Here are the differences between well, spring, purified, distilled and mineral waters.

Strictly speaking, water is water. That is to say, all water on Earth is a compound of two hydrogen
and one oxygen molecule. The difference between various types of bottled waters lies mainly in
where the source is located and what processes the water goes through before it is sold to
consumers. Not all bottled waters are recommended for drinking, so it is important to know the
difference if your health plan includes increasing water intake or avoiding certain types of beverages.
Some types of bottled water, such as well or spring, get their designation from their original source.
Mineral water must contain a specified amount of trace minerals naturally before it can be sold.
Distilled or purified water must be put through a filtration or mechanical process in order to remove
contaminants and minerals. Some water types may actually fit into several different categoriesdistilled water, for example, is also purified by definition. Spring and well waters make excellent
refreshments during and after exercise, but distilled water lacks trace minerals and may not have a
satisfying taste. Mineral water may have a natural sparkle and refreshing taste, but a little may go a
long way.
Here's a closer look at each type of water and how each one fits in an everyday world.
1. Well water. Well water could be the source of other types of consumable bottle waters such as
'drinking' or regular tap water. The main definition of 'well water' is water that has been stored in
permeable rocks and soil. If a drill is employed to find the original aquifer, then the collected water is
considered 'well water'. Because it has spent time in contact with natural minerals, well water is
generally an excellent drinking water. Some processing may be necessary because of possible
contamination in the soil, but many private land owners have wells that last for years and the water
is naturally healthy. Specific companies can market their bottled waters as 'well water' as long as
they pass FDA standards and are clearly from a protected water source located underground. Some
municipal waters may also come from underground sources, so ordinary tap water may also qualify
as well water under the right circumstances.
2. Spring water. Well water and spring water are similar in the sense that they are both produced
from natural aquifers located around rockbeds and soil. Spring water, however, continues naturally to
the surface. Water which comes from below and has no natural tributaries is considered to be spring
water. It's also a very good water to drink during and after exercise or throughout the day. Bottlers
may use some natural processes such as reverse osmosis to improve water quality, but spring water
must be naturally rich in trace minerals. Some municipalities also use spring water as a source for
their tap waters, but they are processed with chemicals and more advanced filtration systems.
Spring water is perhaps the best overall water for health benefits and rehydration. It has a good taste
and is fairly inexpensive at grocery stores.
3. Mineral waters. Again, water is water and most bottled varieties will rehydrate the body effectively.
Mineral water can come from a natural well or spring, but must contain a specified amount of trace
minerals. These minerals, such as calcium and magnesium, are essential for good health. There is
no difference between sparkling and non-sparkling mineral waters except for the concentration of
carbon dioxide. Both varieties contain a higher concentration of minerals than either spring or well
water. Because the water must meet specific requirements, the number of water sources that qualify
is very limited. Most of the popular varieties of mineral waters are bottled in Europe and imported to

the United States. This means that bottled mineral water is going to be more expensive than other
types, but the benefits of the added minerals are measurable. Mineral water may be more of a treat
than a daily refreshment, but it does offer some health benefits. Some may find the taste to be
harsher than traditional water, but many bottlers offer flavored varieties that may be more palatable.
4. Distilled water. Distillation is a process by which water is boiled until vapor is produced. This vapor
is collected and cooled until it returns to a liquid state. Because minerals are too heavy to be carried
by the vapor, the resulting water is completely free of additives. A desalination plant is a perfect
example of distillation- salt water is boiled, the vapor is cooled and collected, and the salt and
minerals are left behind. However, distilled water is also very unpalatable in its natural state.
Desalination plants must also add some minerals in order to make the water usable for general
consumers.
Distilled water is perfect for applications where minerals and contaminants would cause problems.
Distilled water can be used in irons for steam settings or as coolant for car engines. Because there
are no minerals that can stain or build up, distilled water is mostly recommended for use in
machinery and cleaning products. It is not particular good to drink distilled water, because it has a
tendency to pull minerals out of the bloodstream and other areas. Distilled water is perhaps the
cleanest version of bottled water available, but it is not good for human consumption.
5. Purified water. Purified water denotes a process by which contaminants and/or minerals have
been removed from any water source. It could be tap water which has been forced through a
charcoal filter or water treated with ultraviolet light at the grocery store. The designation 'purified' can
be applied rather broadly, so a consumer should not be swayed by its use on a label alone. Distilled
water is by definition purified, but it is not a good water for drinking. Spring and well waters may have
been filtered or deionized or ozonated, which would make them pure by a looser definition.
There is some controversy surrounding the benefits of 'purified water'. Because the water may have
been distilled for purity, it can leech out essential minerals as it travels through the body. Many soft
drinks are made with purified water- a fact which disturbs many dieticians and health experts.
Because of this natural tendency to pull minerals from the system, purified water is only
recommended as part of an overall cleanse with a definite ending point, not as a daily rehydrator or
replacement for other sources of water.

