λdown χ¯L φψR − Λup χ¯L φ˜c ψR v v = −Λdown √ d¯I dI − Λup √ u¯I uI . 1. −1) I (1. Getting rid of these terms is at the origin of quark mixing. 1. Lkinetic = iψ(∂ where ψ¯ ≡ ψ † γ 0 and the spinor fields ψ. 2. +1/3) is therefor a shorthand notation for: I I I I I I I I I I I I ug . hypercharge) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) QILi (3. QILi (3. 2. with hypercharge Y = 1/3. cb tg . tb I QLi (3. dIb sIg . dIr . bIr . bIb We saw that using the Higgs field φ we could construct terms in the Lagrangian of the form given in equation (13). tr . ub cg . 2. 2. +4/3) dIRi (3. . +1/3) LILi (1. SU(2)L doublet.2 Yukawa couplings and the origin of Quark Mixing This section will discuss in full detail the consequences of all possible allowed quark ’masslike’ terms and study the link between the Yukawa couplings and quark mixing in the Standard Model: the difference between mass eigenstates and flavour eigenstates. Explicitly. If we look more closely we’ll see that we can construct more fermion-mass-type terms in the Lagrangian that cannot easily be interpreted. +1/3) describes an SU(3)C triplet. +1/3) uIRi (3. dIr . the kinetic terms. 2. ur .

the so-called Yukawa couplings.. This is not the case in equation (16). + −Λdd √ u¯I uI −Λus √ u¯I sI −Λss √ s¯I sI + . Yiju and Yijl are arbitrary complex matrices that connect the flavour eigenstate since also terms like Yuc will appear. the expression for the fermion masses is written as: −LYukawa = Yij ψLi φψRj I = Yijd QILi φ dIRj + Yiju QILi φ˜c uIRj + Yijl LILi φ lRj . but there is an additional complication when you realize that in the most general realization the Λ’s are matrices. . If we write out all Yukawa terms in the Lagrangian we realize that it is possible to re-write them in terms of mixed fields that do have a well-defined mass. had again to be added by hand. Note that the d’s and u’s in equation (17) 26 . These terms have no easy interpretation: v v v −LYukawa = ..where the strength of the interactions between the Higgs and the fermions. The matrices Yijd . This looks straightforward. we spell out the term Yijd QILi φ dIRj explicitly and forget about the other 2 terms in expression (15): Yijd QILi φ dIRj = φ+ φ (down-type)IRj = + + + φ φ φ I I I Y12 (u d)L Y13 (u d)L Y11 (u d)L 0 0 0 I φ+ φ+ φ+ dR φ φ φ I I sIR Y21 (c s)IL (c s) (c s) Y Y · 22 23 0 0 0 L L φ φ φ + + + bIR φ φ φ I I I Y31 (t b)L Y32 (t b)L Y33 (t b)L φ0 φ0 φ0 Yijd (up-type down-type)IiL After symmetry breaking we get the following mass terms for the fermion fields: I u I ˜ I d I −Lquarks Yukawa = Yij QLi φ dRj + Yij QLi φ uRj v v = Yijd dILi √ dIRj + Yiju uILi √ uIRj + .. (16) 2 2 2 {z } | {z } {z } | | mass−term down quark ?? mass−term strange quark To interpret the fields in the theory as physical particles. (15) where the last term is the mass term for the charged leptons. This will introduce mixing between different flavours as we will see a little bit later. In the most general case.. .. These states are the physical particles in the theory Writing out the full Yukawa terms: Since this is the crucial part of flavour physics. q¯qh(x) and the hermitian conjugate terms.c. 2 2 = Mijd dILi dIRj + Miju uILi uIRj + . again leaving out the h. (17) where we omitted the corresponding interaction terms of the fermion fields to the Higgs field. the fields in our model should have a well-defined mass.

