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ISSN 1991-8178

**Comparison of Low-Impedance Restricted Earth Fault Protection in PowerTransformer Numerical Relays
**

1

B. Nim Taj, 1,2A. Mahmoudi, 1S. Kahourzade

1

**Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaysia, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
**

2

Faculty of Engineering, Help International College of Technology (HICT), Klang,

41050 Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract: Low-impedance restricted earth fault (REF) protection protects transformer winding via

earthed star-point. This paper compares the REF algorithms of five numerical relays: ABB’s, AREVA

T&D’s, SIEMENS’s, SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC’s and GENERAL ELECTRIC’s. Investigated were

their advantages and disadvantages in speed, sensitivity, and selectivity. Also, magnetizing inrush

current, over excitation, and CT saturation impression on REF operation, are presented. Postassessment, the results were confirmed via simulation on MATLAB SIMULINK. Further investigated

were relay operation characteristic curves and restraint currents of each algorithm.

Key words: Transformer Protection, Numerical Relay, REF, Low-Impedance Restricted Earth Fault.

INTRODUCTION

**Restricted earth fault (REF) protection detects earth faults in power transformers, shunt reactors, neutral
**

earthing transformers, reactors and rotating machines with earthed star-point (Siemens). Transformer is one of

the most important and expensive equipment in electrical power network, needing very sensitive and secure

protection. Most-common faults in a power transformer are winding and terminal faults (T and D, 2005). Most

restricted earth fault relays are based on percentage differential protection (Cordray, 1931). Importance of REF

relays surfaces when fault occurs near star point. An internal fault at star-point earthed via resistance in power

transformer has relatively low-amplitude fault current flowing from CT; it may not trigger differential

protection. For increased sensitivity in protection of power-transformer windings, another protection function

other than differential protection is thus necessary (ABB). Fig. 1 shows a protected winding’s percentage versus

its primary operating current. The graph compares the amount of protected winding in REF and differential

protection functions in terms of percentage (T and D, 2005; Iran electric distribution co., 1995; Robertson, 1982;

Horowitz and Phadke, 2008). If percentage of the rated primary operating current is 20%, the differential relay

protects nearly 45% of the winding but REF relay protects more than 78% of the winding (see Fig. 1).

Mal-operation in REF algorithms is caused by even harmonic components of magnetizing inrush current,

odd harmonic components of over-excitation, and CT saturation of severe external fault; see Section II. Five

REF relay algorithms were chosen and compared in terms of speed, selectivity, and sensitivity (Mason, 1956).

Section III presents their advantages and disadvantages. The algorithms were simulated on MATLAB

SIMULINK, Section IV showing how they differ. Section V briefs results, and concludes.

Fig. 1: Comparison of protected winding percentage between REF and differential relay (T and D, 2005).

**Corresponding Author: B. Nim Taj, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaysia, 50603, Koula Lumpur,
**

Malaysia.

