# 1.

Unstable Pole-Zero Cancelled System
E(z)

z+2

U (z)

z + 0.5

1

e(n)

Y (z)

1

y(n)

z + 0.5

z+2

Solution of cancelled system:
xs(k + 1) = −0.5xs(k) + e(k)
ys(k) = xs(k)
Iteratively solving,
ys(k) = (−0.5)k xs(0) +

k−1
X

(−0.5)me(k − m − 1)

m=0

Stable.

Digital Control

1

Kannan M. Moudgalya, Autumn 2007

5x1(k) + 1.5 = + e(k) 1 −2 x2(k) 1     x1(k) y(k) = 0 1 x2(k) Digital Control = = = = = 2 Kannan M.5 1 Y (z) z+2 Can verify for first block: First block: x1(k + 1) u(k) Second block: x2(k + 1) y(k) Substituting.2.5e(k) x1(k) + e(k) −2x2(k) + u(k) x2(k) −2x2(k) + x1(k) + e(k)      −0. Autumn 2007 . x2(k + 1)   x1(k + 1) x2(k + 1) −0.5 0 x1(k) 1. Moudgalya. System without Pole-Zero Cancellation E(z) z+2 U (z) z + 0.

5 0 x1(k) 1.3. Autumn 2007 . System without Pole-Zero Cancellation E(z) z+2 U (z) 1 Y (z)    z + 0.5)me(k − m − 1) (−0.5)k (−2)k −x1(0) + 1. Moudgalya.5x2(0) 2 m=0 x(0) 6= 0.5 = + e(k) x2(k + 1) 1 −2 x2(k) 1     x1(k) y(k) = 0 1 x2(k) k−1 X = CAk x(0) + CAmbe(k − m − 1) m=0 Can show that this is equal to   k−1 X  3 x (0) 1 + (−0.5      z+2 x1(k + 1) −0. results in y(k) being unbounded! Whence −2? Digital Control 3 Kannan M.

Autumn 2007 . Moudgalya. Diagonalization A: square matrix λj : jth eigenvalue xj : jth eigenvector Ax1 = λ1x1 .4. Axn = λnxn Stacking these side by side....      | | λ1 0 | | .  A x1 · · · xn = x1 · · · xn  | | | | 0 λn AS = SΛ Assume the eigenvectors to be independent ⇒ S −1 exists A = SΛS −1 Digital Control 4 Kannan M.

..  =  Λk =  0 λn 0 λkn This approach is used to arrive at the solution. Ak = SΛk S −1 Easy to evaluate RHS: k  k   λ1 0 λ1 0 . Moudgalya. Digital Control 5 Kannan M. Diagonalization A = SΛS −1 A2 = SΛS −1SΛS −1 = SΛ2S −1 A3 = SΛ2S −1SΛS −1 = SΛ3S −1 .. Autumn 2007 ....5.

Autumn 2007 . Condition for Cancellation of Poles and Zeros E(z) z+2 1 U (z) z + 0. Moudgalya.5)me(k − m − 1) m=0 Solution of system if there is no cancellation:   k−1 X  3 x (0) 1 + (−0.6.5)mxs(0) + k−1 X (−0.5x2(0) 2 m=0 Two solutions are identical only if • x1(0) = 1.5)k (−2)k −x1(0) + 1.5 Y (z) z+2 Solution of system after cancellation: ys(k) = (−0.5x2(0) or • x1(0) = x2(0) = 0.5)me(k − m − 1) (−0. Digital Control 6 Kannan M.

N and C specified. Autumn 2007 . Suppose D and N are coprime with degrees dD > 0 and dN > 0. Moudgalya. If 0 ≤ dC < dD + dN there is a unique least degree solution given by dX(z) < dN (z) dY (z) < dD(z) Digital Control 7 Kannan M. Aryabhatta’s Identity We need to solve the polynomial equation X(z)D(z) + Y (z)N (z) = C(z) for X and Y . • Has a solution iff the GCD of D(z) and N (z) divides C(z) • There are infinitely many solutions to Aryabhatta’s identity • Unique solution under special conditions.7. with D.

Moudgalya. All Vi are also unknowns. Same as V (z)F (z) = C(z) Can be written as [V0 + V1z −1 + · · · + Vv z −v ][F0 + F1z −1 + · · · + FdF z −dF ] = C0 + C1z −1 + · · · + CdC z −dC v is an unknown. Algorithm for Aryabhatta’s Identity X(z)D(z) + Y (z)N (z) = C(z) is the same as     D(z) X(z) Y (z) = C(z) N (z) Solved by comparing the coefficients of powers of z −1. Autumn 2007 . Digital Control 8 Kannan M.8.