It is now interesting to see how various parts of the Standard Model Langrangian change when you write them either in the mass or the interaction eigenstates.. It is very natural to write the charged current interaction between the (left-handed) iso-spin doublet interaction eigenstates that are connected by W-bosons: Lkinetic. we should diagonalize the matrices M d and M u .. Lkinetic = iψ(D (18) ~ µ .. The τ ’s are the Pauli with the covariant derivative defined as Dµ = ∂ µ + ig 21 ~τ · W µ µ matrices and Wi and B are the three weak interaction bosons and the single hypercharge boson.. u.. states with proper mass terms. where in the last line the matrices V have been absorbed in the quark states.. Rewriting interaction terms using quark mass eigenstates The interaction terms are obtained by imposing gauge invariance by replacing the partial derivative by the covariant derivate ¯ µ γµ )ψ.. but are now ’simply’ u and d.. = dLi (Mijd )diag dRj + uLi (Miju )diag uRj + . uI as quark mass eigenstates d. We do this with unitary matrices V d as follows: d Mdiag = VLd M d VRd† u Mdiag = VLu M d VRu† Using the requirement that the matrices V are unitary (VLd† VLd = 1) and leaving out again the hermitian conjugate terms the Lagrangian can now be expressed as follows: d I u I I I −Lquarks Yukawa = dLi Mij dRj + uLi Mij uRj + .still each represent the three down-type and up-type quarks respectively. Note that the up-type and down-type fields are now no longer the interaction states uI and dI . so the ’mixed’terms are still there. A bit more explicit. To obtain mass eigenstates. i. respectively. weak (QL ) i = iQILi γµ ∂ µ + gWiµ τi QILi 2 u I i µ µ I = i(u d)iL γµ ∂ + gWi τi d iL 2 g g = iuIiL γµ ∂ µ uIiL + idIiL γµ ∂ µ dIiL − √ uIiL γµ W −µ dIiL − √ dIiL γµ W +µ uIiL + ..e. = dILi VLd† VLd Mijd VRd† VRd dIRj + uILi VLu† VLu Miju VRu† VRu uIRj + . which allowed us to express the quark interaction eigenstates dI . 2 2 27 . we now have the following quark mass eigenstates: dLi = (VLd )ij dILj dRi = (VRd )ij dIRj uLi = (VLu )ij uILj uRi = (VRu )ij uIRj .

whereas the down-type quarks are chosen to be rotated. In this case. 2 2 The CKM matrix The combination of matrices (VLd VLu† )ij . the mass eigenstates. a unitary 3×3 matrix is known under the shorthand notation VCKM . are ν1 . the origin of the observed patterns are completely unknown. the ’price’ to pay is that the quark mixing between families (i. A last thing to remember: neutrino interaction eigenstates are known as νe . This matrix is known as the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) matrix and has a completely different structure than the one for quarks.. the off-diagonal elements) appear in the charged current interaction as each of the interaction fields is now replaced by a combination of the mass eigenstates: g g Lkinetic.. the famous Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix. whereas the physical particles. contrary to the quarks. where we used W ± = √1 (W1 ∓iW2 ). Just like for the CMS matrix. By convention.e.. whereas the transition from an up type quark to a down-type quark is ∗ described by Vud . 28 . the down-type interaction doublet-states (charged leptons) are chosen to be the same as the mass eigenstates. The rotation between mass and interaction eigenstates is in the neutrino sector. cc (QL ) = √ uIiL γµ W −µ dIiL + √ dIiL γµ W +µ uIiL + . u instead of the weak interaction eigenstates dI . νµ and ντ . uI . A separate lecture describes in detail how VCKM allows for CP-violation in the SM. going from the interaction basis to the mass basis: uIi = uj dIi = VCKM dj or explicitly: Vud Vus Vub d dI sI = Vcd Vcs Vcb s bI Vtd Vts Vtb b From the definition of VCKM it follows that the transition from a down-type quark to an up-type quark is described by Vud . the interaction eigenstates and the mass eigenstates are chosen to be equal for the up-type quarks. 2 2 g g −µ u d† = √ uiL (VL VL )ij γµ W diL + √ diL (VLd VLu† )ij γµ W +µ uiL + . 2 see Section 2. (19) u d V W u d − V W Note on lepton masses We should note here that in principle a similar matrix exists that connects the lepton flavour and mass eigenstates.. ν2 and ν3 . If we now express the Lagrangian in terms of the quark mass eigenstates d..

In a two-body decay we have s = mh and |pf | = 21 β s (see exercise 2). computing the Matrix element squared is ’easy’: M2 = = m 2 X f v s1 . the Matrix element takes a simple form: imf v(−p2 ) v −imf u(p1 ) = v¯(−p2 ) v h −iM = u¯(p1 ) iM† Since there are no polarizations for the scalar Higgs boson. |pf | the momentum of√the produced particles√and S = n!1 for n identical particles.3 Higgs boson decay It is interesting to study details of the Higgs boson properties like its coupling to fermions and gauge bosons as that determines if and how the Higgs boson is produced in experiments and what the event topology will be.3.3. In Section 3.s2 m 2 X f v (¯ v )s2 (−p2 )us1 (p1 )(¯ u)s1 (p1 )vs2 (−p2) us1 (p1 )(¯ u)s1 (p1 ) X s1 v¯s2 (−p2 )vs2 (−p2 ) s1 m 2 f Tr(6 p1 + mf )Tr(− 6 p2 − mf ) v m 2 f = −Tr(6 p1 6 p2 ) − m2f Tr(1)) v m 2 f = −4p1 · p2 − 4m2f v use: s = (p1 − p2 )2 = p21 + p22 − 2p1 · p2 and since p21 = p22 = m2f = and s = m2h we have m2h = 2m2f − 2p1 · p2 m 2 f = 2m2h − 8m2f v s m 2 4m2f f = 2m2h β 2 . Since the Higgs boson is a scalar particle.1. 3. (20) dΩ 32π 2 s with M the matrix element.3. The general expression for the two-body decay rate: |M|2 dΓ = |pf | S. we can look in more detail at the decay of the Higgs boson.1 Higgs boson decay to fermions Now that we have derived the coupling of fermions and gauge bosons to the Higgs field.3 we list all couplings and as an example we’ll compute the decay rate fractions of a Higgs boson into fermions as a function of it’s unknown mass in Section 3.3. with β = 1 − 2 v mh 29 .