E-mail: babak.nimtaj@gmail.com

2458

2009). 3) Peak value of unipolar inrush current decreases very slowly. Core’s remnant flux.. and even harmonics. 1997. 2000): Transformer size. 2001. 5(12): 2458-2474.. 2004. 2008. harmonic restraint and blocking (IEEE. 2: Typical magnetizing inrush current waveform. 2006. Sachdev et al.. 1998. wavelet transform (Mao and Aggarwal. Orille-Fernandez et al. 1988. Sonnemann et al. technique based on equivalent instantaneous inductance (Inagaki et al. 2001. Mao and Aggarwal. Baoming et al. Eissa.. 1990. Order of energizing of primary and secondary windings. Kasztenny and Khuldijian. 2000. 2008. 1997). 2009).. Youssef. Inrush Current: If a transformer’s primary winding is connected to source. 2004).Aust.e.. 1995. 6) DC component is subtracted. Guzman et al. 1958). 2002. 9) 3rd harmonic is added at 180°. 1983. 1988. 1997). Phadke and Thorp. Various methods distinguish between fault current and magnetizing inrush current. Their distinction and fault conditions are important to REF algorithm. and CT saturation are possible causes for mal-operation in REF relays (ABB. and its secondary winding connected to load. Transformer’s switched-in wave-point. Sharp and Glassburn. 2) It typically comprises unipolar or bipolar pulses. 2004. IEEE. Einvall and Linders. 1994.. Guzman et al. 2008. S-transform (Samantaray et al.. 1990. 2 shows a typical inrush current waveform obtained from simulation in MATLAB. separated by intervals of very low current values. REF relay could actually operate in those conditions despite no fault... 2000. 4) Second harmonic constant starts at low values and increases as inrush current decreases. Main characteristics of inrush current (Guzman et al. Fig. Horowitz and Phadke. 2007). odd. 2008. 2004.. Fig. fuzzy logic (Wiszniewski and Kasztenny. Guzman et al. Ferrero et al. System impedance from transformer’s source side. Considerable-magnitude even harmonic components (especially second harmonic) thus result from inrush current. Core material. over-excitation. Murty and Smolinsiki. 2459 . Verma. the time constant much greater than DC offset of fault-decay time. Kasztenny et al. 2006. Faiz and Lotif-Fard... magnetizing inrush current flows from supply to primary winding while there is no current or while much less load current flows out from the secondary winding (IEEE. Pihler et al. 1989.. 2005). 2000. waveform analysis (IEEE. Sci. 2008).. 1958. Factors influencing magnitude and duration of inrush current (Kasztenny and Khulidjian. 2008. 2004): 1) It generally contains DC offset.. i. 1969. Şengül et al. improved Fourier series (Jiandong et al. 2005 Da-qiang et al. J. canceled. Wilkinson. Atabekov. artificial neural network (Perez et al. Rockefeller. Guzman et al... 5) If relay CTs are linked by delta connection.. Zaman and Rahman. Kasztenny and Khuldijian. Rahman and Jeyasurya. Basic & Appl. 1960.. 1995. 2005). 7) Fundamental component is added at 60°. Mekic et al. 8) Second harmonic is added at 120°.. 2011 Mal-Operation: Magnetizing inrush current. Magnetizing inrush current occurs when residual flux polarity is opposite to polarity of ideal instantaneous value of steady-state flux (IEEE.

Damnjanovic and Parsley and Huang et al. AREVA T&D’s.. 2005). Odd harmonics start from the 5th harmonic component. and current flowing outside the zone is designated negative-direction. The 3rd harmonic is eliminated through CT with delta connection. In normal condition. with the highest magnitude.. Restraining components at CT saturation should be calculated in initial states. (2002) state that as excitation current is an odd function. Over-voltage happens when loads cut the system out or when a part of the system is separated by disturbance (IEEE. CT Saturation: Severe external fault may cause CT saturation. 2008). causing thermal damage. Nutt)..Aust. 2008). Sci. 3a and 3b show the current directions (Siemens. 2004. 2008. 5(12): 2458-2474. 2008. 2460 . While fault current decays. Over-Excitation: A transformer core’s magnetic flux is directly proportional to the supply voltage and inversely proportional to system frequency. Siemens: Siemens’s 7UT613 relay manual was chosen for investigation of Siemens’s REF algorithm (Siemens). saturating transformer. Restricted Earth Fault (REF): Investigation results for restricted earth fault algorithms of five relays (Siemens’s. Figs. 2000. Whether fault occurs inside or outside protected zone.. 2009.. Guzman et al. 2011 1980). IN is zero. Basic & Appl.. ABB’s. current flowing into protected zone is designated positive-direction. Wentz and Sonnemann. Over-excitation current hence contains odd harmonic components. Kasztenny and Khuldijian. are the most common methods used (IEEE. Jiandong et al. residual current polarity is opposite-direction to star-point current. Over-voltage or under-frequency can produce flux in a transformer core. 2004) they are the methods used in protection devices for prevention of mal-operation. Babak. residual current (3I0) almost zero. whose main characteristics are: Momentary reproduction of spurious current upon inception of fault (Time-To-Saturation. Siemens. Under-frequency happens when system generators are cut out or overload occurs. Fault location (inside or outside the protection zone) matters. Fourier series thus contains odd components in period T/2. 2006). star-point current remains. so.NimTaj. and Schneider Electric’s) are presented here. 3: Earth-fault current directions (Siemens. 2004. 1940). Guzman et al. J. and harmonic restraint and blocking. 2008. 2010). Einvall and Linders. 1941. and generators cannot recover and feed all loads. If fault occurs in protected zone. a-Earth fault inside the protected zone b-Earth fault outside the protected zone Fig. (For severe CT saturation) secondary current’s content of DC offset. restraint signal should be increased even if CT saturation produces lower restraint current (Ziegler. Residual current is defined as summation of threephase currents (3I0). 1975. Waveform analysis. before saturation. Siemens. GE’s. even and odd harmonic components (Hayward. Conversely. if fault occurs outside protected zone. The conventional way to distinguish fault current from inrush current is based on the principles of second harmonic and dead angle (both influencing factors such as CT saturation) (IEEE. Guzman et al. Starpoint current (IN) is the current flowing at star-point CT. residual current will be more or less in-phase with star-point current.

