# 1.

Determinati traiectoria de evolutie a populatiei pentru:
 P0=20, k=0,03 si k=0,05;
 P0=50, k=0,03 si k=0,05;
 P0=100, k=0,03 si k=0,05.
Reprezentati graficele cu ajutorul EXCEL.
p01=
20

p02=
50

p03=1 k1=0.
00
03

k2=0.
05

t

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

1

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

2

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

3

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

4

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

5

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

6

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

7

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

8

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

20

50

100

0.03

0.05

9
1
0

p(t)=p0*e^(k*t)
(p01,k1)
20.60720419
21.23284323
21.87747679
22.54168157
23.22605175
23.93119954
24.65775577
25.40637041
26.17771313
26.97247399
p(t)=p0*e^(k*t)
(p01,k2)

p(t)=p0*e^(k*t)
(p02,k1)
51.51801047
53.08210806
54.69369198
56.35420393
58.06512937
59.82799886
61.64438944
63.51592601
65.44428283
67.43118497
p(t)=p0*e^(k*t)
(p02,k2)

k1
*t
0.
03
0.
06
0.
09
0.
12
0.
15
0.
18
0.
21
0.
24
0.
27
0.
3

k2
*t
0.
05
0.
1
0.
15
0.
2
0.
25
0.
3
0.
35
0.
4
0.
45
0.
5
p(t)=p0*e^(k*t)
(p03,k1)
103.0360209
106.1642161
109.387384
112.7084079
116.1302587
119.6559977
123.2887789
127.031852
130.8885657
134.8623699
p(t)=p0*e^(k*t)
(p03,k2)
1

21.02221436
22.09667483
23.22605175
24.41315193
25.66092565
26.97247399
28.3510565
29.80009935
31.32320383
32.92415527

52.5555359
55.24168708
58.06512937
61.03287982
64.15231413
67.43118497
70.87764125
74.50024838
78.30800957
82.31038817

21.02221436
22.09667483
23.22605175
24.41315193
25.66092565
26.97247399
28.3510565
29.80009935
31.32320383
32.92415527

2. Modelul Harrod-Domar. Folosind EXCEL, determinati traiectoriile Y(t), I(t), C(t),
cunoscand datele:

( s )∗t

Y0=100 u.m., s=0.3, =0.7, Y(t)=100* e ❑

t
1
2

Y
0
10
0
10
0

s
0.
3
0.
3

n
0.
7
0.
7

(s/n)*t
0.428571
429
0.857142
857

, I(t)=S(t)=s*Y(t), C(t)=*Y(t)

Y(t)=Y0*e^[(s/
n)*t]

I(t)=S(t)=s*
Y(t)

153.3056877

45.9917063

235.0263387

70.5079016

C(t)=n*Y(
t)
107.3139
814
164.5184
371
2

7 0.6616 591 592.817 694 3274.314626 252.048754 2151. 3 0.714285 714 2. a=10.0461352 1298.07533 3051. 7 0.3737987 165.9351 3 .0926234 552. )(n+)*t -0. 3 0. 3 0. a) Calculati traiectoria inzestrarii tehnice a muncii pentru t=1-10 si faceti graficul in EXCEL t 1 L0 n K0  100 0.285714 286 1.008.175 77 2135.35. Se cunosc datele: L0=100.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 0.285714 286 360.3.223915 389. =0. 7 0. =0. 3 0. 7 1. s=0.4671745 1990. 7 0.614291 1403.05.330 004 5019.168135 915.857142 857 4. 3 0.7743 154 908.0  0.3 a 1 s 0. 3 0.3087447 108. 3 0.142857 143 2.571428 571 3 3.2511 597.428571 429 3.2161 213 386. 7 0.00 100 0.7567 404 1393. 7 0.7121396 846. 7 0. K0=1000. 3 0.284287 7171.734 128 3.0377 -(1k(t) 1911.3504405 4677.8204505 254. n=0.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 8 0.9775 46 1556.3 5 0.3 5 0. 3 0.2639 -0.2236 34 1663.3393 99 1845.3016 b) Calculati traiectoria stocului total al capitalului pentru t=1-10 si faceti graficul in EXCEL  as as    K (t )  L0e   e (1 )( n  )t  k01   n   n      1 /(1 ) nt K (t )  100e 0.0 5 0. 3 0.00 8 0.00 8 0.00 8 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 5 0.1131 -0.0 5 0. 3 0.0 5 0.7149 91 1608.0 5 0.0 5 0.00 8 0.377 1414.3 5 0.00 8 0. 3 0.00 8 0.1508 -0.3 5 0.1689 67 1781.0754 -0. 3 0.1885 -0.3 5 0. 3 0.3 5 0.00 8 0.0 5 0.3 5 0.6549 08 1721.00 8 0.8680 99 1507.9988 42 -0.0 5 0.2262 -0. 008t k (t ) 4 .0 5 5 0. 3 0. 3 0.0 5 0. 3 -0.9898 -0.3 5 0.00 8 0.2512 25 1459.3 5 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 0.

