OPTIMHO

Static Distance Protection Relays

Figure 1. Optimho (Type LFZP) relays

Features

● Eight independent groups of
settings can be stored in the relay.

● Full scheme distance relays with
18, 12, 9 or 6 measuring units.

● A second blocking scheme is
available on selected models for
use with signalling equipment.

● Phase and ground distance or
phase distance protection.
● Single or multiple zones.
● Optional directional earth fault
protection.
● Typical operating time: one cycle
for three phase faults.
● Optional fault location includes
mutual compensation on selected
models.
● Optional data recording for post
fault analysis and instrumentation
functions.

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● Integral user interface for easy
access to relay setting and fault
records.
● Provision for remote
communications via modems.

Benefits
● Wide model range for accurate
matching to applications.
● Remote interrogation reduces need
for site visits.

● Precise fault location, even on
double-circuit lines together with
fault information reduces outage
time.
● Accurate fault information provides
for in-depth fault analysis.
● Changes to alternative groups of
settings can be accomplished with a
single command.
● Self diagnosis reduces maintenance
costs.
● Vertical case option eases retrofit
problems.
● Will interface with existing scheme
logic.
● Fulfils basic SCADA role at no extra
cost.

Summary Chart
Transmission and
sub transmission
main protection
LFZP Model

Sub-transmission
and distribution
main protection

Back
up
only

111

112

113

114

121

122

123

131

132

151

Phase distance

Ground distance

DEF

Fault location with mutual compensation

Overhead lines

9

6

Fault location

Underground cables

Independent zones Z1

Reach stepped zones

18

18

18

Open delta/3 limb VTs
No. of distance elements

12

12

12

12

Z1

Z1

Z1

Z1

Z1

Z1

Z1

Z2

Z2

Z2

Z2

Z1

Z1

Z2

Z2

Z3

Z3

Z3

Z3

Z3

Z3

Z3

Z1X

Z1X

Z1X

Z1X

Z1X

Z1X

Z1X

Z1X

Z1X

Z1Y

Z1Y

Z1Y

Z1Y

Z1Y

Z1Y

Z1Y

Z1Y

Z1Y

Z2

Z2

Z2

Reversible zones

6

Z3

Single pole tripping

VT supervision

3 phase fuse blow supervision

Power swing blocking

Loss of load trip feature

No. of output contacts

24

24

24

24

16

16

16

16

16

8

Basic

Z1 Extension

Acceleration

Schemes

Distance
Characteristic

PUR

PUR Unblock

POR1

POR1 Unblock

POR2

POR2 WI Trip

POR2 Unblock

POR2 WI Trip Unblock

Blocking

Blocking 2

Z1, Z1X, Z1Y, Z2 Phase
Z1, Z1X, Z1Y, Z2 Ground
Z3 Phase

m

m

m

m

m

c

m

m

m

q/m

m

c

f

f

L

L

L

N

N

N

Q/L

L

L

D/N

N

N

Negative sequence volts

Zero seq current

Z3 Ground
DEF
polarising

m
q/m

Zero seq volts

Zero seq volts+current

P

N
N

● = standard, ● = optional, m = shaped mho, f = fully crossed polarised mho,
q = quadrilateral, c = shaped mho for cables, D = offset quadrilateral, N = offset lenticular,
Q = D/rev q, L = N/rev m, P = N/rev f. For further information see Page 6.

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The hardware uses multiple microcontrollers to perform as comparators. A vertical aspect. such as harmonic distortion. Operation of the phase comparators and level detectors can only occur if the input signals are dominated by power frequency components. enhancing the already outstanding family of distance protection available from GEC ALSTHOM T&D Protection & Control. are only accessible after removing the transparent front cover. the full scheme system improves reliability by avoiding 4 the need to rely on phase selection hardware or software and by removing dependence on a single measuring unit. and the READ key can then be used to step through all the relay settings displayed in sequence. location (if available). travelling wave effects. The layout of the relay case follows the ‘quiet region’ arrangement introduced in Micromho and Quadramho. The cursor and SET keys. – Three-pole or single-and-three-pole tripping. auto-transformers and shunt reactors (LFZP 151) – protection of solid or resistance earthed systems. they can be cleared by pressing RESET. Many of the other hardware and software features of Quadramho have been retained and further enhanced in Optimho. The relay hardware is bus-structured to allow printed circuit boards to be plugged into the case in different combinations. See Figure 3. Compared with the switched type of scheme. – phase selection to allow. serial communications. and the two test sockets. with the minimum of panel disturbance. read signals from the outside world via optically coupled isolators. The menu has a simple structure. and front panel. each suitable for a specific range of applications. 122 or 132 with one zone enabled). Filters are used to ensure this dominance and to optimise operating times. are summoned by pressing READ. Optimised Performance with Distorted Signals The phase comparators and level detectors use logic processing to achieve immunity from maloperation due to noise. Micromho and Quadramho. for example. Integral User Interface All relay settings and records are accessible from the integral user interface shown in Figure 4. indications. panel mounted version can be used for replacing obsolescent electromechanical distance relays in narrow panels. Accidental changes are prevented by allowing SET to be operative only at certain points in the menu after appropriate warnings have been displayed. Optimho complements the well established Micromho and Quadramho. power supply unit. Hardware Structure All models are built up from a small range of standard printed circuit boards used as modular building blocks. – on-site replacement of obsolescent electro-mechanical or switched static distance relays. with measurement and control boards located in a screened compartment and fed with signals from the outside world via screened isolation devices and filters. This phase comparator design is well tried. and more. communicate with the user interface and perform scheme logic. etc. All models use the same relay case. Settings. The more basic models have reduced hardware and software to suit the simpler requirements of sub-transmission and distribution systems. The faulty phase and zone are indicated for trips initiated by the distance elements. and to enter new settings into temporary memory. A main microcontroller uses the digital bus to read outputs from the subsidiary microcontrollers. (See Figure 2). The latest alarm condition is also indicated. high and low frequency capacitor voltage transformer transients and current transformer saturation. The liquid crystal display (Icd) indicates how the relay initiated the latest trip. These can include ehv applications depending on the fault clearance time required. and fault records are stored in a type of memory which is unaffected by loss of dc supply. having accumulated nearly ten thousand relay years of successful operating experience over the last decade at locations throughout the world. Principles of Operation All models of Optimho are full scheme distance relays which have a full set of measuring elements for each main zone of protection. a power line carrier phase comparison scheme (such as P10) to carry out single pole tripping (LFZP 114). – protection of systems with open-delta line voltage transformers or 3–phase 3–limb line voltage transformers (LFZP 131 or 132). The more sophisticated models have features and functional abilities which can fulfil the most exacting duties. – single zone relays used in multiple zone schemes to provide ultra-high reliability by additional redundancy of protection (LFZP 121. If indications are present when the supply is lost. The measuring element uses a microcontroller to produce a direct software equivalent of the hardware phase comparator used in Optimho’s forerunners. – back-up protection of transformers. The keys are used to select from a menu of options displayed on the Icd in English. Full scheme distance relays are better able to cope with inter-circuit faults on double circuit lines and evolving faults. with or without the aid of a signalling channel. allowing rapid familiarisation. The SET key is used to transfer temporary entries to the permanent memory which determines relay action. After the indications have been read. The range of applications includes: – main and back-up protection of overhead lines and underground cables including transformer feeders. level detectors. . The date and time of the fault.Applications of Optimho Optimho is produced in several models. they are automatically reinstated when the supply is restored. ensuring the highest standards of reliability. monitoring and output contact functions.