S=1 and s = mh we get: dΓ |M|2 Nc mh mf 2 3 = |pf | S = β dΩ 32π 2 s 32π 2 v R Doing the angular integration dΩ = 4π we finally end up with: Nc 2 m mh βf3 . 12 . with 9 2 3(1−8x+20x ) 1−x 3x−1 √ acos 2x3/2 − 2x (2 − 13x + 47x2 ) R(x) = 4x−1 − 32 (1 − 6x + 4x2 ) ln(x) Since the coupling of the Higgs boson to gauge bosons is so much larger than that to fermions. For example: at mh = 140 GeV.Including the number of colours (for quarks) we finally have: M2 = m 2 f v 2m2h β 2 Nc Decay rate: √ √ Starting from equation (20) and using M2 (above). The increase in coupling ’wins’ from the Breit-Wigner suppression.3 Review Higgs boson couplings to fermions and gauge bosons A summary of the Higgs boson couplings to fermions and gauge bosons. but is explained in great detail in Exercise 5. 30 . 3. h h Γ(h → f f¯) = Nc 8πv 2 Γ(h → V V ) = . δZ = 12 − 10 sin2 θW + 27 sin4 θW .2 Higgs boson decay to gauge bosons The decay ratio to gauge bosons is a bit more tricky.3.3. |pf | = 21 β s. The decay of the Higgs boson to two off-shell gauge bosons is given by: Γ(h → V V ∗ ) = h 0 3MV4 32π 2 v 4 0 mh δV R(x) . the Higgs boson decays to off-shell gauge bosons even though MV ∗ + MV < 2MV . with x = 4m2f m2h √ m3h SV V (1 − x + 34 x2 ) 1 − x and SW W. with x = 4MV2 m2h m2f mh g2 2 64πMW √ 1−x . Γ(h → f f¯) = 8πv 2 f 3. the h → W W ∗ is already larger than h → b¯b.ZZ = 1. with 0 7 40 δW = 1.

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WL+ WL− → WL+ WL− ) diverges quadratically with the centre-ofmass energy when calculated in perturbation theory and at an energy of 1. This cancellation only works however if the Higgs boson is not too heavy.Reading the diagram from right to left you see the dominant production mechanism of the Higgs boson at the LHC. the Higgs boson plays an important role in the cancellation of these high-energy divergences. .WW contribution ≈ 5 times top contribution . these divergences are no longer present and the theory remains unitary and renormalizable.2 TeV this process violates unitarity.3. γ Γ(h → γγ) = γ γ . γ Note: .3. Branching fraction (%) 3. The distribution is shown here. Higgs branching fractions Having computed the branching ratios to fermions and gauge bosons in Section 3. there are theoretical upper and lower bounds on the mass of the Higgs boson if we assume there is no new physics between the electroweak scale and some higher scale called Λ.g.4.4 Theoretical bounds on the mass of the Higgs boson Although the Higgs mass is not predicted within the minimal SM. π Note: .1 and Section 3..2 we can compute the relative branching fractions for the decay of a Higgs boson as a function of its mass. In this section we present a quick sketch of the various arguments and present the obtained limits.3.The QCD higher order terms are large.4 10 2 -- bb WW ZZ 10 + - τ τ -- cc gg 1 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 Higgs mass (GeV/c2) 3. Focusing on solving these divergences alone also yields most of the Higgs bosons properties. 3.. In the Standard Model.Some computation also gives h → γZ h h α2 256π 3 v 2 αs2 Γ(h → gluons) = m3 72π 3 v 2 h h 1+ 95 7Nf − 4 6 2 αs + . where ef is the fermion’s electromagnetic charge.1 Unitarity In the absence of a scalar field the amplitude for elastic scattering of longitudinally polarised massive gauge bosons (e. Once diagrams involving a scalar particle (the Higgs boson) are introduced in the gauge boson scattering mentioned above. By requiring 31 .

