PEDRO NIKKEN

Profesor de la Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Politicas
de Ia Universidad Central de Venezuela
Juez y ex-Presidente de la Corte lnteramericana
de Derechos Humanos

LA PROTECCION
INTERNACIONAL
DE LOS
DERECHOS HUMANOS:
SU DESARROLLO PROGRESIVO

INSTITUTO INTERAMERICANO
DE DERECHOS HUMANOS
EDITORIAL CIVITAS, S. A.

.. . • ..~ ~ Ii". . . . .. 1... . . .. ... .... .... 1..... .. . A. .. .. PRIMERA PARTE LA CONCEPCION PROGRESIVA CAPITULO I LA INSTAURACION PROGRESIVA I.. . ..... 65 EL INDIVIDUO FRENTE AL DERECHO INTERNACIONAL ..ra progresividad . ..711-1987 Compuesto en A. LA PROGRESIVIDAD INTENCIONADA . . '~'T'7 ... . . . . .. .. 13 INTRODUCCI6N ... . a.. .-"J'l'TCC' . Los principios subyacentes . .. .. . . .. .. 4. .... . . . Gnicer..... . . . sin el permiso previa y par escrito de los titulares del Copyright.. .__. La interpretaciOn .. . . UNA INTERPRETACI6N EVOLUTIVA . III...ficas GAR. ..::'. . .. mec3nico. 76 76 2. Los «PACTOS» DE LAS NACIONES UNIDAS . .. ...... PARTICULARIDADES DE LOS TRATADOS REFERENTES A LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS . Oudrid... Tratados multilaterales . ..INDICE Primera edici6n. . . . . 28039 Madrid Printed in Spain. .._.__.. .. . . .. .a por Gr6.. .~fErDJ-I ~ Foe!. . . . l il-1. .. ....... . .. . . . ... Copyright Declaraciones . . ni su trata· miento inform<itico. ya sea electr6nico. .. por registro u otros metodos..... . . ..r. 89 92 93 100 .. by Pedro Nikken Editorial Civitas. . 2. . .. por fotocopia. . . Antecedentes ... . .. . ... ... . .. Fernandez. ...... .. . .. 1.. . . . .. . . . . .... . . .\_}1 COR.. . .. UNA INTERPRETACI6N HUMANITARIA . De Jas declaraciones a los tratados ... . . . .. . S... . .. .... .. · ·- ~i... . Cobo-Cal1eja Fuenlabrada (Madrid) LA CONVENCI6N EUROPEA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS . . 84 84 87 LA GARANTfA MiNIMA . . . ... .JrK A) B) C)

2.. S. .... A) B) 3.... 29 38 40 41 44 46 47 48 55 57 Sobre el origen de ..... .. I nstituciones CONCLUSIONES . fo'P}0~'2·~-5.. ...... : .. . 17 . ... ... 1.. 61 2. . ... . . . . .. .. . .. . .. II.. 60 75 El marco general . . ... • . EL SISTEMA INTERAMERICANO . ... . . LA COMPLEJIDAD ACTUAL .. .. . .. .. . .. . 2..... . . .. © 1987. . II. . . ni la transmisi6n de ninguna forma· o por cualquier media. . EL EsTADO Y EL DOMINIO RESERVADO .. . . .. CAPITULO II BASES DE LA PROGRESIVIDAD I...-. ...lmpreso en Espafi.. Poligono Ind....:..... . . . . 29 Las expresiones normativas concretas . .... .. . . . No esta permitida Ia reproducci6n total o parcial de este libra.... '". ...._rh 4. A.. 11.. . . . . • ..... . 1. 1.. 3. . ..l"T ~_.. . 1987 ABREVIATURAS • .. G. 1: BJlKB~iiJLdtV J. 28017 Madrid (Espafta) ISBN: 84-7398-513-3 DepOsito legal: M.. . .. 3... . 27. . ..