and closing selected output contacts (for instance to carry out a circuit breaker test) – setting up the baud rate and protocol for the serial communications. alarms. monitoring diagnostics 8 Output relays Trips. etc.Level detector board + AC supply supervision Optional boards shown in broken outline Zone 1 and 2 board (Alternatively zones 1. Output auxiliary relays and status input optical isolators Figure 3. The available options depend upon the model of Optimho. – comprehensive test options such as: monitoring test points on the parallel socket. simplified on-load directional testing. User interface on front panel 5 . 2 and3) + Additional reach – stepped zones AC inputs VA VB VC VN Analogue input module ΙA ΙB ΙC ΙN Ιp User interface 7 Optical isolators Zone 3 board + Power swing blocking Status inputs Digital bus Analogue bus Settings from digital bus Quadrilateral ground fault board 8 Output relays DEF board Fault location board + Fault data and instrumentation 8 Output relays Main controller board + Schemes. but usually include: – which distance zones are enabled (up to 5 zones) Light emitting diodes DISTANCE PROTECTION Settings – scheme type User interface on hinged front panel ALARM RELAY AVAILABLE SET PARALLEL RESET ACCEPT/READ 7 Keys – only RESET and ACCEPT/READ accessible with front cover in place SERIAL Test sockets – whether ground fault time delayed zones (if fitted) are enabled Figure 4. including: Fully screened power supply unit enclosure Terminal blocks Terminal block Analogue input module – viewing records of the Icd indications from the last four faults. comms. blocking output contacts (the relay inoperative alarm contact closes when the output contacts are blocked). Measurement and control boards in fully screened compartment – printing records or settings on a portable printer plugged into the parallel test socket – entering a relay identification code for use on printouts. settings. Mechanical layout of LFZP 2 x 16 character liquid crystal display TRIP The setting options allow the user to select functions to suit each application. RS232C serial link to remote terminal Figure 2. Electrical structure of LFZP Menu Options The menu holds an extensive range of options.

Z2 and Z3. The menu is adaptive. Single pole tripping logic is available in some models. with a small proportion of cross polarising: used for ground fault protection of underground cables at high and medium voltages. its time setting is automatically removed from the menu. c Self polarised mho.X Numbers are source impedance/relay setting ratios 0 1 6 12 24 60 R Figure 5. Loss of load accelerated tripping feature is available on some models for use with 3 pole tripping. Expansion under fault conditions is more than adequate to cover arc and tower footing resistance for most systems. Additional zones 1X and 1Y are obtained. Models having independent Zone 1. See Figure 7. Most models have basic distance with up to 3 independent zones available. 6 . if required. q Quadrilateral with adaptive reactance measurement to avoid overreach or underreach for resistive faults with prefault load. Reach stepped zones whose timers are started by Zone 3 automatically avoid load encroachment if Zone 3 is shaped to avoid the load impedance. The reverse reach is used for busbar back-up protection in Zone 3 time. Models offering selectable. See Figure 5. also the blocking scheme. The phase comparator is arranged to produce several types of distance characteristics for the different models of Optimho. while on some other models. or on systems with high ground resistivity. Zone 3 is omitted. Resistive expansion of partially cross-polarised mho under fault conditions for solidly grounded systems – direction of reach-stepped zones or of Zone 3 (if fitted) Distance Characteristics – whether start indications are required for remote faults which do not result in a trip. for example. Zone 2 and Zone 3 have additional permissive overreach and unblocking schemes with weak infeed logic. Page 3. On some models Zone 2 is obtained by stepping the reach of Zone 1. with excellent phase selection. A circular offset setting for shorter lines is included. Schemes Available The scheme selection varies with the model of Optimho. D Offset quadrilateral: as type q but with reverse reach for busbar back-up protection in Zone 3 time. These schemes require Zone 3 to be set reverse looking. permissive overreach and unblocking schemes are complete with current reversal guard logic and open breaker echo logic. For further information see Summary. See Figure 6. L Selectable between type N and reverse type m. N Offset lenticular with a variable aspect ratio set to avoid load encroachment on long lines. Q Selectable between type D and reverse type q. by stepping the reach of the Zone 1 elements after time delays started by the Zone 2 and/or Zone 3 elements. Characteristic type Description m Partially cross polarised shaped mho with partial synchronous polarising for 3-phase faults. Similar to type m above but used where only phase fault protection is required. P Selectable between type N and reverse type f. – eight independent groups of settings which are stored in the relay memory and are selectable from the menu. on resistance neutral systems. f Fully cross polarised (or quadrature polarised) mho with partial synchronous polarising for 3-phase faults. if Zone 2 is not required and has been disabled. designated Z1. The resistive reach setting is variable up to 150Ω (1A relay) or 30Ω (5A relay). The directional measurement is partially cross polarised. The quadrilateral is used instead of type m above to cover ground fault resistance on overhead lines shorter than 15km.