The limit angle is between zero degree for internal fault and 180 degrees for external fault. Fig. If phase displacement ( ) is 90 degrees. 2011 Siemens’s REF algorithm compares the fundamental component of star-point current (3I'N) with fundamental component of three-phase current summation (residual current) designated 3I''0. Fig. Basic & Appl. The phase-shifting can reduce restraint current. and consequently. affects relay speed. Phase shifting also can cause relay to operate at external earth fault. is issued by 3I'N. called trip-effect current. the restraint current is less than the tripping effect current. 4: Stabilization factor variation against limit angle in polar plane (Ziegler. Tripping command. its value depending on limit angle. 3I"0 3I"0 I REST 3I'N 3I'N 3I"0 3I'N3I"0 Fig. and does not inherit the time delay of each process. from which restraint current can be calculated. 5 is vector summation of residual current and star-point current. The Siemens algorithm is based on vector summation. 2005). but still. The restraining current is obtained from: I REST k. phase displacement between star-point current and residual current is thus extremely important for correct relay operation. The time delay is for fault analysis.( 3I ' N 3I"0 3I ' N 3I"0 ) (2) Where k is stabilization factor. 4 shows how k and limit angle relate in polar plane. I REF 3I' N (1) If trip-effect current had exceeded restraining current or stabilization current. Siemens relay uses separate filters for magnetizing inrush current and over-excitation (even. J. highly secure and selective (as shown by its various slopes and characteristic graph). and is based on vector summation of currents (so operation is extremely highly secure). It is network-flexible. harmonic-component filters). the relay’s mal-operation. 5(12): 2458-2474. restraint current is then zero. It shows the phase displacement (due to CT saturation) between residual current and star-point current.Aust. Its disadvantage is the time-delay used for tripping. CT saturation can change phase displacement between residual current and star-point current. 2461 . so the relay operates during external fault. and odd. Sci. the relay sends operation command. Fig. 5: Phasor diagram for Siemens algorithm during external fault (Siemens)..

