Topic

:

Technology and Solutions
Protection and Substation Automation

BREAKER
FAILURE
PROTECTION
APPLICATION

BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 1

BASICS

ABB

Topic Objectives
Objectives
r Fault condition in a power grid
r Protection zones
r System behavior in case of breaker failure situation
r BFP solutions

BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 2

r BFP application

ABB

Line

Busbar
Transformer

Generator Transformer

BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW

© ABB Switzerland Ltd. - 3

Busbar

Fault Condition in a Power Grid
Protection zones

G
BB

ABB

.4 Busbar Fault Condition in a Power Grid Busbar Fault G ABB .BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.

Fault Condition in a Power Grid BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.5 Busbar Fault . .cleared G ABB .

solution BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.Fault Condition in a Power Grid Busbar Fault .Breaker Failure . .6 a tripping command via the intertripping system Þ trip command to all surrounding CBs by a remote tripping command G ABB .

.BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.7 Line Fault Condition in a Power Grid Line Fault G ABB .

8 Line Fault . .Fault Condition in a Power Grid BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.cleared G ABB .

9 a tripping command via the intertripping system Þ trip command to all surrounding CBs by a remote tripping command G ABB .Breaker Failure .Fault Condition in a Power Grid Line Fault .solution BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd. .

.Fault Condition in a Power Grid Transformer BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.Transformer Fault G ABB .10 Transformer or Generator .

Transformer Fault .cleared G ABB . .Fault Condition in a Power Grid BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.11 Transformer or Generator .

Breaker Failure .Fault Condition in a Power Grid Transformer or Generator .12 a tripping command via the intertripping system Þ trip command to all surrounding CBs by G a remote tripping command ABB .Transformer Fault . .solution BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.

13 How is it possible to detect a non operating circuit breaker (= Circuit Breaker Failure) ??? ABB .Breaker Failure Protection Solutions BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd. .

BBP unbalancing ABB . .BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd. supervision of the feeder current (with an overcurrent criteria) after a tripping command OR 2. supervision of the CB auxiliary contacts after a tripping command OR 3.14 Breaker Failure Protection Solutions 1. supervision of the feeder current (with the BBP measurement algorithm) after a tripping command (only applicable if the BFP is installed in the BBP system) .

15 feeder current I> t1 t2 ~120 ms ~120 ms re-trip to trip to the surrounding CBs by faulty CB • intertripping & (coil 1 & 2) • remote tripping ABB .Breaker Failure Protection Solutions solution 1: t ~ higher than the highest possible CB opening time + arc extinguish time the trip from the protection device is called „Starting BFP“ trip to CB from protection device !!! CB opening coil BFP & BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd. .

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions t ~ higher than the highest possible CB opening time + arc extinguish time solution 2: the trip from the protection device is called „Starting BFP“ trip to CB from protection device !!! CB opening coil BFP & CB closed t1 t2 ~120 ms ~120 ms faulty CB BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.16 re-trip to (coil 1 & 2) trip to the surrounding CBs by • intertripping & • remote tripping ABB . .

17 IF DI = 0 BFP logic ~120 ms BBP & CB y DI = IF CB x t1 t2 BFP logic re-trip to faulty CB (coil 1 & 2) & BFP inter- remote trip CB x tripping BFP CB y ABB .Breaker Failure Protection Solutions solution 3: trip to CB from protection device x trip to CB from protection device y CB opening coil ~120 ms feeder current BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd. .

18 An advanced BFP (& BBP) system offers all 3 solutions !!! Which solution must be used for which application ??? ABB .Breaker Failure Protection Solutions BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd. .

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions Application & features of solution 1: Þ standard BFP application (most common used) Þ for line.g. generator. reactors and coupler CBs Þ for all voltage levels and switchgear configurations Þ overcurrent settable independently for all feeders (depending on the minimum feeder short current) Þ operation independent on the CB auxiliary contacts (aux. generator. .19 Þ for detection of evolving faults (phase segregated timers for t1) Þ remote tripping signal settable after timer 1 or timer 2 Þ advanced trip. transformer. contacts are a week part of the protection chain) Þ for single. (phase segregated starting inputs) BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.redirection functionality in case of CB SF6 underpressure condition Þ not applicable for very low fault currents (e. generator reverse power function) -> solution 2 ABB . double and three phase auto.transformer.reclosure (tripping).