LA INTERPRETACI6N AMPLIA EN EL SENO DEL COMITE PARA LA ELIMINACI6N DE LA DISCRIMINACI6N RACIAL Y EL CoMITE DE DERECHOS HUMAN OS ... . . . . .. . .. . ... . B) El Comite para la Eliminaci6n de la Discriminaci6n I43 143 14S 14S 149 ISO ISO IS2 153 IS6 IS7 160 La Comisi6n lnteramericana de Derechos Humanos. . .. .. a) Condiciones de adrnisibilidad ... . ... ..... . . .. ... ...... .. .... . .. .. A) B) Las denuncias individuates en Ia historia de la Comisi6n .. .. ..... .. .. .. ..... . .•.. . ........ .. .. ....... . ...... en terminos gen6ricos ... . . .. ... IS3 ISS A) B) 10S 108 108 113 116 Convenciones de alcance facultative .. . 171 1.. CONVENCI6N CONTRA LA TORTURA y OTROS TRATOS NAS CRUELES. .. .. . • . . 201 203 203 204 20S LA COMISI6N lNTERAMERICANA DE DERECHOS HuMANOS . La Carta Social Europea .. ... . . ..... .. a) DeterminaciOn unilateral ..... .... .. El ComitrJ contra la Tortura y la consagraci6n expresa de las prdcticas precedentes .. .. .... .. ... . . ... La Comisi6n Europea de Derechos Humanos La Corte Europea de Derechos Humanos . .. . A) B) 6. . 205 2. . . . ... .. Las denuncias individuales .. A) B) 5.. ... . .. .. . . . ...s derechos humanos . I. . . .. .. .. .. ... ... . ... ... ... .. . C) La Convenci6n Europea sabre la imprescriptibilidad de los crimenes contra la humanidad y los crimenes de guerra .. .... . .. ... .. . .. ..... SEGUNDA PARTE LA PROGRESIVIDAD OPERATIVA A) 2.. .. . .. .. .. B) Admisibilidad .. . .... . .. ... . . . . . .. .. .. LA COMISI6N DE DERECHOS HUMANos DE LAS NACIONES UNIDAS: UN CASO DE AMPLIACI6N PROGRESIVA DEL VALOR DE I:AS COMUNICACIONES INDIVIDUALES . . . . . .... ... LA CONVENCI6N INTERNACIONAL PARA LA ELIMINACI6N DE TODAS LAS FORMAS DE DISCRIMINACI6N RAciAL .. . .....6tesis: Progresividad definida en trJrmi~ nos especl/tcos . .. . . . . . . El Convenio nUmero 102... .. ...... .. . .. ... CONVENCI6N AMERICANA SOBRE DERECHOS HUMANOS .... . ....... .. . . . . ... . .. .. . . . . . .. . a') IS3 174 El individuo como parte en procedimientos intemacionales 1.. ..... .D) II. . . ..... relativo a Ia norma minima de seguridad social (0 IT) . en t6rminos genericos . .. . . . 16S 2. ....... ....... ... INHUMANOS 0 DEGRADANTES . . . .. .. ..... . ... ..... . . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. . . ... . ... .. .INDICE INDICB 8 CAPITULO III LOS COMPROMISOS ABIERTOS A LA PROGRESIVIDAD 10S Introducci6n ... .. . . . . Procedimiento actual . . .. I Racial .•.. ........... . . ... CAPITULO IV LA INICIATIVA INDIVIDUAL EN LOS PROCEDIMIENTOS INTERNACIONALES RELATIVOS A LOS DERECHOS HU· MANOS ... .. .. . .. .... La investigaci6n por mera notitia criminis . 1.. . La Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos . .... .. .... ..... .. . . .. El sistema de in formes .. .. . . .. .. ......... . .... . El ComitrJ de Derechos Humanos . .. . ......... A) B) 4. . ... . . ... CONVENCIONES DE ALCANCE FACULTATIVO .. ... C) Las denuncias individuales .. . ... ... A) Fase preliminar ..... . .... b) Protocolos adicionales o reformas .. . .. . .. ..... ... Competencia general: el sistema de informes . 10S A) B) D~sc:ipci6n generfd :..... ... .... . Condiciones de 20S 21S 21S 215 215 .. A) B) II. . .. . ... ... . . .. . .... C) Las denuncias de Estado ... ..... . . . 17S 18S 18S 188 192 196 199 LA UNESCO . . . ... . . . . D) lnforme a[ Consejo Ejecutivo .. .. .. . ... ... . ........ C) Meritos .. . 2. ... .. . .. C) Tercera ~if!.. . . . .. .. . ..... . . ... . B) Segunda hip6tesis: Progresividad definida explicita~ mente. . 147 147 148 149 CONVENCI6N EUROPEA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS (CONVEN· CI6N PARA LA PROTECCI6N DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS Y LAS LIBERTADES fUNDAMENT ALES) . . .... La denuncia informativa . . .... .. .. Las denuncias de Estado . 130 130 Competencla progresiva .... . . .. . .. 171 de proteoci6n a la. Las denuncias de Estado . ... .... ... .. . 116 1. . . . La definiciOn progresiva de -los derechos protegidos ..... . ... . . 13S 137 PLANTEAMIENTO DE LA CUESTI6N ... ..... . .... ... . ................. .. . . ... .. . .... c) I.. Tecmcas de amphacwn .. . ... . . . . .. 9 b') forma Condiciones de Iondo ..... .. .. ... . .. . . ..... .. . ... Primera hip6tesis: Progresividad dejinida implicita~ mente... .. lntroducci6n . .... ..... . .. . .. . . . . ..... . .. ... . . . . . D) Las denuncias individuales . . ... El sistema de informes ... .... . . 118 123 128 A) B) C) 3..... . 0 PE- . . .. . •• A) La tecnica de los in formes .. .. .... . . .. .. . ... .. .. Introducci6n 132 137 C) .. .. .. .. ..... . .. .. ... . .... . .. . EL PACTO INTERNACIONAL DE DERECHOS CIVILES y PoLiTICOS Y SU PROTOCOLO fACULTATIVO . .. ... . 117 0ERECHOS DE ALCANCE PROGRESIVO ..

