A PROJECT REPORT

ON

Subject: Introduction to Computer
SUBMITTED TO
Prof. Shakeel Anjum
SUBMITTED BY:

Faizan Ch

Superior
University Okara
Table of Contents

1

.16 Why Android Os is better than IPhone Os…………………………………….17 Advantages / Disadvantages…………………………………………………17-18 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………19 References……………………………………………………………………….03 Abstract…………………………………………………………………………..04 History……………………………………………………………………………05 What is Android………………………………………………………………….Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………..05 Android Operating system updates……………………………………………6-11 Android Architecture…………………………………………………………….05 Feature of Android……………………………………………………………….20 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 2 .……15  Linux Kernal ………………………………………………………….13  Libraries……………………………………………………………………14  Android Runtime…………………………………………………….12  Application Framework………………………………………………….….

Abstract This Project report has been prepared with a specific purpose in mind. It was His will and guidance that we were able to take this report as a challenge and in the end He bestowed us with his blessings. The first part of the study takes us through the features of the android operating system. It outlines the history and current scenario of the Android operating system globally.In the beginning all Glory to Allah Almighty by Grace of Whom we were able to complete our Term Report. 3 . Our Sincere Thanks to Faculty of Business Administration for supporting us and guiding us in every phase of our report. Next we would like to thank our parents whose constant efforts and appreciation encouraged us in every aspect of our lives and InshALLAH will continue to do so. Special Thanks to our Teacher “Muhammad Hafeez” who not only suggested us this report but also gave us his full support and shared his precious office timings to discuss different phases of report whenever we needed.

it was only known that they were working on some form of mobile software.Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system. History: Android Incorporated was set up in 2003 by Andy Rubin. and industry watchers could only speculate that Google was planning to enter the mobile OS market. The main objective of this project report is to analyze and study in efficient way of the android operating system. Google acquired the company. and all of its employees the founders of Android stayed on with Google. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. In 2007. middleware and key applications. Nick Sears and Chris White. The company operated without publicizing the work they were doing. Rich Miner. the Software Development Kit which allows developers to make their own apps was released. Google did not reveal its plans for Android. In 2005. Android has also some benefits and drawbacks here are discussed in that report and difference between other brands and after that concluded the whole report. What is Android: 4 .

Apart from the operating system the term “android” could also refer to the middleware and key applications which can be used to develop mobile apps. memory and performance profiling. and Wi-Fi: (hardware dependent)  Camera. H. GIF)  GSM Telephony: (hardware dependent)  Bluetooth. AMR. These releases are infrequent. Features of Android:  Application framework: enabling reuse and replacement of components  Dalvik virtual machine: optimized for mobile devices  Integrated browser: based on the open source Web Kit engine  Optimized graphics: powered by a custom 2D graphics library.Android OS is a Linux-based operating system developed for mobile phones. video. which means that developers can build their own applications for the OS. PNG. compass. and accelerometer: (hardware dependent)  Rich development environment: including a device emulator.264. EDGE.0 specification (hardware acceleration optional)  SQLite: for structured data storage  Media support: for common audio. 5 . 3D graphics based on the OpenGL ES 1. tools for debugging. AAC. Versions usually come with a numerical code and a name that’s so far been themed after sweets and desserts. but Google is looking to slow this down to once a year. running in alphabetical order. It is developed by the Open Handset Alliance which has several members including software giant Google. MP3. GPS. at the moment they normally come out every six months or so. and a plugin for the Eclipse IDE Android Operating system updates Google is constantly working on new versions of the Android software. It has an open development platform. and still image formats (MPEG4. JPG. 3G.

