INTELLIGENT

ENERGY
E U R O P E
FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

COOPENER
Sustainable energy services for
poverty alleviation in developing countries
An assessment

July 2011

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European Union. Neither the EACI nor the European Commission is responsible for any use that may be made of the information
contained therein.

Editor: EACI

Further information
More details on the 36 COOPENER projects can be found online (http://eaci-projects.eu/iee/page/Page.jsp).
More details on the IEE programme can be found online (http://ec.europa.eu/intelligentenergy).

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COOPENER
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES
FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION
IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

An assessment
July 2011

eaci
executive agency

EUROPEAN COMMISSION

for competitiveness & innovation

Acknowledgements
This publication has been prepared on the basis of the reports and information
provided by COOPENER project consortia, which received financial support
from the Intelligent Energy — Europe programme, managed by the European
Commission’s Executive Agency for Competitiveness & Innovation (EACI),
formerly the Intelligent Energy Executive Agency (IEEA).
The document has been written by Anna Bönisch, Gianluca Tondi, Anette Jahn
and William Gillett from the EACI, with the support of Daniele Guidi, Detlef
Loy and René Karottki, who worked as external experts contracted by the EACI
and carried out the analysis of the main results and impacts of the projects.
The authors wish to thank their colleagues in the Directorate-General for
Development and Cooperation, the Directorate-General for Energy, the Joint
Research Centre and the concerned EACI project officers for their inputs, as well as
Cindy Carolle from the Communication cell of the EACI who has made important
contributions to the production of this publication.
Last but not least, the authors thank the COOPENER project teams who provided
pictures as well as additional inputs beyond their project’s lifetime.

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Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011
ISBN 978-92-9202-093-4
doi:10.2826/26455
© European Union, 2011
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
Printed in Belgium
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Contents

Executive summary ................................................................................................................................................................5
1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................11
2. Programme context and policy background ................................................................................................................13
3. COOPENER — an overview ...........................................................................................................................................17
4. Methodology .....................................................................................................................................................................21
5. The COOPENER legacy — outputs and impacts of selected projects ......................................................................25
5.1. Improved access to data and information .............................................................................................................26
5.2. Training and capacity-building...............................................................................................................................26
5.3. Innovative approaches and tools ............................................................................................................................30
5.4. Policy impact and institutional development .......................................................................................................32
5.5. Sustainability of project activities ...........................................................................................................................34
5.6. Synergies created by the projects ............................................................................................................................37
5.7. Fostering investment ...............................................................................................................................................41
6. Key lessons and best practices .........................................................................................................................................43
7. Conclusions .......................................................................................................................................................................49
Acronyms and abbreviations ...............................................................................................................................................51
ANNEXES ..............................................................................................................................................................................53
Annex 1: Distribution per call and per region for different steps of the evaluation process .................................54
Annex 2: Proposer profiles .............................................................................................................................................56
Annex 3: Geographical coverage of contracted projects in the target countries ....................................................58
Annex 4: Overview of the 36 COOPENER projects ...................................................................................................60

3

Executive summary

COOPENER was the external component of the
first Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) programme,
which funded projects aiming to promote policies, technologies and best practices in the fields
of renewable energy and energy efficiency. The
IEE programme is managed by the Executive
Agency for Competitiveness & Innovation (EACI)
on behalf of the European Commission.

projects began operating in early 2005 and the last
project finished in August 2010.

100 proposals in total were submitted to the
calls for proposals 2003, 2004 and 2005;

The first IEE programme ran from 2003 to 2006.
IEE was extended to cover the period 2007 to
2013, but its external component was not continued within the IEE programme; instead, similar activities were continued in particular under
the ACP-EU Energy Facility.

the submitted proposals had a cumulated
total budget of about EUR  87 million, with
the requested EU funding amounting to
EUR 43 million;

45  % of the submitted proposals were recommended for funding by the evaluation
committee;

36 projects were contracted, with activities
taking place between 2005 and 2010;

24 projects were carried out in sub-Saharan
Africa; seven projects in Latin America and
five projects in South-East Asia (1);

the total budget of COOPENER projects
amounted to EUR  28 million, with an EC
contribution of approximately EUR  14
million;

234 organisations took part in COOPENER
projects, of which 101 were EU organisations
and 133 were target country organisations.

In line with the EU Energy Initiative for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development
(EUEI), COOPENER projects addressed the
role of sustainable energy for poverty alleviation
in developing countries. COOPENER called for
projects addressing: (a) energy policies, legislation and market conditions for poverty alleviation; and/or (b) capacity-building for increasing
local energy expertise.

Some of the most important facts related to the
implementation of COOPENER include:

COOPENER operated in three regions: subSaharan Africa, Latin America and South-East
Asia.
Priority was given to projects which were consistent with the poverty reduction strategies,
sustainable development strategies, and related
policies of the developing countries concerned.
The vision of the EUEI was fully integrated in
the design of COOPENER — reflecting the
call for EU Member States to work together in
energy development cooperation and leave room
for developing countries to lead their demand
themselves.
COOPENER was implemented through grants,
which were awarded in response to open calls for
proposals on an annual basis. Approved projects
received co-funding from COOPENER of up
to 50  % of the total project costs. COOPENER

Following the completion of the last COOPENER
project at the end of 2010, the EACI organised an
assessment of the COOPENER projects. Its aims
were to identify the impacts of the projects, to
extract key findings, and to highlight lessons and
best practices resulting from the implementation
of these projects.
This report presents the results of this assessment, which was carried out with the help of
(1) Sub-Saharan Africa was included in all three calls for proposals; Latin
America was addressed in the calls of 2004 and 2005, and South-East Asia in
the call of 2005.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

5

three external experts. The experts examined
23 COOPENER projects in detail, all selected
in order to draw lessons from the COOPENER
experience.
Guided by a template, prepared by the EACI in
consultation with colleagues from the European
Commission, the experts extracted information
on specific impacts of the projects, their sustainability, synergies, as well as key lessons and best
practices.
The findings of the experts were discussed in a
plenary meeting with staff from the EACI and
other European Commission services, including
the Directorate-General for Energy, the Directorate-General for Development and Cooperation,
and the Joint Research Centre.

made such information more easily accessible. In
order to achieve this objective, project partners
used, for example, data collection, mapping and
data analyses, web portals, databases and inventories, as well as feasibility studies. A large part
of the information gathered was used to define
options and barriers to the development of more
sustainable energy supplies, which in turn led to
the identification of investment opportunities
and to inputs for policy development. Also, several networks of professionals have been established, facilitating information exchange. Most
of the information collected was made available
online to stakeholders outside the projects and to
the public in general. Most of this information is
still available even after the end of the projects.

2. Training and capacity-building
The assessment of project impacts was found to
be challenging, partly due to the limited reporting
by the project teams on this issue, but also because
of the difficulties with verification. Nevertheless,
some projects were able to report on how, and
to what extent, their outputs and outcomes have
been incorporated into a local, regional or international process at the end of a project: the impacts
of these projects can be more easily traced.
This report focuses on the most important
impacts from COOPENER projects, which can
be used by public bodies, NGOs, and commercial
organisations based in the EU as well as in the
target countries. It also presents lessons learned,
which can be helpful to Commission services,
Member States’ organisations and other organisations working within similar activities and programmes, such as the ACP-EU Energy Facility.
Best practice examples based on experiences of
specific projects are highlighted in the main text
of the report.

Most projects included training and capacitybuilding, which was targeted at relevant stakeholders from the public and private sectors.
Specialised training activities were carried out
which made use of instruments such as workshops, seminars, study tours, post-training mentoring, the elaboration of manuals and guidelines,
the development of educational kits and, in some
cases, the setting up of demonstrations or pilot
projects with additional financial support.
These activities led to increased capacity and
improved skills for addressing the interrelationship between energy and development,
including socio-economic impacts. They also
contributed to improved analytical skills and to
wider local knowledge of best practice working
methodologies.

1. Improved access to data
and information

For the public sector, capacity-building activities were carried out in ministries, agencies, local
administrations, financing entities, and resource
centres including training and educational institutions. In the private sector, some of the training programmes have helped small enterprises,
financial intermediaries, and developers in their
operations, particularly in identifying business
opportunities in rural energy.

Most of the projects reviewed have enhanced the
amount of relevant information on rural energy
resources and consumption patterns, and have

Despite limited monitoring and evaluation of
how the trainees benefited from these capacitybuilding activities, some specific target groups

The main impacts and outputs from the COOPENER
projects can be summarised as follows.

6

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

were found to have benefited from such COOPENER-funded actions, notably:

public authorities and institutions (local,
provincial, national, and supranational);

training and educational institutions (longlasting impacts of the intervention);

private sector, especially small businesses.

3. Innovative approaches and tools
COOPENER projects developed and implemented
innovative approaches and methodologies for
rural energy planning. Project activities included
the use of energy information systems, energy
analysis/planning tools, GIS planning tools, practical handbooks, and the application of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) methods applied to
energy for development interventions. Innovative
planning approaches, such as the involvement of
non-energy actors (e.g. from agriculture, health
and education) in energy-related activities, or the
integration of socio-economic factors in energy
planning, led to an improved quality of decisions, as well as a more participatory decisionmaking process. Local ownership-building was
an important goal for COOPENER projects which
addressed the implementation of innovative tools
and approaches, and it was achieved with different
degrees of success.

4. Policy implementation and
institutional development
While, on the whole, policy development and
implementation was less present in COOPENER
projects than capacity-building and training activities, several projects were able to support governments at different levels in policy development
and planning processes, especially in sub-Saharan
Africa. The introduction of energy information
and planning tools, as well as the development
of specific policy and planning proposals, led to
policy changes and to the integration of energy
in development strategies and, in some cases,
also had an impact on regional strategies. It also
provided a basis to attract the private sector and
financing institutions to potential investment

in sustainable energy. Building on their training
and capacity-building activities, project teams
were at times able to institutionalise the knowledge transfer, and to create new institutions or
extend existing ones. While the relevant activities
have been recorded in COOPENER project documents, the effectiveness of capacity-development
actions in bringing about the desired institutional
change was not always well documented and has,
therefore, been difficult to assess with full clarity.
Better internal monitoring systems could have
provided more detailed information on the extent
to which institutional strengthening was supportive in creating new administrative structures,
responsibilities, etc.

5. Sustainability of project activities
The sustainability of a project can be judged by
the extent to which the processes, knowledge,
capacity and tools created by the project are
rooted in and used by its target groups and institutions in the years after the project has ended.
Important factors, which can influence the sustainability of a project, are the target institutions’
own human and financial resources, and whether
or not the project activities are relevant enough
to attract long-term financial support from public or private sources. Several of the COOPENER
project teams were able to strengthen the sustainability of their projects by planning for followups and by entering into cooperation negotiations
during the course of their projects. Such strategic
planning was a particularly positive finding.
Three main types of project follow-up were
identified:

capacity-building activities continued in the target countries, for instance when long-term funding is made available for the project coordinators
and partners to continue working;

training of trainers and support for training institutions within the projects can provide a basis for continuing and for expanding
the benefits and impacts;

methodologies, tools, and knowledge
acquired for analysing energy resources
and for energy planning, which were intro-

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

7

duced and developed through the projects,
continue to be used by governments, technology
centres and training institutions.
Several project coordinators were found to have
continued their COOPENER-supported activities
in the target countries, or to have extended and
replicated the experience they gained during their
COOPENER projects in other countries. Such
continuations were typically supported by other
EU programmes, such as the ENRTP, the ACP-EU
Energy Facility, EUEI’s Partnership Development
Facility, national development and energy agencies, NGOs, or other international programmes
such as the UNDP.

6. Synergies created by the projects
Several projects were found to have stimulated
mutually beneficial collaborations and dialogue
between different types of stakeholders who were
not used to working together or who did not have
much interaction before the project.
Some projects employed a multi-sectoral
approach, bringing together energy sector actors
with actors from non-energy sectors, where contacts had previously been limited. Through working in COOPENER projects, non-energy actors
became directly involved in energy data collection and in energy planning, and participated in
multi-sectoral committees, together with representatives from governments, the private sector
(including SMEs) and the financing sector. Such
a multi-sectoral approach led to more transparency and higher quality in energy planning and
project development. It also encouraged valuable cross-sectoral dialogues between the energy,
agriculture, health, education and financing sectors, which is very important for future policy
development.
Knowledge exchange and cooperation between
public institutions and project teams can help to
maximise the value of limited financial resources
because the different institutions and actors
involved are better able to complement each
other. Most of the COOPENER projects managed to develop and enhance synergies with
other ongoing initiatives at national or international levels, thus enhancing the impacts of their
sustainable energy actions for poverty alleviation.

8

For example, in many cases representatives from
other institutions and initiatives were invited to
conferences, workshops and seminars, allowing effective exchanges of information and welltargeted dissemination of the project results. In
some cases, synergies with other initiatives were
a central part of the project.

7. Fostering investment
A lack of bankable projects is seen by many investors and financers as a major obstacle to investment
in sustainable energy projects — especially renewable energy projects — in developing countries.
Several COOPENER projects with an investmentoriented focus have addressed this issue. These
projects have deepened the understanding of
project bankability, and have provided clear evidence that the main barrier to investment in RES
projects is not, as is generally assumed, access to
finance per se. In fact, the main barriers are often
a lack of specific skills in ‘project development’
and a lack of commitment by the project developers to invest resources in turning a potentially
good project into a ‘bankable’ one. COOPENER
projects have contributed to the identification and
development of proposals for ‘bankable projects’
and have facilitated their presentation to investors,
development actors and funding agencies. As a
result, some renewable energy projects have been
funded, some public and private partnership
opportunities have been established, and some
micro-financing options have been selected for
the realisation of rural electrification systems.
Moreover, a number of key lessons have been
drawn from the analysis of the COOPENER
projects:

COOPENER projects have demonstrated
the importance of building institutional capacity and systematic knowledge at the
regional, national and local levels on policies and strategies, as well as on barriers and
options for improving rural energy access;

it was demonstrated that the success of institutional strengthening actions depends on the
strength of local commitments to sustainable
energy policies;

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

the importance of planning for some kind of
follow-up after project completion has been
highlighted;

COOPENER projects have highlighted the
added value of bringing project teams from
different developing countries together, and
of maximising the synergies between them;

some projects have demonstrated the added
value of engaging with actors from both the
energy sector and other economic sectors,
when working to improve access to modern
energy supplies for poverty alleviation.

identified and are presented in Chapter  6: for
example, covering the importance of involving
EU delegations, the need for detailed guidance on
project reporting, and the added value of using
open calls for proposals.
Finally, in dedicated boxes, a number of selected
best practices extracted from the analysed
projects are presented, describing, for example,
successful approaches for an effective implementation of policies, multi-sectoral processes for
energy planning, the development and utilisation of innovative tools for energy planning and
project implementation, and methods to identify
and develop proposals for ‘bankable’ projects.

Specific lessons for designers and managers
of sustainable energy programmes have been

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

9

1. Introduction

COOPENER was the external component of the
European Commission’s programme for the promotion of policies, technologies and best practices in the fields of renewable energy and energy
efficiency, the Intelligent Energy — Europe (IEE)
programme (2), managed by the Executive Agency
for Competitiveness & Innovation (EACI)  (3).
The first IEE programme ran from 2003 to 2006.
IEE was extended to cover the period from 2007
to 2013 but its external component was not continued within the IEE programme; instead, similar activities were continued in particular under
the ACP-EU Energy Facility.
(2) Decision No 1230/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council
of 26 June 2003 adopting a multiannual programme for action in the field of
energy ‘Intelligent Energy — Europe’ (2003–06), OJ L 176, 15.7.2003, p.  29
(http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOHtml.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:176:SOM:EN:HTML).
(3) Formerly IEEA: Intelligent Energy Executive Agency.

While the scope of the first IEE sub-programmes
SAVE, ALTENER and STEER (Box 1.1) was in the
European Union, COOPENER projects — in line
with the EU Energy Initiative for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development (EUEI) —
addressed the role of sustainable energy for poverty
alleviation in developing countries, with activities
taking place between 2005 and 2010.
This report presents results from the assessment
of a number of COOPENER projects, which
the EACI organised at the conclusion of the
COOPENER programme. With the support of
three external experts, selected projects were
examined in detail in order to draw lessons
from the COOPENER experience, to extract
the projects’ main results and impacts as well as
technical and contractual lessons.