.. . . 218 229 231 232 233 237 La legitimaci6n activa .. . ... .. . . .. . · ... . . . .. a') Solicitud de informaciOn .. ConclusiOn .... . 2. . .. . .. . · ... · . B) La pract1ca . . · . . . . . . .. .. LA CARTA DE LAS NACIO· . ..... .. .... . . . ....... . · .... ... . · .... 219 b) 3..... La declaraci6n universal de derechos humanos ... ... La iniciativa ex officio . ... .. . .. ..... . . . .. . . . . .... .. . .... ..... . 251 256 CAPITULO VI EL VALOR SOBREVENIDO DE LAS DECLARACIONES 261 I. . ...... .. ... . .... ..... .... .... . . C) Conclusiones . B) La Declaraci6n Universal en la actividad de protec~ ci6n internacional de los derechos humanos ... . . • ... CAPITULO V LA POSICION DEL ESTADO DEMANDADO I. .. . . · ·... . . .. .. .. .. .. LAS OBSERVACIONES «IN LOCO» DE LA COMISI6N INTER~ AMERICANA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS ... .. .. EL AGOTAMIENTO DE LOS RECURSOS INTERNOS .. • . . .......... 292 293 299 Etapa posterior a la entrada en vigor de la Convenci6n Americana sabre Derechos Humanos . .. ... 262 266 1.. · ........ . . .. · 290 LA A) Etapa anterior a la entrada en vigor del Protocolo de Buenos Aires .. ...... LA INCORPORACI6N INDIRECTA A NES UNIDAS . . .. .. • LA INCORPORACI6N AL DERECHO DINARIC ........ .. ...INDICE 10 II INDICE Investigaci6n . . .. . . . . · La prB... ... b') T6cnica de Ia mediaci6n-conciliaci6n d) Sometimiento a Ia Corte . ••• .• A) Los p~in9ipios . .. . . ... • . . ... · 309 315 . . .. ... 2. .. 244 244 247 Las pruebas y Ia cooperaci6n de los Estados ... . . . a') T6cnica de los buenos oficios . . ..... .. ..... ... .. . ... LA INCORPORACI6N DE LA DECLARACI6N A LA CARTA DE OEA ... . La fuerza obligatoria de las declaraciones . .. La flexibilizaciOn de los requisitos para Ia iniciativa procesal ... ..... ... ...... . La Declaraci6n Americana de los Derechos y Deberes del Hombre .. .. . . . . . . . . . ... ... . · ...... . . ... .... .. .. . . ... . .... : .. ... ... ..... La Declaraci6n Universal en las relaciones directas entre los Estados . . ...... ... ... c) Continuaci6n del procedimiento respecto de los Estados partes en la Convenci6n Americana sabre Derechos Humanos . ...... .. ... ...... La aprobaci6n de los Estados y la opmzo Jurts. ... LA INCORPORACI6N DE LA DECLARACI6N AMERICANA AL DERECHO CONSUETUDINARIO ...... .. .. . .... .. ... EFECTOS PROBATORIOS DE LA FALTA DE C00PERACI6N DE LOS ESTADOS . . . .. .. • . . ........ .. .. . ... . ... ... ... ... .. .. . . ... ... . . 248 2... . . 1.. . . . II... .... . ... . ... ..... · · 303 a) b) B) . . b') Pruebas . . . • ... ........ . . .. A) B) II.. Publicaciones consultada-s . . • . .. :. . .. .. . 284 t. . ... .ctica de la Comisi6n . ..... . . . .. LA INICIATIVA PROCESAL . 269 271 A) 277 280 282 Ill. . . . . .. 286 2... ...... .. ... . .. . . .. . . ...... ... . e) Continuaci6n del procedimiento respecto de los Estados que no son partes en Ia Convenci6n 216 216 216 LA CoRTE EUROPEA DE DERECHOS HuMANOS . ... INTERNACIONAL CONSUETU· .. •.... .. . .. . .... . 217 217 217 217 1.... .