1: This was a update to 1. Features:  Voice and Text: Improvements  Touch Screen: improvements  Multi select: for photos  Camera access: improvements and faster access  Search Option: for faster access Éclair 2. approvments. It was only available further T-Mobile G1 Android 1.  Google Apps: full set of app by Google (Mail.0/2.1 6 to ever contact .0: Marked the first commercial release of Android. Features  Widgets: for embedded small apps  Contacts: improvements including the pictures added  Animations: for smooth scrolling and screen changes  Bluetooth support: update for audio pairing and sharing Android 1. These included  Android Market: for application updates and for new  Web Browser: for full XTML/HTML web browsing.0 that had many bug fixes and added a few features such as a Maps update. It had several new Among the new features were.Android 1. Applications and Maps etc.) Android 1. SMS.1/2.0. At this time it was not widely available but had many new features that were important and still used today.5 Cupcake: Cupcake was released in April 2009.6 Donut: Donut was released in September of 2009 and had many improvements.

1/2.3.3 or Frozen Yogurt (Froyo) was of 2010 and improved on many features.4: Gingerbread was released in December of 2010 and as of the writing has become the most widely used Android version. 7 time of this Some of the . Features:  U.2.3/2.1/2./2. or Interface: improvements gave it a more simple but quicker interface  Virtual Keyboard: updated and improved for a better and faster layout.2.I.2.2. Android 2. There were many this version of android including./2.2/2. Features:  Bluetooth 2.0.2/2. released May key features in Features  Adobe Flash: support for rich web content  Speed and memory: improvements  Cloud messaging: support  Multi Language: support  Bluetooth dock and car: support  Wi-Fi hotspots: support  JIT Compilation: for application speed improvements Gingerbread V.0/2.I.Éclair or V2.3.3. new features included.1 was released in Oct 2009 and had several improvements and looks remarkably similar to today’s Android versions.1/2.1: support  Hardware and U.2/2.2.2/2.3. improvements  Calendar: improvements for date and not settings  Account Sync: improvements allow user to sync account on one phone  Multi Touch: improvements to allow better multi multiple touch support Frozen Yogurt (Froyo) Android 2.2.2.

 Photo editor: built in to Android 4. create.x.  Facial recognition support: to locking/unlocking phone.x. copy/paste enhancements: where a user could just press and hold  New Codec support: for more audio/video formats  Power Management: enhancements  gyroscope/barometers: support  input enhancements: for game developers Honeycomb V 3.  Tabbed Browsing improved: to allow up to 16 tabs. Some of its features included (and later Google Features:  Improved keyboard: support for larger screens  Multi Core processor: support  Hardware acceleration: for faster hardware  view gallery: in full screen interface  System bar: for better multitasking that allows you to switch from one app to another.01 was first released in a major improvement upon both 2.0/4.x and 3. Some of features included.  FLAC audio codec: support (3.1/3.01 Ice Cream Sandwich: Ice Cream Sandwich Android 4.  Wi-Fi direct support: to connect with other users without access point. Oct 2011 and was both interfaces the notable Features:  Folder system: improvements making easier to  Launcher improved: to be customizable.0/4. It blended and had full support for both phones and tablets.  Android Beam support: to share contacts and files.  Chrome Bookmark sync: support.0/3. 8 .1+) Android 4.2: Honeycomb was released in Feb of 2011 and was a tablet TV) only release.

4 Kit Kat: Android Kit Kat brings all of Android's most innovative. The Prostates tool: details memory use over time. with run times and memory footprint for foreground apps and background services.4. 2013. Google announced Android 4. When you’re listening to music or streaming movies via Chrome cast. Features: Launches the services serially: in small groups.4 Lock Screen Art: The Android 4. to avoid peak memory demands. CPU and memory efficiency  Full HTML 5 support: to bring Android up to new web standards  Calendar: is improved and has features blend with one another  Bidirectional text: means more input languages to accessible to more people around the world. Some features include: Feature:  Browser: has improved performance. and most useful features to more devices everywhere.2/4. User Interface hardware acceleration: for faster access. most beautiful.3: Android 4. It took the common features of Android 4. The lock screen will also have dedicated controls to allow you to play.4 lock screen can now show more than just widgets. your device’s lock screen will show the full screen album or movie art. 9 . pause and seek.4 kit Kat on September 3.1/4.0 and made it more fluid.1 Jellybean saw full release in early 2012 and improved on Android 4.  Google Now: updated with new features Android 4. Printing on the Go: Google is making it much easier to print documents or photos on your phone by building support for Google Cloud Print directly into Android 4.  Dictionaries: are now more accurate and more  Photo Sphere: allows you to use take 360 degree other new camera features make the platform relevant pictures among  Gesture Typing: let's you type much faster but takes some getting used to but can make typing much faster. Android Jellybean.0 in many ways. all from the lock screen.