What’s the Difference between Distilled and Purified Water?
Posted on May 02, 2011
When it comes to the water you drink, there are a number of different choices. If you want the purest water you can
find, you may opt for distilled or purified water…but which one is better? What’s the difference between purified and
distilled water? Before we get into that, let’s first take a look at the different types of water to give you some initial
background.

Different Types of Water
There are many other types of water in addition to tap/municipal, but what exactly are the differences between them?

etc. potassium. there are no differences between distilled and purified except the process the water went through to reach purification! Remember – the definition of purified water is a TDS count of less than 10 parts-per-million (PPM). the water must have less than 10 PPM. Mineral water – mineral water naturally contains many dissolved minerals – iron. Ozone dissipates from the water. including distillation. It is collected at the source. sulfate. purified water refers to the quality of water. This includes boiling the water. Our bottled water goes through a 10-step purification process that removes 99. There a number of different ways it can reach this quality. capturing the steam (pure H2O) and condensing it back into water. reverse osmosis. Many people think only distilled water (because of its lack of minerals) is the best type of water to put in their iron. Endless Waters uses a state-of-the-art filtration process that uses 10 steps to ensure the highest levels of purity. Ozonation. Purified water – the purest water out there. containing a healthy amount of nutrients and minerals.Spring water – spring water is water from a natural underground source. To bring some perspective to this statement. ion exchange and more. and it has at least 250 PPM (parts-per-million) of total dissolved solids (TDS). ion exchange.9% of impurities. it works just as well! In fact. calcium. with a PPM of about 1. but since purified water also contains virtually no minerals. distilled water goes through a process called distillation. distilled water costs more because of the energy required to boil the water and remove the impurities – and the prices keep rising! The only difference between distilled and purified water is distilled water goes through distillation while purified water goes through other processes such as reverse osmosis. Though appealing because it’s natural. etc. usually with a borehole. sand filtration. it can be classified as purified water! So What’s the Difference Between Distilled and Purified Water? Essentially. To be classified as purified. coffee pot or use for medical and dental equipment. leaving just oxygen behind) . spring water doesn’t have the highest levels of purity. so you can rest assured you’re drinking the purest water possible! Distilled water – a type of purified water. and both distilled water and purified water have between zero and one PPM. This process includes: • 10 micron pleated paper filtration (filters out the big particles such as grit and sediment) • Ion exchange (removes the metal from the water) • Activated carbon (eliminates organic and volatile organic contaminants like chlorine and chlorine byproducts) • 5 micron carbon block filtration (captures particles larger than 5 microns) • 1 micron carbon block filtration (filters out the smaller particles. between 1 and 5 microns) • Ultraviolet sterilization (chemical-free disinfection method to kill any bacteria and other biological contaminants) • Reverse Osmosis (an efficient pump removes the sterilized organisms left from the previous UV sterilization step) • Ozonation (the 2nd chemical-free disinfection step of our process. Distilled water contains no bacteria and a very little amount of contaminants. tap water generally has 300 to 400 PPM.

seltzer water and club soda. once the seal has been broken." you ask. Sterilized water is used to make baby formula and is also drunk by people with immunocompromised systems. producing the "fizz"). Distilled or de-mineralized water is usually tap water that has been treated to remove nearly all minerals and sodium that occur naturally in water. It can either be naturally carbonated or mechanically carbonated in a process where CO2 is added to normal tap water.• Recirculation (water is constantly circulated in the holding tanks and ozone is added) • Bottling (all bottles are sanitized. Sparkling water is water which is carbonated (contains CO2. and sodium. iron. Seltzer water is tap water that has been filtered and carbonated. Huh? Bacteria grow best in warm and moist environments. What do all of these have in common? They are all different types of bottled water. still water. and distilled or de-mineralized water�. Bottle Maintenance "What is bottle maintenance?. if you still think you prefer bottled water. sterilized water. Club soda is seltzer water with added mineral salts. Ordinary tap water and bottled water in larger containers are examples of still water. Still water is water without the "fizz" caused by gas bubbles. Don�t forget to share them with your friends!  Wipe the seal with a clean cloth after each use. it is important for you to take good care of the bottle from which you drink. After all that you know about tap and bottled water now. It must be processed to meet FDA�s requirements for commercial sterility. sparkling water. Here are some tips for bottle maintenance. This produces a plethora of unwanted health risks. is the perfect place for bacteria to grow. disinfected and rinsed before they are filled with the pure water) What is the difference between the different types of bottled water anyway? Mineral water. Whichever minerals are present are what make mineral water what it is. Some minerals that may appear in mineral water include calcium. So what is the difference? Mineral water is drawn from an underground source and contains at least 250 ppm of dissolved salts. . That means the environment created by an unrefrigerated bottle of water.  Avoid any type of buildup in the bottle cap.

