< oliVER1439 (^ L^) daNkE – gErIaTrI‘11 >

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN
TITLE
CHILDREN

GROWTHDEVELOPMENT
IN CHILDREN

NOTE



Have a typical characteristic → always growth & development → different from the adult.
Children is not a miniature of the adult
The law protection of child No. 23 year 2002
Section 4 from the law protection of child : every child is entitled to be able to live, growth, develop and
participating to the manner born
 Child :
 conception – 18 years (Convention of Child Right /CRC and Indonesian Child Protection Right)
 Based on :
 anatomical growth (epipyphise clossing, reproductive system maturation etc. )
 Psychosocial development (adolescent  adulthood)
 Child not a miniature of adult !!
 Specific aspects : growth and development

 GROWTH  the change of large, amount, measures or dimension of the cell stage, organ and individual
- body weight, body length, bone age, circumference head, circumference of the arm
 DEVELOPMENT increasing of the skill in struture and body function which more complex, regular
pattern, can be forecasted, the result of process maturation

1

the appliance have been formed & start to function birth Advanced foetus  final trimester of growth take place fastly & existence of growth of functions of Ig G transfer. the vanish of primitive reflects 2 . progress of growth of motor & function of escretion stable of the growth. body nine weeks . the change of blood circulation.< oliVER1439 (^ L^) daNkE – gErIaTrI‘11 > STAGE OF GROWTHDEVELOPMENT STAGE STAGE 1 The periods of prenatal (intra uterin) STAGE 2 The periods of postnatal (after birth) STAGE 3 The periods of preschool (2-6 yr) The periods of school ( 6-10 yr. start to the function of body organ b.acceleration growth. corporeal activity increase & the increasing of skilled & process of thinking rapid growth.The periods of The periods of early baby (1-12 months)  rapid baby growth. 8-12 yr) The periods of adolescent (10-18 yr. forming of physic. like to play in the team the transition of period of child to adult. fall out of the milkteeth. skill and intelectual more expand. The periods of Early Foetus (9 weeks – trimester 2)  foetus  age of acceleration growth. Growth process  disappearing of the thymus gland. Center body in umbilicus. adult as high as pubis symphisis.the increasing of nerve system function The periods of final baby (1-2 years)  speed of growth start decrease. The periods of embryo  conception– age of eight weeks b. marking of secondary sex NOTE Physical . The periods of neonatal (0-28 days)  adaption to environment. increasing of the body organ  improvement of requirement of body increased Head of the newborn baby relative have the bigger proportion than age furthermore.12-20 yr) STAGE 4 STAGE 5 CHARACTERISTI C OF GROWTH PERIOD CHARACTERISTIC Change of measure Change Of proportion The vanish of old marking NOTE a. the accumulation of fat of esensial (Omega 3 and Omega 6) a. maturation process take place continue.

< oliVER1439 (^ L^) daNkE – gErIaTrI‘11 > Appear of the new marking CURVE GROWTH PATTERN the maturation effect of organ function  permanet tooth. the marking of secondary sex CURVE GROWTH PATTERN PATTERN GROWTH OF GENERAL NOTE    PATTERN GROWTH OF ORGAN LIMFOID  PATTERN GROWTH OF BRAIN AND HEAD  Characteristic  body length Fast until age 2 yr  stabile (influence of growth hormone) Puberty  effect hormone of sex  the growth go on quickly  stopping Growth quickly until 200% at age 12 yr. downhill gradually until adult age become 100%  child at the period of puberty stronger endurance relative Brain & head are growth more quickly than other organ since intrauterine 3 .

lightly pigmented. medial border of labia Darker. 1962 4 . Blackwell Scientific Publications. straight. no contour separation Areola and papilla form secondary mound Mature. Larger. spread to medial surface of thighs 5 *Adapted from Tanner JM: Growth at Adolescence. Classification of Sex Maturity Stages in Girls (Tanner) SMR Stage 1 2 3 4 5 PUBIC HAIR BREAST Preadolescent Sparse. curly. pink texture altered Larger Larger. Oxford. Oxford. beginning to curl. Classification of Sex Maturity Stages in Boys (Tanner) Table 3. spread to medial surface of thighs Preadolescent Breast and papilla elevated as small mound. scrotum dark Adult size *Adapted from Tanner JM: Growth at Adolescence. areolar diameter increased Breast and areola enlarged. increased amount Coarse. small amount Longer 4 Resembles adult type. Blackwell Scientific Publications. long. starts to curl. abundant but amount less than in adult Adult feminine triangle. 2nd ed. 1962 PUBIC HAIR TESTES Preadolescent Enlarged scrotum. and breadth coarse. 2nd ed. curly increase in size Adult size Adult distribution. areola part of general breast contour SMR Stage PENIS 1 2 None Scanty.< oliVER1439 (^ L^) daNkE – gErIaTrI‘11 > PATTERN GROWTH OF ORGAN REPRODUCE    SEX SECONDER DEVELOPMENT A period of child  growth development sex organ very tardy A period of puberty  remarkable acceleration Growth of organ reproduce in line with growth of ability of sexual GIRL BOY Table 4. nipple projects. slightly pigmented Preadolescent Slight enlargement 3 Darker. glans but less in quantity.

