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M.Bilal Junaid

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Assignment :4

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MS(EE)-SP014-014

Answer 1

close all

clear all

%Wc=(Fpass+Fstop)/2... which is .25pi in our case

Fpass = 0.2;

% Passband Frequency

Fstop = 0.3;

% Stopband Frequency

Dpass = 0.057501127785; % Passband Ripple

Dstop = 0.0001;

% Stopband Attenuation

flag = 'noscale';

% Sampling Flag

% Calculate the order from the parameters using KAISERORD.

[N,Wn,BETA,TYPE] = kaiserord([Fpass Fstop], [1 0], [Dstop Dpass]);

% Calculate the coefficients using the FIR1 function.

[b a] = fir1(N, Wn, TYPE, kaiser(N+1, BETA), flag);

Hd = dfilt.dffir(b);

figure

Freqz(b,a)

title('Magnitude and phase of FIR Kaiser window filter ');

%Group delay computation

[Gd,w] = grpdelay(b,a,256);

figure;

plot(w,Gd); %Zoom in the plot to see the range from 0 to wp

xlabel(' 0 <= w <= wp ');

ylabel('Grp(H(ejw))');

title('Group Delay of FIR Kaiser Window Filter');

%....................................................................

%Filter....................................................................

N = 10; % Order

Wp = 0.25; % Passband Frequency

Apass = .2; % Passband Ripple (dB)

% Construct an FDESIGN object and call its CHEBY1 method.

[b1,a1] = cheby1(N,Apass,Wp,'low')

figure

freqz(b1,a1)

title('Magnitude and phase of IIR Chebsev filter ');

[Gd,w] = grpdelay(b1,a1,256);

figure;

plot(w,Gd); %Zoom in the plot to see the range from 0 to wp

xlabel(' 0 <= w <= wp ');

ylabel('Grp(H(ejw))');

title('Group Delay of IIR Chebsev filter ');

....................................................................

Answer 2

close all;

clear all;

%narrow band

%signals...................................................................

%..

k = [0:199]

x1 = cos(0.2*pi*k).*hanning(200)'; %narrow band signal..with wc=.2pi

x1(1:49)=0

x1(151:200)=0

figure;

plot(k,x1);

xlabel('k');

ylabel('x1');

title('narrow band signal x1');

x2 = cos(0.4*pi*k).*hanning(200)'; %narrow band signal with twice frequency and sample created at differnet points with wc=.4pi

x2(1:74)=0

x2(176:200)=0

figure;

plot(k,x2);

xlabel('k');

ylabel('x2');

title('narrow band signal x2');

%..................................................................

%FIR Kaiser window Filter....................................................................

%Wc=(Fpass+Fstop)/2... which is .25pi in our case

Fpass = 0.2;

% Passband Frequency

Fstop = 0.3;

% Stopband Frequency

Dpass = 0.057501127785; % Passband Ripple

Dstop = 0.0001;

% Stopband Attenuation

flag = 'noscale';

% Sampling Flag

% Calculate the order from the parameters using KAISERORD.

[N,Wn,BETA,TYPE] = kaiserord([Fpass Fstop], [1 0], [Dstop Dpass]);

% Calculate the coefficients using the FIR1 function.

[b a] = fir1(N, Wn, TYPE, kaiser(N+1, BETA), flag);

Hd = dfilt.dffir(b);

figure

Freqz(b,a)

title('Magnitude and phase of FIR Kaiser window filter ');

%Group delay computation

[Gd,w] = grpdelay(b,a,256);

figure;

plot(w,Gd); %Zoom in the plot to see the range from 0 to wp

xlabel(' 0 <= w <= wp ');

ylabel('Grp(H(ejw))');

title('Group Delay of FIR Kaiser Window Filter');

%....................................................................

%Filter....................................................................

N = 10; % Order

Wp = 0.25; % Passband Frequency

Apass = .2; % Passband Ripple (dB)

[b1,a1] = cheby1(N,Apass,Wp,'low')

figure

freqz(b1,a1)

title('Magnitude and phase of IIR Chebsev filter ');

[Gd,w] = grpdelay(b1,a1,256);

figure;

plot(w,Gd); %Zoom in the plot to see the range from 0 to wp

xlabel(' 0 <= w <= wp ');

ylabel('Grp(H(ejw))');

title('Group Delay of IIR Chebsev filter ');

%....................................................................