67 b The KITZ103 and the LFZP act as a single slave device over K-Bus. for instance a telephone line. This provides a clear directional reference even in the presence of capacitor voltage transformer transients. The K-Bus is connected through a second KITZ protocol convertor either directly or via a modem to the RS232 port of the PC.0 and higher) and any Courier based Access Software packages can be used to communicate with the Optimho.41 R8521 R8532 OptiCom 100/140 Settings Database and File Transfer 0. The partial synchronous polarising is similar to partial cross polarising but is effective for 3-phase faults. and dominates it for close-up unbalanced fault conditions. The socket on the rear can also interface with a modem for communication over a suitable link. Opticom 100 (version 5. twisted wire pair known as K-Bus. 7 . bit framing and the exploitation of Courier features.00 a 0. The interconnection is via a shielded. Synchronous polarising is derived from prefault voltage and is available for 16 cycles after fault incidence to cover breaker failure protection time.Remote Communications X The facility to bulk transfer settings. Sockets are provided on both the front and the rear of the relay for temporary or permanent connection respectively. Lenticular Zone 3 R5928 Polarising The partial cross polarising signal used in various distance characteristics is a square wave derived from a healthy phase reference and 16% of the amplitude of the prefault voltage. the Optimho can be interconnected to relays in the GEC ALSTHOM K range. The K-Bus is RS485 based and runs at 64 kbits/s For more detailed information on the application of Optimho over K-Bus. Quadrilateral ground fault characteristics From the same PC. including modem connections. event records and metering information (providing a fault locator is fitted) is available using GEC ALSTHOM T&D Protection & Control pc based software ‘Opticom’ Zone 1 Direction al line Zones 1 Zone 3 reverse X Zone 3 Aspect ratios a/b 1. baud rates. see Figure 8. KITZ 101/102 Interface Unit RH Resist Zone 2 By using KITZ103 interface unit. KITZ 103 K-Bus to Optimho Interface R &2 Figure 6. Load area R Zone 3 reverse Figure 7. reference should be made to the following service manuals: ive reach ive reach Zone 3 LH Resist All the options available on the menu are also available from a local or remote terminal via an RS232C serial communication port. This wave is added to the faulty phase voltage. Up to 32 relays may be connected in parallel across the bus.

Directional Earth Fault Protection (not available in all models) The directional earth fault protection (DEF) has these features selectable via the user interface: – time delayed tripping.Transmitted data 3 . Fault Data Recording and Instrumentation (not available in all models) The fault location algorithm includes compensation for infeed into a resistive fault from remote source with prefault load flow. At any time under healthy live line conditions. As the fault location hardware is largely separate from that of the distance measuring elements.Signal ground Connector shell to cable screen 2 2 3 7 1 1 Screen points are internally connected LFZP 100 (OPTIMHO)rear serial port type 25 pin ‘D’ male connector (DTE) 1 . zero sequence current from a 8 separate current input zero sequence voltage (in some models) derived internally from VA. See Figure 9. (For pin assignment numbers see table) KITZ103 KBUS LFZP 100 (Optimho) Interface * + _ 150R All Table showing connections between KITZ103 serial port and LFZP 100 (OPTIMHO) rear serial port (For reference only. A magnetising inrush current detector is provided to prevent maloperation when energising in-zone transformers. the line voltages. unlike second harmonic restraint. allowing greater sensitivity than is possible with fixed filters tuned to the nominal system frequency.Received data 2 . – choice of polarising for the directional element: negative sequence voltage derived from internal filters (compared against negative sequence current). These values can be compared with other instrumentation for accuracy. sharing the same signalling channel.Protective ground 2 . available if the model of Optimho has no Zone 1 instantaneous ground fault elements fitted. – aided tripping via permissive overreach. dual zero sequence current and voltage (some models only). together with negative and zero sequence current and voltage can be read out to allow analysis of the power system network as it was at the time of fault. These values. Some versions of the fault locator can be mutually compensated if required. The circuit uses the principle of detecting zeros in the current lasting for a quarter-cycle or more. Fault Location. unblocking. Readout of the fault location can be selected to be in kilometres.) KITZ103 25 pin ‘D’ male connector (DTE) KITZ103 1 .Auxiliary supply voltage KITZ101/102 + KBUS/IEC870 Interface Typical ‘K’ series relay _ 150R 2 TX 3 RX 7 Signal GND 1 Protective GND 2 1 Screen When Fitted Typical ‘K’ series relay Terminals 54 Terminals 54 56 56 Screen Link All points are internally connected LFZP 100 (Optimho) Relay Auxiliary supply voltage (Rear Port) 2 TX 3 RX 7 Signal GND 1 Protective GND IBM or compatible P. The overcurrent elements use zero sequence current as the operating quantity irrespective of the type of polarising used for the directional element. The negative sequence filters are selfadaptive to system frequency. This method is inherently unaffected by current transformer saturation. VB and VC. Typical application diagram: KBUS/LFZP 100 (Optimho) Interface Type KITZ103 Several cycles must elapse from system energisation before synchronous polarising is available. protection accuracy can be crosschecked with fault location accuracy during secondary injection tests.Transmitted data 7 . The fault location board also computes prefault and fault voltages and currents phase-by-phase. Please refer to PC user manual where available. This feature can not be used if zero sequence current polarising is required for the DEF. or blocking schemes (depending on the model). currents. so switch-on-to-fault logic is arranged to provide protection for close-up 3-phase faults during this initial period.Received data 7 .C. miles or percent of line length. – instantaneous high-set tripping. and rms amplitudes in primary or secondary terms.Protective ground 3 . either definite time or inverse definite minimum time using a selection of built-in IEC or American curves. watts and vars can be calculated on demand. . All voltages and currents are given with phase angle relative to prefault VA. The duration of the fault is also determined.Signal ground Connector shell to cable screen Figure 8. which work in conjunction with the distance scheme.

