Hamid Kazeroony

William Penn University
In January 2009, Carol Bartz replaced Jerry Yang as Yahoo!'s CEO. Yahoo!
has resumed discussions with Microsoft about search and advertising
partnerships as both firms struggle to compete with Google. Yahoo! in 2008
had rejected Microsoft's unsolicited $44.6 billion offer and then rejected that
firm's attempt to acquire just Yahoo!'s Internet-search business, which is
second behind Google in market share.
Headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, Yahoo! has offices in more than
25 countries, provinces, or territories. Yahoo!'s revenues from 2007 to 2008
increased by 3.4 percent to $7.2 billion. However, net income decreased by
35.7 percent to $424 million. Yahoo! is the second leading global Internet
brand and one of the most trafficked Internet destinations worldwide.
Together with its owned and operated online properties and services, it also provides its advertising offerings and access to Internet users
beyond Yahoo! through its distribution network of third-party entities, who
have integrated its advertising
offerings into their Web sites. Yahoo! generates revenues by providing
marketing services to advertisers across hundreds of Web sites. Although
many of the services Yahoo! provides . to users are free, it does charge-fees
for a range of premium services.
The core of Yahoo!'s strategy and operations is to become the starting
point for Internet users; to provide must-buy marketing solutions for the
world's largest advertisers; and to deliver industry-leading open platforms that attract developers and
publishers.
Yahoo! posted a 78 percent first quarter 2009 profit decline and reacted
by eliminating another 675 jobs, or 5 percent of its workforce on top of 2,500 jobs cut in
2008. For
that quarter, Yahoo!'s revenues dropped 13 percent to $1.58 billion. Yahoo!'s
online advertising business is also deteriorating rapidly as the firm's overall revenue fell 13
percent in
the second quarter of 2Q09 compared to the prior year. For that second
quarter, aggressive
cost cutting allowed Yahoo! to post a 7 percent increase in profit up to $141.4
million, but
the firm laid off another 700 employees to end with 13,000 employees.
In July 2009, Yahoo! closed its third video property,.
History
Yahoo! began as a student hobby and evolved into a global brand that has
changed the
way people communicate with each other, find and access information, and

92

purchase
things. The two founders of Yahoo!, David Filo and Jerry Yang, were PhD
candidates in
electrical engineering at Stanford University when they started this company
in a
campus trailer in 1994 as a way to keep track of their personal interests on the
Internet.
Soon these two men were spending more time on their home-brewed lists of
favorite
links than on their doctoral dissertations. Eventually, Jerry and David's lists
became too
long and unwieldy, and they broke them out into categories. When the
categories
became too full, they developed subcategories and the core concept behind
Yahoo!
was born.
HAMID KAZEROONY

The Web 'site started out as "Jerry and David's Guide to the World Wide Web" but.
eventually received a new moniker with the help of a dictionary. The name Yahoo! is anacronym for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle," but Filo and Yang insist they
selected the name because they liked the general definition of a yahoo: "rude, unsophisticated, uncouth." Yahoo! itself first resided on Yang's student workstation, "Akebono,"
while the software was lodged on File's computer, "Konishiki't-cboth named after
legendary sumo wrestlers.
Yahoo! was incorporated in 1995 in Delaware and launched a highly successful
initial public offering IPO in April 1996 with a total of 49 employees. Its stock rose to the
high of $120 in 2000 but for most of 2009 has been trading under $14.
Yahoo! Segments
Yahoo! offerings include Yahoo! Groups, Yahoo! Answers, and Flickr and are generally
provided to users free of charge. Revenue in Communities' offerings is primarily generated through display advertising. Yahoo! search offerings include Yahoo! Search, Yahoo!
Local, Yahoo! Yellow Pages and Yahoo! Maps and are available free to users and are often
the starting point for users navigating the Internet and searching for information. Yahoo!
generates revenues through its Search offerings from search and display advertising.
The Yahoo! Communications segment include Yahoo! Mail, Zimbra Mail, and
Yahoo! Messenger and provides a wide range of communication services to users. Yahoo!
generates display advertising revenues from these offerings.
Yahoo!'s vision and/or mission statement is "Yahoo! powers and delights our
communities of users, advertisers, and publishers-all of us united in creating indispensable experiences, and fueled by trust." Yahoo!'s code of ethics is embedded in its six values: Excellence, Innovation, Customer Fixation, Teamwork, Community, and Fun.
Yahoo! lost 1 percent in rich media revenue, 1 percent in sponsorship, and 2 percent
in classified ads in 2008 as compared to 2007. Although the revenue from search increased
by 3 percent in 2008 compared to 2007, the increase was due to growth in the entire
Internet business rather than a shift to Yahoo!
External Issues
According to technology research firm IDC, there were 1.1 billion Internet users around
the world and 211 million in the United States as of the end of 2006 (latest data available).