Related Interests

2.. S. .... A) B) 3.... 29 38 40 41 44 46 47 48 55 57 Sobre el origen de ..... .. I nstituciones CONCLUSIONES . fo'P}0~'2·~-5.. ...... : .. . 17 . ... ... 1.. 61 2. . ... . . . . .. .. . .. . .. II.. 60 75 El marco general . . ... • . EL SISTEMA INTERAMERICANO . ... . . LA COMPLEJIDAD ACTUAL .. .. . .. .. . .. . 2..... . . .. © 1987. . II. . . ni la transmisi6n de ninguna forma· o por cualquier media. . EL EsTADO Y EL DOMINIO RESERVADO .. . . .. CAPITULO II BASES DE LA PROGRESIVIDAD I...-. ...lmpreso en Espafi.. Poligono Ind....:..... . . . . 29 Las expresiones normativas concretas . .... .. . . . No esta permitida Ia reproducci6n total o parcial de este libra.... '". ...._rh 4. A.. 11.. . . . . • ..... . 1. 1.. 3. . ..l"T ~_.. . 1987 ABREVIATURAS • .. G. 1: BJlKB~iiJLdtV J. 28017 Madrid (Espafta) ISBN: 84-7398-513-3 DepOsito legal: M.. . .. 3... . 27. . ..