Design: Claire Laffargue — Courtesy of the PROVEN project

1. INTRODUCTION

11

The assessment enabled the identification of
a number of findings which are relevant to a
number of actors. First of all, lessons are drawn
that can be helpful to Commission services and
Member States’ representatives working within
similar programmes, such as the ACP-EU Energy
Facility. Secondly, organisations based in the
EU as well as in target countries, such as NGOs,
public bodies and commercial organisations, can
make use of the information gathered. Lastly, any
organisation involved in sustainable energy activities in a developing country context can benefit
from the best practice examples and key outputs
delivered by the COOPENER projects.

The methodological approach used to carry out
the work and the list of projects analysed (23) is
provided in Chapter  4, while Chapter  5 reports
on the main findings of the assessment. In this
chapter, the outputs and impacts of the reviewed
projects have been categorised as follows:

The first two chapters of this report contextualise the COOPENER programme within the EU
strategy for sustainable energy in developing
countries, its main scope and goals, and provide
an overview of the main features of the programme in terms of geographical coverage, main
themes addressed, profile of the participating
organisations, budget, etc.

In Chapter 5, a few selected best practices developed by COOPENER projects are highlighted
and detailed in text boxes. Finally, Chapter  6
highlights a number of the best practices identified and key lessons learned, with the aim of making them available to relevant stakeholders active
in sustainable energy initiatives in developing
countries.







improved access to data and information;
training and capacity-building;
innovative approaches and tools;
policy impact and institutional development;
sustainability of project activities;
synergies created by the projects; and
fostering investment.

Box 1.1: Intelligent Energy Europe
The IEE programme (2003–06) was designed as the main Community instrument for nontechnological support in the field of energy, to support the European Union’s policies in the
field of energy as laid down in the Green Paper Towards a European strategy for the security
of energy supply, the White Paper European transport policy for 2010: time to decide and other
related Community legislation.
The programme was structured in four specific fields as follows (4):
• SAVE, concerning the improvement of energy efficiency and the rational use of energy, in
particular in the building and industry sectors;
• ALTENER, concerning the promotion of new and renewable energy sources for centralised
and decentralised production of electricity and heat and their integration into the local
environment and the energy systems, including the preparation of legislative measures and
their application;
• STEER, concerning support for initiatives relating to all energy aspects of transport, the
diversification of fuels, such as through new developing and renewable energy sources, and
the promotion of renewable fuels and energy efficiency in transport;
• COOPENER, concerning support for initiatives relating to the promotion of renewable
energy sources and energy efficiency in developing countries, in particular in the framework
of the Community cooperation with developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and
the Pacific.
(4) More details on the IEE programme are available in the Global Work Programme for the years 2003–2006 (October 2003)
(http://ec.europa.eu/energy/intelligent/files/call_for_proposals/doc/eie_work_programme_2003-06_en.pdf).

12

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

2. Programme context and policy background

Policy context and background
COOPENER was shaped in the framework of
the EU Energy Initiative for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development (EUEI). The
conclusions of the World Summit on Sustainable
Development (WSSD), held in Johannesburg in
2002, had emphasised the growing realisation
among actors in development cooperation that in
future, a higher priority should be given to the
role of energy in enabling poverty eradication
and sustainable development. Responding to a
situation of 1.6  billion people without access to
electricity, and 2.4 billion people relying on traditional biomass for cooking and heating, the
EUEI was created in Johannesburg, as a joint
commitment by the EU Member States and the
EC. In order to achieve improved access to sustainable energy services, the EUEI engages in
activities which seek to ‘raise political awareness
among high-level decision-makers, encourage the

coherence and synergy of energy-related activities and attract new resources (capital, technology, human resources) from the private sector,
financial institutions, civil society and end-users’ (5).
Actions supported under COOPENER were
planned to be complementary to, and upstream
of, the support provided in the framework of
other community development cooperation programmes. COOPENER emerged as one of the first
financial instruments managed under the framework of the EUEI: subsequent programmes were
created partly building on the COOPENER experience. The ACP-EU Energy Facility, for instance,
launched in 2005 under the ninth European
Development Fund, concentrates on increasing
access to sustainable and affordable energy. Other
EUEI programmes on sustainable energy include
the EUEI Partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEIPDF), operational since 2005 and managed by the
(5) http://www.euei.net/about-euei

Photo by Fondation Énergies pour le Monde/R. Delacloche — Courtesy of the PROVEN project

2. PROGRAMME CONTEXT AND POLICY BACKGROUND

13

German Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). The energy component of the
Africa-EU Infrastructure Trust Fund which supports energy infrastructure for regional integration, was inspired and promoted by the EUEI, and
is a reflection of the new priority to energy.
A number of other institutions and organisations have been active in the field of sustainable
energy in development cooperation. For instance,
another EU programme that should be mentioned
is the thematic programme for Environment and
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources
including Energy (ENRTP). Based in the Directorate-General for Development and Cooperation, the ENRTP among others aims to broaden
the options for sustainable energy. The Johannesburg Renewable Energy Coalition (JREC), whose
secretariat is based in the Directorate-General for
the Environment, is a coalition of governments
aiming to achieve the commitments on renewable
energy formulated at the WSSD. GEEREF, the
Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Fund, was launched in the context of the JREC,
and is funded under the ENRTP. The Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development
(GNESD) also deserves to be mentioned: GNESD
is a network of member centres of excellence
and associates facilitated by the United Nations

Environment Programme (UNEP) with the objective of carrying out policy analyses on energy
issues which can facilitate progress towards the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) is a global partnership focusing primarily on energy markets and developing
countries. Lastly, the Forum of Energy Ministers
of Africa (FEMA) was created to address African
and regional cooperation as well as social and
economic development through the promotion
of sustainable energy use and management, and
has been replaced by the Conference of Energy
Ministers of Africa (CEMA).
Since the launch of the COOPENER programme,
the situation has changed significantly in the sense
that energy-related concerns have made it to the
top agenda points in development cooperation.
The increased importance of energy in EU development cooperation was obvious in the recent
Green Paper EU development policy in support
of inclusive growth and sustainable development:
Increasing the impact of EU development policy (6),
in which the EC highlighted the role of energy for
development. The first high-level meeting of the
(6) COM(2010)  629 final of 10 November 2010 (http://ec.europa.eu/
development/icenter/repository/GREEN_PAPER_COM_2010_629_
POLITIQUE_DEVELOPPEMENT_EN.pdf).

Photo by Fondation Énergies pour le Monde/R. Delacloche — Courtesy of the PROVEN project

14

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Africa-EU Energy Partnership (AEEP) and the
launch of the Africa-EU Renewable Energy Cooperation Programme (RECP) in September 2010 are
indicative of this development. The announcement of 2012 as the ‘UN International Year of
Sustainable Energy for All’ marks the increased
attention directed towards energy-related issues,
including and beyond EC development cooperation. In this light, the findings portrayed in this
assessment report are highly relevant.

Initial objectives and scope
of the COOPENER programme
In line with EUEI objectives, COOPENER provided funding for activities focusing on the
provision of energy services for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. In particular, COOPENER-supported activities addressed:
(a) energy policies, legislation and market conditions for poverty alleviation; and/or (b) capacitybuilding for increasing local energy expertise (see
later). Priority was given to projects consistent
with the poverty reduction strategies, sustainable development strategies, and related policies
of the developing countries concerned. Moreover, the aims and objectives of the EUEI were
emphasised, which calls for a collaboration of EU

Member States in energy development cooperation responding to demand-led approaches from
developing countries.
Concerning energy policies, legislation and
market conditions for enabling poverty alleviation, COOPENER projects were intended to
engage in activities which strengthen existing
local capacities in the fields of energy policy and
regulations. Local, national and regional energy
policymakers and regulators would be assisted in
creating favourable market conditions for the provision of energy services, which can be used for
poverty alleviation in rural, urban and peri-urban
areas of developing countries. In this manner, the
mobilisation of investments in the provision of
sustainable energy services for health, education,
housing and wealth-creating activities should
be facilitated and promoted among local actors,
including the private sector. In particular, actions
concentrating on the following target areas were
supported:

the energy policy chain, from development to
promotion and implementation;

pro-poor energy regulations, addressing
sustainability, targets, and decentralised
generation;

Workshop for the launch of CARAMCODEC, Mahajanga, Madagascar, March 2007
Photo by P. Montagne — Courtesy of the CARAMCODEC project

2. PROGRAMME CONTEXT AND POLICY BACKGROUND

15

energy planning for urban, peri-urban and
rural areas;

training and networking for energy policymakers, regulators and planners;

financing, investments and support schemes
for energy sector programmes and projects,
with particular emphasis on SMEs;

training, networking, mobility and study
tours for energy professionals;


promoting best practice in energy services to
meet the needs of the poor.

strengthening existing energy
agencies and industry associations.

With regard to strengthening local energy expertise, the objectives of the COOPENER programme
were to promote and support activities helping to
build a critical mass of human capital with up-todate knowledge and expertise in energy policymaking, energy regulations, energy planning and
project financing, as well as in the latest technologies and best practices available for improving the
efficiency of energy use, and to increase the use of
RES. Sustainable energy expertise, for example for
water pumping, lighting, communications, education and health, is needed in the public sector
for the development and management of energy
policies, regulations and programmes as well as in
the private sector for the local development and
deployment of energy technologies and services.
Target areas included:

16

centres,

Like the other main components of the IEE programme, COOPENER was implemented through
grants, responding to a call for proposals on an
annual basis (2003, 2004 and 2005). Approved
projects received co-funding from COOPENER of
up to 50 % of the total project costs. COOPENER
projects operated from early 2005, with the last
project finishing in August 2010. Concerning the
geographical outreach, the programme supported
projects which targeted countries in three regions:
sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and SouthEast Asia. The bulk of the projects were carried
out in sub-Saharan Africa which was included
in all three calls for proposals, Latin America
was addressed in the calls of 2004 and 2005, and
South-East Asia in the call of 2005.

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

3. COOPENER — an overview

This chapter provides a quick overview of the
main facts and features of the IEE programme’s
COOPENER component (Boxes 3.1 to 3.4). In the
annexes at the end of this document, more detailed
information and statistics about COOPENER are

presented: for example, the distribution per call
and per region, success rate of the submission of
proposals, proposer profiles, geographical coverage, and a list of all projects funded by
COOPENER including main data for each project.

Box 3.1: COOPENER Quick Facts
• In total, 100 proposals were submitted to the calls for proposals 2003, 2004 and 2005.
• The submitted proposals had a cumulated total budget of about EUR 87 million, with the
requested funding amounting to EUR 43 million.
• Forty-five per cent of the submitted proposals were recommended for funding by the
evaluation committee.
• Thirty-six projects were contracted, with activities taking place between 2005 and 2010.
• Some 24 projects were carried out in sub-Saharan Africa, seven in Latin America and five in
South-East Asia.
• The total budget of COOPENER projects amounted to EUR 28 million, with an EC contribution
of approximately EUR 14 million.
• A total of 234 organisations took part in COOPENER actions: 101 EU organisations and
133 target country organisations.

Box 3.2: Sub-Saharan Africa
Calls for proposals 2003, 2004 and 2005:
• 70 % of the COOPENER budget
• 24 projects
• 36 countries
• 13 in Western Africa
• 12 in Eastern Africa
• 6 in Central Africa
• 5 in Southern Africa.

1–2 projects
3–5 projects
6+ projects

3. COOPENER — AN OVERVIEW

17

Box 3.3: Latin America
Calls for proposals 2004 and 2005:
• 16 % of the COOPENER budget
• 7 projects
• 9 countries.

1–2 projects
3–5 projects
6+ projects

Box 3.4: South-East Asia
Call for proposals 2005:
• 14 % of the COOPENER budget
• 5 projects
• 5 countries.

COOPENER — unique features

1–2 projects
3–5 projects
6+ projects

Proposer profiles

The COOPENER calls for proposals attracted
100 proposals involving nearly 350 European
organisations, and about 400 target countries
organisations.

European applicants were based in 21 out of
the 30 eligible countries (7), demonstrating a
broad interest base despite the specificity of
the subject involved.

Most applicants participated through a mixed
approach: for example, a national development agency putting forward a proposal
together with an NGO and an energy service
company, in order to provide for sufficiently
solid technical know-how as well as development
cooperation expertise.

Twinning of EU and target country
organisations

The COOPENER programme engaged in the
innovative approach of supporting consortia
consisting of at least two EU partners as contractors and at least one target country partner as
subcontractor.
On average, a COOPENER project involved
three EU organisations and four organisations
based in the respective target countries.

(7) Eligible countries were: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

18

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Rice Husks, Senegal l — Courtesy of the ENEFIBIO project

COOPENER themes

All COOPENER actions addressed the topic
fields of: (a) energy policies, legislation and
market conditions for poverty alleviation;
and/or (b) capacity-building for increasing
local energy expertise (Chapter 2).

Almost all projects worked on renewable
energy, while less than half of the projects also
addressed energy efficiency issues.

Project activities focused on one or more of
the following themes:
• rural energy (including rural electrification);

• enabling policies and strategies (at subnational, national and supranational levels);
• capacity-building (strengthening policymakers, regulators, planners, energy professionals, private sector capacity, community
stakeholders and universities);
• networking (including business networks
and Internet platforms);
• energy planning for urban, peri-urban and
rural areas.

3. COOPENER — AN OVERVIEW

19

4. Methodology

The assessment was carried out in order to highlight
the impacts manifested by a number of projects
funded by the COOPENER programme. It was not
a formal evaluation, rather an endeavour to identify key lessons and best practice examples which
could be used in similar international cooperation
programmes dealing with sustainable energy.
The assessment process started with a preliminary
analysis of all COOPENER projects by the EACI, in the
course of which 23 out of the total of 36 COOPENER
projects were identified for closer examination
(Table 4.1). The 23 projects were selected on the basis
of their potential to yield useful key lessons.
Subsequently, the EACI organised a meeting with
a steering board consisting of EC staff from the
Directorate-General for Development and Cooperation and the Directorate-General for Energy:
feedback and input was sought on key issues to be
covered by the assessment.

Three external experts were appointed by the EACI
to work on the study. Following a kick-off meeting at the EACI in November 2010, each of the
experts worked at their own premises on a number
of COOPENER projects assigned to them.
Guided by a template prepared by the EACI, the
experts extracted information on the following
key issues: (a) specific impacts of the projects; (b)
sustainability of the projects (i.e. how far did the
COOPENER-initiated activities continue beyond
the project lifetime); (c) synergies created between
the different types of organisations and stakeholders; and (d) key lessons and best practices drawn
from the project experience.
For this purpose, the experts received an information pack consisting of project management
reports, relevant deliverables and EACI communications to the project teams in addition to
consulting information gathered from the IEE

Wood dryer, Senegal — Courtesy of the ENEFIBIO project

4. METHODOLOGY

21

project database and websites set up by the project
consortia. In some cases, the experts also contacted
the respective project coordinators directly in order
to gather specific information.

been undertaken into COOPENER follow-up
actions funded by the ACP-EU Energy Facility.

The experts were encouraged to exchange information, and to harmonise their methodology. The
EACI monitored the experts’ work and facilitated
communication and exchange of information.

A debriefing meeting took place in January 2011,
where the experts presented their findings to
staff from the EACI, the Directorate-General for
Development and Cooperation, the Directorate-General for Energy, and the Joint Research
Centre. Draft findings were refined.

Furthermore, the EACI contacted the coordinators of the 23 selected COOPENER projects concerning follow-up actions and long-term impacts of
project activities. Also, with the Directorate-General
for Development and Cooperation, research has

Using the findings generated by the experts,
as well as additional information on the
COOPENER projects, the EACI prepared this
report, consulting staff from the above mentioned
directorates-general for final remarks.

Table 4.1: The 23 COOPENER projects analysed (8)
Sub-Saharan Africa
Project title

Contract No

Improving the economic and social impact of rural electrification (IMPROVES-RE)

EIE/04/133

Mitigating Risk and strengthening capacity for Rural Electricity Investment
in Africa (MIRREIA)

EIE/04/034

Building capacity in renewables in the health, education and water sectors
to help meet poverty reduction targets in sub-Saharan Africa (ENABLE)

EIE/04/099

Turning Information into Empowerment: Strengthening gender and energy
networking in Africa (TIE-ENERGIA)

EIE/04/198

Development and Energy in Africa (DEA)

EIE/04/201

Biomass Energy Platforms Implementation for Training in Africa (BEPITA)

EIE/04/032

Removal of non-technological barriers to encourage SME energy efficiency
by the rational use of biomass (ENEFIBIO)

EIE/04/129

Mainstreaming Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development
into EU Development Assistance (MEPRED)

EIE/04/243

Appui à la mise en place de systèmes d’informations énergétiques nationaux
(SIE-Afrique Phase II)

EIE/04/236

PROVEN in rural Africa (PROVEN)

EIE/04/166

Poverty Eradication and Planning of Sustainable Energy (PEPSE)

EIE/04/004

Promotion of microgrids and RES (Renewable Energy Sources) for electrification
in developing countries (MICROGRIDS)

EIE/05/011

Réseau International d’Accès aux Energies Durables (RIAED)

EIE/05/061

Improved carbonisation and decentralised forestry control in Madagascar
(CARAMCODEC)

EIE/06/244

Poverty Alleviation through Cleaner Energy from Agro-industries in Africa (PACEAA)

EIE/06/247

(8) Refer to Annex 4 for an overview of all COOPENER projects.

