Detlef Loy

Indicators for SE4All-related
activities within the 11th EDF
SE4All Technical Assistance Facility Eastern and Southern Africa

Baseline establishment

SE4All sets 2010 as starting point against which progress will be measured.

Common indicators for baseline are:

Rate of household connections to electricity

Average residential electricity consumption

Proportion of households relying primarily on non-solid fuels for cooking

Data Sources:

IEA, World Energy Outlook 2012 – Electricity Access Database (Excel-file, global data
for 2010); data for 2011 as annex to World Energy Outlook 2013

World Health Organisation Global Household Energy Database

SE4All Global Tracking Framework, Data from various sources for 2010, separate for
rural and urban areas

Guideline for Energy Statistics:
UN International Recommendations for Energy Statistics

Definition for access to modern energy

There is no single internationally accepted and adopted definition and
measurement method of access to modern energy !

Definition of the World Energy Outlook (IEA):
Households having reliable and affordable access to clean cooking facilities, a
first connection to electricity and then an increasing level of electricity
consumption over time to reach the regional average.

Definition of the UN Advisory Group on Energy and Climate (AGECC):
Access to a basic minimum threshold of modern energy services for both
consumption and productive uses. Access to these modern energy services must
be reliable and affordable, sustainable and where feasible, from low-GHGemitting energy sources.

Problems:
Increased electricity consumption not necessarily a goal; higher consumption
could mean low efficiency; consumption influenced by a number of factors, e.g.
persons per household.
Household-based definition excludes access to energy for community services and
productive uses.

Challenges in defining and measuring
Energy Access

As a first step, use of binary measures for defining energy access:

Electricity access, defined as availability of an electricity connection at
home or the use of electricity as the primary source for lighting

Access to modern cooking solutions, defined as relying primarily on nonsolid fuels for cooking.

Growing consensus that method needs to be improved and refined by introducing
a multi-tier approach.

Multi-tier approach (proposal 1)

Source: UN, SE4All Global Tracking Framework, 2013

Challenge: How to monitor the different attributes (e.g. voltage stability) in an African context ?

Multi-tier approach (proposal 2)

Source: UN, SE4All Global Tracking Framework, 2013

N.B.:

EnDev has developed a similar set of service standards based on electricity needs being met
(kWh per person and year)

Source: Practical Action, Poor people‘s Energy Outlook 2013

Multi-tier approach for non-residential
sectors, example: health centres

Requirements for multi-tier approach

Multi-tier metric requires enhancements to existing data-collection
instruments.

Surveys remain the best suited instruments for obtaining data, but additional
energy-focused questions should be designed.

Surveys could ask for off-grid technologies and connections to decentralized
mini-grids. They could also capture level of electricity supply (duration,
quality, affordibility, etc.) and electricity appliances used.

Three-level measurement system as interim solution:
In a first step and as technology-based approach, electricity access could be
differentiated by „no-access“, „basic access“ (solar lanterns, etc.) and
„advanced access“ (off-grid and grid solutions)

Challenges in defining and measuring
Renewable Energy share in the energy mix

Definitions vary in the type of resouces included and the sustainability
considerations taken into account.

Most common indicators are:

RE share in Total Primary Energy Production or Supply (TPES)

RE share in final energy consumption

RE share in electricity consumption

UN Global Tracking Framework has compiled baseline data for 2010. Those will
be complemented by additional indicators: 1) policy targets and adoption of
measures; 2) RE technology costs; 3) RE total investments.
Data collection methodologies need to be improved and standards for
sustainability need to be agreed-upon.

Challenges in defining and measuring
Energy Efficiency

Energy intensity as indicator for degree of energy efficiency is difficult to
measure and compare as it depends on a number of factors (e.g. output of
products, use of energy services, climate, sectoral structure)

Most common indicator is energy intensity at national level (energy use per
unit GDP)

Output metrics are not sufficiently covered by statistics in most countries

Disaggregation of energy intensity per consumption sector (transport,
agriculture, industry, households) requires very detailed data – easiest to
retrieve for individual industrial sectors, e.g. cement or sugar industry

Indicators for NIP activities

Quantitative indicators should be set up wherever possible, targets need to
be achievable and should be time-bound

Indicators should also be established for non-technical measures (policy
support, sector reforms, capacity building, know-how transfer, etc.)

Indicators are in first place measured on the result level, but should also be
set up on the outcome/impact level (e.g. jobs created through improved
energy supply for productive purposes)

Progress needs to be measured separate from other donor supports and
activities in the same field

Progress should be linked to individual EC intervention

Monitoring needs to be viable by retrieving data from different reliable
sources

Technology-based indicators for NIP
activities: Electricity access

Access to electricity supply and services:

Additional number of households/people served by different levels of
electricity supply (in case of grid: number of connections)

Electricity consumption per household or capita in target region

Additional number of public institutions and productive facilities served by
different levels of electricity supply

Percentage of people with access to electricity in target region

Data sources: grid/distribution operators, surveys

Technology-based indicators for NIP
activities: RE Electricity

Electricity generation from RE sources:

Additional MWh produced from RE in year x,y, z (on-grid, off-grid, industrial
self-supply)

Number and capacity of RE stand-alone systems and micro-grids for multihousehold supply

Amount of fossil fuels substituted by RE (e.g. diesel by PV in hybrid mini-grids)

RE systems installed for specific purposes, e.g. water pumping and irrigation
(number, capacity, households served, amount of water supplied)

RE share in the electricity generation mix of target region x,y,z or installed RE
capacity per capita

Data sources: grid and RE-facility operators, sale of products funded through EDF,
technology specifications of product suppliers, commerce associations

Technology-based indicators for NIP
activities: Energy Efficiency

Energy Efficiency in the Electricity sector:

Technical transmission and distribution losses reduced

Number of energy audits executed in the industrial, commercial or public
sector

Energy-efficiency measures implemented in x number of buildings/facilities

Number and size of demand-side activities offered by utilities

Deployment/market share of energy-efficient products increased (e.g. CFLs)

Data sources: grid operators, utilities, associations for commerce and industry,
customs, ministries

Indicators for non-technical NIP
activities

Development of policy/sector strategy supported/initiated

Design of legal frameworks supported

Capacity building of different stakeholder groups strengthened

Capacity of existing institutions strengthened or creation of new institutions
supported

Innovative financing approaches fostered or developed

Monitoring and evaluation capacity increased

Indicators for general electricty sector
activities under the EDF
The following indicators may be used in sector reform supports:

Electricity connections per employee increased

Amount of subsidies paid per customer or per new connection decreased

Non-technical losses decreased

Cost recovery ratio (tariff vs. operational costs or vs. total generation costs) improved

Share of private sector engagement in power generation raised

Construction of new transmission and distribution lines

Number and time of outages per year reduced

Electricity sector unbundled and regulated

More indicators can be found here: The World Bank, Monitoring Performance of Electric Utilities – Indicators and
Benchmarking in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2009; see also: The World Bank/AfDB, Handbook on Infrastructure Statistics, Dec. 2011

Impact indicators for NIP activities

Improved reading and homeworking environment

Improved fresh water supply and irrigation

Increased income through productive activities

Reduced share of energy expenditures in the industrial and commercial sector

Improved working and education conditions

Extended public services

Improved indoor air and climate conditions

National jobs created within the value chain for RE and EE products