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**Web for Instance Data Evaluation
**

Jiao Tao

Department of Computer Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,

Troy, NY 12180, USA

**Abstract. This paper presents our work on supporting evaluation of
**

integrity constraint issues in semantic web instance data. We propose

an alternative semantics for the ontology language, i.e., OWL, a decision

procedure for constraint evaluation by query answering, and an approach

of explaining and repairing integrity constraint violations by utilizing the

justifications of conjunctive query answers.

keywords: Instance Data, Evaluation, Integrity Constraint, OWL

1

Introduction: Motivation and Challenges

**With the rapid growth of semantic web [1] technologies, a lot of semantic web
**

applications such as Twine, Freebase, TrueKnowledge, Hakia, etc, are emerging

on the web. To consume the data generated by these applications, it is critical

to evaluate the data and ensure it meets the needs of users first. The data on the

semantic web includes the ontologies that describe the schema of the domain,

and the instance data that refers to the ground level data particular to the

applications. There has been a lot of research aimed at ontology evaluation [2] [3]

[4], however there is little, if any, research focusing on instance data evaluation,

even though instance data usually accounts for orders of magnitude more than

ontologies on the web.

We have identified three categories of issues [5] that may occur in instance

data which are syntax errors, logical inconsistencies, and integrity constraint

issues: syntax errors are the issues indicating that the syntax representation

of instance data does not conform to the corresponding syntax specifications

such as RDF/XML, N3, N-Triple, Turtle, etc; logical inconsistencies are the

issues showing that the underlying logical theory of the instance data includes

contradictory axioms; integrity constraint issues are the issues caused by the

failure of the instance data to follow the restrictions that are imposed by the

integrity constraints. While the evaluation of first two categories of issues are

well studied [6] [7] [8] [9] and are being supported by existing tools such as W3C

RDF validation service 1 , the DL reasoner Pellet 2 , Chimaera [10], the BBN

validator 3 , and ODEval [11], evaluation support for integrity constraint issues

in semantic web instance data still remains an open research problem.

1

2

3

**http://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator/
**

http://clarkparsia.com/pellet/

http://projects.semwebcentral.org/projects/vowlidator/

an OWL IC axiom is satisfied if all minimal Herbrand models of the KB satisfy it. or epistemic logics.. this approach has two limitations: first. we present our work on supporting evaluatin of integrity constraint issues in semantic web instance data by enabling OWL as an IC language. such as databases. what triggers constraint violations in closed world systems. Our closest related work is a minimal Herbrand model-based approach [17]. two different names may refer to the same object. – Absence of the Unique Name Assumption (UNA): i.e. With this approach. almost all database systems support IC checking. which is not . As an important functionality. Due to the above characteristics. existentially quantified individuals can satisfy ICs. we focus on approaches that reuse OWL as an IC language. The epistemic query-based approach [16] expresses ICs as epistemic queries and evaluates ICs by checking the epistemic query answers.. a statement cannot be inferred to be false on the basis of failures to prove it. With this approach the developers need to be familiar with rules. The epistemic DL-based approach extends DLs with epistemic logics and expresses ICs with epistemic DL axioms. However. Therefore. The main approach for checking ICs in databases is to represent ICs as part of the database schema and translate the constraints to corresponding queries. IC evaluation is to determine if the IC axioms are epistemic-entailed by the DL KB. it focuses on less expressive DLs. One might wonder if similar approach can be used for the task of evaluating IC issues on the semantic web: modeling ICs as part of the domain knowledge using knowledge representation languages on the semantic web such as OWL [13] then translating IC axioms to queries and validating ICs by corresponding query answering. epistemic queries. 2 Related Work Several existing proposals on enabling OWL as an IC language combine OWL with different formalisms such as rules. However the complexity results of this approach in expressive DLs are still unknown.e.The concept of integrity constraint (IC) was invented in the field of relational databases where ICs are used to ensure data consistency [12]. second. The standard semantics of OWL is based on Description Logics (DL) which has the following two characteristics: – Open World Assumption (OWA): i. the queries are executed first to see if the ICs are violated. This approach may result in counterintuitive results or modeling burden: first. it is difficult to use OWL for IC evaluation. In this paper. leads to new inferences in standard OWL systems. With this approach. therefore preventing potential constraint violations. Whenever there is an update to the data. In this paper. The rule-based approach [14] [15] expresses ICs as rules with a special predicate and check ICs by examining if the special predicate is entailed by the hybrid DLrule knowledge base (KB). it adopts the strict UNA which is not compatible with OWL since two different OWL individual names might refer to the same object.