1 10 5 Current (Multipule of Ιs) IEC curves 1 Curve 1 Standard inverse: Curve 2 Very inverse: 50 100 t = 0.01 0.100 50 50 10 10 5 Operating Time t (seconds) Operating Time t (seconds) 100 Curve 4 Curve 1 1 5 Curve 5 Curve 6 Curve 7 1 0.5 Curve 2 Curve 8 Curve 3 0.04 Operating Time (s) 0.5 Ι–1 Curve 3 Extremely inverse: t = 80 Ι2–1 1 5 10 Current (Multipule of Ιs) American curves 50 100 Curve 5 US moderate inverse Curve 6 US standard inverse Curve 7 US very inverse Curve 8 US extremely inverse Curve 4 Longtime earth fault: t = 120 Ι–1 Figure 9.5 0.03 0.00 0.01 40 60 80 Fault location (% of relay setting) 100 0.14 Ι0. DEF Protection time delay trip times 0.04 Operating Time (s) 0. 50Hz operating times (MHO characteristic) 9 .00 0 20 40 60 80 Fault location (% of relay setting) 100 Figure 10.1 0.02 Mean Minimum 0 20 Minimum 0.02 0.03 Source impedence Relay setting = 30 Source impedence =1 Relay setting Maximum Mean Maxim um 0.02 –1 t = 13.

02 0. 50Hz operating times (quadrilateral characteristic) 0.04 Operating Time (s) 0.02 0.02 Minimum Minimum 0. 60Hz operating times (quadrilateral characteristic) 10 Maximum 0.02 Maximum 0.02 Minimum Mean Minimum 0.04 Operating Time (s) 0.0.03 = 30 Maximum Mean 0.01 0.03 0.00 Source impedence =1 Relay setting 0.01 0.04 Operating Time (s) 0.00 0 20 40 60 80 Fault location (% of relay setting) 100 Figure 12.01 0.04 Operating Time (s) 0.00 0 20 40 60 80 Fault location (% of relay setting) 100 Figure 11.03 0.00 0 20 40 60 80 Fault location (% of relay setting) 100 .03 Source impedence = 30 Relay setting Maximum Mean Minimum 0.04 Operating Time (s) 0.02 =1 imum Max Mean 0.00 Source impedence Relay setting 0 20 40 60 80 Fault location (% of relay setting) 100 0.04 Source impedence Relay setting Operating Time (s) 0.01 0.00 Source impedence =1 Relay setting Mean Minimum 0.03 Source impedence = 30 Relay setting Maximum Mean 0.03 0. 60Hz operating times (MHO characteristic) 0.01 0 20 40 60 80 Fault location (% of relay setting) 100 Figure 13.01 0 20 40 60 80 Fault location (% of relay setting) 100 0.

Selection Chart 1 11 . Optional fault location Yes No LFZP 121 Optional fault location LFZP 122 Optional fault location Any of the following? *weak infeed POR/unblocking scheme? *blocking scheme? *back–up for reverse faults? *power swing blocking? Yes No LFZP 112 Optional DEF. The alternative shaped mho ground fault measuring elements. If a failure occurs. On power systems where most faults are ground faults. All models have an optically coupled isolator to monitor the auxiliary contact of a miniature circuit breaker if the VT supplies are protected by an MCB instead of fuses. Optional fault locator In some models specified above. and (ii) the ac supplies and internal analogue voltage and current circuits (the latter only if the model of Optimho has voltage transformer supervision). No Yes No Yes Quadrilateral ground fault elements? Quadrilateral ground fault elements? No Yes LFZP 111 Optional DEF. or to remain sealed in until the reset button is pressed. are automatically brought into action to restore the ground fault protection. Energising the optical isolator blocks relay operation. trip signals originating from the affected part of the relay are blocked. The VT supervision logic can be set to block relay operation in the event of failure of a VT fuse. an optional external device for monitoring 3 phase fuse blow via the RELAY BLOCKED optoisolator is available. located on a different board. Monitoring of the analogue circuits includes (i) the dc supply and all internal dc power supply rails. The VT supervision logic can be selected via the menu to self reset.Self-Monitoring and Voltage Transformer Fuse/MCB Supervision START Optimho has comprehensive continuous self-monitoring. In the event of failure. Optional fault locator LFZP 114 Optional DEF. it will be necessary to disable unwanted zones and facilities with settings on the menu. this capability considerably increases the overall availability of the relay. Ground Fault Distance? Underground cables? In models with quadrilateral ground fault characteristics. an alarm is issued by closing the relay inoperative alarm contact and extinguishing the relay available led. Either of the following: *voltage transformer supervision? *power swing blocking? Yes Yes No Go to chart 2 No DEF Scheme? Any of the following: *week infeed POR unblocking scheme? *blocking scheme? *back-up for reverse faults? Yes No Yes No LFZP 131 With DEF OK for open-delta Or 3–limb VTs Optional fault locaton LFZP 132 With DEF OK for open-delta Or 3–limb VTs Optional fault locaton Any of the following: *single pole tripping? *permissive undereach scheme (PUR)? *permisssive overreach Scheme (POR)? *unblocking scheme? *power swing blocking? In addition. Monitoring of the digital circuits includes (i) bus communications (ii) checking of RAM and EEPROM and (iii) watchdog circuits for every microcontroller. remedial action is performed if the quadrilateral measuring circuits fail. Diagnostic information is automatically displayed if the failure is such that it does not disable the main processor and Icd.

