# 

Fourier Series

Assessment Problems
AP 16.1
av =

1
T

2
ak =
T 

=
2
bk =
T 

= 

2T /3

Vm dt +

0  

T

2T /3

4Vm
3kω0 T

Vm cos kω0 t dt +  

4kπ
sin
3 

4Vm
3kω0 T

7
dt = Vm = 7π V
9 

T
2T /3    

Vm
cos kω0 t dt
3

6
4kπ
=
sin
k
3
T

Vm sin kω0 t dt +   



2T /3
0

Vm
3 

2T /3
0  

1
T 

4kπ
1 − cos
3

2T /3   

Vm
sin kω0 t dt
3 



6
=
k   

4kπ
1 − cos
3 

AP 16.2 [a] av = 7π = 21.99 V
[b] a1 = −5.196
b1 = 9  

a2 = 2.598

a3 = 0 a4 = −1.299

a5 = 1.039

b2 = 4.5

b3 = 0

b5 = 1.8

b4 = 2.25

T
[d] f3 = 3f0 = 23.87 Hz
[c] w0 =

[e] v(t) = 21.99 − 5.2 cos 50t + 9 sin 50t + 2.6 sin 100t + 4.5 cos 100t
−1.3 sin 200t + 2.25 cos 200t + 1.04 sin 250t + 1.8 cos 250t + · · · V
AP 16.3 Odd function with both half- and quarter-wave symmetry.  

6Vm
vg (t) =
t,
T

0 ≤ t ≤ T /6;

av = 0,

ak = 0 for all k

obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
16–1 system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

16–2

CHAPTER 16. Fourier Series
bk = 0 for k even
bk =

8
T

8
=
T 

=

vg (t) = 

T /4
0

f(t) sin kω0 t dt,

T /6  6V 
m

T

0  

8
t sin kω0 t dt +
T

12Vm

sin
2
2
k π
3
12Vm
π2

k odd 

T /4
T /6

Vm sin kω0 t dt 

1
sin
sin nω0 t V
2
3
n=1,3,5,... n

AP 16.4 [a] A1 = −5.2 − j9 = 10.4/ − 120◦ ;

A2 = 2.6 − j4.5 = 5.2/ − 60◦

A4 = −1.3 − j2.25 = 2.6/ − 120◦

A3 = 0;

A5 = 1.04 − j1.8 = 2.1/ − 60◦
θ1 = −120◦ ;

θ2 = −60◦ ;

θ4 = −120◦ ;

θ5 = −60◦

θ3 not deﬁned;

[b] v(t) = 21.99 + 10.4 cos(50t − 120◦ ) + 5.2 cos(100t − 60◦ )
+2.6 cos(200t − 120◦ ) + 2.1 cos(250t − 60◦ ) + · · · V
AP 16.5 The Fourier series for the input voltage is  

8A

1
sin
sin nω0 (t + T /4)
vi = 2
2
π n=1,3,5,... n
2  

8A
1

= 2
sin2
cos nω0 t
2
π n=1,3,5,... n
2

=

8A
1
cos nω0 t
2
π n=1,3,5,... n2

8(281.25π 2 )
8A
=
= 2250 mV
π2
π2
ω0 =

=
× 103 = 10
T
200π

obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problems
.·.

vi = 2250

16–3

1
cos 10nt mV
2
n=1,3,5,... n

From the circuit we have
Vo =

Vi
1
Vi
·
=
R + (1/jωC) jωC
1 + jωRC

Vo =

1/RC
100
Vi =
Vi
1/RC + jω
100 + jω

Vi1 = 2250/0◦ mV;

Vi3 =

2250 ◦
/0 = 250/0◦ mV;
9

Vi5 =

2250 ◦
/0 = 90/0◦ mV;
25

Vo1 =

100
(2250/0◦ ) = 2238.83/ − 5.71◦ mV
100 + j10

Vo3 =

100
(250/0◦ ) = 239.46/ − 16.70◦ mV
100 + j30

Vo5 =

100
(90/0◦ ) = 80.50/ − 26.57◦ mV
100 + j50

.·.

vo = 2238.33 cos(10t − 5.71◦ ) + 239.46 cos(30t − 16.70◦ )
+80.50 cos(50t − 26.57◦ ) + . . . mV

AP 16.6 [a] ωo =

=
T
0.2π

vg (t) = 840

1

sin
cos n10,000t V
2
n=1,3,5,... n

= 840 cos 10,000t − 280 cos 30,000t + 168 cos 50,000t
− 120 cos 70,000t + · · · V
Vg1 = 840/0◦ V;

Vg3 = 280/180◦ V

Vg5 = 168/0◦ V;

Vg7 = 120/180◦ V

obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

16–4

CHAPTER 16. Fourier Series
H(s) =
β=

Vo
βs
= 2
Vg
s + βs + ωc2

1
109
= 4
RC
10 (20)

(109 )(103 )
1
=
= 25 × 108
=
LC
400
5000s
H(s) = 2
s + 5000s + 25 × 108
j5000ω
H(jω) =
8
25 × 10 − ω 2 + j5000ω
ωc2

H1 =

j5 × 107
= 0.02/88.81◦
24 × 108 + j5 × 107

j15 × 107
H3 =
= 0.09/84.64◦
8
7
16 × 10 + j15 × 10
H5 =

j25 × 107
= 1/0◦
25 × 107

j35 × 107
H7 =
= 0.14/ − 81.70◦
8
7
−24 × 10 + j35 × 10
Vo1 = Vg1 H1 = 17.50/88.81◦ V
Vo3 = Vg3 H3 = 26.14/ − 95.36◦ V
Vo5 = Vg5 H5 = 168/0◦ V
Vo7 = Vg7 H7 = 17.32/98.30◦ V
vo = 17.50 cos(10,000t + 88.81◦ ) + 26.14 cos(30,000t − 95.36◦ )
+ 168 cos(50,000t) + 17.32 cos(70,000t + 98.30◦ ) + · · · V
[b] The 5th harmonic because the circuit is a passive bandpass ﬁlter with a Q
of 10 and a center frequency of 50 krad/s.
AP 16.7

2π × 103
w0 =
2094.4

jω0 k = j3k
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Problems
VR =

16–5

2
2sVg
(Vg ) = 2
2 + s + 1/s
s + 2s + 1 

VR
Vg

H(s) = 

=

s2

2s
+ 2s + 1
j6k
(1 − 9k 2 ) + j6k

H(jω0 k) = H(j3k) =

Vg1 = 25.98/0◦ V

vg1 = 25.98 sin ω0 t V;
H(j3) =

j6
= 0.6/ − 53.13◦ ;
−8 + j6

VR1 = 15.588/ − 53.13◦ V

(15.588/ 2)2
= 60.75 W
P1 =
2
vg3 = 0,

therefore P3 = 0 W
Vg5 = 1.04/180◦

vg5 = −1.04 sin 5ω0 t V;

j30
= 0.1327/ − 82.37◦
−224 + j30

H(j15) =

VR5 = (1.04/180◦ )(0.1327/ − 82.37◦ ) = 138/97.63◦ mV

(0.1396/ 2)2
= 4.76 mW;
P5 =
2

therefore P ∼
= P1 ∼
= 60.75 W

AP 16.8 Odd function with half- and quarter-wave symmetry, therefore av = 0, ak = 0
for all k, bk = 0 for k even; for k odd we have
8
bk =
T 

= 

T /8
0

8
πk

8
2 sin kω0 t dt +
T  

1 + 3 cos
4 

Therefore Cn =

NJ 07458. NJ. Inc. or likewise. Upper Saddle River. photocopying. mechanical. Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic.9 [a] Irms = −j4 nπ     T /4 T /8 8 sin kω0 t dt  . All rights reserved. For information regarding permission(s). T 2 T 3T − (2)2 (2) + (8)2 T 8 8 8 n odd  = √ 34 = 5. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.7683 A © 2010 Pearson Education. recording. AP 16. storage in a retrieval system. Upper Saddle River. k odd  1 + 3 cos nπ 4   . . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.. Inc..

π C3 = j1.16–6 CHAPTER 16. π C7 = Irms   2 = Idc +2 ∞ C5 = j0.5 . π C9 = −j1. Fourier Series [b] C1 = −j12.9 . π −j1.8 .4 .5 . π C11 = .

3.777 − 5. |Cn |2 ∼ = n=1.. [c] % Error = Irms   2 = Idc +2 .52 + 1. j0.831 [d] Using just the terms C1 – C9 .777 A 5.4 π 2 (12.42 + 0.42 ) π2 ∼ = 5.52 + 1.82 + 1.831 × 100 = −1..08% 5..5.

42 ) π2 ∼ = 5. . ∞ i= −j n=−∞ n(odd) ∞ 4 = π n=−∞   4 nπ jnω0 (t−T /4) 1 + 3 cos e nπ 4   nπ −j(n+1)(π/2) jnω0 t 1 1 + 3 cos e e n 4 n(odd) © 2010 Pearson Education. For information regarding permission(s).82 + 1.3.. Inc. Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction..52 + 1.. electronic.774 A % Error = 5. recording.98% 5.. Inc. storage in a retrieval system.831 Thus. ∞ |Cn |2 ∼ = n=1. or likewise. NJ. 2 (12.52 + 1. Upper Saddle River.. NJ 07458. photocopying. the % error is still less than 1%. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. AP 16. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved.831 × 100 = −0. therefore 8 ms requires shifting the function T /4 to the right.5.774 − 5.10 T = 32 ms. mechanical.

T For k = 1. NJ 07458. 2π t sin kω0 t dt = 0 for k = 2. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 1 − n In studying the periodic function in Fig. photocopying. 2 Vm Vm 2Vm + sin ω0 t + π 2 π therefore ∞ 1 cos nω0 t V 2 n=2.5.. mechanical. .. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means.6.. Vm sin kω0 t dt = bk = T 0 kπ and 4Vm π v(t) = k odd ∞ 1 sin nω0 t V n=1.1 [a] Odd function with half. . electronic. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or likewise. 2 bk = T  0 T /2 Vm sin v(t) = ak =  1 + cos kπ 1 − k2 2Vm π(1 − k 2)  for k even. bk = 0 for even k. n [b] Even function: bk = 0 for k  2 av = T ak = = and Vm sin 0  4 T 2Vm π t dt = T π T /2 T /2 Vm sin 0 4Vm /π 1 − 4k 2 π 2Vm t cos kω0 t dt = T π 1 1 + 1 − 2k 1 + 2k    ∞ 2Vm 1 v(t) = 1+2 cos nω0 t V 2 π n=1 1 − 4n 1 [c] av = T  2 ak = T T /2 0    Vm 2π Vm sin t dt = T π T /2 0 2π Vm Vm sin t cos kω0 t dt = T π Note: ak = 0 for k-odd.4. recording. P16. . Pearson Education.. © 2010 Pearson Education. . Upper Saddle River. for k odd we have 8  T /4 4Vm . we have b1 = P 16. 3. Upper Saddle River.and quarter-wave symmetry.2  Vm . av = 0.3. All rights reserved.1(c). Hence we can use the Fourier series for a half-wave rectiﬁed sine wave which is given as the answer to Problem 16. Inc.. 4. ak = 0 for all k. as shown in the ﬁgure below. storage in a retrieval system.2 note that it can be visualized as the combination of two half-wave rectiﬁed sine waves.. For information regarding permission(s)... NJ.Problems 16–7 Problems P 16.