. 3 Research Objectives and Plan This work is aimed to support evaluating IC issues in semantic web instance data. Implementing a prototype and evaluating IC issues in instance data. Given a set of instance data and IC axioms. 4 Research Progress Until now we have completed the review of the state of the art. For this purpose. we will describe an IC semantics [18] that we have proposed for OWL [19] which is based on DL SROIQ[20]. with this approach. and compared the different approaches of enabling OWL as an IC language. Aside from being an ontology language. the decision procedures decide if the ICs are violated by the instance data. In the IC semantics. The work that we have done so far includes an IC semantics for OWL. Given a SROIQ KB K. Due to the various issues of these approaches that we have discussed in Section 2.1 IC Semantics for OWL In this section. – Providing explanation services for IC violations which explain why certain ICs are violated and recommend how to repair the violations. I and J are two SROIQ interpretations of K. This adds a significant maintenance burden on ontology developers while still not capturing the intuition behind ICs. OWL is also an IC language that can be used to represent constraints that the instance data has to satisfy. and every individual name should be asserted as an instance of O. a decision procedure for IC evaluation. the disjunctions and ICs may interact in unexpected ways. then a special concept O has to be added into the original IC axiom. We formalize this notion of weak UNA by Minimal Equality (ME) models. J |= C(a) 4 With UNA. 4. two different names always refer to different entities. we decided that designing an alternative semantics for OWL which supports ICs and correctly captures the intuitions behind ICs would be a promising solution. an approach to explain and repair IC violations. and a partial implementation. third. we say J ≺= I if: (1)∀C ∈ NC . second. – Providing decision procedures for IC evaluation. we adopt a weak form of UNA 4 : two individual names with different identifiers are assumed to be different by default unless their equality is required to satisfy the axioms in the KB. we identify the following research objectives and plan: – Enabling OWL as an IC language. – Implementation and Evaluation. if an IC needs to be satisfied only by individual names.desirable for IC evaluation.

RI.U RBox Ref(R) ∀x ∈ NI : hx . Ca ∈ NC (atomic concepts). We define an extended KB as a pair hK. J ∈ M od(K). Axiom satisfactions in IC-interpretation I. J ≺= I} First. (3) EJ ⊂ EI where EF = {ha. U Type TBox Given a SROIQ KB K and a SROIQ axiom α. Their semantics is given by encoding them as TBox axioms ({a} v C.U = C I.U I. b ∈ NI s.t. we define M odM E (K) = {I ∈ M od(K) | @J .t.U ⊆ R2I.U = aI .) then we conclude . I. Ci where K is a SROIQ KB interpreted with the standard semantics and C is a set of SROIQ axioms interpreted with the IC semantics.U Irr(R) ∀x ∈ NI : hxI. is defined in Table 1.U I. ∀J ∈ U.t. hxJ . {a} v ¬{b}. U |= α. Formally. K |=IC α. Rn v R R1 ◦ . y J i ∈ RJ }. D are concepts. .{b}.Self)I.iff I |= C(a). we say K IC-satisfies α. (2) ∀R ∈ NR . b).U and y I ∈ C I. there are also four kinds of ABox axioms (C(a). are the models of K with minimal equality between individual names. hxI . a = b. {a} v {b}.U ∩ R2I. xI i ∈ RI. where U = M odM E (K). Then. The ICinterpretation function ·I. U |= α.U I.U = {xI | x ∈ NI s. b) resp. {a} v ∃R. a ∈ NI (individual names).t.U R1 . x i ∈ RI. the IC-satisfaction has a closed world flavor: given an atomic concept C (R resp.U }. iff ∀I ∈ U.U I. if K 6|=IC C(a)(R(a.U .U = (NI )I \ C I.). i.U ) where I = (∆I .U Dis(R1 .t.U = {hxI .U = ∅ Table 1.. We say that hK.U i 6∈ RI. U. (≥ nR. Note that. R2 ) R1I. resp. aI. {a}I. y I i | x. y ∈ NI s.U maps concepts.U R1 v R2 R1I. where (NI )I = {xI | x ∈ NI }. . J |= R(a. (R− )I. R(a. (C u D)I. xI.e.U = {aI }. . Axiom Condition on I.e. ◦ Rn ⊆ RI.U = {xI | x ∈ NI s.U }.U } ≥ n}. i.U . C. b) iff I |= R(a.U = {xI | x ∈ NI s. otherwise there is an IC violation. ·I ) is a SROIQ interpretation and U is a set of SROIQ interpretations.). M odM E (K). K |=IC α. #{y I | hxI . xJ ∈ Ca J }..U = {hxI .U ∩ DI.U ⊆ DI. ∀J ∈ U. R ∈ NR (atomic roles). we define an IC-interpretation I. The Minimal Equality (ME) models. ·I. bi | a.C)I. the satisfaction of axiom α in an IC-interpretation I. (¬C)I. b). (∃R. a 6= b). F |= a = b}.U . and individuals as follows: Ca I. y I i | hy I . y I i ∈ RI. U CvD C I. . roles. denoted as I. Note that. U = (∆I . Ci is valid if ∀α ∈ C. xI i ∈ RI.