If possible. Washington. sealed bottle. So do you choose distilled or purified water? Both are free of bacteria and most impurities – so the difference lies in the price. make sure it is well cleaned and rinsed before refilling. call us today! . If you live in the Maryland. sterile. If your bottle is refillable. recycle the old bottle and obtain a fresh. DC and Virginia area and are ready to try purified water from Endless Waters.

Full Name: * Phone: * Email: * Questions / Comments: 1 650336 15af955dc921c7 What code is in the image?: * Contact Us 1 0 form-9c3ecf30ce w ebform_client_f .

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which creates a suspicion of homicide. the victim’s hands were restrained behind his back at the level of hips with the (same type) cotton rope. The feet were not touching the ground. death Case history A 40 year old male body was brought in the department of forensic medicine with the alleged history of hanging. Few authors have reported suicidal deaths staged as accidents. homicide. . The victim was found suspended from a branch of tree in a jungle. In addition. Most of the reported cases of suicidal deaths staged as homicide involve death by gun shot. Suicide. who found a dead body hanging from a branch of a tree by a cotton rope with the running knot which was placed over the occipital region and both the hands were restrained behind his back at hip level with two separate running knots and there was a gap of 40 cm between the two arms. while evidence of suicidal deaths are usually more common and recognizable. Key words: Hanging. Most of such suicides staged as accidents involved the use of motor vehicle. Sometimes it poses difficult challenges to investigating officers. There have been cases where the victim has attempted to disguise suicidal hanging as a case of homicide with suspicion of foul play. Visit to scene of crime A team of doctors visited the scene of crime. But the findings from the scene of crime investigation and autopsy made it evident that the manner of death by hanging was suicidal in nature. by a cotton rope with a running knot present over the occipital region.Abstract Suicidal hangings are rarely encountered by crime scene investigators. The following case is a case of a suicidal hanging in which the victim has tied his upper limbs behind his back. A suicide note was recovered by police from his pocket (as shown).

Clark MA et al reported four unrelated hanging deaths. There were few fibers of rope. the ligature mark with 3 cm width. ecchymosed and parched. Cause of death The opinion regarding the cause of death was asphyxia due to suicidal hanging by ligature. Perhaps it was used for cutting rope. Other organs were also congested. The base of the ligature was dark brown in color. where victim tied his both the upper limbs by rope on back.The tongue was protruding out of lips and was dark bluish in colour. The postmortem staining was present and fixed over the dependent parts viz. In another case medical history reveals that the victim had an eight to ten year history of compressing his neck to cause unconsciousness. Ante-mortem injuries Ligature mark A ligature mark was present encircling the whole neck except a small gap present beneath the knot. attention or to take revenge against friends or family or to ensure his killing. there was also an evidence of defecation. was placed about 4 cm below the mastoid process. The brain was congested and edematous. The ligature material was a cotton rope. It was also reported that one of the footwear was present near body and the other was about 10 feet away. In front of the neck. there was no evidence of fracture of thyroid cartilage or hyoid bone. The meninges were intact and congested. There was no evidence of any extravasation of blood in the neck tissues. Discussion A variety of staged crime scenes are encountered by the investigating officers. social or religious reasons. Both the hands were tied behind his back with the same type of cotton rope with two separate running knots and the gap between the two hands was of 40 cm. the underneath soft tissues were soft. The scalp showed diffuse multiple petechial hemorrhages. upwards and towards occipital region. Both the eyes were partially open and the conjunctiva congested while the cornea was hazy. was placed about 5 cm below the mastoid process. with its parenchyma showing petechial hemorrhages. The tip of penis showed evidence of emission of semen. Cooke et al found circumstances and medical findings of four unusual hanging deaths. The stomach was congested and contained about 200 ml thick yellowish color food particles without any specific smell. which was present in situ around the neck with the running knot placed over the occipital region. . Suicide may be staged as homicide by family members or friends in an attempt to avoid the embarrassment or for other personal. the ligature mark with 2. An abrasion of size 5 × 2 cm was present over the medial aspect of left leg. about 5 cm above suprasternal notch and 8 cm below chin. The skull was within normal limit. the ligature mark with 2. On the left side of the neck.8 cm width. which were lying on a sharp cutting edge stone kept nearby indicating. may be a final effort by the victim to gain popularity. was placed over the thyroid cartilage. Post-mortem Findings External findings Rigor mortis was present in all parts of body. about 3 cm above medial malleolus. In this particular case suicide was committed in unusual form of ligature hanging. The ligature mark was running backwards. Also. whitish and glistening. perhaps for stimulation he left a suicidal note which concluded hanging was the cause of death. Staging a suicide as a homicide. Besides this. The face was congested. Similar cases were also reported by other authors. both legs and distal portion of upper limbs and area of waist above the belt. The mouth was partially open and a dark bluish tongue was protruding out of the lips.5 cm width. Internal findings On dissection of the neck. On the right side of the neck. one scene revealed as a suicide note equivalent with the unmistakable message of extreme defiance toward military regulations.