6 shows vector summation of the residual current and the star-point current when a fault happens outside the protected zone. the trip counter. external earth fault happens. I N 3I zs1 3I 0 3I zs1 Fig. else. trip request exceeds 0. direction is no condition for tripping. if star-point current exceeds 50% of Idmin. Basic & Appl. else. Firstly. bias current is determined. If Ibias and Idiff points are at relay-operation characteristic curve inside operating area.Aust. to star-point current. 5(12): 2458-2474. The differential current. else. Fig. REF function block sets to 1 the output TRIP. search for heavy external earth fault. if trip-request counter equals 2 or exceeds 2. the star-point current and residual current have almost equal magnitudes but are 180 degrees out of phase. 2011 ABB: ABB REF algorithm is also based on vector direction of star-point and residual current. it does not. Ratio of 2nd harmonic to fundamental is calculated. zero-sequence components (such as 3rd harmonics) were thus suppressed.. the zero sequence fundamental frequency of the input currents was extracted. Upon an external fault. any search for external fault is canceled if trip counter changes to 1). relay operates. flag sets until external earth fault had been cleared (external earth fault flag resets if star-point current decreases less than 50% of base sensitivity current (Idmin). exit REF protection (see Table I). The operating current or the differential current is determined. J. set to 1. Fig. At internal earth fault. Sci. 2462 IN . so additional temporary trip is needed. as a phasor of the fundamental frequency. and is calculated magnitude of the differential current. ABB’s RET 670 relay manual was investigated (ABB). At external earth fault. trip-request counter is zero. direction of the star-point current and of the residual current almost equal. REF desensitizes. a vector summation of star-point current and residual current. If Idiff and Ibias are inside operating area. Other. if trip-request counter is 0. If star-point current is at least 50% of bias current. 7 shows the internal earth fault. if value exceeds 60%. is obtained from: Idiff = IN + 3I0 (3) Bias current is obtained from: I 3I 0 I bias N 2 (4) From bias-current definition. REF algorithm for ABB RET670 relay’s technical reference manual states If star-point current (IN) is less than 50% of minimum base-sensitivity current (Idmin). 6: Currents at an external earth fault. if directional cannot be executed. and bias current is at least 50% of highest bias current or Ibiasmax (measured during disturbance). service values only are calculated. reset it to 0. TRIP signal is 0. if differential current exceeds bias current. Residual-current phasor was then added by vector. make directional check if residual current exceeds 3% of bias current.

Bias current from 0 till 1. The relay operates on fundamental zero sequence. Sci. 8 shows the operating area and the restraining area. Basic & Appl. Relay Operating Angle (ROA). 8: ABB operation characteristic curve (ABB).u determines Zone 1. Changes to them are based on the sensitivity selected.25p.u determine Zone 2. 5(12): 2458-2474. Fig. In internal fault.25p. 7: Currents at an internal earth fault. is an interval between two determined angles. In external fault. The method distinguishing internal fault from external fault is called directional check. both CTs are assumed to be the same (in CT class and ratio). Slope 1 is in Zone 2. 6 and 7). 8 shows the ABB relay’s operation characteristic.5p.u to 2. Like the Siemens relay. In both internal and external earth faults. with various sensitivities that users can configure. though. the REF can be stabilized under severe external faults (ABB). It also reveals that the relay is dual slope. As mentioned. Slope 2 after Zone 2. Currents 1. ABB relay operates on vector comparison. IN and 3I0 have equal magnitudes and 180 degrees phase displacement. Fig. 2463 . usually selected between 60 and 90 degrees. If it had been selected smaller. Fig.Aust.. two ways exist for circulating current: current flows toward star point and system (see Figs. only fundamental frequency component for mathematical equation is used. 6 and 7. J. In Figs. IN and 3I0 are in almost the same direction. REF is insensitive to inrush current and over-excitation current but sensitive to CT saturation (ABB). inrush current and over-excitation current are the most important reasons behind REF relay’s mal-operation. 2011 I N 3 I zs1 IN 3I 0 3I zs1 Fig. ABB relay filters all harmonic components. The currents thus are the fundamental frequency of the zero sequence.