y)) := Product(x) ∧ not (hasProducer(x. yn ) T (Ref(R)) := not R(x. R2 )) := R1 (x.Producer. The translation rules are similar in the spirit to the Lloyd-Topor transformation [21] but instead of rules we generate DCQnot queries. The idea behind the translation is to translate an IC axiom into a query such that when the IC is violated the query is true. y) where Ca is an atomic concept. Then we show that IC evaluation can be reduced to corresponding DCQnot query answering. therefore enabling OWL as an IC language. x) := not Tc (C. C(i) is a concept. y) ∧ not R2 (x. Rn (yn−1 . In other words. then we have: T (Product v ∃hasProducer. Rn v R) := R1 (x. we can conclude that the IC is violated.). b) resp. That is.Producer. . x) Tc (C1 u C2 . Due to space limitation we do not introduce DCQnot here. we describe a decision procedure for IC evaluation. Example 1 Suppose α : Product v ∃hasProducer. x) T (R1 v R2 ) := R1 (x. a is an individual name. x and y(i) are variables. x) Tc ({a}. 4. . First. x) := (x = a) T (C1 v C2 ) := Tc (C1 . y) ∧ Producer(y)) We now obtain the main decision procedure for IC evaluation: 5 With CWA. yi ) ∧ Tc (C.Self. y) ∧ R2 (x. Please refer to [18] for more details. y) T (R1 . x) := Tc (C1 . x) := Ca (x) Tc (¬C. yi )) 1≤i≤n ^ not (yi = yj ) 1≤i<j≤n Tc (∃R. x) ^ Tc (≥ nR. x) := R(x. . y) ∧ Tc (Producer. we present the translation rules from IC axioms to DCQnot queries. x) ∧ not Tc (C2 . x) := (R(x. x) T (Irr(R)) := R(x. . The translation contains two operators: Tc for translating concepts and T for translating axioms: Tc (Ca . which is the opposite of OWA.C. x) ∧ Tc (C2 . a statement is inferred to be false if it is not known to be true.2 IC Evaluation In this section. R(i) is a role. We have verified [18] that this CWA 5 and the weak UNA addresses the issues caused by the OWA and absence of UNA of OWL standard semantics. x) ∧ not Tc (∃hasProducer. yn ) ∧ not R(x. . y1 ) ∧ . whenever the answer set of the query is not empty. deciding if a KB IC-satisfies an IC axiom. x) := Product(x) ∧ not (hasProducer(x. x) T (Dis(R1 .Producer) := Tc (Product.K |=IC ¬C(a) (¬R(a.