2 24 1663. 69 19111. 14 17865.9 35 1845. 26 20487. 84 16211.t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 L0 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 k(t) 1911.2 51 1459. 17 15711. 36 17286.7 15 1608.8 68 1507. 41 c) Calculati venitul per capita si venitul total si faceti graficele corespunzatoare in EXCEL y (t )  ak (t ) Y (t )  aK (t ) L(t )1  aL0 e nt k (t ) 5 . 92 19782. 69 18473.6 55 1721. 76 16735.1 69 1781.9 99 1414.9 78 1556.9 9 K(t) 21229.

86809 9 1507.00 8 0.71499 1 1608.22363 4 1663.9962 138062.00 8 0.696220 1 139019.3 5 k(t) 1911.0767 139539.00 8 L0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 a 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0  0.031321 1 137.2753 141899.3 5 0.3 5 0.005080 1 129.2703 137624.97754 6 1556.00 8 0.00 8 0.16896 7 1781.65490 8 1721.3 5 0.092404 7 126.8845 140087.00 8 0.528392 5 128.3 5 0.99884 2 1414.948 137214.3 5 0.3 5 0.3 5 0.688504 3 134.3 5 0.25122 5 1459.00 8 0.337221 2 135.2541 138526.00 8 0.8773 d) Calculati punctele fixe ale traiectoriei k1  0  n   k2     sa   1 /( 1)  432.93519 9 1845.771782 2 139.8165 140662.3 5 0.00 8 0.00 8 0.960 6 .084206 3 Y(t)=a*L0*e^(n*t)*k(t) ^ 132.0093 141266.t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 n 0.523377 131.9898 y(t)=a*k(t)^  140.

4 87809.3 5 0.29969 439921.3 5 a 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 L0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 n 0.3 5 0.3 5 0.5672 89935.00 8 0.93206 465180.99274 446995.00 8 0.00 8 0.918 84376.00 8 0.1307 86419.3 5 0.96 Y(t)*=a*((L0*e^(n*t)*k2*)^L0e^n*t^) 436426.3 5 0.52232 7 .36678 468905.4348 87111.4907 90655.3 5 0.00 8 K(t)*=L0*e^(n*t)*4 32.5973 85051.2602 85732.3 5 0.00 8 0.3 5 0.50016 454182.00 8 0.2339 89220.17271 461485.2559 88512.e) Calculati traiectoria de echilibru a stocului total de capital si a venitului de echilibru pentru t=1-10 si faceti graficele EXCEL K (t )   L0 e nt k 2 Y (t )   a( L0 e nt k 2 )  ( L0 e nt )1 t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0  0.00 8 0.49786 450574.00 8 0.3 5 0.00 8 0.94112 443444.04365 457819.

3 0. 3 0.85851776 90. 3  0.42772142 89.30152403 91.3 5 0. 3 0.97754 6 1556.70655129 94.3 5 0.22363 4 1663.93519 9 1845.25122 5 1459.85894439 39.16896 7 1781.3 5 a 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 k(t) 1911.3 5 0. 3 0.68735409 160 140 120 100 80 c(t) 60 i(t) 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I(t)=sY(t) C(t)=Y(t)-I(t) 8 .3 5 0.98195301 40.54024757 41.3 5 0.3 5 0. 3 0. 3 0.7570131 92.76636391 39.f) Calculati investitiile brute si consumul pentru t=1-10 in marimi per capita si marimi totale si faceti graficele.65490 8 1721.86809 9 1507.00886604 88.20116637 96. 3 0.23153467 98.3 5 0.22526188 93.13605486 40. 3 0.3 5 0.3 5 0.70939634 97.66987478 38.9898 i(t)=s*a*k(t)^  c(t)=(1s)*a*k(t)^ 42.99884 2 1414.66468331 38. 3 0. i(t)=s*a*k(t)^ c(t)=(1-s)*a*k(t)^ s 0.71499 1 1608.70355606 38.32192479 41.