the running of the Higgs self-coupling λ with the renormalisation scale µ is used to put both a theoretical upper and a lower limit on the mass of the Higgs boson as a function of the energy scale Λ. 3. l=0 where Pl are Legendre polynomials and al are spin-l partial waves. Although these evolution functions (called β-functions) have been calculated for all SM couplings up to two loops. the coupling λ ’runs’ with energy.: 1 dσ = M2 . it means that for Higgs boson masses > 700 GeV perturbation theory breaks down. to focus on the physics. with dΩ 64πs M = 16π l=∞ X (2l + 1)Pl (cos θ)al . mh < 3GF It is important to note that this does not mean that the Higgs boson can not be heavier than 700 GeV/c2 . This limit is soft.e. As the largest amplitude is given by: 3 GF m2h √ · amax = − 0 2 4π 2 This can then be transformed into an upper limit on mh : √ 8π 2 1 8 2 1 2 πv using GF = √ = |a0 | < → mh < 2 6GF 3 2v 2 mh < 700 GeV using v= 246 GeV. i. i. Running Higgs coupling constant Similar to the gauge coupling constants.2 Triviality and Vacuum stability In this section. It only means that for heavier Higgs masses.5.e. perturbation theory is not valid and the theory is not renormalisable. With the requirement of unitarity and using all (coupled) gauge boson scattering processes it can be shown that: s √ 4π 2 ∼ 700 GeV/c2 .that perturbation theory remains valid an upper limit on the Higgs mass can be extracted. |ai | < 1 or |Re(ai )| ≤ 0. i. Since (WL+ WL− + ZL + ZL + HH)2 is well behaved.4.e. This number comes from an analysis that uses a partial wave decomposition for the matrix element M. where t = ln(Q2 ). dλ = βλ dt . we sketch the arguments to obtain these 32 . it must respect unitarity.

g 0 .3 mmin h (Λ) Triviality: λ g. The dominant terms in the expression are the terms involving the Higgs self-coupling λ and the top quark Yukawa coupling ht .There is a scale Λ at which λ(Λ) is infinite. known as the Landau pole. ht heavy Higgs boson → upper limit on mh For large values of λ (heavy Higgs boson since m2h = 2λv 2 ) and neglecting the effects from gauge interactions and the top quark. ln 4π 2 v2 33 . ht or λ g. top quark and gauge bosons can be understood from looking in more detail at the effective coupling at higher energy scales.mass limits by using only the one-loop results. where contributions from higher order diagrams enter: = + + + . ht .4. . The terms involving the mass of the Higgs boson. g0 . g ) (21) dt 4π 2 2 4 . λ(Λ) grows. we’ll see that we can set both a lower and an upper limit on the mass of the Higgs boson as a function of the energy-scale cut-off in our theory (Λ): Triviality | {z } upper bound on and mh Vacuum stability | {z } lower bound on mh mmax h (Λ) 3. g 0 ) = − 18 λ(3g 2 + g 02 ) + 64 (3g 4 + 2g 2 g 02 + g 04 ). + This expression allows to evaluate the value of λ(Λ) relative to the coupling at a reference scale which is taken to be λ(v).We now have related λ at a scale v to λ at a higher scale Λ. If we study the β-function in 2 special regimes: λ g. the evolution of λ is given by the dominant term in equation (21) that can be easily solved for λ(Λ): dλ 3 2 = λ dt 4π 2 ⇒ λ(Λ) = λ(v) 1− 3λ(v) 4π 2 ln Λ2 v2 (22) Note: . We should remember that λ(v) is related to mh : mh = −2λv 2 . We see √ that as Λ grows.. 2 3λ(v) Λ 2π 2 /3λ(v) = 1 → At a scale Λ = ve λ(Λ) is infinite.. As Λ increases. The contribution from the gauge bosons is small and explicitly given 1 by B(g. λ(Λ) increases until at Λ=v exp(2π 2 /3λ(v)) there is a singularity. where ht is the top-Higgs Yukawa coupling as given in equation (13). At one-loop the quartic coupling runs with the renormalisation scale as: dλ 3 1 2 1 4 2 0 ≡ βλ = λ + λht − ht + B(g. g 0 .