.20 IT ³1 & t1 I> ³1 & t1 ³1 I> ³1 & I> t1 t2 remote tripping re-trip to faulty CB Trip Redirection set t1 & t2 to 10ms (coil 1 & 2) trip to the surrounding CBs by intertripping ABB .Breaker Failure Protection Solutions solution 1: Start R S T Start R IR Start S IS Start T BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions solution 1: phase segregated timers for the detection of evolving faults BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.21 phase segregated starting inputs for single and double pole auto reclosure Start R S T Start R IR Start S IS Start T IT ³1 & t1 remote tripping settable after t1 or t2 I> ³1 & t1 ³1 I> ³1 & t1 I> t2 remote tripping re-trip to faulty CB Trip Redirection set t1 & t2 to 10ms advanced trip redirection functionality (coil 1 & 2) trip to the surrounding CBs by intertripping ABB . .

contact to prevent an unwanted trip BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd. .22 Þ operation dependent on the CB auxiliary contacts (aux. generator reverse power function) Þ remote tripping signal settable after timer 1 or timer 2 Þ advanced trip.redirection functionality in case of CB SF6 underpressure condition Þ very good addition to solution 1 Þ no overcurrent (fault current) supervision Þ the starting signal must be switch off by the CB “OFF” aux.reclosure (tripping) Þ not applicable for detection of evolving faults ABB .Breaker Failure Protection Solutions Application & features of solution 2: Þ applicable for very low fault currents (e. contacts are a week part of the protection chain) Þ not applicable for single and double phase auto.g.

23 IT ³1 & I> ³1 & t1 ³1 I> ³1 & t1 I> External Start BFP Trip Redirection t1 t1 t2 remote tripping re-trip to faulty CB (coil 1 & 2) set t1 & t2 to 10ms trip to the surrounding CBs by intertripping ABB . .Breaker Failure Protection Solutions solution 2 in addition to solution 1: Start R S T Start R IR Start S IS Start T BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions solution 2 in addition to solution 1: current independent starting input BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd. .24 Start R S T Start R IR Start S IS Start T IT ³1 & I> ³1 & t1 ³1 I> ³1 & t1 I> External Start BFP Trip Redirection t1 t1 t2 remote tripping re-trip to faulty CB (coil 1 & 2) set t1 & t2 to 10ms trip to the surrounding CBs by intertripping ABB .

transformer. contact to prevent an unwanted trip to the CB after timer 1 Þ operation dependent on the CB auxiliary contacts (aux.CB reclaim time) Þ not applicable for line.Breaker Failure Protection Solutions Application & features of solution 3: Þ applicable as basic BBP coupler functionality for the detection of faults between coupler CB and CT (coupler function . contacts are a week part of the protection chain) Þ no trip.25 Þ the starting signal must be switch off by the CB “OFF” aux. reactors feeders in HV systems Þ overcurrent (fault current) supervision depending on the BBP differential current setting (high short current required) Þ functionality depending on the BBP Þ not applicable for single and double phase auto. generator. .transformer. generator.reclosure (tripping) Þ not applicable for detection of evolving faults BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.redirection functionality in case of CB SF6 underpressure condition Þ remote tripping signal fixed to timer 1 ABB .

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions Coupler function: Zone 2 Zone 1 Input Current signal CB opening coil trip BBP Zone 1 intertripping Zone 2 CB open DI = 0 CB reclaim time ~120 ms DI = IF Zone 2 BBP BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd. .26 ³1 CT bypass t ³1 & IF ABB .

Reactor feeder and coupler: Start R S T BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.Breaker Failure Protection Application Transformer.Generator. Trip Redirection set t1 & t2 to 10ms BFP CBx ABB . . contacts G/T Prot.27 3 Phase trip ³1 Start R IR & IS & IT ³1 & t1 I> External G t1 I> ³1 Start T t1 I> ³1 Start S Reverse Power (32) D I T & D I G (87T & 87G) CBx t1 “CB closed” Start BFP aux. Transformer.

28 Syn Line Prot. & t1 ³1 I> ³1 Start T t1 I> ³1 Start S IT AR & & t1 I> External t1 Start BFP Trip Redirection set t1 & t2 to 10ms BFP CBx ABB . .Breaker Failure Protection Application Line feeder with single phase auto reclosure: 3 Phase trip CBx Start R S T ³1 single Phase trip Z< & DEF (21 & 67N) OC (51) Start R IR IS BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.

& IS & t1 ³1 I> ³1 Start T t1 I> ³1 Start S IT arc is to low pressure to extinguish the CB is blocked since SF6 gas BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.29 Start R S T & t1 I> External t1 Start BFP Trip Redirection set t1 & t2 to 10ms BFP CBx ABB . .Breaker Failure Protection Application Trip Redirection in case of CB SF6 Underpressure : 3 Phase trip CBx ³1 single Phase trip Z< & DEF (21 & 67N) OC (51) Start R IR AR Syn Line Prot.

30 ABB . .BFP_basics / 2002-03-15 / RW © ABB Switzerland Ltd.