it will be necessary to disable unwanted zones and facilities with settings on the menu.Contact Arrangements Most models are pre-programmed to give a choice of at least two output contact arrangements. A facility to control the setting group selected via five optical isolators is available on all models. No Yes Go to chart 1 Yes No LFZP 113 Optional fault location Optional DEF LFZP 123 Optional fault location No DEF In some models specified above. Selection Chart 2 A facility to control the setting group selected via three optical isolators is available on all models. so that a customer’s existing protection scheme can be operated in conjunction with Optimho if required. Optional fault location No LFZP 114 Optional DEF. it will be necessary to disable unwanted zones and facilities with settings on the menu. Optional fault location LFZP 132 with DEF. Optional fault location Yes No LFZP 151 No fault location LFZP 122 Optional fault location In some models specified above. Full scheme options are provided and three setting groups are available. One of these is arranged to give direct access to the relay’s measuring units via the output relay contacts. START Underground cables? Any of the following? *single pole tripping? *blocking scheme? *PUR scheme? *power swing blocking? *POR scheme? *capacitor voltage *unblocking scheme? transformers? Other Options To be specified with order. START Single Zone Distance? No Yes Go to chart 1 Any of the following: *ground fault distance? *voltage transformer supervision? *power swing blocking? No Yes Any of the following: *single pole tripping? *power swing blocking? *DEF? Offset characteristic? No Yes Either of the following: *offset characteristic? *power swing blocking? LFZP 131 with DEF. The other arrangements take advantage of the Optimho’s own integral scheme logic. Selection Chart 3 12 . Optional fault location Offset characteristic Yes LFZP 112 Optional DEF.

Reset indications Signal send 14 2A16 2A15 2B16 2B15 76 72 60 68 80 64 84 51 2A 20 2A 19 79 2B20 2B 19 Any Trip Opto–isolator inputs when required: a b c CRX Open contact from signalling channel COX Close contact from signalling channel RZIX Open contact from auto–reclose relay CBAUX Closed circuit breaker contacts connected in series to indicate all poles open. WI. Required with busbar VT or if the weak infeed or echo feature of POR scheme are required Fuses or MCB Alternative voltage transformer connection for LFZP 131 & 132 15 16 17 18 Test block LFZP MCB Closed contact from minature circuit breaker required when no VT fuses are used RI Open contact to reset visual indications IPD Open contact from auto–reclose relay required with single phase tripping if PSB or DEF options are used. Case connection diagram for relay inputs 13 .Direction of power flow for operation P2 A B A P1 S2 C C B Phase rotation A B C MMLG Test block or Equivalent N 2A1 2A2 2A3 2A4 2A5 2A6 2A7 2A8 2A9 2A10 2A11 2A12 a b 2A21 2A22 c 2A23 2A24 LFZP 111 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Fuses or MCB 2B21 2B22 2B23 2B24 2B25 2B26 2B27 2B28 2A25 2A26 S2 S1 P2 2A27 2A28 15 16 17 18 27 28 P1 DEF current polarisation when required – + 2A13 2A14 A13 2B13 2B14 CRX 2B9 2B10 17 19 74 COX 2B7 2B8 13 15 70 RZ1X 2B1 2B2 1 3 CB AUX 2B5 2B6 9 11 66 5 7 MCB IPD 2B11 2B12 2B3 2B4 R1 58 78 21 62 23 82 External resistor box required for 220/250V supply only 2A17 2A 18 49 2B17 2B18 77 DC supply Signal receive Channel out of service Rest zone 1 extension Breaker open Relay blocked Inhibit PSB. DEF. Opto must be energised during single pole dead times For the unblocking mode of operation use CRX for the unblock frequency (trip frequency) and RZIX for the block frequency (guard frequency) Figure 14.

External resistor box provided for 220/250V version (see Figure 16). AC current: 2. Maximum overload ratings AC voltage: 1.2Vn for measuring accuracy 1.008 to 50Ω (Ιn = 5A) Underground cable models 0.5 to 60V 64.1 to 125Ω (Ιn = 1A) 0. available in three versions: Nominal range Operative withstand Maximum 48/54V 37.5V 150V 220/250V 175 to 275V 300V There is negligible change of accuracy with change of voltage within the operative range of the relay.8V 110/125V 87.2 Hz DC Supply Vx(1): For switched mode dc/ac/dc power supply unit.004 to 25Ω (Ιn = 5A) Overhead line models 14 .2 to 250Ω (Ιn = 1A) 0.4 to 61.5 to 137.02 to 125Ω (Ιn = 1A) and LFZP 151 0.04 to 50Ω (Ιn = 5A) Underground cable models 0.5Vn continuous withstand 2.5 VA per phase (Ιn = 5A) DC supply (1): 18W under healthy live line conditions at Vx(1) 28W maximum DC supply (2): 10mA per energised optically coupled isolator at Vx(2).5Vn withstand for 10s.Technical Data Ratings AC voltage Vn: 100 to 120V rms phase-phase AC current Ιn: 1A or 5A rms per phase Frequency fn: 50Hz or 60Hz Operating frequency range: 47 to 51Hz or 56.08 VA per phase (Ιn = 1A) 0. Supply options are the same as Vx(1).02 to 25Ω (Ιn = 5A) Overhead line models Reverse Zone 3 0. Distance Elements Range of positive sequence settings referred to line VT and CT secondaries: All employed zones except reverse Zone 3: 0.04 to 250Ω (Ιn = 1A)) 0. DC supply Vx(2): For optically coupled isolators.1 VA per phase at Vn AC current circuits: 0.4Ιn continuous withstand 100Ιn withstand for 1s (Ιn = 1A) 80Ιn withstand for 1s (Ιn = 5A) Burdens AC voltage circuits: 0.