2464 . 2011 Table 1: ABB REF’s Bias Characteristics. It is calculated from: I R 0 I N 3I 0 I N (I A I B I C ) (7) Negative sequence restraint current is created as: IR2 = 3. Basic & Appl. Default sensitivity Idmin (zone1) Maximum base sensitivity Idmax (zone1) Minimum base sensitivity Idmin (zone1) End of zone 1 First slope Second slope %Inom %Inom %Inom %Inom %slope %slope 30 4 100 125 70 100 Table I extracted from Fig. the relay is desensitized (see relay-operation diagram).. maximum restraint current is needed. General Electric (GE): GE’s 345 transformer protection system was chosen (Multilin. and the first and the second slopes of the relay operation characteristic. GE algorithm defines restraining current with high sensitivity in internal faults. 2006. It operates according to the fundamental frequency of the zero sequence. 9: Logic controlling negative restraint. The maximum and the minimum are 4% and 100% respectively. symmetrical component is used to produce restraint current for various fault types. Intermediate restraint current is calculated from: I R _ aux max( I R 0 . at external earth fault. I R1 .( I1 I 0 ) (9) I1 I 0 I R1 0 I R1 1 I1 else 8 At equation 8. Sci.. Fig.u (CT phase current ) I1 I 0 I R1 3. 2004): I diff I N 3I 0 I N I A I B I C (5) Stability and selectivity of the REF algorithm depends on the method for producing restraint current. 5(12): 2458-2474. |I2| or IR2 = |I2| (8) Positive sequence restraint is created as follows: I1 1. one filter operating wrongly causes mal-operation. I R 2 ) (6) Zero sequence restraint (IR0) is vectorial difference between ground and residual current. 2010). Kasztenny. Like Siemens’ this relay needs filters. To avoid mal-operation of the restricted earth-fault protection. Fig. During external fault and to avoid mal-operation. The differential current or operating current is obtained from (Kasztenny and Khulidjian. Kasztenny et al. Equation 8’s undesirable effect can be avoided by use of a filter (see Fig. An internal earth fault resulting from severe external earth fault thus causes the relay to not operate though it should. yet it is fast enough as parts of the relay operate independently. multiplier of 3 is usually used. multiplier of 1 is used. Also. of nominal phase current. a condition such as CT saturation in severe external earth fault. J.5p. In GE algorithm. 9). causes mal-operation.Aust. producing spurious zero sequence. but in phenomena such as inrush current. 10 shows Table I illustrating the boundary of each zone. 8 shows the various selectable sensitivities. 2000.

or 1 at negative sequence of restraint current. 10: Dual-slope relay-operation characteristic. 2011 Either multipliers 1/8 at positive sequence. 2003 investigated characteristics of two slopes and single slope operation. A... Basic & Appl. Exponentially decaying effective restraint current (IR(k)) is obtained from maximum magnitude between IR_aux at tL and IR_aux at t(L-1) multiplied by decaying factor (A): IR(k) = max(|IR_aux. It does not need complicated filters to define conditions such as magnetizing inrush current.m 2 I REF if I bias I bias.t(L)| .005 . GE algorithm is rather secure for magnetizing of inrush current. For better sensitivity and better selectivity. extra algorithm is needed. 2007) mentions that the previous differential current is vector summation of all measured residual and star-point current.Aust. The restraint current is obtained from: I REST m1I bias I REF if I bias I bias.m 2 (13) At some conditions. restraint current increases even as CT saturation produces lower restraint current (owing to exponential decaying) (Kasztenny and Khulidjian. I C ) I N 2 (12) Fig. 10. the algorithm operates falsely. 2000. To improve it. Its uniqueness as REF protection algorithm is its use of symmetrical components to produce restraint current.t(L-1)|) (10) In this algorithm. restraint current’s calculation is based on initial condition (before CT saturation). Areva T&D suggests a new one: Idiff = │Kamp. 2004).Y . which decays 50 percent in about 15 power cycles. I B . is used. 1 I bias max(I A . IB . 2006. IC) + IN| (11) Bias current is half the scalar summation of maximum phase currents and star-point current. and CT saturation. Sci.). In some conditions. The algorithm thus operates on symmetrical components. as spurious components may appear at transient conditions (Kasztenny et al. Idiff = |max (IA . Equation 10 shows that in CT saturation.m 2 I REST m 2 I bias (m 2 m1 ). 2007 and Alestom.NIN│ (14) Ibias = Kamp. Kasztenny. |IR..5 is chosen for A. spurious zero and negative components are produced.I bias. 5(12): 2458-2474. Areva T&D: Tan and Wai. (IA+IB+IC) + Kamp.Y|IA+IB+IC| (15) IREST = 1. Kasztenny et al. While fault current decays. 0. it is also affected by CT saturation and inrush current [56]. J. see Fig. over-excitation. though. (Tan and Wai. causing mal-operation. for filtering the spurious components and distinguishing between fault and false conditions. The most common REF algorithm is dual-slope operation characteristic. Ibias + IREF> (16) 2465 .