22

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Latin America
Project title

Contract No

Linking income-generating activities and micro-enterprises with energy services
for the poor in the Chaco Region (CRECER CON ENERGIA)

EIE/05/212

Biomass Energy Platforms Implementation for Training in Latin America — Network
(BEPINET)

EIE/05/139

Desarrollo de operadores eléctricos para reducción de la pobreza en Ecuador y
el Perú (DOSBE)

EIE/06/255

Promotion of small-scale biofuel production and use in Honduras (GOTA VERDE)

EIE/06/277

South-East Asia
Project title

Contract No

Contributing to poverty Alleviation through Regional Energy Planning in Indonesia
(CAREPI)

EIE/06/261

Renewable Energy Sustainable programmes for Intelligent Rural Electrification
and poverty Alleviation (RESIREA)

EIE/06/272

Capacity and institutional strengthening for rural electrification and development,
decentralised energy options (CAP-REDEO)

EIE/06/265

Promotion of the Efficient Use of Renewable Energies in Developing Countries
(REEPRO)

EIE/06/256

4. METHODOLOGY

23

5. The COOPENER legacy — outputs and impacts
of selected projects

The reviewed projects’ outputs and impacts were
categorised into different themes. Few projects
have delivered on all themes, while most concentrated on specific items. In general, the focus
tended to be more on strengthening local energy
expertise, identifying resources and opportunities for energy supply options and, to a lesser
extent, influencing energy policies, and legislation and market conditions. The attribution of
impacts remains challenging, inter alia, due to
limited reporting by the project teams on this
specific issue, and difficulties with verification.
Still, some projects were able to report how, and
to what extent, their outputs and outcomes have
been incorporated into a local, regional or international process at the end of the project’s lifetime,
so that their impact can be more easily traced.
Thus, seven themes are addressed:

1.

Improved access to data and information

2.

Training and capacity-building

3.

Innovative approaches and tools

4.

Policy impact and institutional development

5.

Sustainability of project activities

6.

Synergies created by the projects

7. Fostering investment.

Courtesy of the REEPRO project, DGS

5. THE COOPENER LEGACY — OUTPUTS AND IMPACTS OF SELECTED PROJECTS

25

5.1. Improved access to data
and information
Most of the projects reviewed have enhanced both
availability and access to relevant information on
rural energy resources and consumption patterns.
For this purpose, project partners used, for example, data collections, mapping and data analyses, compilations of databases and inventories,
and feasibility studies. A large part of the information gathered was used to define options and barriers in the context of sustainable energy, which
in turn facilitate the identification of investment
opportunities, and yield inputs for policy development. Also, several networks of professionals have
been established, facilitating information exchange.
Most of the information collected was made available online to stakeholders outside the projects and
to the public in general (9). Project examples highlight three possibilities to address the issue of information: establishing energy information systems,
web portals and creating green electricity plans to
be submitted to potential investors and donors.
An outstanding example for increasing the access
to energy-related data and information is the web
portal created by the RIAED project (Box 5.1) (10).
By pooling together resources and tools, the project
has created a very powerful web portal for Frenchspeaking experts and practitioners in the field of
energy and development. The portal is still active
and constantly updated, and is the basis for a growing network of experts. The success of the portal
is documented by the huge amount of information available and the high number of visitors
and downloads. The project has thus proven how
the Internet can be very useful in pooling and
disseminating information.
Missing or scattered information can be an important barrier for energy investments. SIE-Afrique
Phase II addressed this issue in Niger, Senegal and
Togo. The objective of the project was to establish
permanent Energy Information Systems (EISs),
and create teams in the ministries responsible for
energy to manage and maintain the systems. The
EISs improve transparency and access to energy
information, and strengthen the national coordinating role of the ministries responsible for energy.
SIE-Afrique was successful in establishing the EISs
(9) The detailed project overviews in Annex  4 also provide links to project
websites (if available) and were used as important dissemination tools by the
project teams.
(10) http://www.riaed.net/

26

and in training the management teams in the three
countries. The project teams have collected data,
produced annual energy balances (according to
International Energy Agency (IEA) standards), and
annual reports with analyses of energy consumption in different sectors. The information gathered
was made available on dedicated national websites.
Energy sector actors are now turning to the Ministry of Energy, for example in Senegal, in order to
receive validated energy data, statistics and information. In response to SIE-AFRIQUE activities,
several positive comments were received from the
IEA, which is pleased to publish official energy statistics from African countries, instead of scattered
information. Also, the teams have contributed
to national policy development. The project has
attracted interest from the West African Economic
and Monetary Union (UEMOA) and a number of
countries in West and Central Africa, which already
have introduced, or are working to introduce, similar
energy information systems.
In South-East Asia, RESIREA increased information access by collecting and publishing best practice examples and case studies on rural electrification and the use of renewable energies in targeted
provinces of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The
project team has further assessed and provided
information on the potential of solar energy, biomass and hydropower. As a conclusion and base
for attracting investment, for each target region a
Green Electricity Plan has been set up, showing
estimated investments for selected options of electricity supply, with the purpose of submitting those
to possible investors and donor facilities.

5.2. Training and capacity-building
Most projects engaged in training and capacitybuilding targeted relevant stakeholders from the
public and private sectors. Specialised training
activities were carried out, which made use of
such instruments as workshops, seminars, study
tours, post-training mentoring, the elaboration of
manuals and guidelines, the development of educational kits and in some cases the setting up of
demonstration or pilot projects with additional
financial support. This has led to increased awareness and capacity concerning the interrelationship
between energy and development, including socioeconomic impacts, and to an improved analytical
capacity and working methodologies. Capacity was

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Box 5.1: RIAED
A dynamic web tool for energy and development experts and practitioners

Target countries:
Senegal, Mali, francophone countries
Partners:
• Agence sénégalaise d’électrification rurale (Senegal)
• Services de l’énergie en milieu Sahélien (Senegal)
• Agence de communication et multimedia — Imédia (Senegal)
• Amader (Mali)
• UEMOA (regional)
• L’association GRETh (France)
• Agence Intergouvernementale de la Francophonie (France)
• Association pour la Promotion des Energies Renouvelables asbl (Belgium)
Total budget: EUR 748 892
Project duration: January 2006–December 2008
RIAED has created a dynamic and powerful web portal for French-speaking experts and practitioners
in the field of energy and development. The portal is a basis for a constantly growing network and
database of experts, and features a huge amount of information and a high number of visitors and
downloads. The web portal continues to be updated and expanded even after the end of the project,
based on support from the project coordinator and other international programmes.
The project proves how useful the Internet can be in networking, and in pooling, exchanging and
disseminating information, between experts and practitioners in developing and developed countries.
The RIAED portal has improved access to tools, documents, newsletters, job openings, calls for tender,
training courses, blogs and other communication. It has led to the strengthening of expertise in
developing countries, and to increased international visibility of developing country expertise. The
portal is an important contribution to making local expertise available in sub-Saharan Africa, and can
thus be the basis for important inputs, for example to decision-making. The RIAED project has shown
its relevance and sustainability through the continued support from the coordinator and other actors.

5. THE COOPENER LEGACY — OUTPUTS AND IMPACTS OF SELECTED PROJECTS

27

increased in institutions such as ministries, agencies, local administrations, financing entities and
resource centres. Concerning the private sector,
some of the training programmes have helped small
enterprises, financial intermediaries, and developers in their operations, particularly in identifying
business opportunities in rural energy.
The attribution of impact has been a challenging task in the context of training and capacitybuilding. Some reports referred to the number of
participants reached through training activities, but
in general there has been little monitoring or evaluation on how those participants effectively gained
from the capacity-building during and after the
training courses. Nevertheless, a number of target
groups were found to have benefited from training and capacity-building activities initiated in the
framework of COOPENER-funded actions. The
following gives a few examples of capacity-building
activities and their impacts, grouped according to
the main stakeholders targeted by the activities.
First of all, public bodies at different levels (local,
provincial, national and supranational authorities and institutions) were strengthened. Ministries
and government agencies have demonstrated their
capacity in applying rural energy planning tools.
IMPROVES-RE, for instance, helped to build capacity on integrated rural energy planning and software in rural electrification agencies and ministries
in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mali and Niger. This
enabled the participants to understand, operate and
maintain the GIS-based planning tool promoted by
the project. MICROGRIDS assisted in training and
workshop activities in Senegal for professionals and
local authorities on concepts related to renewable
energy sources, energy efficiency and microgrids,
which lead to increased awareness and knowledge
regarding the cost-effective application of renewable energy technologies. Thanks to the PEPSE
project in Madagascar, local town councils and
nine provincial authorities as well as the Directorate of Energy and the Rural Energy Agency
increased their capacities to participate in renewable energy projects. For instance, the Directorate for Energy and the provincial authorities have
agreed to raise funds for the nine decentralised
rural electrification programmes developed by
PEPSE. Moreover, the Agency for Rural Electrification (ADER) (11), created in 2004, is now involved
in rural electrification projects, for example in
(11) http://www.ader.mg

28

cooperation with the GIZ. An important impact on
different levels, including regional, was achieved by
TIE-ENERGIA, a project that focused on increasing attention towards the gender dimension of
sustainable energy interventions through capacitybuilding in 12 sub-Saharan African countries. In
the course of the project, capacity was developed
to engender energy-poverty policies and strategies,
reaching planners, policymakers and project developers from 12 African countries. TIE-ENERGIA
also convinced with designing capacity-building
interventions which foresee the follow-up of training with activities to operationalise the newly
acquired know-how, using ‘action plans’ and monitoring their execution. Furthermore, the ENERGIA
Africa network  (12) was significantly strengthened in its human capacity and leadership as a key
stakeholder in the gender and sustainable energy
policy arena. In Latin America, public bodies were
addressed, for instance, by the CRECER CON
ENERGIA project, which trained national and local
stakeholders in Bolivia and Paraguay in the field of
renewable energy use and decentralised electrification. The capacity-building of local partners during
the project could be decisive for future activities in
the project field, including the raising of national
and international funds for co-financing investments. In South-East Asia, CAP-REDEO helped
to increase the capacity of targeted energy ministries, national utilities and, at the provincial level in
Cambodia and Laos, with regard to rural electrification planning issues, database management and
the handling of GIS tools.
In some cases, capacity-building was targeted at
training and educational institutions, aiming for
a long-lasting impact of the intervention. BEPITA
established training platforms on biomass energy
technologies at training institutions in two zones:
2IE (13) in Burkina Faso (dry zone), and ENSP (14)
in Cameroon (wet zone). Similarly, ENEFIBIO
increased the capacity of advisory and educational
activities in the field of biomass of the training
institutions ENDA  (15) (Senegal) and ERA-CAMEROUN (16) (Cameroon). The centres have carried
out studies and consulting services for SMEs, even
after the end of the project. BEPINET created the
basis for improved education in Brazil, Ecuador
(12) http://www.energia-africa.org
(13) International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (http://
www.2ie-edu.org).
(14) Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique (http://www.polytechcm.org).
(15) http://www.enda.sn
(16) Environnement: Recherche — Action au Cameroun (http://www.eracameroun.com).

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Box 5.2: REEPRO
Promotion of the efficient use of renewable energies in developing countries
Target countries: Cambodia, Laos
Partners:
• Cambodian Education and Waste Management
Organisation (Cambodia)
• Institute of Technology of Cambodia (Cambodia)
• National University of Laos (Laos)
• Technology Research Institute (Laos)
• Community Development and Environment
Association (Laos)
• Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie e.V.
(Germany)
• European Forum for Economic Cooperation
(Germany)
• Turku School of Economics (Finland)
• Futures Research Centre (Finland)

‘Train-the-trainers’ programme —
Courtesy of the REEPRO project, DGS

Total budget: EUR 986 410
Project duration: January 2007–December 2009
Existing bio-energy, solar thermal and photovoltaic guidebooks have been adapted and complemented
for training courses in Cambodia and Laos. Almost 1 400 experts, politicians, technicians and local
stakeholders have been trained at three different levels, using a ‘train-the-trainers’ scheme. Practical
showcases for RE use were established in various communities and, finally, RE training centres were
set up and equipped in both countries.
The activities were preceded by in-depth socio-economic studies that provided essential information
for the training modules on energy and poverty issues in the target countries, as well as by initial
surveys on the financial and economic understanding and entrepreneurial competence among the
stakeholder groups, data collection on financing options and general information collection on
the RE sector situation. The project convinces through the involvement of trained local experts in
lower level training activities, thus leading to increased independence from external inputs and the
establishment of autonomous structures for capacity-building. The pilot communities serve as good
practice examples for training after the end of the project and are expected to work further on rural
electrification with the support of the local project partners. All material developed for training was
distributed to education and training organisations in both countries and will form the basis for further
training and the development of advanced training kits. Both coordinator and team members were
quite successful in raising funds to purchase hardware, inter alia, by launching a donation campaign.

and Peru. Several training modules were produced,
and a new biomass energy master study was set
up in Ecuador. According to the BEPINET project
team, thanks to the training provided, a number
of decentralised electrification projects are operating today. The project, furthermore, established
the basis for a continuous exchange of academic
staff and students between educational institutions

in Latin America and Europe. Also, in South-East
Asia, training centres have been established and
strengthened; for instance during the REEPRO
project (Box 5.2) in Cambodia and Laos. Training
manuals on biogas, solar electricity and solar thermal energy were elaborated in local languages and
the training centres were equipped with portable
training equipment.

5. THE COOPENER LEGACY — OUTPUTS AND IMPACTS OF SELECTED PROJECTS

29

Some training activities targeted community
stakeholders directly. GOTA VERDE, a project on
biofuel production and use in Honduras, focused
on know-how transfer for appropriate crop cultivation, biofuel processing and the adaptation of diesel engines for pure plant oil use. During the course
of the project, more than 400 Honduran farmers
were advised on oil crop cultivation, and gained
first-hand experience. The REEPRO project, in
addition to other types of beneficiaries, also targeted community stakeholders in Cambodia and
Laos on different renewable energy options, setting
up functioning showcases for demonstration purposes. REEPRO especially convinced through the
involvement of trained local people in lower level
training activities (train-the-trainers concept), thus
leading to increased independence from external
inputs and the establishment of autonomous structures for capacity-building. Being active in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, RESIREA assisted in
elaborating valuable training material on different
renewable energy sources and technologies, which
may serve as replicable modules for similar activities in other regions. Training activities took place
which enhanced the local stakeholders’ knowledge
of renewable energy technologies and their decision
capacity for selecting appropriate supply constellations. Furthermore, CARAMCODEC, a project
concerned with more sustainable charcoal production in Madagascar’s Boeny region, addressed local
stakeholders. In the course of the project, six local
trainers and 418 charcoal-makers in the region
were trained in more efficient charcoal production.
Following the training, the efficiency of charcoal
making was doubled, according to a sample survey
of 10 % of the trainees. Lastly, CAREPI undertook
intense and progressive training at the local level in
Indonesia, also providing follow-up activities with
continuous on-the-job training. The project’s core
training activities focused particularly on building capacity in the regional technical teams and
the regional energy forum members in each target
region.
The MIRREIA project undertook activities in
Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, targeting the private
sector. The project team developed capacity and a
targeted dialogue on a specific set of policy, regulatory and financial risk factors of primary interest
to investors, developers and regulators advancing the agenda of creating an enabling environment for effective renewable energy investments
development.