The requirement that λ remains positive up to a scale Λ. The upper limit on the Higgs mass as a function of Λ from a computation that uses the two-loop β function and takes into account the contributions from top-quark and gauge couplings is shown in the Figure at the end of Section 3. no consistent theory can be constructed. ht light Higgs boson → lower limit on mh For small λ (light Higgs boson since m2h = 2λv 2 ). g0 . a lower limit on the Higgs mass is found by the requirement that the minimum of the potential be lower than that of the unbroken theory and that the electroweak vacuum is stable.e. 3. there is a scale Λ for which λ(Λ) becomes negative.e. when λ(µ) < 0 the potential is unbounded from below.4. i. dt v2 34 . i. In equation (21) it is clear that for small λ the dominant contribution comes from the top quark through the Yukawa coupling (−h4t ). such that the Higgs vacuum is the global minimum below some cut-off scale. if we require λ(Q) < ∞ for all Q < Λ this puts a constraint (a maximum value) on the value of the Higgs selfcoupling at the electroweak scale (v): λ(v)max and therefore on the maximum Higgs mass p = 2λ(v)max v 2 . This limit gets less restrictive as Λ decreases. since mmax h find λ(v) for which λ(Λ) = ∞ (the Landau pole) we find: s 2 4π 8π 2 v 2 ⇒ m < (23) λmax (v) = h 2 2 3 ln Λv2 3 ln Λv2 For Λ=1016 GeV the upper limit on the Higgs mass is 160 GeV/c2 .4. 3 1 4 2 02 2 4 −3ht + (2g + (g + g ) ) βλ = 16π 2 16 3 4 4 4 + M − 4m 2M W Z t 16π 2 v 4 < 0. = λ < 0 (not ok) λ>0 ok Since this contribution is negative. i. puts a lower limit on λ(v) and therefore on the Higgs mass: 2 dλ Λ = βλ → λ(Λ) − λ(v) = βλ ln and require λ(Λ) > 0.e. If this happens. As there is no minimum. Taking λ(Λ) = ∞ and ’evolving the coupling downwards’.4.4 Vacuum stability λ g.If the SM is required to remain valid up to some cut-off scale Λ.

In the Figure on the right the theoretically allowed range of Higgs masses is shown as a function of Λ.5.4. g 0 and v. contributions from the mass of the top quark and the Higgs boson. A detailed evaluation taking into account these considerations has been performed. Λ2 2 min βλ ln and λmin (v) → (mmin (v)v 2 . Via the precision measurements one is sensitive to these small contributions and thereby to the masses of these particles. among others. M H (GeV/c 2 ) Summary of the theoretical bounds on the Higgs mass 800 mt = 175 GeV/c2 600 400 Landau pole 200 Allowed Vacuum instability 0 3 10 6 10 9 10 12 10 15 10 18 10 Λ (GeV) 3. MZ and αQED . The region of excluded Higgs masses as a function of the scale Λ from this analysis is also shown in the Figure at the end of Section 3. 35 . so h ) > 2λ v2 2 Λ 2 2v βλ ln v2 3 4 4 4 2M + M − 4m t 8π 2 v 2 W Z 2 Λ −493 ln v2 λ(v) > m2h > 2 = (mmin h ) > Note: This result makes no sense. To obtain predictions to a precision better than the experimental uncertainties (often at the per mill level) higher order loop corrections have to be computed. For a small window of Higgs masses around 160 GeV/c2 the Standard Model is valid up to the Planck scale (∼ 1019 GeV). The predictions for electroweak observables. These higher order radiative corrections contain. For other values of the Higgs mass the Standard Model is only an effective theory at low energy and new physics has to set in at some scale Λ.1 Experimental limits on the mass of the Higgs boson Indirect measurements The electroweak gauge sector of the SM is described by only three independent parameters: g. are often presented using three (related) variables that are known to high precision: GF .4 by the lower excluded region. If we go to the 2-loop beta-function we get a new limit: mh > 130 − 140 GeV if Λ = 1019 GeV.5 3. but is meant to describe the logic.