. storage in a retrieval system.16–8 CHAPTER 16. For information regarding permission(s)..6. Inc.6.6. v(t) = v1 (t) + v2 (t) = ∞ 160 320 cos(nωo t) + 20 sin ωo t − V π π n=2.. or likewise. All rights reserved. . mechanical... v2(t) = ∞ 60 120 cos(nωo t) − 30 sin ωo t − V π π n=2. recording. photocopying. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Fourier Series v1(t) = ∞ 100 200 cos nωo t + 50 sin ωo t + V π π n=2.4... NJ 07458.. electronic... This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction..6. Inc.4..4.. (n2 − 1) © 2010 Pearson Education. (n2 − 1) Observe the following:  2π T sin ωo (t − T /2) = sin ωo t − T 2   = sin(ωo t − π) = − sin ωo t 2πn T cos nωo (t − T /2) = cos nωo t − T 2  = cos(nωo t − nπ) = cos nωo t Using the observations above and that fact that n is even. Pearson Education..4. (n2 − 1) v2(t) = ∞ 60 120 cos nωo (t − T /2) + 30 sin ωo (t − T /2) + V π π n=2. (n2 − 1) Thus. NJ. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River. Upper Saddle River.

For k odd.1(b) is even. Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means. fob = = 25. All rights reserved.1(a) has half-wave symmetry. Also. aka = 0 for k even. 415.. mechanical. [b] foa = av = 0. = 25 V 40 × 10−6 [d] The periodic function in Fig. or likewise. Inc.93 rad/s 200 × 10−6 ωob = 2π = 157. P16. Therefore.000 Hz −6 T 200 × 10 40 × 10−6 100(10 × 10−6 ) avb = [c] ava = 0. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. aka 4 = T  T /4 0 2πkt 4 40 cos dt + T T bka = 0 for k even  T /2 80 cos T /4  =  160 T 2πkt T /4 320 T 2πkt T /2 + sin sin T 2πk T 0 T 2πk T T /4  πk 160 80 πk sin + = sin πk − sin πk 2 πk 2 =− bka 2πkt dt T 4 = T πk 80 sin . write to: Rights and Permissions Department. bk = 0 for all k. recording. avb = 25 V akb = 4 T  T /8 100 cos 0 2πkt dt T  400 T 2πk T /8 = sin t T 2πk T 0 = 200 πk sin πk 4 © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. therefore. Upper Saddle River. electronic. NJ 07458. photocopying. storage in a retrieval system. P16. NJ..08 krad/s 40 × 10−6 1 1 1 = = 5000 Hz.3 [a] ωoa = 16–9 2π = 31. Upper Saddle River.Problems P 16. . πk 2  T /4 0  k odd 2πkt 4 40 sin dt + T T  T /2 80 sin T /4  2πkt dt T  = −160 T 2πkt T /4 320 T 2πkt T /2 − cos cos T 2πk T 0 T 2πk T T /4 = 160 −80 (0 − 1) + (−1 − 0) πk πk = 240 πk The periodic function in Fig.

P16. therefore from I6 above. P16. to +T © 2010 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. n. Pearson Education. mechanical. For information regarding permission(s). Inc.16–10 CHAPTER 16.5 n 2 n For the periodic function in Fig.3. or transmission in any form or by any means. storage in a retrieval system. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or likewise.1(a). . Upper Saddle River. photocopying. Fourier Series [e] For the periodic function in Fig. electronic..1(b). NJ 07458. Inc. All rights reserved.   ∞ 80 nπ 1 3 cos nωo t + sin nωo t V v(t) = − sin π n=1.5  [a] I6 = to +T to    to +T 1 sin mω0 t dt = − cos mω0 t  mω0 to = −1 [cos mω0 (to + T ) − cos mω0to ] mω0 = −1 [cos mω0 to cos mω0T − sin mω0 to sin mω0 T − cos mω0 to ] mω0 = −1 [cos mω0 to − 0 − cos mω0 to ] = 0 for all m. NJ. recording. write to: Rights and Permissions Department..4 av = 1 T 2 ak = T = 2 bk = T  ∞ 200 1 nπ sin cos nωo t V π n=1 n 4 T /4 Vm dt + 0  T /4 0 1 T  Vm 5 dt = Vm = 37. mω0  I7 = to +T to  cos mω0 to dt = to +T 1 [sin mω0 t]  mω0 to = 1 [sin mω0 (to + T ) − sin mω0 to ] mω0 = 1 [sin mω0 to − sin mω0 to] = 0 for all m mω0   1 to +T [b] I8 = cos mω0 t sin nω0 t dt = [sin(m + n)ω0 t − sin(m − n)ω0 t] dt 2 to to But (m + n) and (m − n) are integers.   v(t) = 25 + P 16.5π V 8 T /4 2 T  Vm cos kω0 t dt Vm cos kω0 t dt + T /4 2 T Vm kπ 30 kπ sin = sin kω0 T 2 k 2  T /4 0  Vm sin kω0 t dt Vm sin kω0 t dt + T /4 2   T  Vm kπ 30 kπ = 1 − cos = 1 − cos kω0 T 2 k 2  P 16. I8 = 0 for all m.

If m = n. All the integrals on the right-hand side reduce to zero except in the last summation when n = k. All rights reserved. recording. both integrals are zero (I7 above). If m = n. NJ. or likewise. Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means.. T 2 x= when t = −T 2 and x = 0 when t = 0 1 T Therefore  0 −T /2 f(t) dt =  1 T 0 T /2 f(−x)(−dx) = − 1 T  0 T /2 f(x) dx 1  T /2 1  T /2 f(t) dt + f(t) dt = 0 Therefore av = − T 0 T 0 ak = 2 T  0 −T /2 f(t) cos kω0 t dt + 2 T  0 T /2 f(t) cos kω0 t dt Again. we have I10 P 16.. dt = −dx.Problems  16–11  1 to +T [c] I9 = [cos(m − n)ω0 t − cos(m + n)ω0 t] dt sin mω0 t sin nω0 t dt = 2 to to If m = n. photocopying.7  f(t) sin kω0 t dt = 0 + 0 + bk T 2  2 or bk = T  to +T to f(t) sin kω0 t dt    T /2 1  to +T 1 0 av = f(t) dt = f(t) dt + f(t) dt T to T −T /2 0 Let t = −x.6 1 = 2  to +T to 1 dt + 2  to +T cos 2mω0 t dt = to f(t) sin kω0 t = av sin kω0 t + ∞ T T +0 = 2 2 an cos nω0 t sin kω0 t + n=1 ∞ bn sin nω0 t sin kω0 t n=1 Now integrate both sides from to to to + T. let t = −x in the ﬁrst integral and we get 2 T  2 f(t) cos kω0 t dt = − T −T /2 0  0 T /2 f(x) cos kω0 x dx © 2010 Pearson Education. electronic. Inc. storage in a retrieval system. therefore we have  to +T to P 16. Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River. both integrals are zero (I7 above). NJ 07458. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. we get I9 = to +T 1 2  [d] I10 = =  to +T to to +T to 1 2  dt − 1 2  to +T cos 2mω0 t dt = to T T −0 = 2 2 cos mω0t cos nω0 t dt to +T to [cos(m − n)ω0 t + cos(m + n)ω0 t] dt If m = n. . Inc. mechanical.

. Upper Saddle River. and 4 T bk = P 16.CHAPTER 16.. recording. then dt = −dx. Upper Saddle River. Therefore bk = 2 T  2 f(t) sin kω0 t dt = − T −T /2 0 2 (1 − cos kπ) T bk =  0  T /2 f(x) sin kω0 x cos kπ dx and 0 T /2 f(x) sin kω0 t dt Now note that 1 − cos kπ = 0 when k is even. NJ. bk = 0 for all k and ak = 4 T  T /2 f(t) cos kω0 t dt. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. x = 0 when t = −T /2 and x = T /2 when t = 0. . then dt = dx. or likewise. storage in a retrieval system. therefore f(t) = −f(T /2 − t) in the interval T /4 ≤ t ≤ T /2. and 1 − cos kπ = 2 when k is odd. Therefore bk = 0 when k is even. For information regarding permission(s). All rights reserved. electronic.8  2 0 2 T /2 f(t) sin kω0 t dt + f(t) sin kω0 t dt T −T /2 T 0 Now let t = x − T /2 in the ﬁrst integral. the ﬁrst integral becomes 2 T  T /2 f(x) sin kω0 x dx 0 4 Therefore we have bk = T  T /2 f(t) sin kω0 t dt 0  P 16. Inc. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. mechanical. NJ 07458. Pearson Education. we have av = 0. Inc. Therefore we get 4 T  T /2 T /4 4 f(t) cos kω0 t dt = − T  0 T /4 f(x) cos kπ cos kω0 x dx © 2010 Pearson Education. thus we write 4 ak = T  0 T /4 4 f(t) cos kω0 t dt + T  T /2 T /4 f(t) cos kω0 t dt Now let t = (T /2 − x) in the second integral. Fourier Series 16–12 Therefore ak = 0 2 bk = T  for all k. or transmission in any form or by any means. also sin kω0 (x − T /2) = sin(kω0 x − kπ) = sin kω0 x cos kπ.9  T /2 f(t) sin kω0 t dt when k is odd 0 Because the function is even and has half-wave symmetry. 2 f(t) sin kω0 t dt + T −T /2 0  T /2 f(t) sin kω0 t dt 0 Using the substitution t = −x. 0 k odd The function also has quarter-wave symmetry. x = T /4 when t = T /4 and x = 0 when t = T /2. ak = 0 for k even. photocopying.

NJ. recording. therefore the expression for bk becomes bk = 8 T  0 P 16. .10 Because the function is odd and has half-wave symmetry. Upper Saddle River. thus  T /4 4 4  T /2 f(t) sin kω0 t dt = − cos kπ f(x)(sin kω0 x) dx T T /4 T 0 But k is odd. av = 0.Problems 16–13 Therefore we have 4 ak = (1 − cos kπ) T  T /4 0 f(t) cos kω0 t dt But k is odd. x = T /4 when t = T /4 and x = 0 when t = T /2. Inc.. photocopying. Pearson Education.5 Hz T 16 × 10−3 [b] no [c] yes [d] yes [e] yes © 2010 Pearson Education. or likewise. therefore f(t) = f(T /2 − t) in the interval T /4 ≤ t ≤ T /2. NJ 07458. All rights reserved..11 [a] ωo = T /4 f(t) sin kω0 t dt 2π = 2π rad/s T [b] yes [c] no [d] no P 16. ak = 0 for all k. Thus we have bk = 4 T  T /4 f(t) sin kω0 t dt + 0 4 T  T /2 T /4 f(t) sin kω0 t dt Now let t = (T /2 − x) in the second integral and note that dt = −dx. electronic. Inc. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For k odd we have bk = 4  T /2 f(t) sin kω0 t dt T 0 The function also has quarter-wave symmetry. hence  8 ak = T T /4 0 f(t) cos kω0 t dt. and bk = 0 for k even. k odd P 16. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or transmission in any form or by any means.12 [a] f = 1 1 = = 62. storage in a retrieval system. For information regarding permission(s). mechanical. Upper Saddle River.