To offer some perspective, the size of the worldwide population of Internet users is compa-,
rable to the population of India (estimated at 1.1 billion as of mid-2008, according to the
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency), and the size of the U.S. population of Internet users is.
comparable to the population of Brazil (191 million).
Economic growth in the United States and around the world has slowed amid crisis in
the housing and credit markets. The prices of consumables, from fuel to food commodities,
are near all-time highs, yet the values of personal assets, like homes and property, have fallen.
dramatically. Add rising unemployment and problematic geopolitics to the mix, and we have
a difficult economicbackdrop, to say the least. Although Internet-related businesses have
perhaps held up better than their non digital counterparts, they have still suffered fro~
macroeconomic malaise. In 2009, a number of Internet content and advertising companies
(including Bankrate Inc., Knot Inc., ValueClick Inc., WebMD Health Corp., and Yahoo! Inc.),
reported disappointing financial results and lowered their forward financial outlooks. Even,
Google Inc. expressed economic-related caution in conjunction with its second quarter
results, and Internet media and market research firm cornS core Inc. expressed concerns about
deceleration in online spending growth.

~
Internet advertising revenues in the United States remain strong, topping $23 billion:.
according to the 2008 Internet Advertising Revenue Report, released by the Interactiv~:
Advertising Bureau and PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC), Despite a difficult U.S"
economy, as illustrated in Exhibit 1 to 5, Internet advertising continues to grow, albeit at}
a slower pace. This trend confirms marketers' increased recognition that consumers
spend more and more of their time online.
Competition
Yahoo! operates in the Internet products, services, and content markets, which are
characterized by rapid change, converging technologies, and increasing competition.
Yahoo!:s most significant competition, as demonstrated in Exhibit 6, is from Google Inc.,
Microsoft Corporation, and Time Warner Inc.'s America Online business. Each of these
firms offer an integrated variety of Internet products and services. During 2008, Google
had 72 percent of Internet traffic while Yahoo! only possessed 17 percent followed by
MSN at 6 percent and IACI at 4 percent.
Microsoft
Both a friend and foe of Yahoo! in many ways, Microsoft's $6 billion acquisition of
Quantive Inc., an advertising solutions company, in August 2007 marked an important
change. Microsoft lost out in a bidding war for privately held DoubleClick Inc., a digital marketing technology and services company, Microsoft recommitted itself to the
category, offering to acquire aQuantive at a massive premium and valuation to ensure
that the deal would be consummated. In October 2007, Microsoft purchased a 2 percentstake in social networking firm Facebook Inc., valuing the private company at an
astounding $15 billion. Microsoft has an obvious and strong desire to increase its
Internet presence.
Google
In early 2009, Google is in talks with the popular micro-blogging site, Twitter, about a possible partnership. Google has expanded well beyond search-related functions into areas
such as e-mail (Gmail), mapping (Google Earth and Google Maps), Web-based productivity applications (Google Apps), video (Google Video and YouTube Inc., which Google
acquired in November 2006), a finance offering (Google Finance), a payment service
(Google Checkout), a personalized portal offering (iGoogle), a mobile Internet software
platform (Android), and browser software (Google Chrome).
Google's pursuit of mobile Internet opportunities has made it one of the main appli-

cation providers for Apple Inc.'s iPhone. Perhaps more importantly, Google has successfully pushed for more open standards in the mobile space, which will eventually allow
users to choose more easily the carriers and handsets they want. As a result of Google's
efforts, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopted flexible access rules for
users and wireless resellers in conjunction with the agency's early 2008 wireless spectrum
auction. As illustrated in Exhibit 7, Google commands a good portion of the revenue in the
industry and is a formidable competitor to Yahoo! in particular. From its first year of oper-.
ation as a public company (2004), Google has increased its operating profit to $6.7 billion.
from a modest $852 million.
Industry Trends
As broadband prices fall, ISPs are pursuing new business strategies, such as bundling
Internet access with voice and video services. AOL LLC, a division of Time Warner Inc.,
shifted its business model from paid subscriptions to a free, advertiser-based portal that is
 Yahoo!'s full-year 2008 revenues totaled a record $23.4
billion, exceeding 2001's
performance, itself the former record of $21.2 billion, by
$2.2 billion or 10.6 percent.
By comparison, a variety of sources indicate weakness in
overall advertising spending. The Nielsen Company, for example, reported that U.S.
advertising for the full
year 2008 was down 2.6 percent compared to the full year
2007.
 Fourth-quarter revenues of $6.1 billion mark the first time
the interactive (Internet)
advertising industry achieved, and surpassed, $6 billion in
a single quarter. The
figures represent a $154 million or 2.6 percent increase
from 2001's fourth quarter,
which had revenues of $5.9 billion.
This is the fifth consecutive year of record results
similar to those offered by Yahoo! Inc. and Google Inc. In early 2008, Time Warner indicated that it might look to sell its AOL access business. EarthLink Inc. has indicated that
it wants to be a segment consolidator. Each company is committed to attract as many visitors (as Exhibit 8 demonstrates) as possible. The industry, due to its low barrier entrytechnical and regulatory-makes the projection of its business viability for existing
companies difficult. Due to changes in legislative requirements concerning technology
sharing, patent rights, and information security, future expenses and profitability of the
companies operating within this industry are harder to predict. Future innovations and
shifts in technology also make long-term strategies regarding the Internet and software
services industry difficult