3 0.35-1))=548.3 0.86534 98464.01914 42026.3 0.35*10)^(1/(0.s Y(t) 141899.4927 41558.77155 42198.3 0.008+0.70279 99329.68108 41287.3 I(t)=s*Y(t) C(t)=Y(t)I(t) 42569.46319 96050.4636 41164.3 0.009 3 141266.04495 98886.270 3 137624. k2*=((0.3 0.877 3 0.4141 g) Analizati efectele cresterii ratei economiilor de s0=0.78259 97313.948 137214.30651 42380.3 0.884 5 140087.89736 41418.09887 96968.123 98060.816 5 140662.47786 41705.58918 96337.275 3 138526.3 0.3 0.4844 96643.77623 97677.254 1 139019.35: .996 2 138062.3 la s1=0.05)/0.Asupra traiectoriei de echilibru.076 7 139539.8 406019 Y(t)*=a*((L0*e^(n*t)*k2*)^L0e^n*t^) 9 .95367 41861.8406019 k2* K(t)*=L0*e^(n*t)*548.

5 1.1 64   Punctul fix: p*=(1+k)p*  p*=0 Stabilitatea: 10 .25 244140.  Populatia: pt=k*p(t-1)  pt=(1+k)*p(t-1)  solutia analitica: pt=(1+k)^t*p0 t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 p0 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 k 1. P0=1000.3721 96172.5.8406 019 548.69968 Observam ca o modificare a ratei de crestere a eonomiilor duce la o crestere a lui k2* cu aproape 116. 5 1. 4. fapt ce duce la dublarea valorilor de echilibru K(t)* si Y(t)*. 5 1.8084 98501. 5 1.01435 557665.8601 580353. 5 1.4937 94650.4524 92413.4314 91679.5 97656.12831 566632.84453 585000.94654 589684. calculati punctul fix si analizati stabilitatea.8406 019 548. Pentru modelul lui Malthaus consideram datele: K=1.13212 562130.1983 93899. 5 pt=(1+k)^t *p0 2500 6250 15625 39062.548.05001 571169.8406 019 553235.62 5 610351. 5 1.9189 97719.1213 95408.8406 019 548.21513 594406. 5 1. Calculati populatia pentru t=1-10. faceti graficul.56 25 1525878.8406 019 548.8406 019 548.2 66 9536743.8406 019 548.5394 96942.8406 019 548.9467 93153.94467 575743.9 06 3814697. 5 1. 5 1.8406 019 548.8406 019 548.

5 3 625000 0.2 0. 5 3 9765625000 t    Yt    Y0   s  Punctul fix:     Y Y  0   s Y   Stabilitatea: 11 . Scrieti traiectoria de evolutie a venitului. varianta discreta Se dau datele: Y0=1000.2 0.2 0. 5 3 -78125000 0.2 0. analizati stabilitatea (tipul de punct fix) si faceti graficul traiectoriei pentru t=1-10. 5 3 -3125000 0. 5 3 -125000 0. s=0. Modelul Harrod-Domar. 5 3 15625000 0.2 0. calculati punctul fix. 5 3 390625000 0. 5 3 25000 0. punct fix repelor 5. =0.3. 5 3 -1953125000 0.25.2 0.2 0. 5 3 -5000 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.lim pt  lim (1  k ) t p0   t  t  Sistem asimptotic instabil.  Traiectoria de evolutie a venitului: St=s*Yt It=(Yt-Y(t-1)) St=It Din relatiile de mai sus obtinem ecuatia:    Yt    Yt 1   s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 Y0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 Ecuatia de mai sus are solutia:  s Yt=((v/v-s)^t)*Y0 0.