3. T 4π k 4 π k 4 i(t) = ∞ 160 sin(nπ/4) sin nωo t mA 2 π n=1. ·. for all k. function is odd ak = 0. storage in a retrieval system. the function has half-wave symmetry 8 bk = T  8 = T = T /4 f(t) sin kωo t. n2 k odd P 16..16 kπ kπ 8 · 2 2 · T 2 sin = 2 2 sin .3. Fourier Series [f] av = 0..5. . or transmission in any form or by any means. therefore av = 0..01 −0.625(16 × 10−3 ) = 0. Inc. Upper Saddle River.. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education. 0  k odd  T /8 5t sin kωo t dt + 0  T /4 T /8 0.  nπ 1 sin cos nω0 t V n 2 © 2010 Pearson Education. bk = 0 for all k. recording.16–14 CHAPTER 16.01 . Upper Saddle River.625T kπ − cos 4 kωo 4  T /4 0. NJ. photocopying. Inc. for odd k we have 8 ak = T v(t) =  T /4 0 4Vm π  4Vm kπ sin Vm cos kω0 t dt = πk 2 ∞ n=1.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or likewise. NJ 07458...13 [a] v(t) is even and has both half. For information regarding permission(s). All rights reserved.. ak = 0 for k-even.01 0.625T = 0.01 kωo kωo 4 T /8 T /8 T /4  kπ 5 0. the function is odd bk = 0.625T + − Int1 + Int2 = 2 2 sin k ωo 4 kωo kωo  cos kπ 4 0.5. for k even. electronic.and quarter-wave symmetry.01 kπ sin kωo t dt = cos kωo t  = cos Int2 = 0. Int1 + Int2 = 5 k 2 ωo2 sin kπ 4 bk = 5 0. mechanical.01 sin kωo t dt 8 {Int1 + Int2} T  T /8 t sin kωo t dt Int1 = 5 0   T /8 t 1 = 5 2 2 sin kωo t − cos kωo t  k ωo kωo 0 = 5 k 2ωo2  sin  kπ 0.

and quarter-wave symmetry. for k-odd we have ak = 8 T T /4  4V p  T 0  −8Vp π 2k2 t − Vp cos kω0 t dt = −8Vp Therefore v(t) = π2 ∞ 1 cos nω0 t V 2 n=1.14 [a] [b] av = 0. 4 2  8 120t sin kω0 t dt + T T T /8 0 for k odd 960 sin kω0 t t cos kω0 t − = 2 T k 2 ω02 kω0 kω0 for k even T /4 0 8 T for all k. bk = 0 for k-even.  T /4 0 960 = 2 T  80 t sin kω0 t dt + T    kω0 T /2   10 + T /4  T /4 T /8 T /8 0 320 sin kω0 t t cos kω0 t + 2 − T k 2 ω02 kω0 kπ T = . All rights reserved. or likewise. photocopying.. Inc. 8 bk = T = ak = 0. n P 16. recording. electronic. Pearson Education.. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River. f(t) sin kω0 t dt. NJ. . mechanical. therefore av = 0. storage in a retrieval system.. ak = 0 for all k.5. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River.3. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. 40 t sin kω0 t dt T 320 sin kω0 t dt + 2 T  T /4 T /8 t sin kω0 t dt  80 cos kω0 t T /4 − T kω0 T /8 T /4 T /8 kπ T = 8 4  960 sin(kπ/4) T 80 [cos(kπ/2) − cos(kπ/4)] − cos(kπ/4) − bk = 2 2 2 T k ω0 8kω0 kω0 T  320 sin(kπ/2) T cos(kπ/2) sin(kπ/4) T cos(kπ/4) + 2 − − + T k 2ω02 4 kω0 k 2 ω02 8kω0  © 2010 Pearson Education..  bk = 0.Problems 16–15 [b] v(t) is even and has both half. Inc. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.

57 sin(ω0 t) + 0.37 sin(3π/2) − 0.13 sin(5ω0 t) + . recording.57 sin(π/2) + 0. photocopying. since f(t) = −f(T /2 − t) in the interval 0 < t < 4. or likewise. All rights reserved. © 2010 Pearson Education.13 sin(5π/2) ∼ = 19. Fourier Series 16–16 = 960 320 320 sin(kπ/4) + sin(kπ/2) − sin(kπ/4) 2 2 (kω0 T ) (kω0 T ) (kωo T )2 = 640 320 sin(kπ/4) + sin(kπ/2) 2 (kω0 T ) (kω0 T )2 kω0 T = 2kπ. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.. 4 ω0 t = π 2π T · = T 4 2 f(T /4) ∼ = 19. Inc.. . bk = [c] bk = (kω0 T )2 = 4k 2 π 2 160 80 sin(kπ/4) + 2 2 sin(kπ/2) 2 2 π k π k 80 [2 sin(kπ/4) + sin(kπ/2)] π 2k2 b1 = 80 [2 sin(π/4) + sin(π/2)] ∼ = 19. [d] t = T . NJ. since f(t) = f(−t) [c] Yes.37 sin(3ω0 t) − 0. Pearson Education.37 9π 2 b5 = 80 [2 sin(5π/4) + sin(5π/2)] ∼ = −0.81 P 16. Inc. electronic. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River.CHAPTER 16.13 25π 2 f(t) = 19. Upper Saddle River. mechanical.15 [a] [b] Even. . For information regarding permission(s). NJ 07458.57 π2 b3 = 80 [2 sin(3π/4) + sin(3π/2)] ∼ = 0. storage in a retrieval system. . write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

  n2 π 2 − 8 sin2(nπ/2) sin(nω0 t) π 3n3  n2 π 2 − 8 sin(nω0 t) π 3 n3 P 16. Inc. 16 ω03 = π3 64 k2π 2 − 8 (64) sin(kπ/2) k3 π 3 f(t) = 64 ∞  n=1. the expression for ak is ak = 8 T  T /4 f(t) cos kω0 t dt. ·. NJ. Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. ak = 0. 8 4 ak = 0  cos(kπ/2) = 0.... electronic. 16–17 for k even (half-wave symmetry) for all k (function is even) Because of the quarter-wave symmetry. Upper Saddle River. recording.5.  n2 π 2 − 8 sin(nπ/2) cos(nω0 t) π 3n3 [e] cos nω0 (t − 2) = cos(nω0 t − nπ/2) = sin(nπ/2) sin nω0 t f(t) = 64 ∞  n=1..16 [a] © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.3. bk = 0. 0 8 = 8  0 2  2t kω 2 t2 − 2 4t2 cos kω0 t dt = 4 2 2 cos kω0 t + 0 3 3 sin kω0 t k ω0 k ω0  kω0 (2) = k k odd 2π kπ (2) = 8 2 since k is odd   . or likewise. storage in a retrieval system.. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 4k 2 ω02 − 2 16k 2 ω02 − 8 ak = 4 0 + sin(kπ/2) = sin(kπ/2) k 3 ω03 k 3 ω03 ω0 = π 2π = ...  2 ω02 =  π2 . .3. mechanical.5.3. = 64 ∞ n=1.5. For information regarding permission(s). NJ 07458... Inc. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or transmission in any form or by any means.Problems [d] av = 0.. photocopying..

17 [a] i(t) is odd.3.. (half-wave symmetry). bk = 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.. π k π k   k odd ∞ 192 8 1 f(t) = 2 1 − 2 2 sin(nπ/2) sin nω0 t 2 π n=1. 4 k 2ω02 = k2 π 2 . f(t) = i(t) = Im − 4 bk = T 4 = T  4Im = T 0≤t≤T T /2 0  2Im t.. or likewise.5. mechanical.. bk = 8 T = ak = 0.16–18 CHAPTER 16. electronic. NJ. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River. 16 k 4 ω04 = k4 π 4 256 192 8 bk = 2 2 1 − 2 2 sin(kπ/2). Fourier Series [b] Odd. For information regarding permission(s). 0 8 8  2 0 k odd t3 sin kω0 t dt  6 t3 6t 3t2 cos kω0 t + 3 3 cos kω0 t = 2 2 sin kω0 t − 4 4 sin kω0 t − k ω0 k ω0 kω0 k ω0  kω0 (2) = k kπ 2π (2) = 8 2 since k is odd   6 12 bk = 2 2 sin(kπ/2) − 4 4 sin(kπ/2) k ω0 k ω0  2π kω0 = k 8 . n π n [e] sin nω0 (t − 2) = sin(nω0 t − nπ/2) = − cos nω0 t sin(nπ/2)   ∞ −192 8 1 f(t) = 1− 2 2 2 2 π n=1. n π n cos nω0 t P 16. 0  cos(kπ/2) = 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education.3. for all k (function is odd) for k even (half-wave symmetry)  T /4 f(t) sin kω0 t dt. Upper Saddle River. since f(T /2 − t) = f(t) in the interval 0 < t < 4. All rights reserved. recording. . storage in a retrieval system. photocopying.5.. since f(−t) = −f(t) [c] f(t) has quarter-wave symmetry. ·. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. ... ·. 2  = kπ . therefore av = 0 and bk = 0 for all k. T f(t) sin kωo t dt T /2  0   2Im t sin kωo t dt Im − T T /2 0 2 sin kω0 t dt − T  T /2 0  t sin kω0 t dt © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Inc. [d] av = 0.

av = Vm (Vm /2)(T /4) = T 8 ak = 4 T  T /8 V m 0 Therefore. Upper Saddle River. storage in a retrieval system. electronic. NJ 07458.Problems   4Im − cos kω0 t T /2 2 = −  T kω0 T 0  = 4Im 1 − cos kπ cos kπ + T kω0 kω0 = 2Im 4Im = kω0 T kπ . or transmission in any form or by any means. ak = Vm kπ 30 kπ sin = sin 2πk 2 k 2 and    Vm kπ 30 kπ 1 − cos = 1 − cos bk = 2πk 2 k 2  These equations match the equations for av . mechanical.. so v2 (t) = 2 cos kω0 t dt = v2(t + T /8) = kπ Vm sin kπ 4 ∞ nπ Vm Vm 1 + sin cos nω0 t 8 π n=1 n 4 ∞ nπ Vm Vm 1 + sin cos nω0 (t − T /8) 8 π n=1 n 4    ∞  nπ nπ 1 1 Vm Vm Vm 2 nπ + + sin cos sin cos nω0 t + sin nω0 t v(t) = 2 8 π n=1 n 4 4 n 4 . and bk derived in Problem 16. i(t) = [b] i(t) =   sin kω0 t t cos kω0 t − k 2ω02 kω0 16–19   T /2   0 ∞ 1 2Im sin nωo t π n=1 n ∞ 1 2Im sin nωo (t + T /2) π n=1 n ∞ 2Im cos nπ sin nωo t = π n=1 n P 16.18 v2(t + T /8) is even.5π V.4. or likewise. since av = 5Vm /8 = 37. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ. so bk = 0 for all k. Pearson Education..    ∞  nπ nπ 1 5Vm Vm + sin cos nω0 t + 1 − cos sin nω0 t V = 8 2π n=1 n 2 2 Thus. ak . © 2010 Pearson Education.·. Inc. Inc. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. For information regarding permission(s). recording. Upper Saddle River. photocopying.·. All rights reserved. .