Related Interests

~
Internet advertising revenues in the United States remain strong, topping $23 billion:.
according to the 2008 Internet Advertising Revenue Report, released by the Interactiv~:
Advertising Bureau and PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC), Despite a difficult U.S"
economy, as illustrated in Exhibit 1 to 5, Internet advertising continues to grow, albeit at}
a slower pace. This trend confirms marketers' increased recognition that consumers
spend more and more of their time online.
Competition
Yahoo! operates in the Internet products, services, and content markets, which are
characterized by rapid change, converging technologies, and increasing competition.
Yahoo!:s most significant competition, as demonstrated in Exhibit 6, is from Google Inc.,
Microsoft Corporation, and Time Warner Inc.'s America Online business. Each of these
firms offer an integrated variety of Internet products and services. During 2008, Google
had 72 percent of Internet traffic while Yahoo! only possessed 17 percent followed by
MSN at 6 percent and IACI at 4 percent.
Microsoft
Both a friend and foe of Yahoo! in many ways, Microsoft's $6 billion acquisition of
Quantive Inc., an advertising solutions company, in August 2007 marked an important
change. Microsoft lost out in a bidding war for privately held DoubleClick Inc., a digital marketing technology and services company, Microsoft recommitted itself to the
category, offering to acquire aQuantive at a massive premium and valuation to ensure
that the deal would be consummated. In October 2007, Microsoft purchased a 2 percentstake in social networking firm Facebook Inc., valuing the private company at an
astounding $15 billion. Microsoft has an obvious and strong desire to increase its
Internet presence.
Google
In early 2009, Google is in talks with the popular micro-blogging site, Twitter, about a possible partnership. Google has expanded well beyond search-related functions into areas
such as e-mail (Gmail), mapping (Google Earth and Google Maps), Web-based productivity applications (Google Apps), video (Google Video and YouTube Inc., which Google
acquired in November 2006), a finance offering (Google Finance), a payment service
(Google Checkout), a personalized portal offering (iGoogle), a mobile Internet software
platform (Android), and browser software (Google Chrome).
Google's pursuit of mobile Internet opportunities has made it one of the main appli-

cation providers for Apple Inc.'s iPhone. Perhaps more importantly, Google has successfully pushed for more open standards in the mobile space, which will eventually allow
users to choose more easily the carriers and handsets they want. As a result of Google's
efforts, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopted flexible access rules for
users and wireless resellers in conjunction with the agency's early 2008 wireless spectrum
auction. As illustrated in Exhibit 7, Google commands a good portion of the revenue in the
industry and is a formidable competitor to Yahoo! in particular. From its first year of oper-.
ation as a public company (2004), Google has increased its operating profit to $6.7 billion.
from a modest $852 million.
Industry Trends
As broadband prices fall, ISPs are pursuing new business strategies, such as bundling
Internet access with voice and video services. AOL LLC, a division of Time Warner Inc.,
shifted its business model from paid subscriptions to a free, advertiser-based portal that is
 Yahoo!'s full-year 2008 revenues totaled a record $23.4
billion, exceeding 2001's
performance, itself the former record of $21.2 billion, by
$2.2 billion or 10.6 percent.
By comparison, a variety of sources indicate weakness in
overall advertising spending. The Nielsen Company, for example, reported that U.S.
advertising for the full
year 2008 was down 2.6 percent compared to the full year
2007.
 Fourth-quarter revenues of $6.1 billion mark the first time
the interactive (Internet)
advertising industry achieved, and surpassed, $6 billion in
a single quarter. The
figures represent a $154 million or 2.6 percent increase
from 2001's fourth quarter,
which had revenues of $5.9 billion.
This is the fifth consecutive year of record results
similar to those offered by Yahoo! Inc. and Google Inc. In early 2008, Time Warner indicated that it might look to sell its AOL access business. EarthLink Inc. has indicated that
it wants to be a segment consolidator. Each company is committed to attract as many visitors (as Exhibit 8 demonstrates) as possible. The industry, due to its low barrier entrytechnical and regulatory-makes the projection of its business viability for existing
companies difficult. Due to changes in legislative requirements concerning technology
sharing, patent rights, and information security, future expenses and profitability of the
companies operating within this industry are harder to predict. Future innovations and
shifts in technology also make long-term strategies regarding the Internet and software
services industry difficult

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