00. Either KZ1 or KZPh is set to 1. Attenuation factors KZPh and KZN operate on current signals and are common to all zones.2 to 49. KZ1Y.001 KZ1 KZ1X KZ1Y KZ2 KZ3 1. 25°. To obtain the formula for each of the other zones employed.00 to 49. The positive sequence reach for Zone 1 is given by: Zone 1 = KZ1. Extra settings for ground fault distance: Residual compensation factor: KZN = ZL0 . 40°. KZ1X. Zone 1 = KZ1.98 steps of 0.02 KZ3’ 0. 5/21n for underground cable models. Attenuation factors KZ1. KZ2. replace KZ1 by the appropriate attenuation factor for the zone.5/Ιn (LFZP 121) KZPh 0.5/In for overhead line models.000 to 1.360 in steps of 0. 0.001 KZN 0. 35°. 15 . KZPh. 60° or 70° (LFZP 123 only) Vectorial residual compensation for ground fault distance: U N = arg (ZL0 . Quadrilateral resistive reach settings: Right hand reach = KR. 30°. Zone 1X. Zone 1Y. KZ3 and KZ3’ operate on voltage signals and are specific to Zone 1.ZL1) to nearest available setting U N = 50° to 85° in 5° steps (overhead line models) U N = --45°.000.6/Ιn (LFZP 111) Left-hand reach = KR.arg ZL1 to nearest available setting. –35° and –25° to 80° in 5° steps (LFZP 113 and 123 only) Note: LFZP 113 is not designed to be used with a ground fault loop setting (2ZL1 + ZL0) /3 with an argument less than 30°.9 in steps of 0.5/Ιn Range of factors: Left-hand reach = KR.41 Characteristic angle settings: U Ph . Zone 2.67 or 0.Reach setting method is by digitally controlled analogue attenuators. 50°. KZPh.ZL1 KZPh 3ZL1 Where ZL0 and ZL1 are the phasor values of zero and positive sequence impedance of the protected line. Zone 3 forward and Zone 3 reverse respectively.040 to 1.1 KR 1 to 30 in steps of 1 Range of setting of Zone 3 lenticular aspect ratio: a/b = 1.000 in steps of 0. U Ph = 50° to 85° in 5° steps (overhead line models) U Ph = 45° to 80° in 5° steps (LFZP 113 only) U Ph = 20°.

with the same range of forward and reverse reach settings and aspect ratios as Zone 3. (ii) detection indicated only. Mho characteristic (type m. unblocking and blocking schemes: TP TD TDW 0 to 98ms in steps of 2ms Timer accuracy: ±1% of setting and ±3ms. 16 .10s to 9.Minimum operating values of the distance measuring elements for all types of fault: Voltage: zero Current: 0. Accuracy: Reach: ±5% at 2Ιn and 20°C Dynamic range: up to 25Ιn for fault locator and instrumentation up to 56Ιn for distance protection Characteristic angle: ±2° Resetting ratio: 105% Timer ranges: Zone Zone Zone Zone 1X timer 1Y timer 2 timer 3 timer each timer 0.05Ιn/KZPh. Power swing blocking Power swing detected by transit time of impedance between Zone 6 and either Zone 2 or Zone 3 as selected. (iii) indication plus blocking of any one or more selected zones. f or c) 50Hz minimum: 14ms typical: 18ms 60Hz minimum: 12ms typical: 16ms Quadrilateral characteristic (type q) 50Hz minimum: 16ms typical: 23ms 60Hz minimum: 15ms typical: 20ms Reset time: The trip contacts are sealed in for 60ms following the initial contact closure. Operating time: Typical relay operating times for Zone 1 are shown in Figures 10 to 13. Thereafter.98s in steps of 0. Zone 6 timer range: 20ms to 90ms in steps of 5ms Power swing detection regimes: (i) detection disabled. the maximum reset time is 35ms. Blocking disabled if a ground fault or (if DEF fitted) a phase fault occurs during a power swing.02s Scheme co-ordination timers used in permissive overreach. Zone 6 is offset mho or offset lenticular.

1 KZM and UM are provided for mutually compensating the fault locator if required: KZM range: 0.9 in steps of 0. Ιs = 0.02Ω to 20Ω (Ιn = 5A) (113/123) Setting: Zone F = KZF.5% polarising current.5% over 2Ιs to 20Ιs Fault location and instrumentation Fault location positive sequence settings referred to line VT and CT secondaries: Range: 0.01 100. 4. 20°C Aided tripping scheme: Scheme co-ordination timers: TPG 0 to 98ms in steps of 2ms TDG High set current level detector 0.5/Ιn for overhead line models. Line length setting (in miles or km or %) 0.000 in steps of 0. one reverse-looking: Current sensitivity determined by current level detector: 0. 20°C.00 to 99.025 Accuracy at fn.80Ιn in steps of 0. as appropriate. fn. *t = 1.05Ιn Time curves: eight curves and three definite time ranges shown in Figure 9.36 in steps of 0. 5. Time multiplier: *t = 0.01. Zone F = KZF.00 in steps of 0.0 to 1. Settings to allow for transformer ratios for instrumentation functions: CT ratio: 1:1 or 10 to 5000: 1 in 10:1 steps VT ratio: 1:1 or 10 to 9990: 1 in 10:1 steps 17 . KZPh.001 UM range: 50° to 85° in steps of 5° Accuracy ±2% at 2Ιn. 2.80Ιn: Current: +10% – 0% Operating time: definite time ±3% over 1. KZF range: 1.3Ιs to 31Ιs curves 1.1Ω to 100Ω (Ιn = 1A) (113/123) 0. 8 ±5% over 2Ιs to 31Ιs curve 3 ±7. Instantaneous trip (available only if no Zone 1 ground fault distance elements fitted): Setting range: 0.05Ιn Sensitivity of polarising quantity is 1V residual voltage of 1.Directional earth fault Directional measuring elements: one forward-looking.0 to 999.05Ιn to 1.00 to 40. KZPh and residual compensation are common to the distance measuring elements.2Ιn to 30Ιn in steps of 0.20Ιn in steps of 0.99 in steps of 0. 6.05Ιn Time delay trip: Setting Ιs = 0. depending upon the type of polarising selected. 20°C.05Ιn Accuracy: ±5% at fn.025 to 1.05Ιn to 0.05Ιn to 0. KZPh.5/2Ιn for underground cable models. Characteristic angle UG = 10° to 80° in 10° steps.04Ω to 40Ω (Ιn = 5A) 0.05Ιn to 0.80Ιn in steps of 0. 7.2Ω to 200Ω (Ιn = 1A) 0.