30

5.3. Innovative approaches and tools
COOPENER projects have developed and implemented innovative approaches and methodologies to rural energy planning, either new or with
features of innovation in the local context. This
includes energy analysis/planning tools, GIS planning tools, practical handbooks, and the application of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) methods
applied to energy for development interventions.
Innovative planning approaches, such as the
involvement of non-energy actors (e.g. from agriculture, health and education) in energy-related
activities, or the integration of socio-economic
factors in energy planning, have led to an
improved quality of decisions, as well as a more
participatory decision-making process. In general, local ownership-building was a primary goal
during the implementation of innovative tools
and approaches, with differing degrees of success.
Some COOPENER projects have developed
and implemented tools for energy planning.
CRECER CON ENERGIA developed a tool for
decentralised electrification, which was shared
among different actors, particularly at decisionmaking level, to allow for planning based on
verifiable factors and assumptions. The project
further elaborated guidelines for the monitoring
and evaluation of energy projects, which should
facilitate assessing the feasibility and operation of
rural energy services. Similarly, DOSBE engaged
in developing guidelines and tools in order to
improve critical aspects in the operation and
management of rural electrification projects using
renewable energy. The tools have been distributed
to over 30 key players.
A number of projects worked with GIS planning tools. In Cambodia and Laos, for instance,
CAP-REDEO enabled the delivery of a GIS tool
dedicated to rural electrification planning. Target groups were trained and software installed
for use beyond the project duration. In subSaharan Africa, MEPRED transferred an existing GIS-based software tool for rural electrification planning to institutions in target countries.
IMPROVES-RE developed and implemented an
innovative and improved GIS-based tool for rural
electrification planning, also incorporating socioeconomic factors in GIS.

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Box 5.3: GOTA VERDE
Promotion of Small-scale Biofuel Production and Use in Honduras
Target country: Honduras
Partners:
• Honduran Foundation for Agricultural Investigation
(Honduras)
• National Institute for Professional Training
(Honduras)
• Foundation for Rural Enterprise Development
(Honduras)
• Stichting STRO (Netherlands)
• Fact Foundation (Netherlands)
Food and energy: small-scale plantations
• Humanistisch Instituut voor ontwikkelings
of Jatropha intercropping with corn — Courtesy
Samenwerking (Netherlands)
of STRO
• Dajolka (Denmark)
• Ageratec (Sweden)
• Institute for European Environmental Policy, London (United Kingdom)
Total budget: EUR 1 158 002
Project duration: January 2007–December 2009
An integrated regional economic development approach has been developed and tested based on the
promotion of small-scale production and local use of biofuels from oil crops. The project focused on
know-how transfer for appropriate crop cultivation, biofuel processing and the adaptation of diesel
engines for pure plant oil use. The project set up a local manufacturing and processing plant and
established a new enterprise for its operation.
More than 400 farmers were advised and got involved in the seeding and planting of oil crops on
600 ha, partly using credits for such purposes provided and administrated by one of the local partners.
The project gained valuable information on planting of Jatropha within country-specific conditions
and raised interest among small famers to look at biofuels as an additional source of income. It further
provided the opportunity to process oil crops with low-tech self-manufactured equipment producing
raw plant oil. About 50 % of the farmers now participate as shareholders in an enterprise for the
production and marketing of biofuels. As a new perspective, the use of pure plant oil for vehicles and
stationary engines has been introduced, which may offer new employment and business opportunities
in modifying existing diesel motors. A Dutch NGO has approved a two-year budget for the further
development of the new Regional Biofuels Centre, operated by one of the local partners in order
to disseminate the project experience. Results from the project recorded in a Jatropha handbook,
published in Spanish by one of the European partners, will serve as guidelines for similar approaches in
other countries.

DEA promoted the application of a common
monitoring and evaluation methodology in
sub-Saharan Africa, in coordination with another
international development cooperation initiative, the M&EED (Monitoring and Evaluation for
Energy and Development) International Working

Group  (17). DEA endorsed the importance of
implementing an appropriate M&E function,
which contributes to better energy planning and
to policy formulation for poverty alleviation
interventions. The M&E methodology adopted
(17) Initiated in 2003 by the Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP)
International (http://www.gvepinternational.org).

5. THE COOPENER LEGACY — OUTPUTS AND IMPACTS OF SELECTED PROJECTS

31

from the M&EED International Working Group
was successfully tested in six case studies, developed by the six partnering African energy centres,
and thus strengthened their capacity and ownership of the approach. In this context, DEA
improved the M&E capacity of its African partners and contributed to raising the attention of
both donors and national government officials to
the strategic value of appropriate M&E systems as
well as the importance of their institutionalisation
by national authorities.
Concerned with energy efficient charcoal production in Madagascar’s Boeny region, the CARAMCODEC project employed an innovative planning approach by involving non-energy actors
(in this case, actors from the forestry sector) in
energy-related actions. Working at local and
national levels, the objectives of CARAMCODEC
were to integrate concerns about wood energy and
urban charcoal supply in the ongoing reform of
the forest management system in Madagascar. The
multi-sectoral approach is also innovative, bringing together actors from energy and non-energy
sectors (for more information, see Section 5.6).
Some approaches were innovative in the sense
that they integrated socio-economic factors in
energy planning, for instance IMPROVES-RE in
sub-Saharan Africa, which included the impacts
on health, education and the local economy.
Being an alternative to conventional methods,
the methodology developed by the project was
adopted in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mali and
Niger.

different levels in policy and planning processes, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of energy information and planning tools,
as well as the development of specific policy and
planning proposals, led to policy changes and the
integration of energy in development strategies
and, in some cases, also had an impact on regional
strategies. It further provided the basis for investment interests by the private sector and financing
institutions.
Building on training and capacity-building activities, project teams were at times able to institutionalise knowledge transfer, and create new institutions or extend existing ones. While several
activities have been recorded, the effectiveness of
capacity-development actions in bringing about
the desired institutional change has been more
difficult to assess definitively. A better internal
monitoring system would have been desirable in order to provide detailed information on
the extent to which institutional strengthening
was supportive in creating new administrative
structures, responsibilities, etc.
Concrete examples of policy impacts and
institutional development are now presented.

5.4. Policy impact and institutional
development

CAREPI supported the establishment of a new
institutional framework for energy planning at a
sub-national level, in line with the Indonesian
national government’s policy for the devolution
of functions to local administrations. The human
capacity of the newly formed regional energy
forums in four target provinces was developed
and strengthened. RESIREA supported the inventory and assessment of renewable energy sources
at provincial level and assisted in assessing and
documenting the energy demand situation, based
on geographical and social data. The project further developed electrification schemes for a total
of 83 villages, including business models for supply options. Similar activities, containing energy
needs assessments and policy reviews, were executed within CRECER CON ENERGIA, providing a good overview on country-specific policies and forming an excellent database for future
concrete supply projects.

While on the whole, the policy component was
less present in the COOPENER programme than
capacity-building and training activities, several
projects were able to support governments at

Several projects had a policy impact at the national
level. MEPRED, for example, on the basis of gathered and analysed information on rural energy
in the target countries, helped governments to

A promising innovative management approach
was pursued by GOTA VERDE in Honduras
(Box  5.3). Jatropha farmers were engaged as
shareholders of an enterprise for the production
and marketing of biofuels. More than 400 farmers were advised and got involved in cultivating
oil crops on 600  ha. About 50  % of the farmers
involved in the project are now participating as
shareholders in the enterprise.

32

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Box 5.4: TIE-ENERGIA
A network-led empowering capacity-building approach for lasting commitment
Target countries: Kenya, Senegal
Partners:
• ITDG-EA (Kenya)
• ENDA-TM (Senegal)
• ETC Foundation (Netherlands)
• Eco Ltd (United Kingdom)
Total budget: EUR 609 800
Project duration: January 2005–June 2007
The project realised a broad capacity-building action
on the gender dimension of sustainable energy
Women preparing clay for the production
intervention. Through a network of mostly local
of ceramic inserts for improved cooking stoves,
institutions (ENERGIA Network members), it offered
Senegal — Courtesy of ENERGIA
‘train-the-trainers’ modules to 40 professionals, who
in turn reached 262 energy, gender and development
practitioners, including planners, policymakers and project developers from 12 African countries. Deeper
gender analysis in Botswana, Kenya and Senegal, allowed the completion of national energy policy
gender audits. Post-training monitoring and assistance followed, building significant local ownership and
commitment.
The noteworthy strength was the empowering approach to capacity development, which addressed
a typical weakness of training programmes: weak follow-up. By incorporating mechanisms for followup in the training activities, the active participation of trainees was stimulated, notably through the
formulation and subsequent commitment to the execution of ‘action plans’ for engendering energy
policy and action. The post-training activities, which included a mix of follow-up meetings, monitoring and
mentoring, were thus focused on facilitating the realisation of the ‘action plans’. The impact is evident
from many examples of resulting action, including further training commitments, policy development,
and the creation of gender desks in some of the national bodies engaged. For example, Botswana’s
commitment was articulated in its position paper presented to the 15th UN Commission on Sustainable
Development (May 2007); in Kenya, the Ministry of Energy staffed two gender experts who reviewed the
rural electrification master plan; and in Nigeria, two ministries organised high-level staff training.

integrate energy in development strategies. This
had an impact on national and regional strategies,
especially in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Multisectoral energy committees were formed, such as
the inter-ministerial energy committee in Niger.
Within the TIE-ENERGIA project (Box 5.4), the
energy policy frameworks of Botswana, Kenya
and Senegal have been reviewed to identify the
gender-energy-poverty dimension gaps and draft
recommendations. Relevant institutions have, in
some instances, internalised these recommendations: for example, the government of Botswana’s
position paper delivered at the 15th session of the

UN Commission on Sustainable Development
(CSD) in May 2007. Furthermore, the monitoring and evaluation methodology developed and
tested by the DEA project team (Section  5.3)
spread to policymakers of over 16 African countries. Within DOSBE, a basic study about legislation, regulation and practical examples with
regard to rural electrification in both target countries was developed and could serve as a valuable
reference for future supply projects. DOSBE also
assisted in drafting a decree for rural electrification with renewable energies in Peru and in
establishing the Ecuadorian Association for

5. THE COOPENER LEGACY — OUTPUTS AND IMPACTS OF SELECTED PROJECTS

33

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (18). Due
to circumstances beyond the projects’ influence,
the efforts on impacting policy did not always
deliver fully. In the case of CARAMCODEC, for
instance, policy inputs and related technical assistance have been well received by stakeholders, but
have had limited impact so far due to a difficult
political environment. The draft policy and strategy documents would be useful in a potentially
more conducive policy environment in the future.
Concerning regional policy impacts, the
COOPENER project ENABLE contributed, in
cooperation with the UNDP and SIDA (the
Swedish International Development Cooperation
Agency), to the formulation of a Regional energy
strategy for the Energy Commission of the East
African Community (19), in order to push forward
the development of the Energy Commission’s
strategy on scaling-up access to modern energy
services in East Africa. MEPRED also had an
impact at a regional level, influencing the White
Paper of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on energy access, and stimulating ECOWAS’ decision to create the Regional
Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy
Efficiency (ECREEE). ECREEE has now been
established: the official inauguration of the
centre’s secretariat took place in July 2010 (20).

5.5. Sustainability of project activities
Projects have, by nature, limited budgets and time
frames. Sustainability is thus highly dependent on
whether the processes, knowledge, capacity and
tools created through the COOPENER projects
are sufficiently rooted in, and used by, the different target institutions and groups in the years after
the end of the project. Other factors are the target
institutions’ own human and financial resources,
and whether the activities are relevant enough
to continue to attract outside financial support
from public or private sources. Several projects
reviewed were able to build mechanisms for the
sustainability of results through the planning of
follow-ups and the associated cooperation negotiations. This attentive and strategic planning was
a particularly positive finding.
(18) Asociación Ecuatoriana de Energías Renovables y Eficiency Energética
(AEEREE).
(19) Members are Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda (http://www.
eac.int/energy).
(20) More information is available online (http://www.ecreee.org/).

34

Different types of follow-up actions could be
identified. First of all, training activities continuing in the target countries, for instance by
project coordinators and partners. Also, longterm impacts could be achieved by training trainers and by supporting training institutions. As an
example, the local trainers educated by CARAMCODEC (Box 5.5) in Madagascar’s Boeny region
are able, and expected to, continue their training
activities on more efficient charcoal production.
GIS-based training activities on energy planning in Burkina Faso, initiated by MEPRED, will
be continued through support from the Danish
International Development Agency (DANIDA).
The main follow-up of BEPITA in West Africa is
the continued training and R & D activities at the
two training platforms on biomass established by
the project, as well as the continued networking
in the Biomass Energy Training Network (also
set up by the project). Educational facilities and
other institutions have benefited from the related
BEPINET project in Latin America. Training
sessions and modules have provided a relevant
basis for further capacity-building activities. The
PROVEN project was designed within the framework of existing field activities of the two European partners (the French Foundation ‘Energies
pour le Monde’ and the Dutch ‘Free Energy Foundation’). Their commitment to renewable energybased training and capacity-building has continued beyond the project. Finally, two training
centres are operational in Cambodia and Laos,
equipped with training manuals on renewable
energy sources developed within the course of the
REEPRO project.
Various methodologies, acquired knowledge
and tools on energy resources analysis and energy
planning, developed through the projects, are
in use by governments, technology centres and
training institutions. The planning methodology
integrating socio-economic impacts developed by
IMPROVES-RE, for instance, has been adopted
by the Ministry of Energy and the Rural Electrification Fund (FDE) in Burkina Faso, and has
been used in all regions of the country. The FDE
now uses this methodology in the selection of
rural electrification projects. Within ENEFIBIO,
a handbook on bio-energy project cycle management for SMEs was published: it is available on the
Internet and distributed free of charge from the
two bio-energy centres in Cameroon and Senegal
created by the project. Since the two organisations

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Box 5.5: CARAMCODEC
Improving the sustainability of community practices while stimulating policy change
Target country: Madagascar
Partners:
• Association Participation à la Gestion de
l’Environnement (PARTAGE) (Madagascar)
• Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au
Développement Rural (FOFIFA) (Madagascar)
• French Agricultural Research Centre for
International Development (CIRAD) (France)
• Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques
(Belgium)
Total budget: EUR 830 000
Project duration: January 2007–May 2009

‘Filiere Charbon’ — drawing by Rodolphe
Philippe Randriamanantsoa (Roddy)

CARAMCODEC, focused on Madagascar’s Boeny
region, increased the capacity of small businesses and helped implement the decentralised
forestry control system, which resulted in more sustainable forest management. This led to a
doubling in the efficiency of charcoal-making. The project developed a handbook on improved
charcoal-making, which has been used at local level training. Finally, the project provided policy
inputs and related technical assistance at national and regional level.
CARAMCODEC aimed to integrate concerns about wood energy and urban charcoal supply
in the ongoing reform of the forest management system in Madagascar. The support to
small businesses promoted new and much more efficient methods for charcoal production,
and successfully facilitated the implementation of the government’s decentralised forest
management policy in the Boeny region. Apart from local level efforts, the project provided
active policy inputs and communication at national level. The CARAMCODEC approach
demonstrates the important potential for integrating energy in other sectors (in this case,
forestry), and how local level action can be communicated to, and have an impact on, national
policies. It also demonstrates the importance of cooperation among partners, which will
continue to be present and active in the country after completion of the project, and thus
be able to sustain the outputs and impacts over time. This includes the continued use of the
charcoal production handbook, developed by the project.

hosting the bio-energy centres are well established and have been operating for many years, it
is likely that the handbook will be used and will
have an impact on the future bio-energy development of Cameroon and Senegal. In Madagascar,
the GIZ uses both the concept and methodologies
developed by CARAMCODEC. Energy information systems (EIS) established in Niger, Senegal
and Togo during the SIE-Afrique Phase II project
(Section 5.1) continue to be operational on the
basis of support from the governments, and will
expand their scope through a follow-up project

in other countries in West and Central Africa.
The participating countries produce annual EIS
reports, provide energy data and statistics to various stakeholders, and pass energy statistics on to
the IEA. Lastly, guidelines for the monitoring and
evaluation of energy projects developed within
CRECER CON ENERGIA have been adopted by
ministers in Bolivia and Paraguay.
Several project coordinators continue their
COOPENER-supported activities in the target
countries, as well as in other countries. In sub-

5. THE COOPENER LEGACY — OUTPUTS AND IMPACTS OF SELECTED PROJECTS

35

Saharan Africa, project coordinators of the
following projects are continuing previously
COOPENER-supported activities: CARAMCODEC, MEPRED, IMPROVES-RE, RIAED and
PROVEN. Also, DEA project partners continue to
be active in the field, particularly in the CEMA
project (http://www.cemafrica.net) being carried
out in collaboration with the EU Energy Initiative
for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development (EUEI), in support of the Africa EU Energy
Partnership (AEEP), and funded by the Directorate-General for Development and Cooperation’s
ENRTP programme  (21). The ETC foundation,
TIE-ENERGIA coordinator, has triggered the
launch of a follow-up initiative with funding from
Dutch and Swedish cooperation agencies. The
Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie
(OIF) project coordinator of SIE-Afrique Phase II,
has supported Energy Information System activities in other countries, for example Cameroon.
Also, OIF is financing a project (TIPEE) which
will develop energy indicators related to climate
change in two of the SIE countries (Cameroon
and Togo). In South-East Asia, CAREPI’s synergy
with the Dutch Embassy programme on renewable energy has been influential, bringing about
the implementation of CASINDO  (22), a subsequent project launched in June 2009 that follows
up and expands on CAREPI’s work. The BEPINET
coordinator maintained contact with the partners
after the end of the project, staged new activities
with his Latin American partners and received
requests for extensions to other countries.
Activities carried out in the framework of
COOPENER-funded actions have triggered follow-ups by international cooperation initiatives. Other EC programmes have facilitated an
important number of follow-up initiatives. The
first ACP-EU Energy Facility particularly supports COOPENER-initiated activities in subSaharan Africa: rural electrification in Cameroon
and Madagascar, based on the IMPROVES-RE
and PEPSE projects; biomass energy for rural
electrification in Madagascar (building on
CARAMCODEC), academic training in Burkina
Faso (BEPITA), Energy Information Systems in
the West African Economic and Monetary Union
(21) ENRTP, the thematic programme for Environment and Sustainable
Management of Natural Resources including Energy, managed by the
Directorate-General for Development and Cooperation, supports developing
countries and partner organisations with addressing environmental and
natural resource management issues.
(22) Capacity development and strengthening for energy policy formulation
(http://www.casindo.info).