Equation 11 for Idiff is wrong (Tan andWai.e. the coefficient of 1.5% in three-phase unbalancing. Also. 10). 2009). the slope is chosen to be extremely lower than one. 11: Improved AREVA REF operation characteristic curve. The slope is 1. J. Fig. 11 shows the relevant algorithm operation characteristic curve. Conventional algorithm for restricted earth fault protection is subjected by CT saturation with high DC external earth fault (Tan and Wai. i. 2008).Y I base.N I base. 2008).Y I nom. the relay stays in the restraining area and does not operate. also needs separate filters. For operation: I diff I REST (19) In this algorithm.05. in the algorithm. when one slope characteristic had been chosen. 2007).Y I nom.CT.005 and for operation. The condition is used for the relay’s increased selectivity and sensitivity in an internal fault.N I nom. like Siemens’ and ABB’s. 2011 where amplitudes matching Kamp. 5(12): 2458-2474. N I nom. thus severely decaying selectivity and sensitivity.5 K amp.005 will be multiplied. and restraint current is low. The 87T relay manual was chosen to investigate Schneider Electric REF algorithm (Electric. N & K amp.Y are: K amp.CT . as mentioned in previous literatures (IEEE. Also. definition of Idiff maximum of three-phase currents is not used to make residual current.N S base (17) 3Vnom K amp.. 1. AREVA algorithm. The algorithm thus has selectivity issues. 2011): Idiff = Ia+Ib+Ic+IN (20) The restraint current is obtained from: IREST = Ia+Ib+Ic (21) 2466 . Fig. Equation 14 should be used instead. Differential current is defined as (Bertrand et al. the current flowing in star point should exceed the settable pickup value plus 0. Schneider Electric: The Schneider protection relay is called SEPAM. the slope exceeds one.Y S base (18) 3Vnom and 0.Aust. Sci. According to IEEE standard (IEEE.CT. differential current exceeds pickup current. the relay does not operate (see (*) in Fig. Basic & Appl. Contrarily.N and Kamp.. else. Y 16 To ensure stability in unbalanced three-phase current.CT . 2007).. from beginning until end of Zone One in the relay’s characteristic curve. for CT saturation condition.

REF theory is applicable only when star point is connected to earth. stability during energizing of transformer must be ensured. Without earthed star point and in internal earth fault. without earthed star point. It also has no scheme for phase shifting at CT saturation. phase currents are positive when flowing to the transformer and star-point current is positive when flowing to ground. Equations 21 and 22 show different restraint currents for internal and external earth faults.. Sci. 12 shows SEPAM Schneider relay’s operating and restraining area. Basic & Appl. over-excitation. the algorithm has two limitations (Bertrand et al. Also. these assumptions were made: 2467 . To simplify the problem enough for simulation. Table II shows brief comparison of five presented REF algorithms which were investigated based on speed. Relay Manufacturer Advantage Siemens Good in selectivity and sensitivity ABB Good in selectivity and sensitivity General Electric Good in selectivity and sensitivity Areva T&D Schneider Electric Good in speed and selectivity -- Disadvantage Speed problem Need more filter for spurious zero sequence Calculating time Sensitivity problem (according to relay operation characteristic curve) Sensitivity and selectivity problem Case Study: Matlab Simulink was used to show operation characteristic curves and restraint currents of the five relays compared. 5(12): 2458-2474. REF does not operate.. Internal and external earth faults should be clarified by restricted earth fault algorithm. though.. sensitivity and selectivity. as it does not use any calculating diagram to avoid odd or even harmonics. The relay operates when: Idiff exceeds IREF > (5% to 50% of transformer’s rated current) Idiff/IREST exceeds 1. The relay characteristic curve shows the algorithm has fixed slope (1. but correct choice of star point CT solves the problem. but the fixed slope decreases relay sensitivity and selectivity. In an external fault. As current does not flow through the star point. Fig. creating false differential current. The algorithm has two restraint currents. If REF protection is on transformer’s primary side.05) for correct operation under saturated CT. IREST(external fault) = Ia+Ib+Ic+IN/3 (22) With this definition of restraint current. when a three-phase fault occurs outside the protected zone. J.05 Fig. A second limitation is when the star point is earthed with neutral coil. 2011).Aust. the relay operates wrongly at magnetizing inrush current. the protection function is insensitive. the phase CTs may saturate (as seen in IREST=Idiff) and the protection’s stability is ensured (Bertrand et al. thus the relay is very low selectivity. IREST=Idiff and the SEPAM REF protection remains stable (no tripping). The star point current is lower than the exact value of the fault current. The DC component of the inrush current saturates phase CT. 2011). 2011 With the assumptions. and CT saturation. the restraint current is increased (see below) to ensure stability of the REF relay. Table 2: Advantage and Disadvantage of Presented Algorithms. If REF protection is on transformer’s secondary winding. 12: SEPAM REF operation characteristic curve.