6 1.3 cm cm cm cm / months / months / months /months 5 .8 1.< oliVER1439 (^ L^) daNkE – gErIaTrI‘11 > CHILD GROWTH TITLE INCREASES OF PHYSICAL SIZES NOTE INCREASES OF PHYSICAL SIZES HEIGHT NOTE   Addition of body length  Trimester I :  Timester II :  Trimester III :  Trimester IV : Addition of body length 2.4 2.6 1.3 1.9 1.2 – – – – 4.

2-12 yr = age (year) x 6 + 77 Influence of genetic to body height Range of predictional final height at 18 years old Boys = (Father + mother height + 13 cm ) 2 Girls = (Father + mother height – 13 cm) 2 WEIGHT   + 8. urinary tract infection.5 cm Influenced by :  Genetic (clan)  Intake nutrition (eat. Age 1 yr = 75 cm c.< oliVER1439 (^ L^) daNkE – gErIaTrI‘11 >  0-3 mth = 3.0 cm/mth  6-9 mth = 1.0 cm/yr  4-6 yr = 3.0 cm/yr  Estimate of body length a.5 cm/mth  9-12mth = 1. drink. hormone  Chronic disease (heart. tuberculosis)  content water and body fat Addition of body weight  Trimester I : 700 – 1000 gram/month  Timester II : 500 – 600 gram/month 6 .5 cm/mth  3-6 mth = 2. snack)  Absorbtion of intestine & escretion  Physical activity  Metabolism of the body.2 cm/mth  1-3 yr = 1. Born = 50 cm b.5 cm + 8.

grandma GENATIC INTRAUTERINE PROCESS nutrition. disease untill age 3 year  close with mental retardation Age ~ brain 20 weak ~ 100 g Born ~ 400 g 18 month ~ 800 g FACTOR OF GROWTH FACTOR INTERNAL EXTERNAL 3 year ~ 1100 g Adult ~ 1400 g NOTE father. disease. drug. polution. emotional support 7 . disease.< oliVER1439 (^ L^) daNkE – gErIaTrI‘11 > HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE      Trimester III : 350 – 450 gram/month  Timester IV : 250 – 350 gram/month Relating to growth of brain volume Circumference head more bigger (macrocephaly)  88 % IQ normally  5 % mild mental retardation  7 % severe mental retardation (Lober & Priestly. grandpa. mother. birth. exercise. polution. 1981) Circumference head more small than normally (microcephaly)  mental retardation History of pregnancy. toxin nutrition.

quality of family. fine motor 3. emosional. cognitive (knowledge. Sosial. self help 7.language and hearing 8 . leadership 9. inteligence) 4. visual 2. school  4 aspects of development  1. result from increased of the maturatiy body organ system function  Development entangle the change  every growth accompanied by change of function. behavioral 2. behavior 6. spiritual  Increases maturation of organ system : mainly brain and neuromuscular system  Determinant factors of child development  internal : genetic + intrauterine processes  external : nutrition. speech.< oliVER1439 (^ L^) daNkE – gErIaTrI‘11 > DEVELOPMENT TITLE DEFINITION OF DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERISTIC OF DEVELOPMENT CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHILD DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS NOTE Development  increasing of the ability/ function from all the body organ systems. baby sitter (care-givers). Sensory : auditory. Fine motor and vision 3. creativity 8. example development of the reproduction system accompanied by change of organ sexual  Early development determining the growth hereinafter. diseases. communication / language 5. Gross motor 4. playmates. Motor : gross. socio-emotional. Cann’t pass one development phase before passing step before all  Development have the constant pattern  area lead to caudal (cephalocaudal) area of proximal to shares of distal (proximodistal)  Development have the successive phase  successive and regular pattern  Development have the different speedy  Development have the correlation with growth  Increases of all child functions 1.

Genetic  The parents : father. nation II. Environment 9 . grandfather  Sex.< oliVER1439 (^ L^) daNkE – gErIaTrI‘11 > What is the role ? I.grandmother. mother. ethnic.