whether busbar or line voltage transformers are used: SOTF enabled either 0.2s 7500VA subject to a maxima of 30A. Ratings: Make and carry 0. SOTF trip via measuring elements.000 operations minimum High voltage withstand Dielectric withstand IEC 255-5:1977 BS 142:1982 section 1.5kV rms for 1 minute across normally open contacts 18 . Voltage transformer (fuse fail) supervision The voltage transformer supervision (VTS) operates when zero sequence voltage is detected without the presence of zero sequence current. Nominal Vo detector setting 9. with terminals on each independent circuit connected together. 1. 300V.000 operations minimum Unloaded contact 100. SOTF trip via current and voltage level detectors.90:1978 2kV rms for 1 minute between all terminals and case earth. by means of the low set neutral level detector. Carry continuously 5A ac or dc.2s or 110s after line de-energised (110s prevents SOTF action on auto-reclosure). ac or dc.04s Subject to a maxima of 5A and 300V Durability Loaded contact 10.Block or enable auto-reclose logic A normally-open or normally-closed contact is supplied on most models to block or enable autoreclose respectively.5V The blocking action of the VTS on distance comparators can be removed by menu selection via the user interface.3 ANSI C37. Break ac: 1250VA dc: 50W resistive 25W L/R = 0. Switch-on to fault logic Menu choices allow instantaneous trip and alarm and indication for faults occurring on line energisation. The VTS does not limit the distance relay current sensitivity or operating times for line faults even when the VTS is set to block relay tripping. The menu allows the following choices of logic: Auto-reclose blocked or enabled on: Zone 1 or aided trip caused by 2 or 3 phase fault Zone 1 or aided trip cased by 3 phase fault Zone 1X and/or Zone 1Y and/or Zone 2 time delayed trip Channel out of service DEF instantaneous and/or aided trip and/or delayed trip. 2kV rms for 1 minutes between terminals of independent circuits. Output contacts Some of the available arrangements are shown in Table 1.

High voltage impulse IEC 255-5:1977 BS 142:1982 section 1. 2.5kV peak between independent circuits and case.1 Ca 56 days at 93% RH and 40°C Enclosure protection IEC 529:1989 BS 5490 IP50 (dust protected) Mechanical environment Vibration IEC 255-21-1:1988 BS 142:1982 section 2. 2. Generic Standards were used to establish conformity.1:1989 Electrostatic discharge IEC 255-22-2:1989 Class III Fast transient disturbance IEC 255-22-4:1992 Class IV IEC 801-4: 1988 Level 3 ANSI C37. 1.0kV. 8.4 ANSI C37. without de-energising.90.2 Category S2 Seismic IEC 255-21-3:1993 Response Class 1 Class 1 19 . discharge in air with cover in place 4.0kV. 5kHz applied directly to all inputs Compliance to the European Commission Directive on EMC is claimed via the Technical Construction File rout.5kHz applied directly to auxiliary supply 2.0kV. 1.3 Insulation resistance IEC 255-5:1977 Three positive and three negative impulses of 5kV peak.90.0kV peak across terminals of the same circuit. 0.5J between all terminals and all terminals and case earth.2/50µs.2:1987 Radio frequency interference EMC Compliances 89/336/EEC EN50081-2:1994 EN50082-2:1995 10ms interruption in the auxiliary supply under normal operating conditions. >100MΩ when measured at 500V dc Electrical environment DC supply interruption IEC 255-11:1979 High frequency disturbance IEC 255-22-1:1988 Class III BS 142:1982 section 1. Atmospheric environment Temperature IEC 255-6:1988 Storage and transit -25°C to +70°C Operating -25°C to +55°C IEC 68-2-1:1990 Cold IEC 68-2-2:1974 Dry Heat Humidity IEC 68-2-3:1969 BS 2011 Part 2.

113.Table 1. 112. Z1X(T) Zone 1X time delay trip. Z1 Zone 1 trip. 98 Switch on to fault trip. 99 DEF element operated Z3(T) Zone 3 time delay trip. Z2(T) in LFZP 132. 4. 94A Trip pole A of breaker. 94A. 85X Signal send. 96 Block autoreclose. 67N DEF trip. 3. 21 Distance trip. Standard output contact case terminal connections Terminal LFZP 111. 2. Z2(T) Zone 2 time delay trip. 94C and 94 all respond as 94T.132 29-31 RIA 97Y RIA 97Y RIA 97Y RIA 97Y 29-33 VTS 97X VTS 97X Def Trip 67N VTS 97X 29-35 Dist Trip 21 Z Z1 Dist Trip 21 Trip 94T 37-39 Trip A 94A Trip 94T Trip 94T Trip 94T 41-43 Trip B 94B Trip 94T Trip 94T Trip 94T 45-47 Trip C 94C Trip 94T Trip 94T Trip 94T 49-51 Signal Send 85X Signal Send 85X Signal Send 85X Any Trip 94 53-55 SOTF 98 SOTF 98 SOTF 98 Start 99 30-32 Time delayed 21/67N(T) Z1X + Z1Y(T) Z1X/Z1Y(T) Z1X + Z1Y + Z2(T) Z1X/Z1Y/Z2(T) (Note 2) 30-34 DEF Trip 67N Z2(T) Z2(T) Z3(T) Z3(T) (Note 3) 30-36 Aided Trip 94Y Z3(T) Z3(T) Def(T) 67N(T) 38-40 Trip A 94A Aided Trip 94Y Aided Trip 94Y 42-44 Trip B 94B Trip 94T Any Trip 94 46-48 Trip C 94C Any Trip 94 Signal Stop 85Y (Note 4) 50-52 Bar 96 Bar 96 Bar 96 54-56 Start 99 Start 99 Start 99 57-59 Trip A 94A 57-61 Trip B 94B 57-63 Trip C 94C 65-67 Trip A 94A 69-71 Trip B 94B 73-75 Trip C 94C 77-79 Any Trip 94 81-83 PSB 95 Notes: 1. 85Y Signal stop. 94Y Aided trip. 20 (forward or reverse) or any Zone 1. Key to contact functions. 97X Voltage transformer supervision 94 Any trip 95 Power swing blocking. 97Y Relay inoperative alarm. Z1X/Z1Y(T) in LFZP 132. 94T Trip all poles of breaker. 94B Trip pole B of breaker. LFZP 151 . When 3 pole tripping scheme is used. 114(Note 1) LFZP 121. 123 LFZP 131. 21/67N(T) Any time delay trip. 2 or 3 element. 122. Trip 94T in LFZP 132. Z1Y(T) Zone 1Y time delay trip. 94B. 94C Trip pole C of breaker.