565◦ ) V Thus. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction..5. Inc. Upper Saddle River. n = 3. πn 2 πn n odd Therefore. Pearson Education. v(t) = 25 + sin cos nωo t V π n=1 n 4 © 2010 Pearson Education. P16. . . All rights reserved. storage in a retrieval system. so bk = 0 for all k. Upper Saddle River.. v(t) = π n=1. recording. n = 1. electronic. An = nπ 200 sin nπ 4 and −θn = 0◦ ∞ 200 1 nπ Thus.43 ) + cos(nωo t − 71.565◦ . P16..3(b). 11.7. n π n=3.19 The periodic function in Fig.98 1 1 ◦ cos(nωo t − 108.11. n The periodic function in Fig. An / − θn = an − jbn = an = an /0◦ From Problem 16.3(a) has half-wave symmetry so av = 0 and an = − 80 πn sin πn 2 and An / − θn = an − jbn = − bn = 240 πn for n odd. nπ nπ n odd and θn = tan−1 (−240/ − 80) = −108. ∞ ∞ 252. av = 25 V = A0 an = nπ 200 sin nπ 4 Therefore.9. mechanical.98 252. For information regarding permission(s).. NJ 07458..CHAPTER 16. √ 252.. 5. photocopying. 7.3(b) is even.43◦ . or transmission in any form or by any means. Thus... or likewise... and θn = tan−1 (−240/80) = −71. NJ. Inc. 9. .. 80 πn 240 sin −j . Fourier Series 16–20 P 16. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.98 802 + 2402 An = = ..

recording. or transmission in any form or by any means.16 kπ sin .. bk = kπ 0.15 is even.Problems 16–21 P 16. Pearson Education.12 is odd. Inc. electronic. An / − θn = an − jbn = an = an /0◦ From Problem 16. Inc.15.16 sin . For information regarding permission(s). n odd ∞ 0. Upper Saddle River. NJ.12. π 2k2 4 k odd and −θn = −90◦ .16 sin(nπ/4) Thus. so av = 0 and ak = 0 for all k. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.21 The periodic function in Problem 16.. Thus. photocopying. An = 64 nπ (n2π 2 − 8) sin 3 3 π n 2 and −θn = 0◦   ∞ 64 nπ n2 π 2 − 8 cos nωo t Thus. so bk = 0 for all k. NJ 07458. All rights reserved..5.. Thus. or likewise. An / − θn = an − jbn = 0 − jbn = bn / − 90◦ From Problem 16. n P 16. i(t) = 2 cos(nωo t − 90◦ ) A 2 π n=1. storage in a retrieval system.3. Upper Saddle River. An = 0. . f(t) = 3 sin 3 π n=1.. av = 0 = A0 an = 64 nπ (n2π 2 − 8) sin 3 3 π n 2 Therefore.20 The periodic function in Problem 16.5. 2 2 π k 4 k odd Therefore.3.. mechanical. n 2 © 2010 Pearson Education.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department..

or transmission in any form or by any means. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River.3. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.16–22 CHAPTER 16. Inc. Pearson Education. Therefore. πk 2  (nπ)2 + 4 n2 cos(nω0 t − θn ). For information regarding permission(s). mechanical. Fourier Series P 16. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. θn = tan−1 nπ 2 © 2010 Pearson Education.. 4 ak = T T /2   0  4 = T T /2 0  2Im Im − t cos kωo t dt T  8Im Im cos kω0 t dt − 2 T T /2 0 t cos kω0 t dt   4Im sin kω0 t T /2 8Im cos kωo t t = − 2 + sin kω0 T  2 2 T kω0 T k ω0 kω0 0  = 0−  8Im cos kπ 1 − 2 2 2 2 2 T k ω0 k ω0 8Im = T2 = 4 bk = T =  T /2  0 4Im T   for k odd  2Im t sin kωo t dt Im − T T /2 0  T /2   0  T /2 t sin kω0 t dt 0  8Im sin kωo t t − 2 − cos kω0 T 2 T k 2 ω0 kω0  4Im 1 − cos kπ 8Im −T cos kπ − 2 T kω0 T 2kω0 10π 2Im = .. .22 [a] The current has half-wave symmetry. electronic.. Inc. NJ. av = 0.5. All rights reserved. 2 2 π k k  T /2  T /2 0   10 2 20 10π 10 √ = − jπ = 2 π 2 k 2 + 4/ − θk −j 2 k k k k k tan θk = ∞ n=1.. Upper Saddle River. πk k for k odd 8Im 1 = 1 + cos kπ kω0 T 2 = 8Im T2 sin kω0 t dt − 4Im − cos kω0 t = T kω0 = ak − jbk = where i(t) = 10 0  1 (1 − cos kπ) 2 k ω02 4Im 20 = 2. recording. or likewise. ak = bk = 0. photocopying. k even For k odd. storage in a retrieval system..

50 cos(9ωo t − 85. . .51 cos(7ωo t − 84.95◦ ) ∼ = 26.50 A = 85.74◦ ) + 4. av = 0.51 A = 84.95◦ 81 2 ◦ i(t) ∼ = 37.95◦ ) + . Upper Saddle River.74◦ ) + 4.02◦ ) +6.52◦ ) + 10.80◦ ) +3.23 A Actual value:   1 T = (5π 2) ∼ i = 24. mechanical.67 A 4 2 P 16.71 A 9 2 10 √ 5π 4 + 25π 2 ∼ θ5 ∼ A5 = tan θ5 = = 82. . Upper Saddle River. or transmission in any form or by any means. for k-odd ak = 4  T /2 8Vm  T /2 −t/RC Vm cos kω0 t dt − e cos kω0 t dt T 0 ρT 0   where ρ = 1 + e−T /2RC .71 cos(270 − 78.52◦ 10 √ 3π θ3 ∼ 4 + 9π 2 ∼ tan θ3 = = 78. Inc. NJ 07458.24 cos(ωo t − 57. recording.02◦ = 10.74◦ = 6.80◦ ) +3.24 cos(90 − 57. Inc.52 ) + 10.33 A 25 2 10 √ 7π 4 + 49π 2 ∼ tan θ7 = θ7 ∼ A7 = = 4. Upon integrating we get  4Vm sin kω0 t T /2 ak = T kω0 0 8Vm − · ρT =    T /2 e−t/RC − cos kω0 t  · sin kω t + kω 0 0  (1/RC)2 + (kω0 )2 RC 0  −8Vm RC T [1 + (kω0 RC)2] © 2010 Pearson Education.51 cos(630 − 84.80◦ 49 2 10 √ 9π θ9 ∼ A9 = 4 + 81π 2 ∼ tan θ9 = = 3.Problems √ [b] A1 = 10 4 + π 2 ∼ = 37. For information regarding permission(s). or likewise..33 cos(5ωo t − 82. i(T /4) ∼ = 37. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.71 cos(3ωo t − 78. Pearson Education. thus ak = bk = 0 for k-even.24 A tan θ1 = π 2 16–23 θ1 ∼ = 57. storage in a retrieval system.02◦ ) A3 = +6..23 The function has half-wave symmetry. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic. photocopying.50 cos(810 − 85. NJ. All rights reserved.33 cos(450 − 82.

Inc. .16–24 CHAPTER 16. NJ 07458. 16.. Pearson Education. Inc.25 Since av = 0 (half-wave symmetry). 16. photocopying.38 gives us vo (t) = ∞ 4Vm 1..3. It follows that  a2k + b2k =  πk 1 + (kω0 RC)2 [b] bk = kω0 RCak + Thus 4Vm 4Vm πk 1 bk 4Vm 1 + α2 =− = kω0 RC + =α− ak πkak α α Therefore ak = −α = −kω0 RC bk P 16. NJ. we have tan βk = kω0 RC. or likewise. It follows from Eq.72 that tan βk = −ak /bk or tan θn = − cot βn . 16. nπ  1 1 + (nω0 RC)2 cos(nω0 t − θn ) where tan θn = bn an But from Eq. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved. electronic. or transmission in any form or by any means. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.24 [a] a2k + b2k = a2k + 4Vm + kω0 RCak πk = a2k [1 + (kω0 RC)2] +  But ak =  Therefore a2k + b2k = 8Vm πk −8Vm RC T [1 + (kω0 RC)2 ] a2k = 2  2Vm πk + kω0 RCak    64Vm2 R2 C 2 . Eq. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.. Fourier Series 4 bk = T  T /2 0 8Vm Vm sin kω0 t dt − ρT  T /2 0 e−t/RC sin kω0 t dt  4Vm cos kω0 t T /2 =− T kω0 0 8Vm · − ρT =    T /2  −e−t/RC sin kω0 t  + kω · cos kω t 0 0  (1/RC)2 + (kω0 )2 RC 0  8kω0 Vm R2 C 2 4Vm − πk T [1 + (kω0 RC)2 ]  P 16.. storage in a retrieval system..5. mechanical. Therefore θn = 90◦ + βn and © 2010 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s). thus the expression for a2k + b2k reduces to a2k + b2k = 16Vm2 /π 2 k 2(1 + α2 ). recording.57. T 2[1 + (kω0 RC)2]2 thus we have 64Vm2 R2 C 2 64Vm2 kω0 R2 C 2 16Vm2 − + T 2[1 + (kω0 RC)2 ] π 2k2 πkT [1 + (kω0 RC)2] Now let α = kω0 RC and note that T = 2π/ω0 .