the deceased used his belt as a ligature and the point of attachment was the window of the car. Adair TW. .Blanco Pampin JM et al 2001 described two suicidal hanging deaths in an automobile which is very unusual. The second victim used the safety belt of the passenger seat. A 50-year man was found dead in the sea with the gunshot to his head. A third was found in a field hanging by a tree and burned. found a case of suicidal by hanging in which multiple deep stab wounds were observed in neck and chest. Krzyzonowski M et al 2002. Lopez Abazo Rodrigue BA: Suicidal hanging in automobile. These findings always raise a suspicion of homicide. In one case. 22 (4): 367 –9. Adair TW et al 1999. In both cases. observed 6 cases of suicidal hanging and in each case limbs of the victim were bound. hanging by his neck. Reference 1. 44 (6): 1307 – 9. with a gunshot in the head from a pen gun. described case of suicidal hanging staged as homicide. 14 (2): 148 – 50. All cases after through investigation showed suicidal etiology. Cingolani M 2000 reported three cases of planned complex suicide in a three-year period. J Forensic Sci 1999 Nov. Avis SP: An unusual suicide – The importance of the scene investigation. all the windows were closed and doors were locked. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1993 Jun. 2. the automobile engine was turned off. 3. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2001 Dec. Blanco Banpin JM. Avis SP 1993 also reported few cases of unusual hanging deaths. Madea H 1993. A 40-year man was found dead in his garage. Doberson MJ: A case of suicidal hanging staged as a homicide.

The most important piece of evidence: the body. Bruising. 5. J forensic Sci. and these clues may be critical. If pressure . we’ve put together a quick checklist to help interpret how it all happened.6): 141 – 53. 5. 19. 3 (4): 367 – 9. Piesniale D. Hinderbrand E. Tsakri D: Planned complex suicide – Report of three cases. 32:254 – 61. Swinchant JW: Self inflicted hanging with bound wrist and a gag. 1998 Dec. 14. 11. Cingolani M. 21 (3): 255 – 60. Am J For Med Pathol 2000 Sept. I’m afraid the ending of this chap’s life probably wasn’t as quick as he would’ve liked. Marsh TO. J Forensic Sci 1983. Bundakov B. 13. 26(4): 247 – 53. 31(2): 747 – 55. 2002 (3-4): 100 – 8. 1984 Dec. Scrapings under the nails. 2002 0ct – Dec. Check the body for any signs of bruising. 1997 Jul – Aug. What’s there? If its blood or skin. Arch Kriminol 1984 Nov – Dec. Leth P. Rohrich T. It’s an invaluable source of clues. Stojanovic P: A suicide by hanging suspected to be a homicide. 52 (4). Noguchi K: An autopsy case of suicide by hanging with multiple stab wounds of the neck and chest. Brickmann B: Suicide or homicide. If its just part of the ligature. or on the floor. 7. Am J For Med Pathol. Laczkowsk G. Burkharelt RP. Madea H. Holtz W. Wilmanowska A: Cases of hanging with bound limbs – suicide. Kerr FC: Unusual hanging deaths.4. 9 (4): 277 – 82. Puschel K. 1986 Apr. 15. 17. 33 (1): 67–9. Naeve W. Cooke CT. 174 (5. Jankowski Z. Arch Kriminol 1998 Sept – Oct. 12. Goonetillete UK: Two unusual cases of suicidal hanging. Arch Med Sadowej kryminal. Forensic Sci Int. 371 – 9. Vesterby A: Homicide hanging masquerading as suicide. This usually indicates a last desperate struggle between your suspect and victim. homicide or accident. 6. Med Prgl. Tokal S. If curiosity gets the better of you. 9. Imura M. Bratzke H: Suicidal excess – presentation of unusual cases. 18. Mc Dowell CP: Suicide disguised as murder: a dimension of manchausen syndrome. Clark MA. you can bet there’s been some sort of skirmish. Med Sci Law 1993 Jan. Cadden GA. Krzyzanowski M. 20. and one left better to forensic analysis. Higuchi T. If your victim isn’t swinging from the rafters but is found collapsed near a door. check the lower back. 50(7 16. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1982 Dec. 10. 8. 85 (1): 65 – 71. Forensic Sci Int 1997 Feb. Hilton JM: Unusual hanging deaths.