LA INTERPRETACI6N AMPLIA EN EL SENO DEL COMITE PARA LA ELIMINACI6N DE LA DISCRIMINACI6N RACIAL Y EL CoMITE DE DERECHOS HUMAN OS ... . . . . .. . .. . ... . B) El Comite para la Eliminaci6n de la Discriminaci6n I43 143 14S 14S 149 ISO ISO IS2 153 IS6 IS7 160 La Comisi6n lnteramericana de Derechos Humanos. . .. .. a) Condiciones de adrnisibilidad ... . ... ..... . . .. ... ...... .. .... . .. .. A) B) Las denuncias individuates en Ia historia de la Comisi6n .. .. ..... .. .. .. ..... . .•.. . ........ .. .. ....... . ...... en terminos gen6ricos ... . . .. ... IS3 ISS A) B) 10S 108 108 113 116 Convenciones de alcance facultative .. . 171 1.. CONVENCI6N CONTRA LA TORTURA y OTROS TRATOS NAS CRUELES. .. .. . • . . 201 203 203 204 20S LA COMISI6N lNTERAMERICANA DE DERECHOS HuMANOS . La Carta Social Europea .. ... . . ..... .. a) DeterminaciOn unilateral ..... .... .. El ComitrJ contra la Tortura y la consagraci6n expresa de las prdcticas precedentes .. .. .... .. ... . . ... La Comisi6n Europea de Derechos Humanos La Corte Europea de Derechos Humanos . .. . A) B) 6. . 205 2. . . . ... .. Las denuncias individuales .. A) B) 5.. ... . .. .. . . . ...s derechos humanos . I. . . .. .. .. .. ... ... . ... ... ... .. . C) La Convenci6n Europea sabre la imprescriptibilidad de los crimenes contra la humanidad y los crimenes de guerra .. .... . .. ... .. . .. ..... SEGUNDA PARTE LA PROGRESIVIDAD OPERATIVA A) 2.. .. . .. .. .. B) Admisibilidad .. . .... . .. ... . . . . . .. .. .. LA COMISI6N DE DERECHOS HUMANos DE LAS NACIONES UNIDAS: UN CASO DE AMPLIACI6N PROGRESIVA DEL VALOR DE I:AS COMUNICACIONES INDIVIDUALES . . . . . .... ... LA CONVENCI6N INTERNACIONAL PARA LA ELIMINACI6N DE TODAS LAS FORMAS DE DISCRIMINACI6N RAciAL .. . .....6tesis: Progresividad definida en trJrmi~ nos especl/tcos . .. . . . . . . El Convenio nUmero 102... .. ...... .. . .. ... CONVENCI6N AMERICANA SOBRE DERECHOS HUMANOS .... . ....... .. . . . . ... . .. .. . . . . . .. . a') IS3 174 El individuo como parte en procedimientos intemacionales 1.. ..... .D) II. . . ..... relativo a Ia norma minima de seguridad social (0 IT) . en t6rminos genericos . .. . . . 16S 2. ....... ....... ... INHUMANOS 0 DEGRADANTES . . . .. .. ..... . ... ..... . . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. . . ... . ... .. .INDICE INDICB 8 CAPITULO III LOS COMPROMISOS ABIERTOS A LA PROGRESIVIDAD 10S Introducci6n ... .. . . . . Procedimiento actual . . .. I Racial .•.. ........... . . ... CAPITULO IV LA INICIATIVA INDIVIDUAL EN LOS PROCEDIMIENTOS INTERNACIONALES RELATIVOS A LOS DERECHOS HU· MANOS ... .. .. . .. .... La investigaci6n por mera notitia criminis . 1.. . La Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos . .... .. .... ..... .. . . .. El sistema de in formes .. .. . . .. .. ......... . .... . El ComitrJ de Derechos Humanos . .. . ......... A) B) 4. . ... . . ... CONVENCIONES DE ALCANCE FACULTATIVO .. ... C) Las denuncias individuales .. . ... ... A) Fase preliminar ..... . .... b) Protocolos adicionales o reformas .. . .. . .. ..... ... Competencia general: el sistema de informes . 10S A) B) D~sc:ipci6n generfd :..... ... .... . Condiciones de 20S 21S 21S 215 215 .. A) B) II. . .. . ... ... . . .. . .... C) Las denuncias de Estado ... ..... . . . 17S 18S 18S 188 192 196 199 LA UNESCO . . . ... . . . . D) lnforme a[ Consejo Ejecutivo .. .. .. . ... ... . ........ C) Meritos .. . 2. ... .. . .. C) Tercera ~if!.. . . . .. .. . ..... . . ... . B) Segunda hip6tesis: Progresividad definida explicita~ mente. . 147 147 148 149 CONVENCI6N EUROPEA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS (CONVEN· CI6N PARA LA PROTECCI6N DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS Y LAS LIBERTADES fUNDAMENT ALES) . . .... La denuncia informativa . . .... .. .. Las denuncias de Estado . 130 130 Competencla progresiva .... . . .. . .. 171 de proteoci6n a la. Las denuncias de Estado . ... .... ... .. . 116 1. . . . La definiciOn progresiva de -los derechos protegidos ..... . ... . . 13S 137 PLANTEAMIENTO DE LA CUESTI6N ... ..... . .... ... . ................. .. . . ... .. . .... c) I.. Tecmcas de amphacwn .. . ... . . . . .. 9 b') forma Condiciones de Iondo ..... .. .. ... . .. . . ..... .. . ... Primera hip6tesis: Progresividad dejinida implicita~ mente... .. lntroducci6n . .... ..... . .. . .. . . . . ..... . .. ... . . . . . D) Las denuncias individuales . . ... El sistema de informes ... .... . . 118 123 128 A) B) C) 3..... . 0 PE- . . .. . •• A) La tecnica de los in formes .. .. .... . . .. .. . ... .. .. Introducci6n 132 137 C) .. .. .. .. ..... . .. .. ... . .... . .. . EL PACTO INTERNACIONAL DE DERECHOS CIVILES y PoLiTICOS Y SU PROTOCOLO fACULTATIVO . .. ... . 117 0ERECHOS DE ALCANCE PROGRESIVO ..