000t − cos 14... we can write the input voltage as vg = 42 ∞ n=1. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.4/0◦ 5ω0 = 10. For information regarding permission(s).5. photocopying. s2 + 1/LC Vo = H(s) = 2 Vg s + (s/RC) + (1/LC) © 2010 Pearson Education.   t e−t/RC ∼ = 1− RC therefore  T and e−T /2RC ∼ = 1− 2RC  2Vm [1 − (t/RC)] Vm vo ∼ = = Vm − 2 − (T /2RC) RC ∼ =   [b] ak = Vm RC  t−  T 4   =  −8 −8 V = p π 2k2 π 2k2  2t − (T /2) 2 − (T /2RC)  Vm T Vm t− RC 4RC  Vm T 4RC  =   for 0 ≤ t ≤ T 2 −4Vm πω0RCk 2 P 16..26 [a] e−x ∼ = 1 − x for small x..000 rad/s From the circuit in Fig.. ·.3.. 1 nπ cos nω0 t V sin n 2 Since Vm = 10.13(a) the Fourier series for the input voltage is 4Vm vg = π ∞ n=1.27 [a] From the solution to Problem 16. n 1 + (nω0 RC)2 P 16. Upper Saddle River.  1 nπ sin n 2 = 42 cos 2000t −  cos 2000nt V 42 42 42 cos 6000t + cos 10. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or likewise.Problems 16–25 cos(nω0 t − θn ) = cos(nω0 t − βn − 90◦ ) = sin(nω0 t − βn ). thus our expression for vo becomes vo = ∞ 4Vm π sin(nω0 t − βn )  n=1. ...3. mechanical... P16. electronic.27 we have Vo Vo − Vg + + (Vo − Vg )sC = 0 R sL .5π V and t = π ms. All rights reserved. NJ 07458. NJ. Inc. Inc.000t + · · · 3 5 7 We can phasor transform this Fourier series to get Vg1 = 42/0◦ Vg3 = 14/180◦ ω0 = 2000 rad/s 3ω0 = 6000 rad/s Vg5 = 8.5. recording.3. or transmission in any form or by any means.000 rad/s Vg7 = 6/180◦ 7ω0 = 14. Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. storage in a retrieval system.5..

Pearson Education. n 2 2π × 103 = 500 rad/s.68◦ 64 + j3 H(j10.60◦ ) + 13.000t − 175.5.9999/ − 0. Inc.. For information regarding permission(s). 4A = 60 π  nπ 1 sin cos 500nt V n 2 From the circuit Vo = jω Vi jω · jωL = Vi = Vi R + jωL R/L + jω 1000 + jω © 2010 Pearson Education.9974/4. storage in a retrieval system.9989/ − 2.60◦ 96 + j1 H(j6000) = 64 = 0.000 rad/s has been eliminated from the output voltage by the circuit.000) = 0 H(j14. .5. or likewise.984 cos(14..32◦ ) +5. which is a band reject ﬁlter with a center frequency of 10. NJ. ∞ 4A 1 P 16. .3.998 cos(2000t − 0. 4π vi = 60 ∞  n=1.9989/ − 2. Upper Saddle River. Upper Saddle River.000) = 96 = 0.3.984/ − 175. recording. photocopying.985/177..000 rad/s...5. V  [b] The 5th harmonic at the frequency 1/LC = 10. .17◦ 96 + j7 Vo1 = (42/0◦ )(0.17◦ ) = 5.16–26 CHAPTER 16.. NJ 07458.9974/4. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.60◦ V Vo3 = (14/180◦ )(0.83◦ V vo = 41...32◦ V Vo5 = 0 V Vo7 = (6/180◦ )(0...60◦ ) = 41.985 cos(6000t + 177.. All rights reserved. Inc.9999/ − 0. n  = ω0 =  ∞ 4A 1 nπ cos nω0 t sin π n=1.3. or transmission in any form or by any means. Fourier Series Substituting in the numerical values gives H(s) = s2 + 108 s2 + 500s + 108 H(j2000) = 96 = 0.68◦ ) = 13. electronic.998/ − 0.28 vi = sin nω0 (t + T /4) π n=1.83◦ ) + . write to: Rights and Permissions Department. mechanical.

80◦ ) + . All rights reserved.6 × 10−6 s + = 16s 1000 16s V0 (1000 + 0.89◦ © 2010 Pearson Education.29 [a] V0 − Vg V0 + V0 (12.600π 2 . 16–27 vo = 26. Vi5 = 12/0◦ V.600π 2 n2 ) + j19. T H(jnω0 ) = n2ω02 ) + j80nω0 ω02 = 57. NJ 07458.64 cos(1500t − 146. 80ω0 = 19. Inc.. Upper Saddle River. storage in a retrieval system.14 cos(2500t + 21. Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means.14/21. photocopying.43◦ V 1000 + j500 Vo3 = j1500 (20/180◦ ) = 16.31◦ V 1000 + j1500 Vo5 = j2500 (12/0◦ ) = 11. For information regarding permission(s).83 cos(500t + 63.43◦ ) + 16. . write to: Rights and Permissions Department. mechanical.2s2 + 16s) = 1000Vg V0 = I0 = s2 5000Vg + 80s + 5000 5Vg V0 = 2 1000 s + 80s + 5000 H(s) = 5 I0 = 2 Vg s + 80s + 5000 H(njω0 ) = ω0 = 5 (5000 − 2π = 240π.200πn H(0) = 10−3 H(jω0 ) = 8.·. NJ. or likewise. .. ω = 500 rad/s Vi3 = −20/0◦ = 20/180◦ V.83/63.200π 5 (5000 − 57.64/ − 146. . Upper Saddle River.31◦ ) +11. electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. recording.82 × 10−6 / − 173.Problems Vi1 = 60/0◦ V.80◦ V 1000 + j2500 . V P 16.5 × 10−6 s) + =0 16s 1000 V0 1 Vg 1 + 12. 3ω = 1500 rad/s 5ω = 2500 rad/s Vo1 = j500 (60/0◦ ) = 26. Inc.

Upper Saddle River.96◦ ) 15π − 1360 (9.. recording. photocopying.20 × 10−6 / − 176. For information regarding permission(s).5. . so the harmonic terms are greatly reduced in the output. and has half.82 × 10−6 ) cos(ω0 t − 173.48◦ ) − .45 × 10−3 + 1. The constant is Vm /2 and the square wave has an amplitude of Vm /2.45 mA (a dc current) [b] The circuit is a low pass ﬁlter. NJ.35 × 10−5 cos(480πt + 3. All rights reserved. 63π = 216. .16–28 CHAPTER 16.5 × 10−7 ) cos(4ω0 t − 178.78 × 10−7 / − 177. electronic.11◦ ) − .8 × 10−6 cos(960πt + 1. so i0 ∼ = 216.48◦ 680 1360 1 1 1 1 − cos ω0 t + cos 2ω0 t + cos 3ω0 t + cos 4ω0 t + .21 × 10−5 cos(720πt + 2..11◦ ) +6. storage in a retrieval system..20 × 10−6 ) cos(2ω0 t − 176.11◦ ) mA Note that the sinusoidal component is very small compared to the dc component.03◦ ) +3.. .45 + 1.27 × 10−3 cos(240πt + 6. Therefore the Fourier series for vg is vg = Vm 2Vm + 2 π ∞ 1 sin nω0 t n=1. Pearson Education. . Inc.96◦ H(j3ω0 ) = 9. Inc.27 cos(240πt + 6.30 [a] Express vg as a constant plus a symmetrical square wave. vg = π π 3 15 35 63 i0 = 680 1360 × 10−3 − (8. is odd.97◦ H(j4ω0 ) = 5.5 × 10−7 / − 178.. or transmission in any form or by any means. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. P 16. n The dc component of the current is Vm /2R and the kth harmonic phase current is 2Vm /kπ 2Vm  / − θk Ik = = R + jkω0 L kπ R2 + (kω0 L)2 © 2010 Pearson Education. .3.89◦ ) π 3π − 1360 (2.78 × 10−7 ) cos(3ω0 t − 177. or likewise. Upper Saddle River. i0 ∼ = 216. . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ 07458.and quarter-wave symmetry.04◦ ) +1.97◦ ) 35π − 1360 (5. mechanical. Fourier Series H(j2ω0 ) = 2. .

storage in a retrieval system..3. NJ. Letting x = T /2τ. Pearson Education.. or likewise. For information regarding permission(s). . we get (Vm /R)e−x 1 + e−x Therefore the equations for i become I1 =   Vm Vm − e−t/τ i= R R(1 + e−x )  for 0 ≤ t ≤  Vm i= e−[t−(T /2)]/τ −x R(1 + e ) for T 2 and T ≤t≤T 2 A check on the validity of these expressions shows they yield an average © 2010 Pearson Education. electronic. where τ = L/R. we have   Vm Vm −t/τ i= + I1 − e R R for 0 ≤ t ≤ T 2 and i = I2 e−[t−(T /2)]/τ for T /2 ≤ t ≤ T. or transmission in any form or by any means. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Assuming t = 0 at the instant i increases toward (Vm /R). photocopying.. NJ 07458. mechanical. Inc. n R2 + (nω0 L)2  A [b] The steady-state current will alternate between I1 and I2 in exponential traces as shown.. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River..Problems  where θk = tan −1 16–29  kω0 L R Thus the Fourier series for the steady-state current is i= Vm 2Vm + 2R π ∞ sin(nω0 t − θn ) n=1. Inc.5. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Now we solve for I1 and I2 by noting that I1 = I2 e −T /2τ  and  Vm Vm −T /2τ + I1 − I2 = e R R These two equations are now solved for I1. Upper Saddle River. recording.

62◦ ) V 25th harmonic input: vg25 = (150)(1/25) sin(25π/2) cos 5 × 106 t = 6 cos 5 × 106 t V © 2010 Pearson Education.84 cos(3 × 106 t − 100. Upper Saddle River. recording. 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.38◦ 16 + j3 Vo15 = (10)(0. Inc.1843)/ − 100. storage in a retrieval system. electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Inc.2 × 106 (103 )(1012 ) 1 = = 25 × 1012 LC 10)(4) 106 s s2 + 106 s + 25 × 1012 jω × 106 H(jω) = (25 × 1012 − ω 2) + j106 ω 15th harmonic input: vg15 = (150)(1/15) sin(15π/2) cos 15ωo t = −10 cos 3 × 106 t V . Fourier Series value of (Vm /2R): Iavg P 16. Vg15 = 10/ − 180◦ V H(j3 × 106 ) = j3 = 0. 3 RC (250 × 10 )(4) H(s) = 5 × 106 = 25 0.·.31 ωo = 1 = T  T /2 V m 0  = 1 T = Vm 2R   Vm −t/τ + I1 − e dt + R R  Vm T Vm + τ (1 − e−x ) I1 − + I2 2R R since I1 + I2 =   T T /2 I2 e −[t−(T /2)]/τ dt  Vm R 2π 2π = × 106 = 200 krad/s T 10π 3 × 106 .62◦ V vo15 = 1. or transmission in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. n = = 15.16–30 CHAPTER 16. photocopying. NJ 07458. mechanical..2 × 106 H(s) = n= Vo (1/RC)s = 2 Vg s + (1/RC)s + (1/LC) 1012 1 = = 106 . NJ. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River..1843/79.·. Pearson Education. or likewise. .

recording. Int1 + Int2 = kπ 500 sin 2 2 k ωo 5 20 kπ kπ 8 500 · 2 2 · T 2 sin = 2 2 sin . 0  k odd  T /10 500t sin kωo t dt + 0  T /4 T /10 sin kωo t dt 8 {Int1 + Int2} T  T /10 Int1 = 500 0 t sin kωo t dt   T /10 t 1 = 500 2 2 sin kωo t − cos kωo t  k ωo kωo 0 = 500 kπ 50T kπ − sin cos k 2 ωo2 5 kωo 5  Int2 =   T /4 −1 1 kπ sin kωo t dt = cos kωo t  = cos kωo kωo 5 T /10 T /10 T /4  Int1 + Int2 = 500 kπ 50T 1 + sin − 2 2 k ωo 5 kωo kωo  cos kπ 5 50T = 50(20 × 10−3 ) = 1 .Problems 16–31 . photocopying. electronic. .. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Vg25 = 6/0◦ V H(j5 × 106 ) = j5 = 1/0◦ 0 + j5 Vo25 = 6/0◦ V vo25 = 6 cos 5 × 106 t V P 16. storage in a retrieval system. NJ. NJ 07458. Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s). ak = 0. the function has half-wave symmetry bk = 8 T 8 = T =  T /4 f(t) sin kωo t. or likewise. for k even.·.. the function is odd bk = 0.·. All rights reserved. Inc. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.32 The function is odd with half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry. for all k. bk = T 4π k 5 π k 5 k odd © 2010 Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River. Inc. mechanical. Therefore.