While the corrections connected to the top quark behave as m2t . .7 0 Rlep -1.6 Rc 0 0. M2Z cos θW 16π 2 v 96π 2 MW ρ = -1.3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 G fitter SM 3σ 6 0. The plot shows the ∆χ2 distribution as a function of mh .9 Ac 10 Tevatron 95% CL 0.0 0.1 AUG 11 0.l -0.5 -0..2+2.0 mt 0..2 ± 0.. ρ ρ 2 MZ cosθW 11 tan θW 2 mh M2W 3 mt 2 +1− g ln = 1+ + .1 GeV/c Measurement: mt = 173.b AFB 9 8 7 2. Before the discovery.c AFB 0. The green band indicates the remaining theoretical uncertainty in the fit. 2 Estimate: mt = 177. there are more measurements that provide sensitivity to the mass of the Higgs boson. The result of the fit suggested a rather light Higgs boson and it could be summarised by 5 2σ 4 Theory uncertainty Fit including theory errors Fit excluding theory errors 3 2 1 0 3 1σ 50 100 150 200 (O .Radiative corrections An illustration of the possibility to estimate the mass of a heavy particle entering loop corrections is the very good agreement between the estimate of the top quark mass using only indirect measurements and the direct observation.2 Al(SLD) -2.Omeas) / σmeas 250 300 MH [GeV] fit Figure 1: Status of various SM measurements (left) and the ∆χ2 distribution as a function of mh from a global fit with only mh as a free parameter (right)..0 mb -0.9 −3.3 Z ΓW 0. the sensitivity to the mass of the Higgs boson is unfortunately only logarithmic (∼ ln mh ): M2W 1 + ∆quarks + ∆higgs + .2 mc -0.9 GeV/c2 Sensitivity to Higgs boson mass through loop corrections Apart from the mass of the W -boson.9 AFB Al(LEP) 0.8 Rb (5) ∆αhad(M2) -0.1 ΓZ σ0had LEP 95% CL SM AUG 11 G fitter MZ ∆ χ2 The results from a global fit to the electroweak data with only the Higgs mass as a free parameter is shown in the right plot of Figure 1. the central value with its one standard deviation and the one-sided (95% CL) upper limit: mh = 95+30 −24 +74 −43 GeV/c2 and mh < 162 GeV/c2 36 (at 95% CL).0 (Q ) sin2Θlept eff -0.7 FB 0.1 0 -0. A summary of the measurements of several SM measurements is given in the left plot of Figures 1.1 Ab 0.1 MW -1.

Z H → bb Obs. the p-value as a function of the Higgs mass (bottom left) and the measurement of the coupling strength of the Higgs boson to gauge bosons and fermions (bottom right).9fb-1 10 110 120 130 140 150 160 110 120 130 140 150 160 mγ γ [GeV] 5 0 100 150 ATLAS 2011 .9 fb -1 (*) 5σ H → ZZ → 4l s = 7 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 4. We will discuss the details of the search for the Higgs boson and its discovery in a separate lecture.8 fb-1 s = 8 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 5.5.8 fb -1 s = 8 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 5.2012 s = 7 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 4. Two-photon invariant mass distribution (top left).8fb-1 s = 8 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 5.8-5.5.3 -1 0 1 Signal strength (µ) Figure 2: Plots from the Higgs discovery paper from ATLAS.8 fb-1 6σ Combined 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 mH [GeV] s = 7 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 4.cern.8 fb -1 s = 8 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 5. ∫ Ldt=4.ch/org/cms-higgs-results 37 .6-4.6 .2012 0 Local p ATLAS 2011 .4 ± 0. ∫ Ldt=5.2 Direct measurements 100 ATLAS Events/5 GeV Σ weights / 2 GeV In July 2012 the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN announced the discovery of the Higgs boson. Data S/B Weighted Sig+Bkg Fit (mH=126.cern.7 fb -1 (*) 0σ 1σ 2σ H → WW → lν lν 3σ H → γγ 4σ s = 7 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 4. the 4-lepton invariant mass distribution (top right).8 fb s=7 TeV.3.9 fb -1 µ = 1.Unc.8 . but we since we cannot have a lecture note on the Higgs boson without proof of its discovery I include here 4 plots that were in the discovery paper of the ATLAS experiment.5 GeV) Bkg (4th order polynomial) 80 Data ATLAS (*) Background ZZ 25 (*) Background Z+jets.web. ±1 σ 200 250 m4l [GeV] mH = 126.0 GeV s = 7 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 4.6-4. All results on the Higgs boson from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC can be found on these locations: ATLAS: https://twiki.9 fb-1 1 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 110 W.7 fb -1 s = 8 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 5.Bkg 20 8100 4 0 -4 -8 100 -1 15 s = 7 TeV: ∫Ldt = 4. tt Signal (m =125 GeV) 20 H→ZZ →4l H Syst.ch/twiki/bin/view/AtlasPublic/HiggsPublicResults CMS: http://cms.7 fb -1 H → ττ s = 7 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 4. 60 40 Σ weights .4.8 fb-1 s = 7 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 4. Exp.8 fb-1 s = 8 TeV: ∫ Ldt = 5.8 fb-1 H→γ γ s=8 TeV.