8 Snap-on terminals or 1– Ring+ 1– Snap-on terminal Terminal block detail Panel cut-out detail Figure 15b.00 24.60 4 Holes Ø4.8 x 0.00 362. Power supply Rear view Board No. Arrangement and outline: Optimho panel mounting horizontal 21 . 56 Input/ Processing AC Output Input Front view (panel removed) 24.00 (4U) 157. Arrangement and outline Optimho panel mounting vertical Board Ref 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 7 or or Hinged panel 414.60 157. Front view Front view 10.B.00 362.00 32.4 Rear view 32.00 4 Holes Ø4.4 84 Description 159.B.B.00 Board Ref 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 7 or or 312.00 159.8 x 0.00 411.177.B.20 14 25 1 13 Description Board No.B. Opto isolator Output relay Output relay Output relay Assy fault locator module 3 Zone gnd fault quad See below Level detector Directional earth fault 1 Zone offset lenticular Processor AC input 2 AC input 1 2 Zone mho ph & gnd 1 Zone mho reversible Zone 3 ph (2 channel) ZJ0133 ZJ0140 003 ZJ0140 001 ZJ0140 002 GJ0277 000 ZJ0132 ZJ0136 ZJ0139 ZJ0131 ZJ0138 ZJ0135 ZJ0134 ZJ0130 ZJ0146 ZJ0129 25 way 'D' connector 411. Opto isolator Output relay Output relay Output relay Assy fault locator module 3 Zone gnd fault quad See below Level detector Directional earth fault 1 Zone offset lenticular Processor AC input 2 AC input 1 2 Zone mho ph & gnd 1 Zone mho reversible Zone 3 ph (2 channel) ZJ0133 ZJ0140 003 ZJ0140 001 ZJ0140 002 GJ0277 000 ZJ0132 2 28 1 27 Terminal block detail 25 way 'D' connector detail Bottom view Panel cut-out detail ZJ0136 ZJ0139 ZJ0131 ZJ0138 ZJ0135 ZJ0134 ZJ0130 ZJ0146 ZJ0129 28 way max Each way accepting:2–M4 Ring terminals or 2–4.00 Ribbon cable 1 2 3 4 Input/ Output 84 57 T.00 168.00 177. 29 Hinged panel 11 9 7 5 10 8 6 Processing 56 T.00 Front view Side view M4 earth connection 1 2 Ribbon cable 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 57 T.00 AC input 13 Power supply M4 earth connections 12 T.20 29 T.B.8 Snap-on terminals or 1– Ring+ 1– Snap-on terminal Figure 15a. T.00 10. 25 way 'D' connector 414.00 168.00 1 14 13 25 25 way 'D' connector detail 1 2 27 28 28 way max Each way accepting:2–M4 Ring terminals or 2–4.00 312.

(See note) M4 tapped panel fixing holes screws not provided 10 28 way max Each way accepting: 2 .external component box 22 Perforated cover NOTE: Where the box is to be fitted into a Midos scheme it should be positioned between relays.B.B.00 157.00 34.00 Side view M4 earth connection T.3 Terminal screws: M4 x 8 brass cheese head with lockwashers are provided Figure 16.4.Board Ref 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 7 or or 483.8 x 0.B. 28 . Arrangement and outline: Optimho rack mounting Channel used when mounted in Midos scheme.6 long x 7 wide 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Input/ Processing AC Output input Front view (panel removed) 10. Power supply T.Snap-on terminal M4 earth connection 120 2 155 121 27 15 36.8 Snap-on terminals or 1 . Outline .00 465.Ring + 1 .00 101.70 Front view Fixing slot 10. Rear view 25 way 'D' connector 1 14 13 25 25 way 'D' connector detail Description Board No. not at a teir end. T.8 Snap-on terminals or 1– Ring+ 1– Snap-on terminal Terminal block detail Figure 15c.10 177.8 x 0. Opto isolator Output relay Output relay Output relay Assy fault locator module 3 Zone gnd fault quad See below Level detector Directional earth fault 1 Zone offset lenticular Processor AC input 2 AC input 1 2 Zone mho ph & gnd 1 Zone mho reversible Zone 3 ph (2 channel) ZJ0133 ZJ0140 003 ZJ0140 001 ZJ0140 002 GJ0277 000 ZJ0132 1 2 27 28 ZJ0136 ZJ0139 ZJ0165 ZJ0138 ZJ0135 ZJ0134 ZJ0130 ZJ0146 ZJ0129 28 way max Each way accepting:2–M4 Ring terminals or 2–4.M4 ring terminals or 2 .60 Hinged panel 37.00 (4U) 312. Rack mountying schemes require the addition of joining strips and spacers.

source impedances or fault levels for both minimum and maximum plant conditions 23 .current and voltage transformer ratios .positive and zero sequence impedances of the protected feeder or full details of the feeder lengths and construction . 110/125V or 220/250V Voltage of dc supply Vx(2): 48/54V. as shown in Figure 15. Weight: 15kg. 110/125V or 220/250V Mounting arrangements: rack. panel horizontal. panel vertical. semi projection Whether the block auto-reclose contact 96–1 is to be a normally-open or normally-closed contact Whether the signal send contact 85X-1 is to be a normally-open or normally-closed contact Advice is available when the information requested above is difficult to specify Requests for advice should include: . Information Required with Order LFZP model required (see Summary Chart page 3) Whether DEF required (if optional for model selected) Whether fault location required (if optional for model selected) Nominal current rating Ιn: 1A or 5A Frequency fn: 50Hz or 60Hz Voltage of dc supply Vx(1): 48/54V. Other Information An LFZP accessory kit is available to facilitate commissioning and test.Cases The relay is housed in a multi-module MIDOS case suitable for rack or panel mounting.