16–32 CHAPTER 16. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. .7 sin(300πt − 5. recording. n2 From the circuit. 2 ak = T  0 0 ≤ t ≤ T /2 T /2 2 2Im t cos kωo t dt + T T  T T /2 Im cos kωo t dt © 2010 Pearson Education. photocopying.8 × 108 We want the output for the third harmonic: ω0 = 2π 2π = = 100π. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means.8 × 104 s + 28. Upper Saddle River.214/0◦ 2 π 9 5 3ω0 = 300π 320 × 104 (j300π + 32 × 104 ) H(j300π) = = 353. mechanical. T 20 × 10−3 Ig3 = 3π 20 1 sin = 0.96◦ ) V   1 1 T T 3Vm P 16. electronic. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.96◦ V vo3 = 75.6/ − 5... Vo3 = H(j300π)Ig3 = (353.. Fourier Series i(t) = ∞ 20 sin(nπ/5) sin nωo t A 2 π n=1.. H(s) = 320 × 104 (s + 32 × 104 ) s2 + 32. Inc.33 [a] av = Im + Im = T 2 2 2 4 i(t) = 2Im t. All rights reserved.3. NJ 07458.8 × 10 (j300π) + 28.96◦ )(0.. Pearson Education.214/0◦ ) = 75. T T /2 ≤ t ≤ T i(t) = Im . NJ. or likewise. H(s) = Vo = Zeq Ig 1 1 + + sC R1 R2 + sL Yeq = Zeq = s2 1/C(s + R2/L) + s(R1 R2 C + L)/R1 LC + (R1 + R2 )/R1 LC Therefore.7/ − 5. Upper Saddle River.8 × 10 Therefore.96◦ 2 4 8 (j300π) + 32. For information regarding permission(s). storage in a retrieval system.5.6/ − 5.

π2 a3 = −2Im 9π 2 b1 = Im . b2 = .Problems 16–33 Im (cos kπ − 1) π 2k2 =  2 bk = T T /2 0 2 2Im t sin kωo t dt + T T  T T /2 Im sin kωo t dt Im πk = a1 = −2Im . π a2 = 0.

23 W [b] Area under i2:  A= 2 4Im 2 T t2 dt + Im 2 T 2 T /2 0 T /2 4I 2 t3   = m T 2 3 0 2 Im T = .8040Im 16 π 2π 8π Irms = 192.95 mA P = (0. .·.19295)2 (1000) = 37. Irms = Im av = 3Im 4 Im 2π 2 1 1 9 + 4 + 2 + 2 = 0.

Irms = 2 + Im T 2 2 2 1 3 = T Im + 6 6 3 1 2 2 · TI = T 3 m .

Upper Saddle River.34 [a] av = 2  1 T V 2 4 m 4 ak = T T  T /4 0   = Vm 4 4Vm t cos kωo t dt Vm − T 4Vm kπ = 2 2 1 − cos π k 2  © 2010 Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. photocopying.. Inc. 2 Im = 195.4 W   37.19596)2 (1000) = 38. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.. storage in a retrieval system.23 − 1 100 = −3.40 P 16. . Pearson Education. mechanical. For information regarding permission(s). or transmission in any form or by any means. Inc.05% [c] Error = 38. All rights reserved. recording.96 mA 3 P = (0. NJ 07458. or likewise. NJ. Upper Saddle River. electronic.

all k av = 60 = 15 V 4 a1 = 240 π2 a2 = 120 240 (1 − cos π) = 2 2 4π π Vrms P =        1 240 2 120 2  2 = (15) + + = 24.38 V 2 2 2 π (24.38)2 = 59. Fourier Series bk = 0. v 2 = 3600 − T /4  A=2 0 .16–34 CHAPTER 16.46 W 10 [b] Area under v 2.

.. Upper Saddle River.. n2 2π 2π = × 103 = 500 rad/s T 4π vg = 10 − 80 80 cos 500t − 2 cos 1500t + .600 2 28. Inc..35 vg = 10 − ωo = ∞ 80 1 cos nωo t V 2 π n=1. 2 π 9π © 2010 Pearson Education. storage in a retrieval system.9041% [c] Error = 60. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River. .49 V T 2 600 /10 = 60 W   59.5. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. photocopying.. electronic. Inc. .3. or likewise. NJ 07458.800 t+ t dt = 600T T T2 √ 1 600T = 600 = 24.800 t+ t T T2 3600 − 57. . NJ. All rights reserved. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.600 2 28. or transmission in any form or by any means. Vrms = P = π √ 0 ≤ t ≤ T /4 57.00 P 16. recording. Pearson Education.46 − 1 100 = −0. mechanical.

86 0. NJ 07458.31◦ ) π2 80 (0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.3658  2 ∼ √ + = 11. electronic. . Inc.4061) cos(1500t − 120. mechanical.Problems 16–35 Vo Vo − Vg + sCVo + =0 sL R Vo (RLCs2 + Ls + R) = RVg H(s) = Vo 1/LC = 2 Vg s + s/RC + 1/LC 106 1 = = 106 LC (0. or transmission in any form or by any means.31◦ ) + 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. storage in a retrieval system..51◦ vo = 10(1) + + 80 (0. Upper Saddle River. NJ.9701/ − 43. Inc. 9π 2 vo = 10 + 7.51◦ ) + . . . photocopying.1)(10) √ 106 1 √ = = 1000 2 RC (50 2)(10) H(s) = 106 √ s2 + 1000 2s + 106 H(jω) = 106 √ 106 − ω 2 + j1000ω 2 H(j0) = 1 H(j500) = 0.9701) cos(500t − 43.3658 cos(1500t − 120.86 cos(500t − 43.44 V = 10 + √ 2 2 © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.4061/ − 120. For information regarding permission(s).31◦ H(j1500) = 0. recording. Upper Saddle River. . . Pearson Education.51◦ ) + . or likewise. Vrms  2  2   7.

Fourier Series 16–36 V2 √ = 1.85 W P ∼ = rms 50 2 Note – the higher harmonics are severely attenuated and can be ignored.04◦ ) V 25π 2  P 16.36 [a] Area under v 2 = A = 4 = Therefore Vrms T /6 0  36Vm2 2 T 2 T − t dt + 2V m T2 3 6  V 2T 2Vm2 T + m 9 3  .CHAPTER 16.0512 cos(2500t − 146.1580) cos(2500t − 146. For example.04◦ ) = 0. the 5th harmonic component of vo is  vo5  80 = (0.

30 sin ω0 t − 4.21 sin 5ω0 t + 2.3. vg = 105.    1 2Vm2 T Vm2 T 2 1  + + = 74.15 sin 7ω0 t + · · · V .5356 V = = Vm T 9 3 9 3 [b] From Asssessment Problem 16.

58 A 2 340 680 − P 16.85 W 2 2 [b] Vrms [c] Irms  2  2   400 100  2 = (15) + √ + √ = 291.37 [a] v = 15 + 400 cos 500t + 100 cos(1500t − 90◦ ) V i = 2 + 5 cos(500t − 30◦ ) + 3 cos(1500t − 15◦ ) A 1 1 P = (15)(2) + (400)(5) cos(30◦ ) + (100)(3) cos(−75◦ ) = 934.93 V 2 2  2  2   5 3  = (2)2 + √ + √ = 4.30)2 + (4.21)2 + (2.38 [a] v(t) ≈ π π Vrms  2 1 1 cos ωo t + cos 2ωo t + · · · 3 15 ⎡  2  2     680 2 ⎣ 1  340 √ ≈ + + π .5306 V 2 P 16. Therefore Vrms ∼ = (105.15)2 = 74.

photocopying.. mechanical. Inc. electronic. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. recording. NJ 07458. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For information regarding permission(s).0819 V © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Education. storage in a retrieval system. or likewise. Upper Saddle River. π  1 340 1 + = 1+4 π 18 450 3 2  1 √ 15 2 2 ⎤ ⎦  = 120. NJ. .

11% 120.39 [a] v(t) = Vrms 480 1 1 1 1 {sin ωo t + sin 3ωo t + sin 5ωo t + sin 7ωo t + sin 9ωo t + · · · π 3 5 7 9 2  480   √1  2  1 1 = + √ + √ π .2082 2  % error = [c] v(t) ≈  120.0819 − 1 (100) = −0.Problems 16–37 170 [b] Vrms = √ = 120.23% P 16.2082 340 170 + 85 sin ωo t − cos 2ωo t π 3π Vrms ≈ Vrms =   170 2  π  85 + √ 2 2  340 + √ 3 2π 2 ≈ 84.8021 V 170 = 85 V 2 % error = −0.

55 V  2  1 + √ 7 2 2  1 + √ 9 2 2  117. 2 3 2 5 2 1 1 1 480 1 + + = √ 1+ + 9 25 49 81 π 2 = 117.04% [b] % error = 120  960 1 1 [c] v(t) = 2 sin ωo t + sin 3ωo t + sin 5ωo t π 9 25 1 1 sin 7ωo t + sin 9ωo t − · · · − 49 81  .55 − 1 (100) = −2.

2820 P 16. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For information regarding permission(s). Inc. mechanical. and is odd . or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic. ak = 0 all k.. Upper Saddle River.2765 V 120 Vrms = √ = 69.·. Inc.2765 − 1 (100) = −0. Pearson Education. All rights reserved. recording. storage in a retrieval system. Vrms 1 1 1 1 960 ∼ + + + = 2√ 1 + 81 625 2401 6561 π 2 ∼ = 69. bk = 0 k-even © 2010 Pearson Education. av = 0. . or likewise. Upper Saddle River.0081% 69.40 [a] vg has half-wave symmetry.2820 V 3  % error =  69. quarter-wave symmetry. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. NJ 07458. photocopying.. NJ.