Exercise 4) H&M exercise 6. Let’s go through it step by step.25 GeV ¯ a) Compute Γ(H→ bb). Show that: X pµ pν ∗ (λ) (λ) = − gµν + µ ν M2 λ Exercise 5) Higgs decay to vector bosons Computing the Higgs boson decay into gauge bosons (W/Z = V). b) Compute Γ(H→ all) assuming only decay into the three heaviest fermions. with x = 4M2W h 4 m2h 38 . mc = 1. MW MV4 where p and q are are the momenta of the two Z bosons. mτ = 1.8 GeV.Exercises lecture 3 Exercise 1): Show that u ¯u = (¯ uL uR + u ¯R uL ) Exercise 2): Show that in a two body decay (a heavy particle M decaying into two particles with mass m) the momentum of the decay particles can be written as: √ √ s 4m2 |pf | = β. c) What is the lifetime of the Higgs boson.5 GeV.16: The helicity states λ of a massive vector particle can be described by polarization vectors. M = MW λ. with boson momenta p. with β = 1 − x and x = 2 M2 Exercise 3): Higgs decay into fermions for mh = 100 GeV Use mb = 4. q and helicities λ. δ is a bit more tricky. a) Draw the Feynman diagram and use the vertex factor you computed last week to show that the matrix element squared is given by: 2 X gMV2 2 gµν (µλ )∗ (νδ )∗ gαβ (αλ )(βδ ). b) Use your results of exercise 4 and work out to show that: 2 gMV2 (p · q)2 2 M = 2+ . d) Show that the matrix element can finally be written as: M2 = g2 3 2 4M2V 4 m (1 − x + x ). Compare it to that of the Z boson.δ where λ and δ are the helicity states of the Z bosons.

ZZ = 1. h 64πM2W 4 with x = 4MV2 m2h and SWW. f ) Compute Γ(h→ WW) for mh = 200 GeV. What is the total width (only WW and ZZ decays)? And the lifetime ? 39 .e) Show that the Higgs decay into vector bosons can be written as: 3 2 √ g 2 SV V 3 (1 − x + Γ(h → V V ) = m x ) 1 − x. 21 .

there are also several ’problems’ associated to the Higgs mechanism.1. The Higgs mass is unknown. but since we have a lower limit on the (Standard Model) Higgs boson mass from direct searches at LEP (mh > 114. We will explore these problems in this section and very briefly discuss the properties of non-SM Higgs bosons. 4.e. • Why is the universe larger than a football ? 40 . ical constant in Einstein’s equations: Λ = 8πG c4 Energy density Higgs field: With V (φ† φ) = µ2 φ2 + λφ4 . it will contribute to the cosmologN ρvac .4 GeV/c2 ) we can compute the contribution of the Higgs field to ρvac . i.1 4. the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field (v) will contribute to the vacuum energy.1 Problems with the Higgs boson Problems with the Higgs boson: Higgs self-energy Since the Higgs field occupies all of space. or any arbitrary number since quantum corrections will always yield a value like the one (order of magnitude) given above.4 Problems with the Higgs mechanism and Higgs searches Although the Higgs mechanism cures many of the problems in the Standard Model. The ’depth’ of the potential is: 1 2 2 1 4 µ v + λv use µ2 = −λv 2 2 4 1 4 = − λv use m2h = 2λv 2 4 1 = − m2h v 2 8 Vmin = V (v) = Vmin Note that we cannot simply redefine Vmin to be 0. • 1054 orders of magnitude mismatch. ρHiggs = vac 1 2 2 m v 8 h > 1 · 108 GeV4 and since GeV = > 1 · 108 GeV/r3 1 r (energy density) Measured vacuum energy density: An experiment to measure the energy density in vacuum and the energy density in matter has shown: Ωm ≈ 30% and ΩΛ ≈ 70% ∼ 10−46 GeV4 Problem: → empty space is really quite empty.

2 GeV/c2 Failure of radiative corrections: Also the Higgs propagator receives quantum corrections. but will need to introduce at least two.2 Problems with the Higgs boson: the hierarchy problem In the electroweak theory of the SM. where for every fermion/boson there is a boson/fermion as partner. the top and stop (supersymmetric bosonic partner of the top quark) contributions (almost) cancel. ∆mh ∝ (mf − mS ) ln mS 4. and taking the corrections into account (same order of magnitude). loop corrections are small. it is unnatural for mh to be of order of MEW (≈ v). but huge and of order Λ. the example of the prediction of the top quark mass was mentioned: Indirect estimate: Direct result: 2 mt = 178+9. because: A) In the SM we used φ/φ˜c to give mass to down/up-type particles in SU(2)L doublets. Correction to Higgs mass ∆m gauge h m SM h ∆m Higgs h m bare h ∆mtop h The hierarchy problem: why is MEW MPL ? Most popular theoretical solution to the hierarchy problem is the concept of Supersymmetry. The corrections from the fermions (mainly h +∆mh h h from the top quark) are large.2 Higgs bosons in models beyond the SM (SUSY) When moving to a supersymmetric description of nature we can no longer use a single Higgs doublet. mh = mbare +∆mgauge +∆mHiggs +.1. ferm..4.4 ± 1. If Λ is chosen as 1016 (GUT) or 1019 (Planck). In susy models these two terms cannot appear together in the Lagrangian. For example. Success of radiative corrections: When we discussed the sensitivity of the electroweak measurements to the mass of the Higgs boson through the radiative corrections. Expressed in terms of the loop-momentum cut-off Λ given W/Z h t by: h h h h h h + and 3 2 top ∆m = − 2 λ2t Λ2 t h h W/Z 8π The corrections from the top quark are not small at all.. We need 41 .8 −4. In the loops the integration is done over momenta up to a cut-off value Λ. The quadratic divergences have disappeared and we are left with Λ 2 2 2 .2 GeV/c mt = 172.