K ∪ J− 6|=σ Q. y → p1 } is not empty indicating α is violated. {Producer(s1 )}i.Theorem 1 Given an extended KB hK. SROIQi or hSROIQ. K ∪ T 6|=σ Q. (2) K ∪ J− is consistent. To repair the above violations.t.. y → s2 . In this section. ∀T ⊇ J− . J+ |=σ Q. y → s1 . σ 0 : x → p1 . Given a DCQnot entailment K |=σ Q where K is a SROIQ DL KB. the justifications for K |= Q w.). K |=IC α iff the query answers A(T (α). Product(p1 ). J2 = hJ2+ . hasProducer(p1 . where α ∈ C. s1 ). Then T (α) is Q ← Product(x) ∧ not (hasProducer(x. Please refer to [22] for more details. Example 2 Suppose we have the following KB K and IC axiom α K = {Toy v Product. ∀J 0 ⊂ J− . Toy v Product}. We have proposed algorithms for justification computation [23]. 4.r. K) = {σ : x → p1 . σ are: J1 = hJ1+ . That is. J 0 6|=σ Q. σ 00 : x → p1 . According to the algorithms. the disjunctive individual (in)equivalence axioms in K and the cardinality restrictions in C will cause some problematic interactions such that the IC axioms are satisfied in different ways at different interpretations of K and IC evaluation can not be reduced to query answering. ∀J 0 ⊂ J+ . K 6|= T (α). s2 )} α : Product v ∃hasProducer. Ci with expressivity hSRI. J− i where J+ and J− are the positive and negative justifications respectively such that: (1) J+ ⊆ K. y) ∧ Producer(y)) and query answer A(Q. K |= Q holds because the existence of positive justifications and the absence of negative justifications. ∀S ⊆ K. Toy(p1 ). we . J1− i = h{Product(p1 )}. the violation of α can be explained by J1 and J2 . σ is an assignment mapping query variables to individuals.e. To explain the violations of α. {Producer(s1 )}i. we just need to justify why the query entailment K |= T (α) holds. otherwise.3 IC Violation Explanation and Repair By Theorem 1.Producer. we present our recent work on justification of conjunctive query answers [23] and show how to use the justifications to explain and repair IC violations. ToyProducer v Producer. According to the definition of query entailment justification. SROIQi (hSROIQ. J2− i = h{Toy(p1 ). That is. K). α is violated because p1 is a product (by J1+ /J2+ ) and p1 does not have a known producer (by J1− /J2− ). a justification for K |=σ Q is J = hJ+ . To explain the violation of α. Ci to be less expressive than hSRI. SROIi because. K violates an IC axiom α if K |= T (α). J+ ∪ S |=σ Q. SROIi resp. Therefore. K ∪ J 0 |=σ Q. K) are empty. i. Q is a DCQnot . we need to invalidate K |= Q. We require hK. we first compute the justifications for K |= Q. hasProducer(p1 . Since the entailment K |=σ Q contributes to the non-emptiness of query answers A(Q. the existence of J+ in K and the absence of J− from K are sufficient for K |=σ Q to hold.

Lassila. a set which intersects all sets in the collection in at least one element is called a hitting set. users can easily discover and fix the issues in the data. The evaluation should cover functionality. This enables them to obtain data that is checked and appropriate for their uses. The existing query answering-based decision procedure only works when KBs are less expressive than SROIQ KBs.: The Semantic Web. J. performance. and explanation approaches that we have proposed. Scientific American 284(5) (2001) 34–43 6 Given a collection of sets. J2+ } = {{Product(p1 )}. {Product(p1 ). We need to utilize some optimizations to solve this problem. To address this issue. we describe a decision procedure for IC evaluation and an approach for IC violation explanation and repair. {Toy(p1 ).. the positive justifications for K |=σ Q and its mhs are: J+ All = {J1+ . The minimal hitting set is the hitting set of smallest size. σ 0 and σ 00 .. For instance. H2 } = {{Product(p1 ). O. It is easy to verify that after the updates to K constraint α is satisfied.t. – Optimizing the algorithms for query answer justifications. The computation complexity of the algorithms is a linear function in most cases except that the complexity follows the power law when the queries include negation of conjunction. So we can update K to one of the three KBs: (1) K10 = K \ H1 . Berners-Lee. . Hendler. and scalability aspects. – Finishing the implementation and evaluating the integrity issues in semantic web instance data by employing the IC modeling. evaluation. 5 Further Research Plan The research that remains to be done includes: – Proposing a decision procedure for IC evaluation for the fully expressive SROIQ KBs.can either remove a minimal hitting set (mhs) 6 of positive justifications from K such that no positive justification exists in K. mhs(J+ All ) = {H1 . or add a negative justification to K. Further. With the contributions of this work. Toy v Product}. (2) K20 = K \ H2 . Toy v Product}}. Toy(p1 )}}. We propose an alternative semantics for OWL that adopts CWA and a weakened UNA thus enabling OWL to serve as an IC language.r. Similarly we can invalidate K |= Q w. 6 Conclusions Our work addresses the issues of supporting IC evaluation for instance data on the semantic web. References 1. thus improving the process of interactions between various parties on the web. T. we need to explore other approaches such as Tableau-based approaches. (3) K30 = K ∪ J1− .

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