What about the wrong end of greedy relatives? A drug dealer trying to prove a point? A contracted hit? Research your victim fully to get some answers. If pressure . this could indicate someone sticking a knee in the victim’s back while strangling him. What’s there? If its blood or skin. it’s hardly likely. and perhaps even a suicide note. 23. 6. The golden rule of forensics is “don’t touch anything unless you have to. 33. Without either of the two. serene surroundings.” A perfectly preserved crime scene will tell a good story for a long time to come. and the exit point for a potential offender. leading to plenty of forensic opportunities for DNA profiles at a later stage. If you want to know if it’s a simple suicide. you can bet there’s been some sort of skirmish. What might your victim tell you about the offender’s motive. 26. Wrapping it up: preserving for forensics. If curiosity gets the better of you. 5. 25. 21. Bruising. 29. blood. there wouldn’t be a crime. no wounds on the body. or on the floor. Check the body for any signs of bruising. If its just part of the ligature. alarm bells should be ringing. Ligature and marks around the neck. debris. an obvious ingress method to the hanging. 28. as this preserves this item for forensics. The most important piece of evidence: the body.has been applied here while applied to the neck. we’ve put together a quick checklist to help interpret how it all happened. 24. 22. 31. 32. Consider the MO (or method of action). check the lower back. and one left better to forensic analysis. Crime of passion? As a a hanging. This usually indicates a last desperate struggle between your suspect and victim. 7. Scrapings under the nails. It’s an invaluable source of clues. What do the marks around the neck show you? Is it just bruising following a similar pattern to the ridges in the rope used? That’s pretty normal and may be consistent with suicide. and can be resurrected with detailed forensic analysis. 30. If your victim isn’t swinging from the rafters but is found collapsed near a door. Traditional schools of criminology state that for a crime to take place there needs to be a motive and opportunity.If you must cut a hanging victim down. Suspect foul play? Look to the subtle: bruises. and these clues may be critical. look directly to the obvious: no signs of forced entry and disturbance. Knots normally involve a high degree of movement in their creation. 34. I’m afraid the ending of this chap’s life probably wasn’t as quick as he would’ve liked. If there are other marks. 27. cut above the knot.

serene surroundings. Ligature and marks around the neck. 38. 39. 61 No. By Vernon J. look directly to the obvious: no signs of forced entry and disturbance. cut above the knot. blood. . 47. Consider the MO (or method of action). an obvious ingress method to the hanging. it’s hardly likely.If you must cut a hanging victim down.S. Suspect foul play? Look to the subtle: bruises. alarm bells should be ringing. Crime of passion? As a a hanging. Wrapping it up: preserving for forensics. Geberth. leading to plenty of forensic opportunities for DNA profiles at a later stage. 41. 49. 42. M. Homicide and Forensic Consultant ©2013 Vernon J. What about the wrong end of greedy relatives? A drug dealer trying to prove a point? A contracted hit? Research your victim fully to get some answers. Geberth. and can be resurrected with detailed forensic analysis. The Seven Major Mistakes in Suicide Investigation 45. Without either of the two. 2013 pp 54-567 46. Under the title. What might your victim tell you about the offender’s motive. 40. 37.” A perfectly preserved crime scene will tell a good story for a long time to come. debris.has been applied here while applied to the neck. no wounds on the body.. Practical Homicide Investigation Originally published by Law & Order Magazine. 7. 1 January. 35. If you want to know if it’s a simple suicide. Knots normally involve a high degree of movement in their creation. The golden rule of forensics is “don’t touch anything unless you have to. 43. What do the marks around the neck show you? Is it just bruising following a similar pattern to the ridges in the rope used? That’s pretty normal and may be consistent with suicide. Vol. 6.S. M. 44. "Seven Mistakes in Suicide Investigation This PHI version of the Article has been Expanded for Research and Clarity. 36. Traditional schools of criminology state that for a crime to take place there needs to be a motive and opportunity. and perhaps even a suicide note. this could indicate someone sticking a knee in the victim’s back while strangling him. and the exit point for a potential offender. If there are other marks. there wouldn’t be a crime. as this preserves this item for forensics.P. 48.

64. I recommended that a detective respond to every unattended death scene. As a homicide commander.There may very well be miscommunications. 60. 66. when in fact this is a basic death investigation. The immediate problem is that psychologically one is assuming the death to be a suicide case. which result in serious errors that affect the outcome of the case due to the various responsibilities uniform officers.Any preconceived theories or notions are dangerous in professional death investigation. medical examiners to forensic experts. 54. detectives. which could very well turn out to be a homicide. . which appear to be drug related and/or domestic violence. The investigator cannot “assume” anything as a professional law enforcement officer. 57. 63.” the police officers who respond as well as the investigators automatically tend to treat the call as a suicide. This is especially true in the investigation of suicide. One must keep an open mind and not be influenced either by the initial reports or the presentation in the crime scene.Death investigation is a complicated process. 62. which involves a number of different members of the police department as well as other forensic disciplines working together towards the goal of solving the case. In addition to errors of assuming a “suicide” or natural death other preconceived notions may include deaths. prosecutors as well as others in the process. Introduction 55. If the case is reported as a “Suicide. It is a critical error in thinking to handle the call based on the initial report. Case History 65. Mistake#1 Assuming the Case is A Suicide Based on the Initial Report 59. 56. 52. 61. 50. 53. 51. whether it was reported as a homicide. 58.