9117 6 ktP 6.reprezentare in EXCEL a exercitiului rezolvat la seminar t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 C 13.A=A0(l+g)^t 12 .9117 6 0. calculati valorile indicatorilor din tabel pentru t=1-10 si faceti graficele. Yt=Ct+It Ct=c’Y(t-1) It=It.9117 6 0.25/(-0.6 7 6. k=2.6 7 6.6 7 kt=C*^t+k tP 25 20 18.9117 6 0. g=0.9117 6 0.3 3 13.8237608 15 17. inzestrarea tehnica a muncii scade.88196524 15.25/(0.3 3 13. Modelul lui Sollow in timp discret.Deoarece |/(-s)|= |0.A It.0361143 12.05)|= |-5|= 5>1 spunem ca sistemul este instabil.6 7 6.9117 6 0.3 3 13.Y=k(Y(t-1)-Y(t-2)) It.3 3  0.9621909 Se dau datele: c’=0.32796472 13.3 3 13.06910143 10 kt 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14.6 7 6.9117 6 0.65222591 13. A0=100.Y+It.5.47436837 Observam ca de-a lungul timpului.6 7 6.3 3 13.75131295 16. Scrieti ecuatia de dinamica a venitului.3 3 13.25-0.3 3 13.3 3 13. Modelul ciclului comercial al lui Hicks 11.6 7 6.9117 6 0.3 3 13.6 7 6.6 7 6.75. 6.9117 6 0.3)|= |0.9117 6 0.77349789 15. 7. Y0=100. Y-1=50.6 7 6.1.

10 0. 10 0.7 5 0 1 100 5 50 2. 10 0. 0. 0. 10 0. 10 0. 0. 10 0. 0. 0.Substituind. 0.7 5 0 1 100 5 50 2. 0.7 5 0 1 100 5 50 2.7 5 0 1 100 5 50 2. obtinem ecuatia de dinamica a venitului: Yt  c Yt 1  A0 (1  g ) t  k (Yt 1  Yt 2 ) t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 k A0 g Y(t-1) c' Y(t-1)-Y(t-2) 2.7 5 0 1 100 5 50 13 .7 5 0 1 100 5 50 2. 10 0. 0. 0.7 5 0 1 100 5 50 2.7 5 0 1 100 5 50 2.7 5 0 1 100 5 50 2. 0. 10 0. 10 0. 10 0.7 5 0 1 100 5 50 2.

1 125 146.It. =0.03 (rata de crestere a progresului tehnologic de 3%) si A0=50.7947691 75 1 125 259.358881 75 414.1561 75 377. Modelul lui Solow cu funcție de producție Cobb-Douglas cu progres tehnic Harrod Refaceti tema precedenta adaugand la datele numerice g=0.374246 75 459.Y+I 2)) ^t 1) t.Yt=Ct+It.008.A 125 110 75 310 125 121 75 321 125 133.It.05.1 75 333.3.A=A0*(1+g) Ct=c'*Y(t. K0=1000.1561 125 194.87171 75 394. a) Calculati traiectoria inzestrarii tehnice a muncii pentru t=1-10 si faceti graficul in EXCEL k ( t )=( k 0−k 2 ) e [ −(1−α )( n+ g+δ )] t + k 2 k 2=( 1 n+ g+δ α −1 ) as 14 . s=0.051 125 177.41 125 161.41 75 346.Y=k*(Y(t-1)-Y(t. a=10.87171 125 214.358881 435.35. n=0.374246 8.051 75 361. L0=100.794769 125 235. =0.

952999 9263. 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 0 0. 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 0 0.200614 9263.0 08 10 00 8 0.245826 4317.0 08 10 00   0. 0.245826 3719.0 08 10 00 6 0.958239 9263. 0.245826 3394.245826 2299. 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 0 0. 0.0 08 10 00 4 0. 0.0 08 10 00 1 0 0. 0 3 5 5 0.345337 9263.0 08 10 00 2 0. 0.0 08 10 00 5 0. 0 3 5 5 0. 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 0 0.031563 9263. 0 3 5 5 0. 0 3 5 5 0. 1 . 0 3 5 5 a 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 L A s g 0 0 0 0. 1 . 0.0 08 10 00 7 0. 1 . 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 0 0.t n K0 1 0. 1 .245826 1890.360655 9263.0 08 10 00 9 0.359808 15 . 0 3 5 5 0. 0 3 5 5 0. 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 0 0. 1 . 0.672852 9263. 0 3 5 5 0.245826 1458.245826 3049. 0 3 5 5 0.335941 9263.674446 9263. 1 . 1 .245826 4026. 0. 0.0 08 10 00 3 0.245826 2685.245826 4591. 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 0 0. 0. 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 0 0. 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 k2=〖((n+g+δ)/as)〗^( k(t)=(K0-k2 ) e^[-(1-α) 1/(α-1)) (n+g+δ)]t+k2 9263. 1 . 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 0 0. 1 . 1 . 0 3 5 5 0.