75 cos 4 4  =  1 (10 + 30 cos(kπ/4) k b1 = 10 + 30 cos(π/4) = 31.16–38 CHAPTER 16.24 5 1 b7 = [10 + 30 cos(7π/4)] = 4. 0  T /8 V m 4 0 k-odd  sin kωo t dt +   T /4 T /8 Vm sin kωo t dt    8Vm cos kωo t T /8 8Vm cos kωo t T /4 + = − − 4T kωo 0 T kωo T /8     kπ 8Vm kπ 8Vm = −0 1 − cos + cos 4kωo T 4 T kωo 4  8Vm = kωo T  4Vm = πk kπ kπ 1 1 − cos + cos 4 4 4 4 kπ 1 + 0.74 3 1 b5 = [10 + 30 cos(5π/4)] = −2. Fourier Series 8 bk = T 8 = T  T /4 f(t) sin kωo t dt.46 7 .21 1 b3 = [10 + 30 cos(3π/4)] = −3.

242 + 4. Vg (rms) ≈ Vm 31.51 2  [b] Area = 2 2(6.25π) .742 + 2.462 = 22.212 + 3.

All rights reserved. or likewise.125π = 22. Vg (rms) =  [c] % Error = 2 T 8   + 100π 2 T 4  = 53. For information regarding permission(s). NJ.. Inc. electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.125π 2 )t = 53. Upper Saddle River.90 © 2010 Pearson Education. recording. storage in a retrieval system. mechanical. Upper Saddle River. or transmission in any form or by any means..125π 2 T √ 1 (53. Pearson Education. Inc. NJ 07458.51 − 1 (100) = −1. .7% 22. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. photocopying.90 T  22.

ak = bk = 0.28◦ 2 2 −j 5π 5π −1 −  2 2 kπ sin − − j πk πk 2 2 2 −j π π −1 − 1−      2 2 +j 7π 7π = 0.07◦ ) +0.07◦ = 0.23◦ ) + · · ·   [c] Ig =   ∞ n=1. πk k—odd 16Im T2 t sin kω0 t dt =  T /4 0 t sin kω0 t dt    T /4 t 4Im sin kω0 t kπ  − cos kω t = 2 2 sin 0  2 2 k ω0 kω0 π k 2 0 2Im [b] ak − jbk = πk   kπ sin 2 a1 − jb1 = 2Im π a3 − jb3 = 2Im 3π a5 − jb5 = 2Im 5π a7 − jb7 = 2Im 7π     1−       2 2 +j 3π 3π     = 0.5.28◦ ) + 0..11Im / − 8.41 [a] Half-wave symmetry av = 0.30◦  = 0. A2n 2  .10Im /175.26Im cos(3ω0 t + 170.10Im cos(7ω0 t + 175.30◦ ) + 0. even k 4 ak = T  T /4 4I 16Im t cos kω0 t dt = T T2 0 16Im = T2   m    T /4 4I T 0 16Im = T2  m  t cos kω0 t dt 0  2Im kπ ak = sin πk 2 4 T T /4 T /4 t cos kω0 t  + sin kω t 0  k 2ω02 kω0 0 16Im kπ 1 T = sin − 2 2 0+ 2 T 4kω0 2 k ω0 bk =     2 − .3.47Im cos(ω0 t − 60.Problems 16–39 P 16.23◦ ig = 0.11Im cos(5ω0 t − 8.47Im / − 60...26Im /170.

NJ. (0. mechanical. or likewise. Pearson Education..41Im Ig = T 6 6 © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.10)2 ∼ I = 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. ..26)2 + (0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. photocopying. storage in a retrieval system.11)2 + (0. electronic. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458.47)2 + (0. Upper Saddle River. recording. Inc. For information regarding permission(s).39Im = m 2       T /4  2 2 4Im 2 32Im t3 T /4 Im T t dt = [d] Area = 2 =  2 T T 3 0 6 0    2T  1 Im Im  = √ = 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. All rights reserved.

600 t3 T /8    +400t + + 2  T 2 3 0 T 2 T /8 T 3 T /8 T /8 = T 3T 7T 575 57.42 [a] From Problem 16.14. Fourier Series  [e] % error =   estimated − 1 100 = exact  0.3927Im √ − 1 100 = −3. The area under v 2:  A=4 T /8 0 14.400 2 t dt + T2   T /4  T /8 40t 10 + T   2 dt   = T /4 3200 t2 T /4 6400 t3 T /4 57.8% (Im/ 6) P 16.600 T + 400 + 1600 + 6400 = T 1536 8 64 1536 3 .16–40 CHAPTER 16.

Vrms = 1 T  575 T 3 .

2s. Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means. tb = 0. NJ 07458. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. storage in a retrieval system.57/ 2)2 = 12. Upper Saddle River. Inc.1024% 12..78 W 15 [c] From Problem 16.84 V 3 2 Vrms = 12.6 © 2010 Pearson Education.57 V π2 vg ∼ = 19. recording.76 W P = 15  [d] % error =  12. For information regarding permission(s). [b] P = b1 = 80 (2 sin 45◦ + sin 90◦ ) = 18. mechanical.2 v = −50t + 20 0.43 Figure P16. Inc. . All rights reserved. or likewise..76 − 1 (100) = −0. electronic. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. photocopying.57 sin ω0 t V √ (19.43(b): ta = 0.6s v = 50t 0 ≤ t ≤ 0.14.78 P 16. Upper Saddle River.2 ≤ t ≤ 0.  = 575 = 13. NJ.

6 0.0  Area 1 = A1 = 0  Area 2 = A2 = Area 3 = A3 = A1 + A2 + A3 = Vrms =  0.6 ≤ t ≤ 1.Problems 16–41 v = 25t − 25 0.2  .

4 0  A2 = 625t2 dt = 1. 0.2 1.4 v(t) = 25t 50 (t − 1) 0.43(c): ta = tb = 0. 1 3 3 Figure P16.4 A1 + A2 = .6 2500t2 dt = 20 3 100(4 − 20t + 25t2 ) dt = 625(t2 − 2t + 1) dt = 40 3 40 3 100 3  10 1 100 = √ V.4s 0 ≤ t ≤ 0.0 0.4 ≤ t ≤ 1 3 v(t) =  A1 = 0.0 0.

Vrms = 40 3 60 2500 2 (t − 2t + 1) dt = 9 3 100 3 1 (A1 + A2 ) = T .

43(d): ta = tb = 1 v = 10t 0 ≤ t ≤ 1  A1 = 1 0 100t2 dt = .   10 1 100 = √ V. 1 3 3 Figure P16.

1 3 3 © 2010 Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means. NJ. Vrms =  100 3  10 1 100 = √ V. . Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458. storage in a retrieval system.. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or likewise. Inc. mechanical.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education. electronic. Inc. For information regarding permission(s). photocopying. recording.

CHAPTER 16. Fourier Series 16–42 1 P 16. Inc. storage in a retrieval system. photocopying. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means. ±2. . 2nπ   2π 1 −jn T − 1 − (−1) T −n2ω02  n = ±1. or likewise. Upper Saddle River.44 cn = T   T /4 Vm e 0 −jnωo t  Vm e−jnωo t T /4 dt = T −jnωo 0   =  Vm nπ Vm nπ Vm [j(e−jnπ/2 − 1)] = sin +j −1 cos T nωo 2πn 2 2πn 2  Vm nπ nπ − j 1 − cos = sin 2πn 2 2 ∞ v(t) =  cn ejnωo t n=−∞ 1  T /4 Vm Vm dt = T 0 4 co = a v = or  1 − cos(nπ/2) Vm sin(nπ/2) lim −j co = 2π n→0 n n   (π/2) sin(nπ/2) Vm (π/2) cos(nπ/2) lim −j = n→0 2π 1 1  Vm π Vm − j0 = = 2π 2 4 Note it is much easier to use co = av than to use L’Hopital’s rule to ﬁnd the limit of 0/0. NJ. NJ 07458. recording.45 co = av = cn = 1 T  Vm Vm T 1 · = 2 T 2 Vm −jnωo t dt te 0 T T  T Vm e−jnω0 t = 2 (−jnω0 t − 1) T −n2 ω02  −jn2πT /T Vm e = 2 T −n2 ω02  0  Vm 1 1 = 2 (1 + jn2π) − 2 2 2 2 T n ω0 n ω0 =j Vm . electronic. ±3. For information regarding permission(s)... © 2010 Pearson Education. . mechanical. P 16. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education. . . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

Problems .

46 [a] Vrms = . P 16.

= .

1T 2 v dt = T 0 .

Inc. Pearson Education. 4π π c6 = j 10 120 =j 12π π c3 = j 20 120 =j ..32 W 10  % error = P 16.58 V [c] P = (68. 6π π c7 = j 8. For information regarding permission(s). All rights reserved.32 − 1 (100) = −2. 16–43   1  T Vm 2 2 t dt T 0 T  Vm2 t3 T T 3 3 0 Vm Vm2 =√ 3 3 √ 2 (120/ 3) P = = 480 W 10 = [b] From the solution to Problem 16.572 ) = 68. recording.47 [a] Co = av = Cn =  470. mechanical.02% 480 Vm (1/2)(T /2)Vm = T 4 1  T /2 2Vm −jnωo t te dt T 0 T  T /2 2Vm e−jnωo t = 2 (−jnωo t − 1) T −n2 ωot = 0 Vm [e−jnπ (−jnπ + 1) − 1] 2n2 π 2 © 2010 Pearson Education.45 15 120 =j 8π π 120 = 60 V. NJ 07458.. 2 c4 = j c1 = j 120 60 =j . photocopying.57 120 =j 14π π c0 =  ∞   2 = co + 2 |cn |2 Vrms n=1 =  602 + 2 (602 π2 + 302 + 202 + 152 + 122 + 102 + 8. 2π π c5 = j 120 12 =j 10π π c2 = j 30 120 =j . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River. Upper Saddle River. or likewise. storage in a retrieval system. . NJ.58)2 = 470. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic. Inc.

5 V [b] Co = 4 C−1 = 27 −54 = 10. Inc. photocopying.30/90◦ V C−3 = −6 9 + j = 2. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.48◦ V C−2 = −j 13.000s + 2 × 104 s + 4 × 1010 2π 2π = × 106 = 2 × 105 rad/s T 10π H(j0) = 0 H(j2 × 105 k) = j8k 100(1 − k 2 ) + j10k © 2010 Pearson Education.19/122. or likewise.CHAPTER 16. Fourier Series 16–44 Since e−jnπ = cos nπ we can write Vm Vm Cn = 2 2 (cos nπ − 1) + j cos nπ 2π n 2nπ 54 = 13.5 . For information regarding permission(s).15/ − 90◦ V π C4 = 2..98◦ V 2 π π C3 = 2. Inc. electronic. ·.. NJ 07458. or transmission in any form or by any means. . All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5 = 4. Upper Saddle River.75 = 2. (250LCs2 + 5sL + 250)Vo = 4sLVg (4/250C)s Vo = H(s) = 2 Vg s + 1/50C + 1/LC H(s) = ωo = s2 16.48◦ V + j 2 π π C1 = 10.93/ − 101.15/90◦ V [c] Vo Vo − Vg Vo + + Vo sC + =0 250 sL 62. recording.93/101.30/ − 90◦ V π C2 = 4. mechanical.98◦ V C−4 = −j 6. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education.19/ − 122. NJ. storage in a retrieval system.