.. . . 218 229 231 232 233 237 La legitimaci6n activa .. . ... .. . . .. . · ... . . . .. a') Solicitud de informaciOn .. ConclusiOn .... . 2. . .. . .. . · ... · . B) La pract1ca . . · . . . . . . .. .. LA CARTA DE LAS NACIO· . ..... .. .... . . . ....... . · .... ... . · .... 219 b) 3..... La declaraci6n universal de derechos humanos ... ... La iniciativa ex officio . ... .. . .. ..... . . . .. . . . . .... .. . .... ..... . 251 256 CAPITULO VI EL VALOR SOBREVENIDO DE LAS DECLARACIONES 261 I. . ...... .. ... . .... ..... .... .... . . C) Conclusiones . B) La Declaraci6n Universal en la actividad de protec~ ci6n internacional de los derechos humanos ... . . • ... CAPITULO V LA POSICION DEL ESTADO DEMANDADO I. .. . . · ·... . . .. .. .. .. .. LAS OBSERVACIONES «IN LOCO» DE LA COMISI6N INTER~ AMERICANA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS ... .. .. EL AGOTAMIENTO DE LOS RECURSOS INTERNOS .. • . . .......... 292 293 299 Etapa posterior a la entrada en vigor de la Convenci6n Americana sabre Derechos Humanos . .. ... 262 266 1.. · ........ . . .. · 290 LA A) Etapa anterior a la entrada en vigor del Protocolo de Buenos Aires .. ...... LA INCORPORACI6N INDIRECTA A NES UNIDAS . . .. .. • LA INCORPORACI6N AL DERECHO DINARIC ........ .. ...INDICE 10 II INDICE Investigaci6n . . .. . . . . · La prB... ... b') T6cnica de Ia mediaci6n-conciliaci6n d) Sometimiento a Ia Corte . ••• .• A) Los p~in9ipios . .. . . ... • . . ... · 309 315 . . .. ... 2. .. 244 244 247 Las pruebas y Ia cooperaci6n de los Estados ... . . . a') T6cnica de los buenos oficios . . ..... .. ..... ... .. . ... LA INCORPORACI6N DE LA DECLARACI6N A LA CARTA DE OEA ... . La fuerza obligatoria de las declaraciones . .. La flexibilizaciOn de los requisitos para Ia iniciativa procesal ... ..... ... ...... . La Declaraci6n Americana de los Derechos y Deberes del Hombre .. .. . . . . . . . . . ... ... . · ...... . . ... .... .. .. . . ... . .... : .. ... ... ..... La Declaraci6n Universal en las relaciones directas entre los Estados . . ...... ... ... c) Continuaci6n del procedimiento respecto de los Estados partes en la Convenci6n Americana sabre Derechos Humanos . ...... .. ... ...... La aprobaci6n de los Estados y la opmzo Jurts. ... LA INCORPORACI6N DE LA DECLARACI6N AMERICANA AL DERECHO CONSUETUDINARIO ...... .. .. . .... .. ... EFECTOS PROBATORIOS DE LA FALTA DE C00PERACI6N DE LOS ESTADOS . . . .. .. • . . ........ .. .. . ... . ... ... ... ... .. .. . . ... ... . . 248 2... . . 1.. . . . II... .... . ... . ... ..... · · 303 a) b) B) . . b') Pruebas . . . • ... ........ . . .. A) B) II.. Publicaciones consultada-s . . • . .. :. . .. .. . 284 t. . ... .ctica de la Comisi6n . ..... . . . .. LA INICIATIVA PROCESAL . 269 271 A) 277 280 282 Ill. . . . . .. 286 2... ...... .. ... . .. . . .. . . ...... ... . e) Continuaci6n del procedimiento respecto de los Estados que no son partes en Ia Convenci6n 216 216 216 LA CoRTE EUROPEA DE DERECHOS HuMANOS . ... INTERNACIONAL CONSUETU· .. •.... .. . .. . .... . 217 217 217 217 1.... .

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