Hangouts App Upgraded: The old Android is now a thing of the past with Kit Kat. 2014 by Google. . so you can you need. Enter Guest Mode: Sharing devices with other people (friends. Get back to your apps after a reboot: Reboot your version of Android before 5.0 "Lollipop" is the latest version of the Android mobile operating system developed made available on November 3. Android 5. Hangouts now supports SMS and MMS. family members. Its was Feature: Predict battery life: New to Android 5.0 Lollipop is the ability to see how much time is left.Better Memory Management: Kit Kat is designed to run on devices with as little as 512MB of RAM.0 all of your recently disappear. so all will be in the same app.4’s memory management. and distracted children) can be a real pain. colleagues. they're still present on the Overview quickly get back to a previous conversation or website if Android Architecture: The following diagram shows the major components of Android 10 Bluetooth or NFCcode or pattern on device in any opened apps will screen. but Lollipop's new Guest Mode eases it somewhat. Hangouts will also be getting support for HD video calls across all messaging app Google your messages devices. Instead.0 Lollipop: Android 5. In Lollipop. Add trusted devices: A trusted device is a specified enabled gadget that will automatically disable the security your Android phone or tablet when it's in range. Google has implemented behind-the-scenes improvements to Android 4.

Architecture of Android OS Application framework: 11 .

buttons. graphics. and lat files  A Notification Manager that enables all applications to display custom alerts in the status bar  An Activity Manager that manages the life cycle of applications and provides a common navigation backstack 12 . including:  A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application. grids. This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user. Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems. and even an embeddable web browser  Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts).Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications. including lists. any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). or to share their own data  A Resource Manager. The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components. text boxes. providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings.

as well as static image files. including MPEG4. highly optimized 3D software rasterizer  Free Type . and PNG  Surface Manager .264.the underlying 2D graphics engine  3D libraries . These capabilities are exposed to developers through the Android application framework.an implementation based on OpenGL ES 1. H.Libraries Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by various components of the Android system. the libraries use either hardware 3D acceleration (where available) or the included. AAC. the libraries support playback and recording of many popular audio and video formats. Android Runtime: 13 .manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications  Lib Web Core .a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications.bitmap and vector font rendering  SQLite . Some of the core libraries are listed below:  System C library . tuned for embedded Linux-based devices  Media Libraries .a BSD-derived implementation of the standard C system library (libc). MP3.0 APIs.based on Packet Video's Open CORE. JPG. AMR.a modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view  SGL .

CPU. but in the second half of 2008 we should see mobile devices with stable version Qualcomm MSM 7200. The Core libraries are written in Java language and contains of the collection classes.6 kernel. Conversion from .dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. For instance. At the same level there is Android Runtime. memory and data storage are the main issues.jar to .dex file As the result. WCDMA/HSUPA and EGPRS network support 14 . Android provides the support for the Qualcomm MSM7K chipset family. with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. where the main component Dalvik Virtual Machine is located. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language. Every Android application runs in its own process. process management. which includes major features: 1. Android gives an integrated tool “dx”. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently. it is possible to have multiple instances of Dalvik virtual machine running on the single device at the same time. the user should bring Linux in his mobile device as the main operating system and install all the drivers required in order to run it.dex format by included "dx" tool. and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the . which converts generated byte code from . memory management. IO and other tools.dex file. after this byte code becomes much more efficient to run on the small processors.java to . the utilities. where the limited battery. The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory the management. Therefore. Linux Kernal: Android Architecture is based on Linux 2. The VM is register-based. It was designed specifically for Android running in limited environment. network stack and other important issues. the current kernel tree supports Qualcomm MSM 7200A chipsets. It helps to manage security.