 0 · · · 0 F0 F1 · · · FdF = [C0 C1 · · · CdC ] with maximal v. Moudgalya.. V0F1 + V1F0 = C1 9. Ensures all combination of products are used.Algorithm for Aryabhatta’s Identity [V0 + V1z −1 + · · · + Vv z −v ][F0 + F1z −1 + · · · + FdF z −dF ] = C0 + C1z −1 + · · · + CdC z −dC is the same as   F0 F1 · · · FdF 0 · · · 0  0 F0 F1 · · · FdF · · · 0  [V0 V1 · · · Vv ]  . Matrix equation is written as VF =C Digital Control 9 Kannan M. Multiplying. Autumn 2007 . first two equations are obtained as V0F0 = C0.

10. the solution is. V (z) and then  X(z). Moudgalya. V = X Y Digital Control 10 Kannan M. • From V . satisfying this requirement. VF =C IF F is right invertible. • Choose v as the largest integer. because. Y (z) can be determined. V = C F −1 • For this. rows of F have to be linearly independent. Algorithm for Aryabhatta’s Identity Recall from the previous slide: [V0 + V1z −1 + · · · + Vv z −v ][F0 + F1z −1 + · · · + FdF z −dF ] = C0 + C1z −1 + · · · + CdC z −dC Can be written as. Autumn 2007 .

solve for V as V = C F −1 Digital Control 11 Kannan M.. 0 · · · 0 F0 F1  = C0 C1 0 0    · · · FdF  · · · CdC ··· ···  Write this as V F = C . Summary: Algorithm for Aryabhatta’s Identity X(z)D(z) + Y (z)N (z) = C(z)     D(z) X(z) Y (z) = C(z) N (z) V (z)F (z) = C(z) Can be written as  F0 F1 · · · FdF 0    0 F0 F1 · · · FdF V0 V1 · · · Vv   . Autumn 2007 .11. Moudgalya.

Moudgalya. Digital Control 12 Kannan M. Autumn 2007 .5z −2 Construct F :         −1 −2 1 − 5z + 4z 1 −5 −1 4 −2 F (z) = = + z + z z −1 + z −2 0 1 1 which is of the form F0 + F1z −1 + F2z −2. Example: Algorithm for Aryabhatta’s Identity Solve for X(z) and Y (z) satisfying X(z)D(z) + Y (z)N (z) = C(z) with D(z) = 1 − 5z −1 + 4z −2 N (z) = z −1 + z −2 C(z) = 1 − z −1 + 0.12.

Autumn 2007 . Hence v is still not the maximum. Digital Control 13 Kannan M.13. Explore v = 1:     1 −5 4 F = F0 F1 F2 = 0 1 1 Although independent. Moudgalya. v is not the largest. Explore v = 2:   1 −5 4 0   0 1 1 0 F0 F1 F2 0  F = =  0 F0 F1 F2 0 1 −5 4 0 0 1 1 These rows are independent. Example: Algorithm for Aryabhatta’s Identity Recall         −1 −2 1 − 5z + 4z 1 −5 −1 4 −2 F (z) = = + z + z z −1 + z −2 0 1 1 which is of the form F0 + F1z −1 + F2z −2.

Moudgalya. Autumn 2007 .14. Example: Algorithm for Aryabhatta’s Identity Explore the possibility of v = 3:  1 0    F0 F1 F2 0 0 0 F =  0 F0 F1 F2 0  =  0  0 0 F0 F1 F2 0 0 −5 1 1 0 0 0 4 1 −5 1 1 0 0 0 4 1 −5 1 0 0  0  0  4 1  No longer independent.5 0 0  0 1 −5 4 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 −5 4 Digital Control 14 Kannan M. Remove one row and solve:  −1 1 −5 4 0 0     0 1 1 0 0  V = 1 −1 0.

25 and V1 = 0. Moudgalya. We obtain   V = 1 3.25 − 3z −1 These form the solution to Aryabhatta’s identity Digital Control 15 Kannan M.75z −1 Y (z) = 3.     • We have V0 = 1 3. Autumn 2007 . we add a zero to V . • We obtain X(z) = 1 + 0.75 −3 | 0 0 where we have separated coefficients of powers of z −1 with vertical lines. Example: Algorithm for Aryabhatta’s Identity • V is a 1 × 5 vector.75 −3 . • To account for the row removed from F .25 | 0.15.