16 shows the restraining current of GE algorithm. Equation 16 shows restraint current and bias current to be similar. the restraint current had been positive. was connecting. but in Siemens. is closed after 2 cycles Two-phase short circuit occurs after 9 cycles Fault is cleared after 12 cycles. the restraint current becomes negative (in ABB it is still positive). Co). and the curve goes to the operating area. 5(12): 2458-2474. Fig. and the relay remains stable. restraint current was zero. 19 shows the ABB relay operation characteristic curve to be the same as that of Siemens. Fig. 13: System sample (E. 20 shows the bias. 2011 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) In the first step.B. The curve indicates star-point current (IN) variation against summation of phases. Sci. C. during a fault. Twice tripping during fault clearing is this relay’s disadvantage. When the fault occurs. General Electric Algorithm Simulation: Fig. is opened. Basic & Appl. Fig. 14 shows the restraining current calculated from Equation 2. the switch-off trajectory neither causing the relay to return to the operating area nor mal-operation. the transformer is not energized To show the inrush current. Fig. After short-circuit had occurred.Aust.S.5% difference in slope and peak-up current is added. and magnetizing inrush current happens. the vertical axis representing differential current (Idiff) and the horizontal axis. by relay trip command In all simulations. 15 shows Siemens’ relay operation characteristic curve. 13 is single-line diagram of the power transformer installed at MSDS3 substation of Esfahan Steel Co. and the relay operated. the differential current exceeds restraint current. While C. the curve returns to the operating area and then to (0. and before fault had occurred. with 0. Siemens Algorithm Simulation: Fig. During switching-off. calculated from Equations 6-10. and chosen for simulation. restraint current (IREST). 21 shows Areva relay’s operation characteristic curve.B.B. is closed. the restraint current exceeds the differential current. Comparing the graph with linear reference line. When fault occurs. It shows that before switching. the curve clearly goes out of the operating area after relay had detected the short-circuit current and sent the command trip. Fig. the restraint current and the differential current increase. proving that the relay stays stable at inrush current. All the algorithms presented were simulated on Matlab Simulink. but worse than Siemens’ in that switching-off the curve more than once sends the relay to the operating area and the restraining area. The relay operation curve is shown to be located at scope boarder. J. the curve thus probably goes to the operating area.. 17 shows the GE relay operation characteristic curve. When the C.B. 0). The restraint current then changes abruptly. and the relay operates. When the fault clears. Before the C. Fig. and star-point current amplitudes(∑│I│ = │3I'N│+│IA│+│IB│+│IC│). The bias current is like Siemens’ restraint current. and the restraint currents. ABB Algorithm Simulation: Figs. the main relay is joined with the lock-out relay. no mal-operation. 2468 . Areva T&D Algorithm Simulation: Fig. the differential. the restraint current suddenly changed to negative. both currents decrease. 18 and 19 respectively show the bias current and the relay operation characteristic curve.