36

UEMOA (Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, GuineaBissau and Mali) (SIE-Afrique Phase  II), and
energy access in Niger (following MEPRED).
Some options for submitting follow-up projects
to the Energy Facility were lost due to a lack of
resources after the termination of COOPENER
projects, and some proposals were unsuccessful.
A number of proposals have been submitted also
to the Energy Facility II, launched in November
2009. Further EC support includes the EUEI’s
Partnership Development Facility (EUEI-PDF),
which has supported the continuation of the
multi-sectoral group on rural electrification planning in Cameroon established by IMPROVES-RE.
A previously mentioned, DEA has continued
with the help of the EC, in collaboration with the
EUEI, and funded by the ENRTP programme (23).
National bodies in EU Member States such as
national development and energy agencies, and
European NGOs have also ensured COOPENER
follow-ups:

DANIDA supported follow-up actions of two
projects in Burkina Faso: the implementation
of rural electrification plans (IMPROVESRE) and training in rural energy planning
(MEPRED);

the Dutch-German programme ‘Energising
Development’ finances two pilot projects in
Senegal (following MEPRED);

ADEME supports a renewable energy handbook based on the multi-sectoral approach
(MEPRED);

ADEME and the Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) support a continuation of the
web portal for francophone energy experts
(RIAED);

the funding by the Dutch cooperation
brought about the implementation of the
CASINDO project, which follows up and
extends the work by CAREPI (funded by the
Dutch Embassy) (Box 5.7);

the Energy Ministry of Cambodia in collaboration with the coordinator has requested,
and obtained, financial support from the

(23) ENRTP — the thematic programme for Environment and Sustainable
Management of Natural Resources including Energy.

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Photo by Fondation Énergies pour le Monde/R. Delacloche — Courtesy of the PROVEN project

French Government in order to strengthen
the country’s capacity-building in rural electrification planning developed within CAPREDEO;

the ECOWAS Energy Centre (ECREEE) is
now supported by Spain, France and Austria
(MEPRED played a role in the creation of the
centre);
the Dutch NGO Cordaid (Catholic Organisation for Relief and Development) approved
a two-year budget for further development
and the setting up of the biofuels centre
established during the GOTA VERDE project.

Lastly, International Organisations continue
COOPENER-initiated activities. Among others,
following CRECER CON ENERGIA, a Bolivian
electrification project will be supported by the
UNDP/GEF and UNIDO. Through the MEPRED
partner UNDP, the East African Community
(EAC) and the Economic Community of Central
African States (CEMAC) have been supported in
drafting White Papers on regional energy access,
based on the ECOWAS experience.

5.6. Synergies created by the projects
Several projects provide evidence of having
stimulated mutually benefiting collaboration and
dialogue among different types of stakeholders
sometimes not used to working together or not
having sufficient professional interaction before
the project.
Some projects employed a multi-sectoral
approach, bringing together energy sector actors
with actors from non-energy sectors, where contacts had until then been limited. Non-energy
actors were involved in energy data collection and
energy planning, and participated in multi-sectoral
committees, involving representatives from governments, the private sector (including SMEs)
and the financing sector. This led, for example, to
more transparency and higher quality in energy
planning and project development, and created
a cross-sectoral dialogue with the agriculture,
health, education and financing sectors, which is
important for further policy development. Such
improved multi-stakeholder network-building
and its associated policy dialogue is instrumental
in building the foundations of an ‘enabling policy

5. THE COOPENER LEGACY — OUTPUTS AND IMPACTS OF SELECTED PROJECTS

37

framework’ to expand the market of decentralised rural energy systems. MEPRED is a good example demonstrating the importance of a multisectoral approach, which led to policy change
and increased investment (Box  5.6). ENABLE
brought together decision-makers from different government levels (central and district) and
sectors (energy, health, education and water) to
realise the significance of cross-sector planning
and the benefits of decentralisation to the district
level of specific energy infrastructure development planning. The cross-sectoral approach taken
by CRECER CON ENERGIA that included, inter
alia, entrepreneurs, end-users, local administrations and financing institutions, has improved
networking among different players relevant to
the setting up of successful and sustainable energy
supply activities.
Knowledge exchange and cooperation among
public institutions made it possible to complement each other and, in this way, share limited
resources. Next to ENABLE (see previous paragraph), PROVEN played a catalytic role in convening central level authorities on rural electrification (ministries and national agencies) in the
West African target countries with the rural commune councils, which are not used to working
together. CAP-REDEO played an active role in
bringing together the energy ministries in Cambodia and Laos with provincial authorities: this
led to a better understanding of rural electricity
needs at central government level.
Positive impacts were achieved by bringing
together different types of stakeholders. As an
example, the training, promotion and capacitybuilding work of PACEAA has generated positive
interactions among regulatory and rural electrification agencies, agri-businesses and their industry associations, and civil society groups, for the
joint planning of rural electrification and poverty
alleviation. Within the scope of MIRREIA, an
investor forum brought together six investors and
10 project developers to improve the common
understanding of the existing investor expectation
for starting a due diligence process of a renewable
energy investment initiative. In addition, a policy
forum allowed exchange among policymakers,
private sector stakeholders, as well as bilateral and
multilateral donors.

While the exchange between target countries
within the same projects was not always high,
a few projects managed to create cross-border
contacts. For instance, regional seminars and
workshops were organised which, in some cases,
mobilised interest and led to follow-up projects at
national and regional levels. An example of successful linking up is BEPITA, which created synergies between bio-energy programmes at 16 universities in West Africa, leading to an upgrade of
their educational programmes. BEPINET focused
specifically on south-south cooperation among
Latin American countries and between Africa
and Latin America with the target of creating an
international biomass network.
Most of the COOPENER projects reviewed managed to develop and enhance synergies between
other ongoing initiatives at national or international levels, thus enhancing their profile of
sustainable energy actions for poverty alleviation.
In many cases, other donor institutions and initiatives were invited to conferences, workshops
and seminars, thus informing those representatives about project results. In some cases, synergies between other initiatives were a central
part of the project. PACEAA, for instance, was
planned from the outset to contribute to a UNEP
infrastructural investment project on small hydro
plants for rural tea industries. The joint design,
training and facilitation work under PACEAA
added value to the UNEP-launched Greening the
Tea Industry in East Africa (GTIEA) work plan
in terms of enhancing the potential for rural electrification components to be added to the infrastructural investments under GTIEA. However,
although synergies were brought about among
projects with converging objectives, the experience of PACEAA also demonstrated how cooperation between projects dependent on different
donors can become a source of extra management
costs and bureaucratic challenges. Concentrating on improving the planning and operation of
rural electricity supply initiatives using renewable
energy resources, DOSBE directly took note of
ongoing rural electrification projects and assisted
in improving their management and operation.
Among others, DOSBE contributed to revising
the management model of the Euro-Solar programme in Ecuador  (24). Lastly, MEPRED
created synergies between the UNDP in the
(24) http://www.programaeuro-solar.eu

38

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Box 5.6: MEPRED
Making change: addressing energy as a multi-sectoral issue
Target countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Senegal
Partners:
• Direction général de l’énergie (Burkina Faso)
• ENDA (Mali)
• Mali Folkecenter (Mali)
• Ministre des Mines et de l’Energie (Niger)
• Direction de l’énergie (Senegal)
• ECOWAS (regional)
• Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de
l’Energie, ADEME (France)
• DANIDA (Denmark)
• GTZ (Germany)
• NL Agency (Netherlands)

Woman using a multifunctional platform —
Courtesy of the MEPRED project

Total budget: EUR 2 227 000
Project duration: April 2005–March 2008
MEPRED focused on Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal, as well as ECOWAS at the regional level.
The project helped by integrating energy and poverty issues into national and local policies/action
plans, collecting and analysing data on rural energy, contributing to institution-building, identifying
investment opportunities and contributing to regional policies and strategies. The project was
successful in delivering important outputs that also led to immediate follow-up action after completion
of the project.
MEPRED applied a multi-sectoral approach to energy and development issues, by bringing together
energy sector representatives with representatives from agriculture, education, health, finance and
policy, both at national and regional levels. With this approach, the project facilitated the collection
and analysis of information on rural energy in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal, and supported
the development of financial models for energy service delivery. In this way, MEPRED facilitated policy
changes and helped raise substantial additional funds for rural energy activities. At the regional level,
the project supported the work on the ECOWAS White Paper on Energy Access, and the establishment of
the ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE). The project demonstrates
the important potential of addressing energy and development issues in a multi-sectoral context, which
led to important policy changes and increased investment. It also shows how a strong involvement of
EU Member States and African governments can contribute significantly to sustainability.

context of regional energy strategies for the Economic
Community of Central African States (CEMAC) and
the East African Community (EAC).
Evidence of synergies between the COOPENER
projects has been reported in some cases, where
projects were carried out in the same region and
with similar objectives. MEPRED, for instance,
reported on synergies between IMPROVES-RE,
SIE-Afrique Phase  II and RIAED. Also, being

managed by the same project coordinator
(CIRAD), information exchanges took place
between BEPITA and BEPINET, which both
worked on biomass energy platforms. In SouthEast Asia, the REEPRO, RESIREA and CAPREDEO projects established contacts, with the
consequence that local partners of different
projects planned to further collaborate after the
end of their respective projects.

5. THE COOPENER LEGACY — OUTPUTS AND IMPACTS OF SELECTED PROJECTS

39

Training seminar — Courtesy of the MICROGRIDS project

Contractors meetings were organised by the
EACI in order to strengthen synergies among the
COOPENER projects: the first contractors’ meeting took place in Brussels, in December 2005 (25)
and the second in Berlin, in March 2007 (26), with
the aim to create a COOPENER ‘community’
and discuss project outcomes and criteria for
monitoring the COOPENER actions.

At the first COOPENER contractors’ meeting held in Brussels, representatives of consortia responsible for implementing projects
in sub-Saharan countries of Africa were
invited: finally, 34 participants representing
15 COOPENER projects attended this meeting,
with the participation of seven African partners from seven different countries (Burkina
Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Madagascar, Niger,
South Africa and Tanzania), including the participation of the Director of Ministry of Mines
and Energy of Madagascar), and of the Director of the Ministry of Water and Energy in
Cameroon.

(25) COOPENER contractors’ meeting ‘Contribution of COOPENER projects
to poverty alleviation in developing countries’, Brussels, 6 and 7  December
2005.
(26) COOPENER contractors’ meeting ‘Energy services for poverty alleviation
in developing countries’, Berlin, 6 and 7 March 2007 (only for projects in subSaharan Africa).

40

The second COOPENER contractors’ meeting took place in Berlin in conjunction with
the ‘Africa-Europe Energy Forum Berlin
2007 — Towards an Africa-Europe Energy
Partnership’, hosted by the German Federal
Ministry for Economic Cooperation and
Development and the European Commission under the German EU Presidency 2007.
The meeting covered 24 projects and gathered 86  participants, including 42 project
members from 14 African countries; it was
successful in improving the communication
between COOPENER projects; it allowed the
sharing of ideas, knowledge, information and
experience on energy-poverty links in different countries, and provided a better understanding of barriers encountered, and success
stories overcoming them.

Involving European Commission delegations
in projects is important, since their information and engagement can be decisive, for example for further funding and the selection of key
support areas. All of the relevant EC delegations
were informed through the Commission’s Directorate-General for Development and Cooperation
about the start-up of COOPENER projects in

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

their country or region of responsibility. However, in the COOPENER actions reviewed, the EC
delegations were actively involved in only a few
cases. IMPROVES-RE and SIE-Afrique Phase  II
reported on the participation of EC delegations in
a few seminars and workshops, and BEPITA mentioned regular meetings with the EC delegations
in Burkina Faso and Cameroon. In Latin America, within CRECER CON ENERGIA, the EC
delegations of Bolivia and Paraguay were invited
and attended district as well as national and
regional workshops. Furthermore, an EC delegation participated in a workshop in Ecuador
(invited by DOSBE). While for the COOPENER
programme, the involvement of delegations was
still rather low, the scenario is changing today, as
pioneering ‘soft’ programmes like COOPENER
have been followed by programmes such as the
EC-ACP Energy Facility, and the inclusion of
energy as a sector of cooperation in a number of
additional ACP countries under the 10th EDF.
As a result, some EC delegations are acquiring
more specific know-how and capacity to address
sustainable energy issues.

in Madagascar. Nine decentralised rural electrification (DRE) programmes were elaborated by
the project, one for each region in the two target
provinces in South Madagascar. The project facilitated the presentation of the DRE programmes to
investors, development actors and funding agencies, which led to the funding of a few specific
renewable energy projects. RESIREA established
a green electricity plan for each target region,
showing the estimated investment for preselected
electricity supply options: those plans were considered to be put forward to possible investors
and donor facilities.
Matching the RES market development
approach to institutional context on the design
of RES rural electrification initiatives, PROVEN
makes a case for the explicit choice between the
energy service market approach versus the energy
product market approach, depending on: (a) the
local institutional and regulatory context; and (b)
the maturity of the local market infrastructure.
A set of appropriate recommendations targeted
at stakeholders and market actors was prepared,
some common to both energy service/energy
product models and some specific to each model.

5.7. Fostering investment
The lack of bankable projects is seen as a major
obstacle by many investors and financers, for
example. A number of COOPENER projects have
addressed this issue by employing an investmentoriented focus.
MIRREIA has deepened the understanding of
project bankability, providing clear evidence
from key informants that one of the main barriers for RES investment projects is not, as generally assumed, access to finance per se, but rather
the lack of specific skills and ‘project development’ funding commitments of developers necessary to grow a potentially good project into a
‘bankable’ one. A key methodological output has
been the production of country-specific Guidelines on project development and risk mitigation,
well received by local public and private sector
stakeholders, providing an overview of issues, as
well as a guide with practical steps for business
planning and for the implementation of policy,
regulatory and financial risk mitigation solutions.
PEPSE has involved the private sector and potential investors, and facilitated the identification and
development of proposals for ‘bankable projects’

PACEAA has highlighted public and private
partnership opportunities, the approach leveraged on the execution of agro-industry energy
infrastructure investments (through the GTIEA
initiative, see Section  5.6) to find convergence
with the rural communities’ electrification needs.
The resulting work on defining appropriate business models which engage public and private
actors has collected evidence that supports the
definition of the rural electrification challenge as
a ‘social investment’, which requires public policy
support as well as the availability of private sector
player participation.
CRECER CON ENERGIA had a strong focus on
financing and entrepreneurial aspects by seeking ways to include micro-financing options for
the realisation of decentralised electrification.
Guidelines for micro-financing and the establishment of micro-enterprises have been developed.
As a result, micro-financing institutions are better aware of opportunities for combining energy
services with income-generating activities.