This is imperative in order to protect evidentiary materials before they are destroyed. 81. 77. 74. 73. 67. and brought to the attention of the investigators. The man been Note thehad piece of strangled to death at another outdoor location and then transported to the vegetation caught in construction site where he was “strung-up” with the electrical to make thecord man’s hair. The following is the protocol for the initiation of an effective crime scene investigation. The initial responding officers as well as the . it appear to be a suicide. it must be preserved.2.My preliminary observations indicated that the “Suicide” was actually a homicide and that someone had effectively staged the scene to make it appear to be a suicide. 69. They told me they got the call of a “Suicide” and when they arrived they saw the man hanging by his neck and assumed he had hung himself. 83. 72.I advised the two officers that they were not in a position to “assume” anything and that a request for detectives to respond in fact meant that this was a crime scene. immediate and appropriate notification must be made to the homicide investigators. 70. 76. 3. 75.1. 68. I saw a piece of vegetation caught in the man’s hair that did not come from the location. 80.I recall responding to a reported suicide at a construction facility and arriving as the uniform officers were removing the victim’s wallet from his pants pocket as the body hung from an electrical appliance with a cord. After the scene is secured. altered. I also noticed dirt on his pants. 78. I asked them how they knew it was a suicide. I asked them what they were doing and they replied that they were getting his identification so they could write up The Suicide Report. 71. Anything and everything should be considered as evidence. 79.suicide. accident or natural to assure that any potential crime scene and/or evidence surrounding the event was NOT disturbed. Rapid response to the homicide crime scene by patrol officers. 82. noted. Whether this evidence is physical or testimonial. or lost. 84. which later analysis revealed that it did not come from the area. The only evidence collected at this point of the investigation is eyewitness accounts or spontaneous statements of a suspect at the scene.

The husband told the Deputy that he and his wife were having some marital problems and that they were in the process of separating and that his wife was thinking about committing suicide. 91. They then find themselves in the unenviable position of having to explain how they missed crucial evidence or failed to take important crimes scene photos. In some instances the deaths were suicides. the reference to her putting a pillow over her head and . who have “boughtinto” the initial call and treated the case like a routine suicide or a natural death. She went into the bathroom closet and put a pillow over her head and appeared to have shot herself in the head area. 86. 92.ambulance crew at the scene were ready to declare the death a suicide and were preparing to transport the body to the morgue. 90. 93.The reference to her threatening to commit suicide and her alleged despondency was not supported or corroborated by anyone who was interviewed except the husband.A Sheriff’s Department was called to respond to a suicide in a residence. Case History 94.Without a doubt investigators take “short-cuts” when they hear the word suicide. I have reviewed many suicide cases where it was apparent that the investigators did not take each point to its ultimate conclusion. Furthermore. 89. It has been my experience that when police officers or detectives hear the word “Suicide” they go into what I describe as the “Suicide Position. 88." 95. who reported that his wife committed suicide. The responding Deputy asked the husband what had transpired.” Suicides are non-amenable offenses that are not recorded in the UCR and therefore are considered less important than other events.Death investigations of the elderly are oftentimes assumed to be naturals and there is a tendency on the part of uniforms and detectives to rushthrough the crime scene process. Many investigators. Based on what the husband told him the Deputy stated the in his report: "It appears that the deceased was despondent over her marriage and had threatened to commit suicide. Sufficient photographs were not taken and certain tests were not conducted. have been greatly embarrassed when the medical examiner’s finding showed the death to be a homicide. but the incomplete and insufficient preliminary investigation raised legitimate concerns. 85. 96. Mistake#2 Assuming “The Suicide Position” At the Crime Scene 87.

99. The detective did not properly document the crime scene. In equivocal death investigations there is the potential for major errors. Mistake#3 Not Handling “The Suicide” as a Homicide Investigation 103. On the contrary. If in fact. My review of this case indicated that the investigator was just “Going-through-the-motions” of an investigation. A coroner’s inquest later ruled that the death was a Homicide. 102. He removed the gun before it was photographed and disturbed the original crime scene. “All death inquiries should be conducted as homicide investigations until the facts prove differently. these cases may very well be homicides. He classified the case as a Suicide.It was apparent that the detective bought into the “Suicide Theory” based on the First Officer’s information. Currently. which focuses on police procedure and forensic medicine. 97. with all the forensic programming available to the general public. 104. 107. 100. The detective’s report did not contain any independent observations. 106. When the First deputy notified the detective he told him that the case was a suicideand that the victim had been upset the last few days because of marital problems according to her husband. The resolution of the mode of death as Suicide is based on a series of factors which eliminate Homicide. accidents or natural causes. . 98. The detective basically repeated what the First Officer told him and then constructed an expedient conclusion. Some agencies have mistakenly allowed patrol officers to conduct basic death investigations with the assumption that such deaths are generally not criminal incidents and don’t require detective investigation. 101. 105. many people have come to believe that they are well versed and knowledgeable to the point that we have the “CSI Effect. Accident and Natural Causes of death.” 108. According to Practical Homicide Investigation®. I recommend that an investigator be assigned to every unattended death case.shooting herself is purely speculative and was not based on any crime scene reconstruction or evaluation of the evidence present in the scene. The critical interviews and interrogations as well as crime scene documentation and photographs are irretrievable. which have been staged to appear to be suicide. the death is later attributed to be homicide valuable evidence will have been lost or contaminated because the scene was not handled as a homicide case. The detective did not conduct any interviews of the victim’s family or friends nor did he look into the victimology.