This will introduce an anomaly unless there is a second Higgsino with opposite hypercharge.A. H− ) parameters:tan(β) = v2 and v1 MA .an additional Higgs doublet to give mass to the up-type particles.. similar to W3 /Bµp -mixing to give Z-boson and photon. Note: . Unfortunately.Sometimes people choose α = mixing angle to give h. H.MW = 2 v12 + v22 g → v12 + v22 = v2 (246 GeV). H+ . A. 1 . In SUSY there is an additional fermion in the model: the partner for the Higgs boson. the Higgsino. all couplings to gauge bosons and fermions change: SUSY SM ghV = ghV V V sin(β − α) Γ(h → b¯b)SUSY sin2 (α) sin α SUSY SM ghb → = = ghb ¯b ¯b − cos β cos2 (β) Γ(h → b¯b)SM Γ(h → tt¯)SUSY cos2 (α) cos α SUSY SM → = ght = g − ¯ ¯ t htt sin β Γ(h → tt¯)SM sin2 (β) To determine if an observed Higgs sparticle is a SM or SUSY Higgs a detailed investigation of the branching fraction is required.. also SUSY does not give a prediction for the lightest Higgs boson mass: m2h < MZ2 + δ 2 mtop + δ 2 mX + . Differences SM and SUSY Higgses: With the new parameters. P B) Anomalies disappear only if in a loop f Yf = 0. 0 + φ2 φ1 0 v2 and φ2 = φ1 = → → φ− φ01 v1 0 2 {z } {z } | | Yφ1 =+1 Yφ2 =−1 Number of degrees of freedom in SUSY models: SM: Add 4 degrees of freedom → 3 massive gauge bosons → 1 Higgs boson (h) SUSY: Add 8 degrees of freedom → 3 massive gauge bosons → 5 Higgs boson (h. 42 . ≤ 130 GeV.

Exercises lecture 4 Exercise 1): b-tagging at LEP. one of the LHC experiments shows its expectation for an analysis aimed at trying to find the Higgs boson in the channel with 2 electrons and 2 muons. 160. We concentrate on mh =140 GeV. c) What is the fraction of events in which all 4 leptons have been well reconstructed in the detector ? What is the single (high-energy) lepton detection efficiency ? Name reasons why not all leptons are detected. A Higgs boson of 100 GeV decays at LEP: given a lifetime of a B mesons of roughly 1. what distance does it travel in the detector before decaying ? What is the most likely decay distance ? Exercise 2): H → ZZ → 4 leptons at the LHC (lepton = e/µ).3 fb−1 . a) Why is there a ’dip’ in te fraction of Higgs bosons that decays to 2 Z bosons (between 160 and 180 GeV)? b) How many events H → ZZ → e+ e− µ+ µ− muons are produced in 1 fb−1 of data for mh = 140.3 fb−1 . Can this experiment claim to have discovered the Higgs boson at mh =140 GeV? 43 . 180 and 200 GeV ? The expected number of evets is the product of the luminosity and the cross-section: N = L · σ On the LHC slides. We do a counting experiment using the two bins around the expected Higgs boson mass (we assume for the moment that the background is extremely well known and does not fluctuate). e) Imagine the data points was the actual measurement after 9. In a counting experiment a Poisson distribution describes the probabilities to observe x events when λ are expected: P(x|λ) = λx e−λ x! d) Does this experiment expect to be able to discover the mh =140 GeV hypothesis after 9.6 picoseconds.

Article Englert & Brout (Augustus 1964) 44 .

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Article Higgs (September 1964) 47 .

Article Higgs (October 1964) 48 .

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- True Nature of the Higgs MechanismUploaded byChandrakanth Natekar
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- God Particle_A DiscourseUploaded byMubashir Hassan
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