%Filter using kaiser Window

y1=filter(b,a,x1) % filtering first narrow band singal x1

figure

plot(y1)

title('Filtered x1 using Kaisar window filter ');

figure

plot(y2)

title('Filtered x2 using Kaisar window filter ');

%...............................................................

%Filter using IIR chebsev

z1=filter(b1,a1,x1) % filtering first narrow band singal x1

figure

plot(z1)

title('Filtered x1 using IIR chebsev filter ');

figure

plot(z2)

title('Filtered x2 using IIR chebsev filter ');

%...............................................................

%Group delay in FIR filter is higher as filterd output of it is more

%shifted compared to IIR filter

%...................................................................

compared to IIR filter also because IIR filter has ORDER compared to FIR.

Answer 3

%Creating wideband signal by passing via VCO>.. similar way FM is modulated

%by VCO to get wideband signal

fs = 10;

t = 0:1/fs:20

x = vco(sawtooth(2*pi*t,0.9),4,fs);

x(20:200)=0;

plot(t,x)

figure

specgram(x)

%..................................................................

%FIR Kaiser window Filter....................................................................

%Wc=(Fpass+Fstop)/2... which is .25pi in our case

Fpass = 0.2;

% Passband Frequency

Fstop = 0.3;

% Stopband Frequency

Dpass = 0.057501127785; % Passband Ripple

Dstop = 0.0001;

% Stopband Attenuation

flag = 'noscale';

% Sampling Flag

% Calculate the order from the parameters using KAISERORD.

[N,Wn,BETA,TYPE] = kaiserord([Fpass Fstop], [1 0], [Dstop Dpass]);

% Calculate the coefficients using the FIR1 function.

[b a] = fir1(N, Wn, TYPE, kaiser(N+1, BETA), flag);

Hd = dfilt.dffir(b);

figure

Freqz(b,a)

title('Magnitude and phase of FIR Kaiser window filter ');

%Group delay computation

[Gd,w] = grpdelay(b,a,256);

figure;

plot(w,Gd); %Zoom in the plot to see the range from 0 to wp

xlabel(' 0 <= w <= wp ');

ylabel('Grp(H(ejw))');

title('Group Delay of FIR Kaiser Window Filter');

%....................................................................

%Filter....................................................................

N = 10; % Order

Wp = 0.25; % Passband Frequency

Apass = .2; % Passband Ripple (dB)

% Construct an FDESIGN object and call its CHEBY1 method.

[b1,a1] = cheby1(N,Apass,Wp,'low')

figure

freqz(b1,a1)

title('Magnitude and phase of IIR Chebsev filter ');

[Gd,w] = grpdelay(b1,a1,256);

figure;

plot(w,Gd); %Zoom in the plot to see the range from 0 to wp

xlabel(' 0 <= w <= wp ');

ylabel('Grp(H(ejw))');

title('Group Delay of IIR Chebsev filter ');

%....................................................................

%Filter using kaiser Window

y1=filter(b,a,x) % filtering wideband signal

figure

plot(y1)

title('Filtered wideband signal using Kaisar window filter ');

%...............................................................

%Filter using IIR chebsev

z1=filter(b1,a1,x) % filtering wideband signal

figure

plot(z1)

title('Filtered wideband signal using IIR chebsev filter ');

%...............................................................

Answer 4

Group delay in FIR filter is higher as filtered output of it is more shifted compared to IIR filter also because

IIR filter has ORDER compared to FIR.

A narrowband FIR filter preserves the phase of the signal but experiences a significant

group delay because of the large number of taps required. An equivalent IIR filter has

fewer taps and thus would consume less computer resources

Narrowband

In radio, narrowband communication happens in a frequency range where the frequency response of the

channel is flat (where gain is constant for all the frequencies in the range). Therefore, the band should be

smaller than the coherence bandwidth (maximum range of frequencies where channel response is flat),

and relatively smaller than broadband range (or wideband) where channel response is not necessarily

flat.

When the data communication (or internet connections) is concerned, narrowband refers to the amount of

data being transferred within a second (or bits per second). Dial-up internet connection (where data rate

is less than 56 kbps) belongs to the narrowband internet category. In dial up connections, computers are

connected to internet through a modem and telephone cables.

Wideband

Wideband range exceeds the coherence bandwidth, and therefore, doesnt exhibit a flat frequency

response. Wideband is a relative term, and the size of the band may be in kHz, MHz or GHz depending

on the application.

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