5. THE COOPENER LEGACY — OUTPUTS AND IMPACTS OF SELECTED PROJECTS

41

Box 5.7: CAREPI
Joint design and execution with key stakeholders and effective multi-donor coordination
Target country: Indonesia
Partners:
• Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources
(Indonesia)
• Institute for Research and
Community Empowerment (Indonesia)
• Centre for regional Energy Management of
the University Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
(Indonesia)
• University of Mataram (Indonesia)
• University of Sumatra Utara (Indonesia)
• Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands
(Netherlands)
• GIZ (formerly GTZ), (Germany)

Meeting with local community to discuss
the development of a mini-hydro project —
Courtesy of ECN

Total budget: EUR 897 074
Project duration: January 2007–October 2009
CAREPI supported the Indonesian Government in establishing a new institutional framework
for energy planning at the regional level, addressing the national energy policy reform for
decentralisation of energy planning. The human capacity of the newly formed Regional Energy
Forum in each of four target provinces was developed and strengthened, as well as the capacity
of associated local Technical Teams. In addition, four rural communities received assistance to
develop an energy service strategy and, for one of them, a 120 MWh/year mini-hydro plant was
realised reaching 320 households and 10 micro-enterprises.
Joint design-execution: Key local stakeholders were engaged as partners (Ministry of Energy
and Universities in target provinces), assuring a project design fully in line with local demand
for policy development, and an implementation process progressively building ownership of
results (new institutions formed and trained). Largely due to the early engagement of a locally
present bilateral donor (the Dutch Embassy), also a best practice of multi-donor coordination
took place: the EC, the Dutch Embassy and the GIZ coordinated action, created synergies and
responded effectively to the Indonesian energy planning decentralisation need, resulting in:
(a) follow-up donor cooperation (CASINDO project); (b) establishment and strengthening of
local energy institutions; (c) local capacity for rural electrification projects formulation and
promotion. In 2010, MEMR published the Indonesia Energy Outlook 2009 with a section on
regional energy planning presenting CAREPI outputs, and drafted. Guidelines to provide further
clarification on Regional Energy Forum tasks and responsibilities, and its relations with the
National Energy Council.

42

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

6. Key lessons and best practices

Based on the main outcomes and impacts of the
selected COOPENER projects presented in Chapter 5, this section highlights a number of key lessons and best practices drawn from the analysed
projects, with the aim of making them available to
staff working in Commission services and Member States’ representations working within similar
programmes.
Organisations based in the EU as well as in target
countries, such as NGOs, public bodies and commercial organisations, could also make use of the
information gathered here. Similarly, any organisation involved in sustainable energy activities
in a developing country context could benefit
from the best practice examples and key outputs
delivered by the COOPENER projects.

Key lessons drawn
COOPENER projects:

from

the

analysed

COOPENER projects have demonstrated
the importance of building institutional
capacity and systematic knowledge at
the regional, national and local levels on
policies and strategies, as well as on barriers and options for improving rural energy
access. Such capacity and knowledge is crucial for building and developing the enabling
environment, which is necessary to stimulate
local energy markets and future public and
private investments. By strengthening local
institutions, the projects have contributed
to improved energy access and to economic
growth and social improvements, including

Photo by Fondation Énergies pour le Monde/R. Delacloche — Courtesy of the PROVEN project

6. KEY LESSONS AND BEST PRACTICES

43

income generation and job creation. Such
capacity-building is relevant to national and
local governments, the private sector, financing institutions, training institutions, resource
centres, NGOs and other stakeholders.

It was demonstrated that the success of
institutional strengthening actions depends
on the strength of local commitments to
sustainable energy policies. Most projects
reviewed have put more emphasis on the
strengthening of local energy expertise than
on addressing the challenge of policy development itself. However, while in general,
there still is a strong demand for capacity
development, it is important to emphasise
that its effectiveness is largely dependent
on the ability of local institutions to internalise the results of international cooperation
efforts, and this requires the commitment
of adequate financial and human resources.
Ultimately, strong local commitment to a
stable and clear sustainable energy policy
and regulatory framework is a basic requirement for the sustainability of institutional
strengthening actions.

The importance of planning for some kind
of follow-up after project completion has
been highlighted. Some of the COOPENER
projects have had a very direct and visible
follow-up, whilst for others it was more indirect and less visible, and for a few projects the
follow-up appears to have been rather weak.
The sustainability of project activities and
their continuation and/or further development/implementation is key to ensuring lasting changes on the ground. Local ownership
of results and project follow-up should be
foreseen from the beginning when designing
future initiatives for supporting sustainable
energy projects.

COOPENER projects have highlighted the
added value of bringing project teams from
different developing countries together and
of maximising the synergies between them.
While the exchanges between target countries
within the same project were not always high,
cross-border contacts have been established
in some projects: regional seminars and
workshops mobilised interest and, in some
cases, led to follow-up projects at national

Photo by Fondation Énergies pour le Monde/R. Delacloche — Courtesy of the PROVEN project

44

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

and regional levels. Bringing together actors
from different projects was also fruitful. For
instance, project teams from a number of
COOPENER projects in South-East Asia
established contacts, leading to further collaboration after the end of the respective
projects.

Some projects have demonstrated the added
value of engaging with actors from both the
energy sector and other economic sectors,
when working to improve access to modern energy supplies for poverty alleviation.
This integrative approach has led to more
transparency and higher quality in energy
planning and project development. Moreover, multi-stakeholder network-building was
shown to be instrumental in building an
enabling policy framework which helps to
expand the market for decentralised rural
energy systems.

the local EU delegations can be decisive for
further funding. In future, the concerned
EU delegations should therefore not only be
systematically informed at the start of such
projects, but they should also receive periodic
result-oriented reports for information and
possible further use.

Making payments only to EU-based organisations: the COOPENER budget line could
only be used to pay organisations based in
the EU, so all developing country partners
were paid as subcontractors. The approach
was made to work, but led to some problems.
Several project partners from sub-Saharan
Africa, Latin America and South-East Asia
felt that a spirit of equal partnership was lacking. The subcontracting was particularly difficult to implement where the local partner
was a government department or institution.
One project coordinator commented that
the combined and overlapping administrative constraints from the European public
bodies, African public bodies and the European Commission had created a rather heavy
administrative workload.

COOPENER projects have highlighted
the need for detailed guidance on project
reporting. The projects which were reviewed
have generally produced high-quality deliverables and professional technical reports.
However, the good quality deliverables were
not always matched by equally good quality
final management reports.

COOPENER projects have underlined the
importance of ensuring that project outcomes are disseminated to other actors. Different projects have produced key outcomes
with potential for further utilisation and with
multiplier effects, which are worthwhile for
dissemination. The resulting approaches,
products (e.g. handbooks, training material,
etc.) and tools are potentially useful to other
organisations and end-users in the same and/
or other countries. Therefore, it is important
that specific resources are foreseen within
the project budget and plans to ensure that
project outcomes are effectively disseminated
to other actors.

Specific lessons for designers and managers of
sustainable energy programmes:

COOPENER projects have shown that it is
important for project consortia to include
staff with experience in developing countries and with intercultural competence, as
well as staff with international experience
of energy issues. Similarly, it was very helpful
if EU-based partners in the project consortia
had a strong representation or even a permanent staff representative with local expertise
and language capacities within the target
country.
Involvement of EU delegations: the
COOPENER projects did not systematically work through the local EU delegations. The relevant EU delegations were officially informed at the beginning of each
COOPENER project but, at that time, many
delegations did not have specific in-house
energy expertise, and it was often not clear
what added value the delegations could bring
to such projects. Those projects which were
most successful in working with the relevant
EU delegations, contacted them directly and,
at the same time, arranged for a message of
support to be sent from the EC team in Brussels. Today, energy for development has a
far higher priority, and the engagement of

6. KEY LESSONS AND BEST PRACTICES

45

COOPENER projects demonstrated the
added value of using open calls for proposals, which allowed public and private bodies to apply for EU funding for cooperation
initiatives, addressing specific demand-driven
issues. This approach is complementary to EU
development (bilateral) programmes, which
are normally channelled through national
authorities.
Consortia with organisations from different
EU countries: the COOPENER requirement
related to the setting up of consortia constituted by organisations from different EU
countries highlighted the benefits of working
together in energy development cooperation.
COOPENER projects facilitated the sharing
of strategies, strengths and experiences in the
field, which was one of the objectives of the
EUEI.

Best practices developed by the COOPENER
projects are highlighted below. More details on
the concerned projects can be found in Chapter 5

and in the dedicated boxes highlighting success
stories of a number of the selected projects.

Multi-sectoral processes for energy-planning
and project development at national and
regional levels: it is particularly important for future market development to bring
together people from the energy supply side
with people from the energy demand side
in a local ‘producer-consumer dialogue’, and
to involve the private sector in discussions
on the potentials and barriers for improving energy access (e.g. the CARAMCODEC,
ENABLE, MEPRED, CRECER CON ENERGIA and IMPROVES-RE projects; see also
Section 5.6).

A ‘vertical approach’ which combines the
implementation of actions at the local
level with policy inputs and communication at the national level: the effectiveness of bottom-up initiatives at the local
level can be improved if such initiatives are
complemented by top-down programming
which is designed to increase the uptake of

Teres Genit micro-hydropower plant, Indonesia — Courtesy of the CAREPI project

46

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

successful local practices. Such vertical
approaches can be quite effective in mobilising wider support for energy and development activities and investments (e.g. the
CARAMCODEC, ENABLE, PROVEN and
CAP-REDEO projects).

Participatory approaches: some projects
involved a large number of interest groups
at an early stage with the objective of collaboratively defining opportunities and barriers for the realisation of energy projects.
Moreover, in some cases, an adaptive management approach was employed, engaging
local stakeholders and progressively building ownership, and in this manner increasing
the likelihood of a local uptake of the project
results (e.g. the ENABLE, TIE-ENERGIA,
PACEAA, CRECER CON ENERGIA and
PEPSE projects).
Innovative tools and approaches for
energy data collection, energy planning
and project implementation: COOPENER
projects implemented and, in some cases, further developed, inter alia, GIS-based energy
planning tools and databases, and practical

tools such as handbooks (e.g. the CAPREDEO,
MEPRED,
IMPROVES-RE,
CRECER CON ENERGIA, DOSBE and
ENEFIBIO projects; see also Section 5.3).

Increased availability of, and access to,
information on (sustainable) energy: the
development of web-based communication
tools and cross-border and regional networks
between energy experts and other stakeholders led to an exchange of knowledge and experience, with considerable benefits in terms
of access to information and which may
lead to more joint actions and a pooling of
resources in the future (e.g. the RIAED and
RESIREA projects; see also Section 5.1).

Improved quality and availability of statistics on energy: the problem of non-existing
or scattered information has been addressed
by introducing energy information systems,
which provide up-to-date statistics on energy
in the respective countries. Energy information systems are now active in several countries in West and Central Africa, allowing
concerned national energy departments to
gain a better understanding of the energy

Practical showcases for RES — Courtesy of the REEPRO project, DGS

6. KEY LESSONS AND BEST PRACTICES

47

sector and supporting them in the elaboration
and monitoring of more coherent and structured national energy policies (SIE-Afrique
Phase II; see also Section 5.1).

48

Implementation-oriented focus: the lack of
‘bankable’ projects is often seen as a major
obstacle to improving rural energy access.
This was addressed by COOPENER projects
with an implementation-oriented focus.

Projects have deepened the understanding of
‘project bankability’ and, involving the private
sector and potential investors, facilitated the
identification and development of proposals
for ‘bankable’ projects. Also, public and private partnership opportunities were highlighted, as well as micro-financing options for
the realisation of decentralised electrification.
(e.g. the MIRREIA and PEPSE projects; see
also Section 5.7).

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

7. Conclusions

This assessment of COOPENER projects, organised by the EACI over the period October 2010–
June 2011 and after the completion of the last
COOPENER action, provides a good overview of
the impacts and outputs from the projects as well
as a valuable compilation of lessons learned and
best practices.
COOPENER has provided a rather unique and
pioneering experience in terms of international
cooperation on sustainable development, with
innovative features concerning the design, size
and setting up of project teams from different
countries and different skills and experiences.
COOPENER projects led to important changes
on energy sustainability in the target countries,
and have already helped to shape other sustainable energy programmes, such as the first ACPEU Energy Facility as regards focus, priority areas
and funding rules.

The lessons learned will be directly relevant to
those actors — the staff of EU and national organisations, NGOs, public bodies and commercial
organisations in EU and developing countries,
who are working with similar programmes.
Similarly, the best practices identified amongst the
activities carried out within these COOPENER
projects will be of interest to these same actors as
well as to those organisations which are responsible for carrying out similar projects in the future:
it may be possible for them to replicate these best
practices as part of their own work.

Design: Claire Laffargue — Courtesy of the PROVEN project

7. CONCLUSIONS

49

Acronyms and abbreviations

ACP
ADEME
ADER
AEEP
CEMA
CEMAC
DGS
CIRAD
EAC
EACI
EC
ECOWAS
ECREEE
EDF
EIS
ENRTP

African, Caribbean and Pacific States
L’Agence de l’environnement et de la maîtrise de l’énergie
Agency for Rural Electrification (Madagascar)
Africa-EU Energy Partnership
Conference of Energy Ministers of Africa
Economic Community of Central African States
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie e.V.
Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement
East African Community
Executive Agency for Competitiveness & Innovation
European Commission
Economic Community of West African States
ECOWAS Regional Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency
European Development Fund
Energy Information System
Thematic programme for the Environment and Sustainable Management of Natural
Resources including Energy
EU
European Union
EUEI
EU Energy Initiative for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development
EUEI-PDF EUEI Partnership Dialogue Facility
FEMA
Forum of Energy Ministers of Africa
GEEREF
Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
GEF
Global Environment Facility
GIS
Geographic information system
GIZ
German Agency for International Cooperation (formerly GTZ)
GNESD
Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development
GTIEA
Greening the Tea Industry in East Africa project
GVEP
Global Village Energy Partnership
IEA
International Energy Agency
IEE
Intelligent Energy Europe
JREC
Johannesburg Renewable Energy Coalition
LA
Latin America
MDG
Millennium Development Goal
M&E
Monitoring and Evaluation
M&EED
Monitoring and Evaluation in Energy for Development
NGO
Non-governmental organisation
RECP
Africa-EU Renewable Energy Cooperation programme
REEEP
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership
RES
Renewable Energy Sources
SEA
South-East Asia
SIDA
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
SMEs
small and medium-sized enterprises
SSA
Sub-Saharan Africa
UEMOA
West African Economic and Monetary Union
UN
United Nations
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme
UNIDO
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
WSSD
World Summit on Sustainable Development
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

51

ANNEXES

ANNEXES

53

Annex 1: Distribution per call and per region
for different steps of the evaluation process

The following tables will provide information on the number of
proposals:

per call: 2003, 2004 and 2005;

per region: sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Latin America (LA)
and South-East Asia (SEA); and

per step of the evaluation process: proposals submitted;
eligible proposals evaluated; proposals recommended by the
evaluation committee and contracted projects.

(a) Summary table
Proposals

2003

2004

2005

SSA

SSA

LA

SSA

LA

SEA

Submitted

31

20

8

14

18

9

Total submitted

31

Evaluated

29

Total evaluated

29

Recommended

15

Total recommended

15

Contracted

14

Total contracted

14

28

Total

41

18

7

13

25

17

100
9

39

9

5

6

14

4

4

5

9

3

6
5

13

The chart shows the number of proposals/projects per region and
per step of the evaluation process.
SSA

60
50
40
30

SSA

LA

SSA

20
SEA

10

LA

SEA

LA

SEA

0
Submitted
proposals

Recommended
proposals

Projects

SSA

65

30

24

LA

26

9

7

SEA

9

6

5

54

45
45

(b) Regional distribution in steps of the evaluation process

70

93
93

16

5

100

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

36
36

(c) Success rate per region
This table shows the success rate submitted versus recommended
proposals per region.
Area

Submitted
proposals

Recommended
proposals

Success rate
%

SSA

65

30

46

LA

26

9

35

Asia

9

6

67

Total

100

45

45

(d) Submitted proposals per call and region
Call for
proposals

Sub-Saharan
Africa

Latin
America

SouthEast Asia

Total

2003

31

31

2004

20

8

2005

14

18

9

41

Total

65

26

9

100

SEA

Total

28

(e) Projects per call and region
Call for
proposals

SSA

LA

2003

14

14

2004

5

4

2005

5

3

5

13

Total

24

7

5

36

9

ANNEXES

55

Annex 2: Proposer profiles

The following tables provide information about the origin (EU
and target countries) as well as the type of organisations involved
in project proposals to the COOPENER programme.