16 .

0 10 08 0 192107.5236 0.0 10 08 0 146970.359808 K(t)=L0 n L0 e^(nt) k(t) 0.360655 6 3719.0 10 08 0 277239.0 10 08 0 429226.200614 9 1 0 4591.672 0.674446 2 2299.0 10 08 0 235501.0 10 08 0 463848.6711 c) Calculati venitul per capita si venitul total si faceti graficele corespunzatoare in EXCEL y (t )  ak (t ) Y (t )  aK (t ) L(t )1  aL0 e nt k (t ) 17 .3532 0.958239 5 3394.952999 8 4317.1966 0.345337 4 3049.672852 7 4026.5676 0.0 10 08 0 393324.0 10 08 0 356074.4746 0.031563 1 1890.b) Calculati traiectoria stocului total al capitalului pentru t=1-10 si faceti graficul in EXCEL K ( t )=L 0 e nt k (t ) k(t)=(K0-k2 ) e^[-(1-α) (n+g+δ)]t+k2 t 1458.0 10 08 0 317404.0 10 08 0 497254.335941 3 2685.5348 0.5071 0.2029 0.

k1*=0. e) Calculati traiectoria de echilibru a stocului total de capital si a venitului de echilibru pentru t=1-10 si faceti graficele EXCEL K (t )   L0 e nt k 2 18 .d) Calculati punctele fixe ale traiectoriei Din conditia de stationaritate: n+ g+ ¿ ¿ sa k α −¿ 1 n+ g+δ α −1 Deducem k1=0 si k 2=( as ) .245826. Cum k2 l-am calculat anterior. k2*=9263.

895 32 11457.67818 1878.571821 24650.73064789 116.385047 26066.3580 94 10765.71816 1725.15361 1636.62814836 120.40959065 89.04868358 105.15533373 45.387 69 5415.293509 25653.0665716 98.849 35 12075.955 14 4910.506 86 5175. i(t)=s*a*k(t)^ c(t)=(1-s)*a*k(t)^ I(t)=sY(t) C(t)=Y(t)-I(t) i(t)=s*a*k(t) ^ c(t)=(1-s)*a*k(t)^ 38.Y (t )   a( L0 e nt k 2 )  ( L0 e nt )1 K(t)*=L0*e^(n*t)*k(t Y(t)*=a*(L0*e^(n*t)*k2*)^*(L0*e^(n* )^ t))^(1-) 1290.79163 1424.88992 2071.904 62 12637.98339 25859.296 33 4613.0381784 51.382047 26274.9808612 49.88873 1805.0027 48 9973.56322622 110.16565 2011.652976 26485.28555 f) Calculati investitiile brute si consumul pentru t=1-10 in marimi per capita si marimi totale si faceti graficele.835621 25247.715 46 4274.4656795 I(t)=sY(t) 3871.18232 1537.985046 25047.62237818 42.09946 1947.880 53 C(t)=Y(t)-I(t) 9034.113595 47.129232 25449.765442 24848.054 56 19 .

87500 3 3874.98459 98 227.76516 8 2008.44093 8 2247.98459 98 227.674 33 14501.43342 7 2131.94976 5 2462.88089 9 1875.76630 20 .98459 98 227.32020 5 5332.98459 k1(t) 957.570 83 25000 20000 15000 C(t) I(t) 10000 c(t) i(t) 5000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 g) Analizati efectele cresterii ratei economiilor de la s=0.82212 2 1368.42980 2 2415.35180 8 7071.09760 4 4603.54280 6 6061.958 93 13152.38530835 133.98459 98 227.0445068 57.3869162 54.98459 98 227.8909567 56.98459 98 227.146 14 6214.207200 6 1686.23072 7242.78011 2 1729.08617 8 2356.88322 8 1564.76540 7 6790.30867835 124.950 17 5842.33644 8 6959.98459 98 227.3 la s1=0.09866 1 6795.81041003 127.48930 8 6904.155 14 6034.65240 2 3144.07786 6 6849.53.21060 K(t)* 1113.62277 6 7015.8990528 5636.17005 Y(t)* 6741.98459 98 227.98459 98 227.883 73 13631.15219 2 7185.98800 8 7520. k2* 227.52708 9 7128.16193147 131.695 33 14079.35 asupra traiectoriei de echilibru.

98 9 2 3 21 .