The fictional aspects of these programs provide the entertainment component.S. The problem is that criminals read the same books and watch the same TV shows as everyone else and therefore gain insight into the investigative process as well as the value of trace evidence. suspects and . Basically. The C.S. The woman was barefooted and could not have caused that impression. there are a number of legitimate investigative techniques as well as tactical police procedures revealed to the viewing audience that contribute to the C. 115. When the detectives arrived they examined the room and the body of the victim and observed an ante-mortem injury to her face and noticed a Reebok® sneaker print on the edge of the tub and the toilet seat. 112. which matched his Reebok® sneakers. 119. Detectives learned that a 19-year old Ecuadorian construction laborer who had been working in the adjoining apartment had gotten into a verbal dispute with the victim over the noise that he was making and angry words had been exchanged earlier that same day. 111. 117. An actress living in a New York City apartment was discovered hanging by her neck from the shower curtain rod in her bathroom. Victimology as it pertains to both suicide and homicide investigations is significant in ascertaining motives. 110. Effect. The construction worker had left the apartment shortly thereafter and failed to notify his foreman. 121.109. Mistake#4 Failure to Conduct Victimology One of the most significant factors to consider in any death investigation is victimology. When the detectives located him at a friend’s residence he admitted that he had killed the woman by strangling her and then cleverly “staged” the scene by hanging her from the shower curtain rod top making it appear that she had committed suicide. In order for him to lift her into that position he had to stand on the edge of the tub and toilet seat thereby leaving several footwear impressions. they determined that the victim did not fit any “suicide profile” and the death was in fact suspicious.I. 116. The case was reported as a suicide by the person discovering her body and the initial police officers had reported the case as a suicide when they notified detectives to respond. Case History 114. 118. 120. However. 113.I. Effect refers to the phenomenon of the impact that crime scene and forensic criminal investigation television shows on the general public. It is not unlikely that someone who wanted to kill might “Stage-theScene” to make a death appear to be a suicide to cover up the murder. The Crime Scene Detectives lifted the footwear impression as a piece of evidence as the detectives conducted their canvass of the apartment and questioned the victim’s relatives and friends.

3.” The best sources of information will be friends. The bottom line is “Who was the victim and what was going on in his or her life at the time of the event. 134. 124. 125. The presence of the weapon or means of death at the scene. employment. The weapon could have been stolen or otherwise disposed of prior to the arrival of the authorities (as seen in the case of the heirloom handgun). Mistake#5 Failure to Apply the Three Basic Investigative Considerations To Establish if the Death is Suicidal in Nature 127.risk factors. family members have been known to conceal weapons and/or suicide notes in order to collect on an insurance policy. 123. the absence of a weapon does not necessarily indicate that death was due to a homicide. 2. 1. 132. or could have been inflicted by the deceased. The Weapon 137. family. However. Personality. The weapon or means of death should be present in cases of suicide. 138. physical condition and neighborhood of residence are all pieces of the mosaic that comprise victimology. sexuality. reputation. friends. 133. The existence of a motive or intent on the part of the victim to take his or her own life. history of alcohol or drugs. Victimology is the collection and assessment of all significant information as it relates to the victim and his or her lifestyle. Injuries or wounds that are obviously self-inflicted. The investigator should be aware of three basic considerations to establish if a death is suicidal in nature. . 126. 135. Furthermore. 136. 129. relationships. habits. marital status. dating history. hobbies. 130. 131. this becomes paramount in determining Motive and Intent. In suicide cases. education. Does the victim fit a “Suicide Profile?” Was there any evidence of marked depression or suicide ideations? Did the victim have both short and long term plans? 122. 128. associates and neighbors and that will be the initial focus of the investigation. criminal record.

Remember: It’s not the number of wounds that are self-inflicted. 143. show an extreme desire to die. a person found dead from multiple stab wounds of the back would certainly not be considered a victim of suicide. However. Likewise. in suicide cases. 141. 153. such as poisoning. 142. deaths that involve a combination of methods. • Obtain Background Information ( Medical & Social ) 156. 154. • • • Could the deceased cause the injuries and death? Was the person physically able to accomplish the act? Are the wounds within the reach of the deceased? 146. inhaling gas. slashing of wrists. certain observations that the wounds found on the body are consistent with homicide or suicide should be made. • Were there any Warning Signs? 157. 145. Wounds 140. shooting. 155. 151. Similarly. Motive or Intent 152. etc. People who hang themselves or jump to their deaths certainly have indicated an intention to take their lives. • Describe the nature and position of the injuries.139. • Are there any hesitation marks or wounds? 149. The investigator should have an appreciation for the lethality of wounds. but the lethality of these wounds and what particular organs have been impacted. • Were there any recent deaths in the family? . For example. Injuries and wounds in suicides may be very similar to those observed in homicides. • Are the wounds grouped together? 147. 150. • Is there more than one cause of death? 148. there appear to be preferences and avoidances for certain parts of the body. 144. The manner of death may be important in determining suicidal intent.