(a) EU member states involved in recommended proposals
2003–05

Total

SSA

LA

SEA

No of recommended proposals

45

30

9

6

EU Member States involved

13

13

9

6

EU partners involved

124

83

25

16

Average No of EU partners
per proposal

2.8

2.8

2.8

2.7

(b) Target countries involved in recommended proposals
2003–05

Total

SSA

LA

SEA

No of recommended proposals

45

30

9

6

No of target countries
involved

 55

 41

9

5

No of local partners involved

159 

100

33

26

Average No of local partners
per proposal

2.9

2.4

3.7

 5.2

(c) Origin of EU partners in submitted and recommended
proposals
60

56

Submitted proposals
Recommended proposals

52
50

45

43
40
34
30

25
20

20

19
13

10
0

14

11

8

7
3

2
AT

56

19

17

BE

0 1 0

BU

CY

DE

DK

ES

4

7

6
2

FI

FR

16

13

2

3

HE

IT

1 0 1 0
LIT

LU

NL

PL

6
2

1 0
PT

4

0

RO

SE

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

2

0 1 0

SK

SL

UK

(d) Types of organisations involved in recommended
proposals
EU organisations

Target country organisations

Type of organisation

No

Type of organisation

No

Chamber of Commerce

5

Chamber of Commerce

2

Consultant

26

Consultant

28

Energy agency

5

Financing institution

4

Energy service company

2

Industrial association

1

Industrial association

7

National administration/agency

32

International organisation

6

NGO/foundation

33

National development agency

2

Research centre

10

NGO/foundation

15

Sub-national administration/agency

2

Research centre

21

Training institute

4

Sub-national administration

1

University

28

Training institution

1

Utility

2

University

29

Other

13

Other

4

Total

159

Total

124

EU Organisations involved in recommended
proposals

Other

EU Organisations involved in recommended
proposals

Chamber of Commerce

Other

Chamber of Commerce

Utility

University

Consultant

Training
institution

University

Financing
institution
Industrial
association

Training
institute

Energy agency
Energy service
company
Industrial
association

Sub-national
administration
Research centre

Sub-national
administration/agency

National
administration
agency

Research centre

International
organisation
NGO/foundation

National
development
agency

Consultant

NGO/foundation

ANNEXES

57

Annex 3: Geographical coverage of contracted
projects in the target countries

EIE-05-141

ANDENERGY

EIE-05-196

HABIT@

EIE-05-212

CRECER CON ENERGIA

EIE-06-240

ENERGYCENTRAL

EIE-06-255

DOSBE

EIE-06-277

GOTA VERDE

Suriname

Peru

Paraguay

Guyana

French Guiana

Falkland Islands

Ecuador

Colombia

Chile

Brazil

Bolivia

Argentina

Panama

Nicaragua

Mexico

Honduras

Guatemala

Venezuela

BEPINET

Vietnam

EIE-05-139

El Salvador

Central America

Uruguay

Project acronym

East Timor

Project No

Costa Rica

Belize

(a) Countries targeted in Latin America

South America

Project No

Project acronym

EIE-06-248

RENDEV

EIE-06-256

REEPRO

EIE-06-261

CAREPI

EIE-06-265

CAP REDEO

EIE-06-272

RESIREA

58

South-central Asia

South-eastern Asia

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Thailand

Singapore

Philippines

Myanmar

Malaysia

Laos

Indonesia

Cambodia

Brunei Darussalam

Uzbekistan

Turkmenistan

Tajikistan

Sri Lanka

Pakistan

Nepal

Maldives

Kyrgyzstan

Kazakhstan

Iran

India

Bhutan

Bangladesh

Afghanistan

(b) Countries targeted in South-East Asia

ANNEXES

59

ENABLE

ENEFIBIO

IE4Sahel

EIE-04-099

EIE-04-129

EIE-04-131

SIE-Afrique
Phase II

MEPRED

MICROGRIDS

REEPASA

RIAED

PREA

EETT

CARAMCODEC

EIE-04-201

EIE-04-236

EIE-04-243

EIE-05-011

EIE-05-046

EIE-05-061

EIE-05-121

EIE-05-215

EIE-06-244

E-MINDSET

SURE-Africa

TreeSpa

EIE-06-250

EIE-06-274

EIE-06-278

PACEAA

DEA

EIE-04-198

EIE-06-247

APPLES

TIE-ENERGIA

EIE-04-168

IMPROVES-RE

INSABA

EIE-04-094

PROVEN

MIRREIA

EIE-04-034

EIE-04-166

BEPITA

EIE-04-032

EIE-04-133

PEPSE

EIE-04-004

Project No, Project
acronym

Niger

Mali

Liberia

Côte d’Ivoire

Western Africa

Mauritania

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea

Ghana

Cape Verde

Burkina Faso

Benin

(c) Countries targeted in sub-Saharan Africa

Réunion

Mozambique

Mayotte

Mauritius
Eastern Africa

Dem. Rep. of the Congo

Congo

Chad

Central African Republic
Central Africa

South Africa
Namibia
Lesotho

Botswana

Southern Africa

Swaziland

São Tomé and Príncipe
Gabon

Equatorial Guinea

Cameroon

Angola

Zimbabwe

Zambia

Tanzania

Uganda

Sudan

Somalia

Seychelles

Rwanda

Malawi

Madagascar

Kenya

Ethiopia

Eritrea

Djibouti

Comoros

Burundi

Togo

Gambia

Sierra Leone

Senegal

Saint Helena

Nigeria

Annex 4: Overview of the 36 COOPENER projects

In Annex 4, information is provided on the 36 projects contracted by the COOPENER programme. The
overview table indicates the projects’ location, call and project duration. Projects used for the detailed
assessment are marked. Subsequently, more detailed facts on the projects are given.

(a) Overview
Project acronym

Contract No

Location

Call

ANDENERGY

EIE/05/141

LA

2004

1.1.2006–31.12.2007

APPLES

EIE/04/168

SSA

2003

1.6.2005–31.7.2008

BEPINET

EIE/05/139

LA

2004

1.1.2006–31.12.2008

BEPITA

EIE/04/032

SSA

2003

1.1.2005–31.12.2007

CAP-REDEO

EIE/06/265

Asia

2005

1.1.2007–31.12.2009

CARAMCODEC

EIE/06/244

SSA

2005

1.1.2007–31.5.2009

CAREPI

EIE/06/261

Asia

2005

1.1.2007–31.10.2009

CRECER CON ENERGIA

EIE/05/212

LA

2004

1.1.2006–30.6.2008

DEA

EIE/04/201

SSA

2003

1.5.2005–31.10.2007

DOSBE

EIE/06/255

LA

2005

1.1.2007–31.12.2008

EETT

EIE/05/215

SSA

2004

1.1.2006–31.12.2007

E-MINDSET

EIE/06/250

SSA

2005

1.1.2007–31.12.2009

ENABLE

EIE/04/099

SSA

2003

1.1.2005–30.6.2007

ENEFIBIO

EIE/04/129

SSA

2003

1.7.2005–31.12.2007

ENERGY CENTRAL

EIE/06/240

LA

2005

1.1.2007–31.12.2008

GOTA VERDE

EIE/06/277

LA

2005

1.1.2007–31.12.2009

HABIT@

EIE/05/196

LA

2004

1.1.2006–31.8.2007

IE4Sahel

EIE/04/131

SSA

2003

1.4.2005–31.7.2007

IMPROVES-RE

EIE/04/133

SSA

2003

1.4.2005–30.3.2007

INSABA

EIE/04/094

SSA

2003

1.4.2005–31.3.2008

MEPRED

EIE/04/243

SSA

2003

1.4.2005–31.3.2008

MICROGRIDS

EIE/05/011

SSA

2004

1.1.2006–31.12.2007

MIRREIA

EIE/04/034

SSA

2003

1.1.2005–30.6.2007

PACEAA

EIE/06/247

SSA

2005

1.9.2007–31.8.2010

PEPSE

EIE/04/004

SSA

2003

1.4.2005–31.8.2008

PREA

EIE/05/121

SSA

2004

1.1.2006–31.12.2008

PROVEN

EIE/04/166

SSA

2003

1.4.2005–30.6.2008

REEPASA

EIE/05/046

SSA

2004

1.1.2006–30.6.2008

REEPRO

EIE/06/256

Asia

2005

1.1.2007–31.12.2009

60

Project duration

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Project acronym

Contract No

Location

Call

Project duration

RENDEV

EIE/06/248

Asia

2005

1.1.2007–31.12.2009

RESIREA

EIE/06/272

Asia

2005

1.1.2007–31.12.2009

RIAED

EIE/05/061

SSA

2004

1.1.2006–31.12.2008

SIE-Afrique Phase II

EIE/04/236

SSA

2003

1.1.2005–30.6.2008

SURE-Africa

EIE/06/274

SSA

2005

1.1.2007–30.6.2009

TIE-ENERGIA

EIE/04/198

SSA

2003

1.1.2005–30.6.2007

TreeSpa

EIE/06/278

SSA

2005

1.12.2006–30.11.2009

(b) Project information

ANDENERGY

APPLES

Andean Energy Hub
Target area: Latin America
Countries: Peru, Ecuador
Coordinator: Inter-university Research Centre
for Sustainable Development, Sapienza —
University of Rome (Italy)
Partners: Instituto Superior Técnico (Portugal);
Research Centre for Sustainable Development,
Catholic University of Santo Toribio de
Mogrovejo (Peru); University of Piura (Peru);
Andean Community (Peru); Centro de Ecologìa y
Gènero (Peru); Escuela Politecnica del Litoral —
Guayaquil (Ecuador)
Duration: 1.1.2006–31.12.2007
Total budget: EUR 383 190
Benefits: Poverty reduction in rural, peri-urban
and urban communities of Peru and Ecuador

Alleviation of Poverty through the Provision
of local Energy Services
Internet: http://applesonline.info
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Country: South Africa
Coordinator: Energy Research Centre of the
Netherlands (Netherlands)
Partners: Technical University of Denmark
(Denmark); Chancellor, Masters and Scholars
of the University of Oxford (United Kingdom);
University of Cape Town (South Africa); Parallax
(South Africa)
Duration: 1.6.2005–31.7.2008
Total budget: EUR 815 947
Benefits: Improved access to modern energy
for poor people; income-generating economic
activities; job creation

ANNEXES

61

BEPINET

BEPITA

Biomass Energy Platforms Implementation
for Training in Latin America — Network
Target area: Latin America
Countries: Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Coordinator: French Agricultural Research
Centre for International Development (CIRAD)
(France)
Partners: Université Catholique de Louvain
(Belgium); Aston University (United Kingdom);
IBAMA (Brazil); UFPA (Brazil); UNAS, (Peru);
INIAP (Ecuador)
Duration: 1.1.2006–31.12.2008
Total budget: EUR 808 888
Benefits: Bio-energy contribution to
development, equity and sustainability

Biomass Energy Platforms Implementation
for Training in Africa
Internet: http://www.bepita.net/
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon
Coordinator: French Agricultural Research
Centre for International Development (CIRAD)
(France)
Partners: Université Catholique de Louvain
(Belgium); Ecole Inter-Etat d’Ingénieurs de
l’Equipement Rural (Burkina Faso); Innovation
en Solaire et METallique (Burkina Faso);
Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique
(Cameroon)
Duration: 1.1.2005–31.12.2007
Total budget: EUR 530 755
Benefits: Strengthening local energy expertise
and developing energy production capacity
in Africa

CAP-REDEO
CAPacity and institutional strengthening
for Rural Electrification and development,
Decentralised Energy Options
Internet: http://www.cap-redeo.com/
Target area: Asia
Countries: Cambodia, Laos
Coordinator: Innovation Energie
Développement (France)
Partners: ETC Foundation (Netherlands);
Innovative Engineering Group (Cambodia);
Ministry of Industry Mines and Energy
(Cambodia); Ministry of Industry and
Handicrafts (Laos); SV Consultants (Laos)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.12.2009
Total budget: EUR 690 322
Benefits: Rural electrification as a development
tool; replicable training programmes

62

CARAMCODEC
Improved Carbonisation and decentralised
Forestry Control in Madagascar
Internet: http://caramcodec.com/
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Country: Madagascar
Coordinator: French Agricultural Research
Centre for International Development (CIRAD)
(France)
Partners: Centre Wallon de Recherches
Agronomiques (Belgium); Association
Participation à la Gestion de l’Environnement
(PARTAGE) (Madagascar); Centre National de la
Recherche Appliquée au Développement Rural
(FOFIFA) (Madagascar)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.5.2009
Total budget: EUR 830 177
Benefits: Sustainable use of local energy
resources and improved income generation

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

CAREPI

CRECER CON ENERGIA

Contributing to poverty Alleviation through
Regional Energy Planning in Indonesia
Internet: http://www.carepi.info/
Target area: Asia
Country: Indonesia
Coordinator: Energy Research Centre of the
Netherlands (Netherlands)
Partners: Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ)
(Germany); Ministry of Energy and Mineral
Resources (Indonesia); Institute for Research
and Community Empowerment (Indonesia);
Centre for regional Energy Management of
the University Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
(Indonesia); University of Mataram (Indonesia);
University of Sumatra Utara (Indonesia)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.10.2009
Total budget: EUR 897 074
Benefits: Capacity-building on regional energy
policy formulation and developing concrete
mini-hydro projects

Linking Income-Generating Activities and
Micro-enterprises with Energy Services for the
Poor in the Chaco Region
Internet: http://www.crecerconenergia.net/
Target area: Latin America
Countries: Bolivia, Paraguay
Coordinator: IT Power Limited (United
Kingdom)
Partners: PlaNet Finance; TRANSENERGIE
(France); Adviesbureau voor Energiestrategie
(Netherlands); Trama TecnoAmbiental (Spain)
Instituto Nacional de Tecnología y Normativa
(Paraguay); ESENERG (Paraguay); ANED
(Bolivia); ENERGETICA (Bolivia); CINER (Bolivia)
Duration: 1.1.2006–30.6.2008
Total budget: EUR 955 317
Benefits: Capacity-building for rural
development, micro-financing and rural microenterprises

DOSBE
DEA
Development and Energy in Africa
Internet: http://www.deafrica.net
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Botswana, Ghana, Mali, Senegal,
Tanzania, Zambia
Coordinator: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
(Denmark)
Partners: Energy Research Centre of the
Netherlands (Netherlands); EECG Consultants
Pty Ltd (Botswana); KITE (Ghana); Mali
Folkecenter (Mali); ENDA Energy (Senegal);
TaTEDO (Tanzania); CEEEZ (Zambia)
Duration: 1.5.2005–31.10.2007
Total budget: EUR 651 132
Benefits: Information obtained will lead to
enhanced development impacts of future
energy projects

Desarrollo de operadores eléctricos para
reducción de la pobreza en Ecuador y el Perú
Target area: Latin America
Countries: Ecuador, Peru
Coordinator: Trama TecnoAmbiental (Spain)
Partners: PHK Consultants (France); Fraunhofer
Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten
Forschung e.V. (Germany); UNIVERSIDAD
POLITECNICA DE MADRID (UPM) (Spain);
Corena, S.A. (Ecuador); Enerpro (Ecuador);
Servicios de Ingeniería y Estudios Especiales
S.A. (Peru); Soluciones Practicas (Peru)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.12.2008
Total budget: EUR 535 921
Benefits: Better integration of renewable
energy systems in the electricity frameworks of
Ecuador and Peru

ANNEXES

63

EETT

E-MINDSET

Energy Efficiency Training of Trainers
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique,
São Tomé and Príncipe
Coordinator: MVV Consulting GmbH
(Germany)
Partners: ISR-University of Coimbra (Portugal);
Universidade Agostinho Neto (Angola);
Chamber of Commerce (Cape Verde); University
Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique); Empresa de
Agua e Electricidade (São Tomé and Príncipe)
Duration: 1.1.2006–31.12.2007
Total budget: EUR 581 219
Benefits: The development of regional Energy
Management Training Centres

Energising the Millennium Development
Goals — Setting the Enabling Environment in
Southern Africa
Internet: http://www.hedon.info/E-MINDSET
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Botswana, Malawi, Zambia,
Zimbabwe
Coordinator: Intermediate Technology
Development Group Ltd (United Kingdom)
Partners: University of Twente (Netherlands);
International Power Conversion Systems
(Malawi); Energy and Environment Concerns for
Zambia (Zambia); Southern Centre for Energy
and Environment (Botswana); Practical Action
Southern Africa (Zimbabwe)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.12.2009
Total budget: EUR 869 308
Benefits: Local agents and planners trained;
increased awareness

ENABLE
Building capacity in renewables in the health,
education and water sectors to help meet
poverty reduction targets in sub-Saharan Africa
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda
Coordinator: IT Power Limited (United
Kingdom)
Partners: TRANSENERGIE (France); Stockholm
Environment Institute (Sweden); IT Power
Eastern Africa (regional); African Uganda
(Uganda); Quin Tsens; Senegalese Agency
for Rural Electrification (Senegal); TaTEDO
(Tanzania)
Duration: 1.1.2005–30.6.2007
Total budget: EUR 1 159 686
Benefits: Support of the EU Energy Initiative
and of Millennium Development Goals in the
health, education and water sectors

