Glass

Pilkington float glass process
Glass fibre
Optical fibre
Toughened glass
Laminated glass

Glass
References:
Callister

Glass
Float process completely replaced earlier
processes for sheet glass
Crown glass process spun disk

Crown glass process spun disk

Glass
Float process completely replaced earlier
processes for sheet glass
Crown glass process spun disk
Cylinder process: blown cylinder, flattened

Glass
Float process completely replaced earlier
processes for sheet glass
Crown glass process spun disk
Cylinder process: blown cylinder, flattened
Plate glass: grind and polish

Quartz is a crystalline form of silica, SiO2

Quartz is a crystalline form of silica, SiO2
Quartz melting temperature 1673 K
… melt is extremely viscous
On cooling, crystallization is slow to occur
and no sharp solidification temperature is found

However
melting sand (quartz)
with lime or soda
lowers the melting temperature
… this is the basis of glass technology
Changing the proportions of Na2O, CaO to SiO 2
produces great variations in glass properties
durability
thermal shock resistance
refractive index

Na2O, CaO “break” the silica network
… reduce the melt viscosity
… allow the glass to be shaped

Na2O, CaO “break” the silica network
… reduce the melt viscosity
… allow the glass to be shaped
Incorporating lead Pb was found to give fine appearance

Na2O, CaO “break” the silica network
… reduce the melt viscosity
… allow the glass to be shaped
Incorporating lead Pb was found to give fine appearance
In more advanced modern glasses, other elements are
present: Ge, B, Al …

Glass

1050 °C

cooling
Pilkington: Proc Roy Soc 1969, v314, 1-25

Viscosity
Pa s

Temperature degC

Young-Laplace eqn
∆P = 2γ ⁄ r

glass

tin

Laurianne Robinet Univ Edinburgh

British Glass Collection from the National Museums of Scotland

HMEN 133

HMEN 209.154

HMEN 209G
I.1985.70.558.6b
© copyright of the Trustees of the NMS

Unregistered decanter

Surface altérée d’une bouteille à décanter
MEB

Surface du verre craquelée
Laurianne Robinet Univ Edinburgh

Echantillon provenant du goulot de la bouteille
(coupe transversale - MEB)
Haut de la bouteille
Intérieur

Extérieur

Laurianne Robinet Univ Edinburgh

Glass fibre: manufacturing technology
Two radically different products
Glass fibre for mechanical reinforcement
Low cost
Commodity
Continuous fibre or chopped
Glass fibre for optical/digital communications
High value, high specification
Precision manufacture

Glass fibre for mechanical reinforcement
Simple extrusion process:
Molten glass forced through a multi-orifice extruder
Spinneret
Simple process … but mechanical engineering
interest in the spinneret design and
performance
How to cut holes
What materials to use

Spinneret
or bushing

Oxford Lasers

Glass fibre: optical fibres

http://www.thefoa.org/tech/fibr-mfg.htm

Glass sheet
Toughening or tempering process
Hot sheet

hot

Glass sheet
Toughening or tempering process
Cool surfaces rapidly with air jets
cool
hot
cool

Glass sheet
Toughening or tempering process
What happens?
cool
hot
cool

Glass sheet
Toughening or tempering process
What happens?

Glass sheet
Laminated safety glass

Glass
3 mm
Interlayer

PVB
0.4 mm

PVB = poly(vinyl butyral) polymer:
good adhesive properties, transparency, refractive index

Glass sheet
Laminated safety glass

Interlayer holds
glass fragments
together on fracture

Multi-layers for severe conditions: aircraft windscreens