15 . Qcamera up to 6. it means you can browse. Digital audio support for mp3 and other formats 4.2.0 megapixels 7. Java hardware acceleration and support for Java applications 6. gpsOne – solution for GPS Why Android OS is better than IPhone Os      We can set any app as a default on Android Android just drag and drop for syncing by using USB cable on computer While Google charges for Android developers only $5 Android OS have Flash support On Android. Have to click manually iPhone syncing only with iTunes Apple charges for the App developers $100 While the iPhone only has html5 support The email system on the iPhone is horrible ! ADVANTAGE: Multitasking: Android phones can run many applications. Support for Linux and other third-party operating systems 5. Bluetooth 1. Facebook while listened to the song.2 and Wi-Fi support 3. on which you are notified of an email as soon as it arrives      It is impossible on iPhone.

from Sony Ericsson. If you download 10 Applications a day. Email or even Misscall. So you can freely choose the Android phone in accordance with the ‘brand’ favorite. either the top or bottom of the application Battery issues: You can stop default applications to save battery life. so you will not miss a single SMS. Email. Motorola. through Google’s Android App Market. So it can because issues related to battery. such as Motorola with its Motoblur. with the widgets on the home screen. Can install a modified ROM: Not satisfied with the standard view of Android. if the IOS is limited to the iPhone from Apple. or even the latest articles from an RSS Reader. do not worry there are many custom ROM that can be used in your mobile phones Android. There are many thousands of applications and games that are ready for download on Android phones you. then Android is available on mobile phones from various manufacturers. which is some ROM’s consume more battery than usual. but the consequences in each of these applications. Android heats cell phone often. 6 will be shit or malware. hackers are ahead of putting malware in Google play store. Phone options are diverse: Talk Android phone. Widget: Absolutely right. Sony Ericsson with its Timescape. However if you have a good cover on your cell phone you may feel less heat. it will feel ‘different’ than the IOS. will always be ads on display. Easy access to thousands of applications: via the Google Android App Market When you love to install applications or games. Advertising: Application in the Android phones can indeed be obtained easily and for free. Box of Malware Google play store: I agree that Google play has some nice applications sorry many nice applications but somehow spammers. you can easily access a variety of settings quickly and easily. do not miss the LED indicator is blinking. so you can quickly check e-mail from Gmail DISADVANTAGES: Continuous Internet connection: Most Android phones require a simultaneous Internet connection alias continuously active that means must be prepared to subscribe GPRS packet that suits your needs. HTC to Samsung. And each handset manufacturer also presents an Android phone in the style of each. Over heats: This is serious problem for me. Google Maniac: If you are a loyal user of Google services ranging from Gmail to Google Reader Android phone has integrated with Google services.Ease of Notification: Any SMS. but if without cover just put your cell phone on your cheek you will find what I mean. It was an advantage but there is also a disadvantage. 16 . Again can download applications for free. there will always be a notification on the Home Screen Android phone.

It's because Android doesn't release 1 phone from 1 company with 1 new OS every year. but is unique and incomparable to other mobile operating systems. developing gradually day by day. Conclusion: We are learned through my research that Android is a much more diverse operating system than iOS and Windows Phone Mobile.Hangs a lot: Android is good at lagging and continuously hanging your phone. whatever you do it annoys a lot. Android has grown rapidly over the past 4 years becoming the most used smart phone operating system in the world. Whether you are playing “Temple Run” or you are browsing your gallery or you are surfing internet. adding their own twist. 17 . Android's ability to customize is unparalleled compared to Apple's and Microsoft's software allowing the user to change and customize nearly every aspect of Android which most iPhone and Windows 7 users wouldn't dream possible. We are not saying that Android is better or worse than one OS. its hangs a lot. but countless phones from numerous companies. throughout the year.

References: http://www.com/android/ http://www.coreservlets.com/android-tutorial/ http://www.android.android.com/training/index.com http://en.html 18 .org/wiki/Android_(operating system) https://developer.com/blog/android-kitkat-features https://developer.com/about/index.android.lynda.html https://www.hongkiat.com/Android-training-tutorials/947-0.html http://www.wikipedia.tutorialspoint.