23 and 24 respectively show the restraint current and the relay operation characteristic curve. 16: GE restraining current 2469 .B. the relay remains in the operating area. had been sent. Fig. 24 shows the relay always being in the operating area. Fig. and the relay remaining in the operating area when command to open the C. Figs. 14: Siemens restraining current. without fault. Figs. at normal condition (no fault). Fig. At switching-off condition. Schneider algorithm is shown to also operate at magnetizing inrush current. 15: Siemens relay operation characteristic curve. J. during a fault. Sci. 2011 Schneider Electric Algorithm Simulation: Fig. Basic & Appl. 22 and 24 show the algorithm having selectivity issues with inrush current. 5(12): 2458-2474. the differential current is larger than the restraint current.Aust. Fig. 22 shows the differential current and the restraint current of a Schneider relay..

Basic & Appl. Sci.Aust. J. and restraining current. Fig. 2470 . 2011 Fig. Fig. 20: Areva bias. Fig. 17: GE relay operation characteristic curve.. 19: ABB relay operation characteristic curve. 5(12): 2458-2474. differential. 18: ABB bias current.

21: Areva relay operation characteristic curve. 23: Schneider restraining current. Basic & Appl. Fig. 5(12): 2458-2474. in fault. 24: Schneider relay operation characteristic curve. 2471 . J. Fig. Fig.Aust. Sci. no fault.. 22: Schneider differential and restraining current. 2011 Fig.

G. Siemens’s does this. ABB’s also operates on vector direction of star point and residual current.. ABB.CT.Y Inom. Babak. It changes restraint current abruptly in CT saturation. The relay protection of high voltage networks Pergamon. RET670 Technical reference manual. ed. Nomenclature: IN 3I0 IREF IREST K IREF> Idiff Ibias Id ROA IR_aux IR0 IR1 IR2 I0 I1 I2 tL t(L-1) A m1 m2 Ibias.N Inom. Schneider Electric’s and Areva T&D’s have issues on increased mal-operation percentage. Its weakness is the extra filters it needs for the second and the fifth harmonic currents during magnetizing inrush current and over-excitation. Basic & Appl. a more-powerful processor is needed. rev. in switching or after fault had been cleared. in Electrical Engineering. 2010. the algorithm is based on sequential components. and returns to restraining area after fault clears. 2472 . Siemens’s operates on vector direction of star point and residual current. Micom 30 series restricted earth fault protection application guide. it returns to the operating area. so calculation time and creation of operating command is considerably less than that of GE’s. The problem is solved via a lock-out mechanism. Protection application handbook.CT. Atabekov. Alestom. and over excitation. 2003. Siemens’s mathematical calculation is simple.. 1960. 5(12): 2458-2474. and stabilizes the relay when severe fault occurs outside zone-conditions. pp: 6.e. then decreases exponentially to avoid mal-operation.. magnetizing inrush current. GE relay’s operation characteristic curve enters operating area once. Simulation result show that upon a fault. Comparing GE’s and Siemens’s. but.Y Sbase Vnom Inom Star point current Residual current (summation of three phase) Trip effect current Restraining current Stabilization factor Pickup current Limit angle Differential current Bias current Base sensitivity current Relay operating angle Intermediate restraint current Auxiliary zero sequence restraint current Auxiliary positive sequence restraint current Auxiliary negative sequence restraint current Zero sequence current Positive sequence current Negative sequence current L thtime constant (L-1)th time constant Decaying factor which A<1 First slope of relay operation characteristic curve Second slope of relay operation characteristic curve Knee point of relay operation curve Fundamental component of star point current Fundamental component of residual current Duration cycle Star point current amplitude matching constant Residual current amplitude matching constant Nominal current of star point CT Nominal current of residual CTs Apparent power Nominal voltage Phase nominal current REFERENCES ABB. after going to the restraining area. J. In GE’s. phase displacement between restraint current and star-point current is important to determining the relay’s operating angle. GE’s is reasonably secure at second and fifth harmonic currents but needs detailed mathematical calculations to advise operation command. Sci. i. for increased relay calculation speed. Low Impedance Restricted Earth Fault In Numerical Relays. University of Malaya: Kuala Lumpur. m2 3I'N 3I''0 T Kamp.Aust. restraint current is first high. All five operate correctly at internal zone fault. and detect fault from CT saturation. too. mal-operation is possible. 2011 Conclusion: The restricted earth fault (REF) algorithms of five numerical relays have been compared.N Kamp.NimTaj. Also.

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