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Modern education system is depending upon learner-centric approach and it is very

necessary to know how does a child learn or more specifically, we can say that which
learning style is suitable to him?
So, the idea of individualized learning styles originated in the 1970s, and has greatly
influenced education. David A. Kolb, an American educationist, developed a leaning style
There are many learning style model were developed namely Peter Honey and Alan
Mumford's model, Anthony Gregorc's model, Neil Fleming's VAK/VARK model, etc. But, Kolb's
model of learning styles is one of the best-known and widely used learning style theories. He
believed that our individual learning styles emerge due to our genetics, life experiences, and
the demands of our current environment.
Slide 2: Major Fact
According to Kolb, Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the
transformation of experience. This type of learning is known as Experimental Learning.
It should be noted that, Experiential means relating to or resulting from experience while
experimental means relating to or based on experiment. Kolb uses the term experiential
as his theory is based more on reflection of experiences. While others use experimental
when referencing experimental-inquiry techniques that require learners to test hypothesis
(experiment) about content knowledge.
Learning styles can be defined as a set of cognitive, emotional, characteristic and
physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives,
interacts with, and responds to the learning environment.
Slide 3: Kolb's Experiential Learning Model
Based on the experiential learning, Kolb developed an Experiential Learning Model is
based on two dimensions or continuums that form a quadrant
Perception Continuum: This continuum deals with how a child perceive knowledge from
the outside world and it has 2 states namely Feeling and Thinking by which we can perceive
Processing Continuum: This continuum deals with how a child process the perceived
knowledge inner self and it has 2 states namely Watching and Doing by which we can
process or conceptualize our inner knowledge.
Slide 4: Experiential Learning Cycle
From the Experiential Learning Model, an Experiential Learning Cycle is constructed.
Concrete Experience (CE): Learning from specific experiences and relating to people.
Being involved in a new experience.
Reflective Observation (RO): Observing before making a judgment by viewing the
environment from different perspectives. Watching others or developing observations about
ones own experience

Abstract Conceptualization (AC): Logical analysis of ideas and acting on intellectual

understanding of a situation. creating theories to explain observations
Active Experimentation (AE): Ability to get things done by influencing people and events
through action. Includes risk-taking. Using theories to solve problems, make decisions.
It is a cyclic process. If we take an example, it should be clear
Learning to ride a bicycle:

Concrete experience - Receiving practical tips and techniques from a biking expert.
Reflective observation - Thinking about riding and watching another person ride a bike.
Abstract conceptualization - Understanding the theory and having a clear grasp of the
biking concept.
Active experimentation - Leaping on the bike and have a go at it.

Slide 5: Learning Style

Accommodative Learning Style Divergent Learning Style
Assimilating Learning Style
Convergent Learning Style
Doing (Active
Experimentation - AE)
Feeling (Concrete
Experience - CE)
Thinking (Abstract
Conceptualization - AC)

Watching (Reflective
Observation - RO)

Convergers (AC/AE)

Divergers (CE/RO)

Slide 6:
From the 4 types of learning style, we also get 4 types of learners
1. Accomodators (Concrete experiencer/Active experimenter)
Accommodators have the most hands-on approach, with a strong preference for doing rather
than thinking. They like to ask 'what if?' and 'why not?' to support their action-first approach.
They do not like routine and will take creative risks to see what happens.
They like to explore complexity by direct interaction and learn better by themselves than
with other people. As might be expected, they like hands-on and practical learning rather
than lectures.
Methods Discovery method, Heuristic Method.
2. Divergers (Concrete experiencer/Reflective observer)

Divergers take experiences and think deeply about them, thus diverging from a single
experience to multiple possibilities in terms of what this might mean. They like to ask 'why',
and will start from detail to constructively work up to the big picture.
They enjoy participating and working with others but they like a calm ship and fret over
conflicts. They are generally influenced by other people and like to receive constructive
They like to learn via logical instruction or hands-one exploration with conversations that
lead to discovery.
Methods Lecture method, Brain-storming Method
3. Assimilators (Abstract conceptualizer/Reflective observer)
Assimilators have the most cognitive approach, preferring to think than to act. The ask 'What
is there I can know?' and like organized and structured understanding.
They prefer lectures for learning, with demonstrations where possible, and will respect the
knowledge of experts. They will also learn through conversation that takes a logical and
thoughtful approach.
Methods Lecture method, Demonstration Method
4. Convergers (Abstract conceptualization/Active experimenter)
Convergers think about things and then try out their ideas to see if they work in practice.
They like to ask 'how' about a situation, understanding how things work in practice. They like
facts and will seek to make things efficient by making small and careful changes.
They prefer to work by themselves, thinking carefully and acting independently. They learn
through interaction and computer-based learning is more effective with them than other
Methods Interactive method, Problem-solving Method

Slide 7: Educational Implication