64

ENEFIBIO
Removal of non-technological barriers to
encourage SME energy efficiency by the rational
use of biomass
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Cameroon, Senegal
Coordinator: Centre Wallon de Recherches
Agronomiques (Belgium)
Partners: Institut Technique Européen du
Bois Energie (France); ENDA-TM (Senegal);
Environnement Recherche Action (Cameroon)
Duration: 1.7.2005–31.12.2007
Total budget: EUR 905 956
Benefits: Fossil fuel replacement, SMEs’ energy
efficiency, activities in rural areas

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

ENERGYCENTRAL

GOTA VERDE

Strengthening municipal action on renewable
energy in Central America
Target area: Latin America
Countries: Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua
Coordinator: Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica
(Portugal)
Partners: Leicester Masaya Link Group
(United Kingdom); Asociación de Desarollo
Integral Comunitário (Nicaragua); Asociación
de Municipios de Nicaragua (Nicaragua);
Universidad Centro Americana (Nicaragua,
Guatemala and Honduras)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.12.2008
Total budget: EUR 316 611
Benefits: Cooperation between Europe and
Central America, technology transfer, enhanced
public participation in decision-making

Promotion of small-scale biofuel production and
use in Honduras
Internet: http://www.gotaverde.org/index.html/
Target area: Latin America
Country: Honduras
Coordinator: Stichting STRO (Netherlands)
Partners: Dajolka (Denmark); Fact
Foundation (Netherlands); Humanistisch
Instituut voor ontwikkelings Samenwerking
(Netherlands); Ageratec (Sweden); Institute
for European Environmental Policy, London
(United Kingdom); Honduran Foundation for
Agricultural Investigation (Honduras); National
Institute for Professional Training (Honduras);
Foundation for Rural Enterprise Development
(Honduras)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.12.2009
Total budget: EUR 1 158 002
Benefits: Promotion of local production and
consumption of biofuels (pure plant oil); local
development and economic benefits for poor
farmers and entrepreneurs in the Yoro Region
(Honduras)

HABIT@
Renewable energies and energy efficiency on
the built environment
Target area: Latin America
Countries: Argentina, Mexico, Peru
Coordinator: Abita Soc Coop (Italy)
Partners: Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya
(Spain); Universidad Nacional de Tucumán
(Argentina); Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo
(Mexico); Universidad Ricardo Palma de Lima
(Peru)
Duration: 1.1.2006–31.8.2007
Total budget: EUR 360 151
Benefits: Increased local capacity to improve
energy efficiency and use of renewables in
buildings

IE4Sahel
Energy for poverty alleviation in Sahel
Internet: http://ie4sahel.energyprojects.net
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Country: Niger
Coordinator: Instituto Superior Técnico
(Portugal)
Partners: Centre for Renewable Energy Sources
(Greece); Energy for Sustainable Development
Ltd (United Kingdom); Agrymeth Regional
Centre (Niger)
Duration: 1.4.2005–31.7.2007
Total budget: EUR 738 295
Benefits: A well-established centre for capacitybuilding of local human resources

ANNEXES

65

IMPROVES-RE

INSABA

Improving the Economic and Social Impact of
Rural Electrification
Internet: http://www.improves-re.com
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mali, Niger
Coordinator: Innovation Energie
Développement (France)
Partners: Risoe National Laboratory (Denmark);
ETC Foundation (Netherlands); Direction
Générale de l’Energie (Burkina Faso); Fonds de
Développement de l’Electrification (Burkina
Faso); Ministère de l’Energie et de l’Eau
(Cameroon); Agence d’Electrification Rurale
(Cameroon); AMADER (Mali); Ministère des
Mines et de l’Energie (Niger)
Duration: 1.4.2005–30.3.2007
Total budget: EUR 1 042 303
Benefits: Integrated planning approach taking
into account synergies between social services
and rural electrification

Integrated Southern Africa Business Advisory
Internet: http://www.insaba.org
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Botswana, Namibia, South Africa,
Zambia
Coordinator: InWEnt — Internationale
Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH
(Germany)
Partners: CENTRIC AUSTRIA INTERNATIONAL
(Austria); Folkecenter for Renewable Energy
(Denmark); Adelphi Research gGmbH
(Germany); InWEnt — Internationale
Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH
(Germany); Botswana Technology Centre
(Botswana); CEEEZ (Zambia); OneWorld (South
Africa); Solar Age (Namibia)
Duration: 1.4.2005–31.3.2008
Total budget: EUR 615 598
Benefits: Job creation; poverty alleviation; SME
support; new markets for advanced adapted
technologies

MEPRED
Mainstreaming Energy for Poverty Reduction
and Sustainable Development into EU
Development Assistance
Internet: http://www.mepred.eu
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Senegal
Coordinator: Agence de l’Environnement et de
la Maîtrise de l’Energie (France)
Partners: DANIDA (Denmark); GTZ (Germany),
NL Agency (Netherlands); Direction général
de l’énergie (Burkina Faso); ENDA (Mali);
Mali Folkecenter (Mali); Ministre des Mines
et de l’Energie (Niger); direction de l’énergie
(Senegal); ECOWAS (regional)
Duration: 1.4.2005–31.3.2008
Total budget: EIR 2 227 000
Benefits: Increase support from public
authorities, North and South, to energy access
programmes aimed at poverty reduction and
sustainable development

66

MICROGRIDS
Promotion of microgrids and RES (Renewable
Energy Sources) for electrification in developing
countries
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Country: Senegal
Coordinator: Fundación ROBOTIKER (Spain)
Partners: ESTIA CCI BAYONNE — PAYS
BASQUE (France); Centre d’études et de
recherches sur les énergies renouvelables
(Senegal); Regional Council of Dakar (Senegal);
Ministry of Industry and Mines (Senegal);
Services de l’énergie en milieu sahélien
(Senegal)
Duration: 1.1.2006–31.12.2007
Total budget: EUR 627 754
Benefits: Important decision-makers are more
aware of renewables and microgrids for the
electrification of rural areas

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

MIRREIA

PACEAA

Mitigating Risk and strengthening capacity for
Rural Electricity Investment in Africa
Internet: http://mirreia.energyprojects.net
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
Coordinator: Energy for Sustainable
Development Ltd (United Kingdom)
Partners: Wazee Consulting ApS (Denmark);
Transport Resource Centre Limited (Tanzania);
Power Networks (Uganda); Energy for
Sustainable Development — Africa (Kenya)
Duration: 1.1.2005–30.6.2007
Total budget: EUR 560 770
Benefits: Direct support to developers and
investors in the three countries and bringing
together key institutional stakeholders

Poverty Alleviation through Cleaner Energy
from Agro-Industries in Africa
Internet: http://www.paceaa.org
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Burundi, Kenya, Malawi,
Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda,
Zambia
Coordinator: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
(Denmark)
Partners: Innovation Energie Développement
(France); United Nations Environment
Programme — Division of Technology Industry
and Economics (France); African Energy Policy
Research Network (Kenya); East Africa Tea Trade
Association (Kenya)
Duration: 1.9.2007–31.8.2010
Total budget: EUR 1 267 242
Benefits: Increased access to electricity in
rural areas, based on clean and locally available
energy resources, contributing to poverty
alleviation

PEPSE
Poverty Eradication and Planning of Sustainable
Energy
Internet: http://energies-renouvelables.org/
pepse/
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa Country:
Madagascar
Coordinator: Fondation des Energies pour le
Monde (France)
Partners: Otto-von-Guericke-Universität
Magdeburg (Germany); Ministère de l’énergie
(Madagascar)
Duration: 1.4.2005–31.8.2008
Total budget: EUR  658 125
Benefits: Development of the know-how of
institutions and local operators

PREA
Promoting Renewable Energy in Africa
Internet: http://prea.ises.org/
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda
Coordinator: Universität Dortmund (Germany)
Partners: Université de la Rochelle (France);
International Solar Energy Society (Germany);
National and Kapodestrian University of Athens
(Greece); London Metropolitan University
(United Kingdom); University of Dar es
Salaam (Tanzania); Uganda Martyrs University
(Uganda); University of the Witwatersrand
(South Africa)
Duration: 1.1.2006–31.12.2008
Total budget: EUR 784 339
Benefits: Cooperation between four European
and three African Universities on capacitybuilding for energy professionals in Tanzania,
Uganda and South Africa

ANNEXES

67

PROVEN

REEPASA

PROVEN in Rural Africa
Internet: http://www.energies- renouvelables.
org/proven/eng/default.asp
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Kenya, Senegal
Coordinator: Fondation des Energies pour le
Monde (France)
Partners: Free Energy Foundation (the
Netherlands); ESDA (Kenya); ENDA-TM
(Senegal)
Duration: 1.4.2005–30.6.2008
Total budget: EUR 395 888
Benefits: Development of the know-how of
institutions and local operators

Renewable and Efficient Energy for Poverty
Alleviation in Southern Africa
Internet: http://reepasa.energyprojects.net
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa,
Swaziland, Zambia Coordinator: Energy for
Sustainable Development Ltd (United Kingdom)
Partners: KWI Consultants GmbH (Austria);
Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der
angewandten Forschung e.V. (Germany);
ESDA (Kenya); CEEEZ (Zambia); Austral
(Mozambique); Palmer Development Group;
Sustainable Transactions (South Africa);
Environmental Consulting Services/Renewable
Energy Association of Swaziland (Swaziland)
Duration: 1.1.2006–30.6.2008
Total budget: EUR 511 763
Benefits: Productive use and cross-sectoral
approaches; less costs and improved service
delivery for local authorities; less poverty

REEPRO
Promotion of the Efficient Use of Renewable
Energies in Developing Countries
Internet: http://www.dgs.de/reepro.html
Target area: Asia
Countries: Cambodia, Laos
Coordinator: Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Sonnenenergie e.V. (Germany)
Partners: Turku School of Economics (Finland);
Futures Research Centre (Finland); European
Forum for Economic Cooperation (Germany);
Cambodian Education and Waste Management
Organisation (Cambodia); Institute of Technology
of Cambodia (Cambodia); National University of
Laos (Laos); Technology Research Institute (Laos);
Community Development and Environment
Association (Laos)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.12.2009
Total budget: EUR 986 410
Benefits: Poverty eradication, reliable renewable
energy services, bio-energy, solar thermal and
photovoltaic guidebooks and training programmes

68

RENDEV
Reinforcing provision of sustainable ENergy
services in Bangladesh and Indonesia
for Poverty alleviation and sustainable
DEVelopment
Internet: http://www.rendev.org/
Target area: Asia
Countries: Bangladesh, Indonesia
Coordinator: PlaNet Finance (France)
Partners: TRANSENERGIE (France); IT Power
Limited (United Kingdom); Grameen Shakti
(Bangladesh); Association for Underprivileged
People (Bangladesh); Bina Swadaya (Indonesia);
UKABIMA (Indonesia)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.12.2009
Total budget: EUR 815 682
Benefits: Capacity-building for rural
development, micro-financing and microenterprises

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

RESIREA

RIAED

Renewable energy sustainable programmes for
intelligent rural electrification and poverty alleviation
Internet: http://www.energies-renouvelables.org/
resirea/
Target area: Asia
Countries: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
Coordinator: Fondation des Energie pour le Monde
(France)
Partners: Centre Wallon de Recherches
Agronomiques (CRA-W) (Belgium); Fraunhofer
Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten
Forschung e.V. (Germany); Ministry of Industry and
Handicraft (Laos); Ministry of Industry, Mines and
Energy (Cambodia); Centre for Renewable Energy
and Rural Development (Vietnam)
Duration: 1.1.2007–31.12.2009
Total budget: EUR 603 202
Benefits: Electrification programmes which
are technically and economically sustainable;
promotion of ecological and decentralised energy
systems; contribution to poverty alleviation

Réseau International d’Accès aux Energies
Durables
Internet: http://www.riaed.net
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Mali, Senegal, francophone
countries
Coordinator: Association GRETh (France)
Partners: Association pour la Promotion des
Energies Renouvelables asbl (Belgium); Agence
Intergouvernementale de la Francophonie
(France); Agence Sénégalaise d’Electrification
Rurale (Senegal); Services de l’Énergie en
Milieu Sahélien (Senegal); Communication et
Multimédia (Senegal), Imedia (Senegal); Amader
(Mali); UEMOA (regional)
Duration: 1.1.2006–31.12.2008
Total budget: EUR 748 892
Benefits: Greater expertise of national
institutions; access to energy plays a bigger role
in decision-making on poverty alleviation

SIE-Afrique Phase II
Appui à la mise en place de systèmes
d’informations énergétiques nationaux
Internet: http://www.sie.iepf.org/
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Niger, Senegal, Togo
Coordinator: Agence Intergouvernementale de
la Francophonie (France)
Partners: ECONOTEC (Belgium); Organisation
Intergouvernementale de la Francophonie
(France); Ministère des Mines et de l’Energie
du Niger (Niger); Ministère de l’Energie et
des Mines du Sénégal (Senegal); Ministère de
l’Energie et des Ressources Hydrauliques du
Togo (Togo)
Duration: 1.1.2005–30.6.2008
Total budget: EUR 999 288
Benefits: Coherent and structured energy
policies of which impacts can be assessed;
transparency of energy markets; dialogue
framework for energy stakeholders

SURE-Africa
Sustainable Urban Renewal: Energy Efficient
Building for Africa
Internet: http://www.sure-africa.org/
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique
Coordinator: Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica
— Polo IST (Portugal)
Partners: Lunds Universitet (Sweden); The
Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the
University of Cambridge (United Kingdom);
Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique);
Universidade Agostinho Neto (Angola);
MINDELO — Escola Internacional de Arte (Cape
Verde)
Duration: 1.1.2007–30.6.2009
Total budget: EUR 570 544
Benefits: Generation of documentary material
for teaching, practice and self-builders;
seminars and workshops

ANNEXES

69

70

TIE-ENERGIA

TreeSpa

Turning Information into Empowerment:
Strengthening Gender and Energy networking
In Africa
Internet: http://www.energia.org/fileadmin/
files/media/pubs/tie_publication_lowres.pdf
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Kenya, Senegal
Coordinator: ETC Foundation (Netherlands)
Partners: Eco Ltd (United Kingdom); ITDG-EA
(Kenya); ENDA-TM (Senegal)
Duration: 1.1.2005–30.6.2007
Total budget: EUR 609 800
Benefits: Training; human and institutional
capacity-building; equality; improved
livelihoods; poverty reduction

Tanzanian Renewable Energy and energy
Efficiency project to Sustain Poverty Alleviation
Internet: http://www.treespa.eu/default.aspx
Target area: Sub-Saharan Africa
Country: Tanzania
Coordinator: ÅF-Process AB (Sweden)
Partners: Danish Management A/S (Denmark);
Tanesco (Tanzania); SIDO (Tanzania); DataVision
(Tanzania)
Duration: 1.12.2006–30.11.2009
Total budget: EUR 957 860
Benefits: Aggregated purchasing of selected
electrical equipment and suitable energy service
agreements for rural business

COOPENER — SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SERVICES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

European Commission
Coopener — Sustainable energy services for poverty alleviation in developing countries
Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union
2011 — 71 pp. — 21 x 29.7 cm
ISBN 978-92-9202-093-4
doi:10.2826/26455

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EA-31-11-157-EN-C

COOPENER was the external component of the first Intelligent Energy — Europe (IEE) programme,
which funded projects aiming to promote policies, technologies and best practices in the fields of renewable energy and energy efficiency. In line with the EU Energy Initiative for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development, COOPENER projects addressed the role of sustainable energy for poverty alleviation in developing countries. COOPENER operated in three regions: sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America
and South-East Asia.
COOPENER was implemented through grants, which were awarded in response to open Calls for
Proposals on an annual basis. COOPENER projects began operating in early 2005 and the last project
finished in August 2010.
Following the completion of the last project, the EACI organised an assessment of a number of
COOPENER projects. Its aims were to identify the impacts of the projects, to extract key findings,
and to highlight lessons and best practices resulting from the implementation of these actions.
This report includes the key findings of the assessment; it can be used by public bodies, NGOs, and commercial organisations based in the EU as well as in the target countries. It also presents lessons learned,
which can be helpful to Commission services, Member States’ organisations and other organisations
working within similar activities and programmes, such as the ACP-EU Energy Facility.

ISBN 978-92-9202-093-4

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EUROPEAN COMMISSION

for competitiveness & innovation

doi:10.2826/26455