there are a number of investigative considerations to determine whether or not the note is genuine. 164. which indicate severe depression and or anger. 163. which are the formation and conception of ideas in the mind of the deceased. 162. • Does the note indicate suicidal intent? 174. The letters and notes may be addressed to relatives and friends or left at the death scene. obtain an exemplar (An example of the victim’s handwriting from some document that was known to have been written by the deceased. present suicide as a viable option. etc. 176. and even if you are sure that the case is a suicide. 168. These notes should be collected in a manner to preserve any latent fingerprints and exemplars should be obtained for comparison.) This is necessary especially when later on there is a dispute over the classification of the death as a suicide. • • • Has deceased been under professional treatment or counseling? Had the deceased ever attempted suicide in the past? Has anyone in family ever committed suicide? 165. 171. Suicide ideations. 167. • Any indication of recent upset or stress? 159.158. . • Did the victim leave a suicide note? 160. 169. The presence of a Suicide Note certainly suggests suicide. If the victim left a note. 175. • Was it written voluntarily? 173. Mistake#6 Suicide Notes Failure to Properly Document any 166. 161. The note oftentimes provides a basis of inquiry into the background of the deceased. The notes are often coherent and legible unless written under the influence of alcohol or drugs and may be instructional and/or admonishing. However. Suicide notes oftentimes have mixed emotional content including “positive” and “negative” feelings. There may be reference to an “afterlife” or being with a loved one “looking down”. The Suicide Note is a direct communication indicating intent to commit suicide. • Was it written by the deceased? 172. 177. 170.

It should be noted that the final determination of suicide is made by the medical examiner/coroner after all the facts are evaluated. Procedures. Do It Right The First Time. Cmdr. 188. 181. the detective first concentrates on the mechanical aspects of the death. In fact. 190. However. These copyrighted materials have been excerpted with permission from Geberth’s textbook. motives and methods. 185. Geberth. manner and time of death as well as other factors that provide clues to the dynamics of the event. the investigation at the scene and an inquiry into the background of the deceased may indicate the presence of life threatening behavior or activities that suggest suicidal intent. Vernon J. The detective then accesses various sources. Just because a body is found in a pool of water does not necessarily mean that drowning was the cause of death.178. From 1980 in Law & Order Magazine Conclusion 187. Quote from Lt. crime scene reconstruction. who were present at the scene and conducted the death investigation. which can be applied to his or her investigation. bloodstain pattern analysis. 184. 180. o 1 Determine the actual cause of death. You Only Get One Chance. “Remember.e. and Forensic Instructions 1. Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics. wound structures. the medical examiner/coroner is supposed to avail him or her of the input of the investigators. Of course. 186. In suicide cases the application of a “Psychological Autopsy” might be useful in drawing conclusions but only if the information obtained for this instrument is taken concurrent with the event and not after people have formulated an opinion. i. In order to conduct an efficient and effective investigation. it is likely that if a body is found in water and the cause of death is not . 182.” 183. Mistake#7 Failure to Take Each Factor to its Ultimate Conclusion 179. 189. the cause.

to determine a drowning suicide get an autopsy first to determine the exact cause of death. might have played a role. If this is the case. verify that the handwriting. 2 o Look for a suicide note. of the note matches that of the deceased. So. style and language. rather than suicide. o 4 Search the body for marks. Also look under the victim's fingernails for tissue or skin from a potential assailant who might have been scratched if there had been a struggle. . Determining if the drowning was a homicide rules out suicide. If the victim is found in a distant body of water such as a lake.Get App! www. there will often wounds or marks from the struggle. Most drowning victims are found in bathtubs or swimming pools.drowning that murder.myimageconverter. including the use of grammar and syntax. Check for bruising on the victim's neck and for marks on the forearms. If the drowning was a homicide. Edit & Convert Images Across Any Image Format . If you find one. swamp or ocean then you need to start thinking about foul play. investigate the victim's personal habits and routines to see if there was reason for them to be taking a bath (instead of showering) or swimming. You can do this by comparing the note to other pieces of writing from the deceased and showing it to people who knew the victim. Sponsored Links o Photo Edit Download  Browse.com o 3 Consider where the body is found.

screen the victim's blood for toxins and then compare any results with the victim's lifestyle and reports of past drug use. 2. For instance. Sponsored Links Read more : http://www.html .ehow.o 5 Check for drugs and alcohol. then suicide is a possibility.com/how_2155733_determine-drowning-suicide. if the victim had drugs or alcohol in his system and was not a drinker or user. To use drugs and alcohol as a determining factor. One of the biggest factors in drowning cases is drugs and alcohol.