Problems 16–45 Therefore.0532/86.48◦ V C1 = 8.81◦ V C−3 = (2. −800 − j30 H2 = 0.81◦ V C2 = 0.0213/88.0213/ − 88.15/122.0300/ − 87.19/122.0532/ − 86.02/88.93/101.95 mW 250 .47◦ .8/0◦ H−2 = −j16 = 0.04582 ∼ = 11.8/0◦ ) = 8.8/0◦ .85◦ H−4 = −j32 = 0.53 V (11.85◦ ) = 0.48◦ V C−2 = (4.2287/ − 3. H1 = 0.47◦ ) = 0.19◦ .98◦ )(0.0878/ − 170.53◦ V C4 = 0.152 + 0.0878/170.15/ − 90◦ )(0.0300/87.30/ − 90◦ )(0. H−1 = 0.53)2 = 531.08782 + 0.53◦ V [d] Vrms  4  ∼ |Cn |2 ∼ = Co2 + 2 =  4  2 |Cn |2 n=1 ∼ = P =  n=1 2(8.48◦ )(0.19◦ ) = 0.47◦ The output voltage coeﬃcients: C0 = 0 C−1 = (10.05/86.22872 + 0.19◦ H−3 = −j24 = 0.17◦ V C3 = 0.0458/1.85◦ .15/ − 122. −300 − j20 H2 = 0.17◦ V C−4 = (2.0458/ − 1.2287/3. −1500 − j40 H2 = 0.03/87.

storage in a retrieval system.. Upper Saddle River. or transmission in any form or by any means. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Education. .48 [a] Vrms = = 1 T  T /2  2V m T 0 2 t dt     1 4V 2 t3 T /2 m  T T2 3 0   4Vm2 Vm =√ = (3)(8) 6 54 Vrms = √ = 22. photocopying. recording. P 16. or likewise.. NJ. Upper Saddle River. Inc. All rights reserved. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Inc. NJ 07458.05 V 6 © 2010 Pearson Education. electronic. mechanical.

52 + 2(10. NJ.3 we have:   40 kπ bk = 1 − cos πk 2 [b] Cn = . Inc.29/135◦ V C2 = 6.01 V A3 = 6 V.8/45◦ V C−7 = 1.6 V. θ6 = 90◦ .49 [a] From Example 16.15 |C2 | = 4. NJ 07458. storage in a retrieval system. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. mechanical.932 + 2. θ5 = 45◦ θ7 = 135◦ . an − jbn . A4 = 0.192 + 4.29 − 1 (100) = −3. 2   θ1 = 45◦ . write to: Rights and Permissions Department.47 |C3 | = 2. 4 C−n = Ak / − θk◦ = ak − jbk A2 = 12.16–46 CHAPTER 16.8/ − 45◦ V © 2010 Pearson Education.152 ) ∼ = 21. A7 = 2. Fourier Series [b] From the solution to Problem 16. or likewise.05 P 16.. .37/ − 90◦ V C−5 = 1. Pearson Education. A1 = 18.12/ − 90◦ V C−1 = 9/ − 45◦ V C4 = C−4 = 0 C7 = 1. All rights reserved.24 V. |C4 | = 2.30 Vg (rms) ∼ =  13. or transmission in any form or by any means. θ2 = 90◦ A5 = 3. electronic.5. Upper Saddle River.  40 kπ ak = sin πk 2 40 av = = 10 V.29/ − 135◦ V C−2 = 6.57 V. A6 = 4.12/90◦ V C1 = 9/45◦ V C−3 = 3/ − 135◦ V C−6 = 2.19.73 V.37/90◦ V C5 = 1.. θ3 = 135◦ . recording. |C1 | = 10. For information regarding permission(s).44% [c] % Error = 22. Upper Saddle River.302 + 2.93 C0 = 13.29 V   21. A8 = 0 an + jbn = Cn∗ 2 C0 = av = 10 V C3 = 3/135◦ V C6 = 2. Inc. photocopying.

recording.Problems 16–47 P 16..33 we have Ak = ak − jbk = Im Im (cos kπ − 1) + j 2 2 π k πk A0 = 0. .75Im = 180 mA A1 = 240 240 = 90. Inc. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means.20/90◦ mA 2π 240 = 19. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved. storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458. mechanical.73/90◦ mA 6π © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. electronic.40/97.56/122. or likewise.48◦ mA (−2) + j 2 π π A2 = j A3 = 240 240 = 26. Upper Saddle River..26◦ mA (−2) + j 2 25π 5π A6 = j 240 = 12.50 [a] From the solution to Problem 16.10/90◦ mA 4π 240 240 = 15. Pearson Education.98◦ mA (−2) + j 2 9π 3π A4 = j A5 = 240 = 38.03/101. NJ. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. photocopying.

mechanical. photocopying.26◦ mA 1 C6 = A6/θ6 = 6. NJ 07458.70/97.02/ − 101. Upper Saddle River. Inc.70/ − 97.55/ − 90◦ mA 1 C5 = A5/θ5 = 7. Pearson Education. storage in a retrieval system..02/101. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved.1/ − 90◦ mA 1 C3 = A3/θ3 = 13. For information regarding permission(s).48◦ mA 1 C2 = A2/θ2 = 19.26◦ mA 2 C−5 = 7. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Inc.28/122. electronic. NJ. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.28/ − 122. or transmission in any form or by any means. or likewise.37/90◦ mA 2 C−6 = 6. recording.55/90◦ mA 2 C−4 = 9.1/90◦ mA 2 C−2 = 19.48◦ mA 2 C−1 = 45.98◦ mA 2 C−3 = 13. Fourier Series [b] C0 = A0 = 180 mA 1 C1 = A1/θ1 = 45.98◦ mA 1 C4 = A4/θ4 = 9.. .37/ − 90◦ mA © 2010 Pearson Education.16–48 CHAPTER 16.

000t +225 cos 70.000t + 1225 cos(30.51 [a] i = 11.000t − 441 cos 50.000t − 180◦ ) +225 cos 70.025 cos 10.000t μA = 11.025 cos 10. .000t − 1225 cos 30.000t − 180◦ ) + 441 cos(50.000t μA [b] i(t) = i(−t). Function is even [c] Yes.Problems 16–49 P 16. An = 0 for n even A0 = 0.

50/0◦ μA.5e−j180 e−j50.000t ◦ +220. Upper Saddle River.0252 + 12252 + 4412 + 2252 = 7.5e−j180 e−j30.5ej180 ej50.5ej70.50/0◦ μA [d] Irms = A3 = 1225/180◦ μA. .000t + 5512.000t + 112. C1 = 5512. or transmission in any form or by any means. photocopying. NJ. or likewise. C3 = 612. mechanical. For information regarding permission(s).85 mA 2 [e] A1 = 11.000t + 612.5/180◦ μA C5 = 220.025/0◦ μA. A7 = 225/0◦ μA. All rights reserved.5/ − 180◦ μA C−5 = 220. Upper Saddle River. storage in a retrieval system. 11. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5e−j10.50/0◦ μA C−3 = 612..000t ◦ +5512. Pearson Education. C−1 = 5512.5ej180 ej30. electronic.5e−j70..50/0◦ μA ◦ ◦ i = 112. A5 = 441/180◦ μA.5/ − 180◦ μA.000t + 612. C−7 = 112.5ej10. Inc. NJ 07458. recording.5/180◦ μA C7 = 112.000t μA [f] © 2010 Pearson Education.000t + 220. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Inc.

·. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.·. odd function [c] v(t − T /2) = A1 sin(ωo t − π) − A3 sin(3ωo t − 3π) +A5 sin(5ωo t − 5π) − A7 sin(7ωo t − 7π) = −A1 sin ωo t + A3 sin 3ωo t − A5 sin 5ωo t + A7 sin 7ωo t . electronic. recording. Pearson Education. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River.16–50 CHAPTER 16.. v(−t) = −v(t). Fourier Series P 16.·. NJ. Inc. Inc. H  (jnωo ) = 1 (1 + j4n)[(1 − 16n2 ) + j4n] It follows that H(j0) = 1/0◦ © 2010 Pearson Education. mechanical. the function has half-wave symmetry [d] Since the function is odd..1 we have H(s) = 1 (s + 1)(s2 + s + 1) After scaling we get H  (s) = ωo = 106 (s + 100)(s2 + 100s + 104 ) 2π 2π = × 103 = 400 rad/s T 5π .·. All rights reserved. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.53 From Table 15. v(t − T /2) = −v(t). f(T /2 − t) = f(t) and the voltage has quarter-wave symmetry P 16. we test to see if f(T /2 − t) = f(t) f(T /2 − t) = A1 sin(π − ωo t) − A3 sin(3π − 3ωo t) +A5 sin(5π − 5ωo t) − A7 sin(7π − 7ωo t) = A1 sin ωo t − A3 sin 3ωo t + A5 sin 5ωo t − A7 sin 7ωo t .52 [a] v = A1 cos(ωo t − 90◦ ) + A3 cos(3ωo t + 90◦ ) +A5 cos(5ωo t − 90◦ ) + A7 cos(7ωo t + 90◦ ) v = −A1 sin ωo t + A3 sin 3ωo t − A5 sin 5ωo t + A7 sin 7ωo t [b] v(−t) = −A1 sin ωo t + A3 sin 3ωo t − A5 sin 5ωo t + A7 sin 7ωo t . photocopying. with hws. Upper Saddle River. storage in a retrieval system. yes. For information regarding permission(s). or likewise. . or transmission in any form or by any means.

NJ 07458. NJ.00195/ − 255. electronic. n2 − 1 = 54 + 27π sin ωo t − 36 cos 2ωo t − · · · V .5. mechanical. Upper Saddle River.64◦ (1 + j8)(−63 + j8) ∞ 2A A A cos nωo t + sin ωo t − π 2 π n=2.. For information regarding permission(s).0156/ − 241.0178/ − 169.13◦ 2 2 6 (j15. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. .1580/ − 146. All rights reserved.·.6..Problems H(jωo ) = 1 = 0.04◦ (j5000)2 + 2000 2(j5000)2 + 4 × 106 H(j15. photocopying.54 Using the technique outlined in Problem 16.4.3. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or likewise. vo = 54 + 1. Upper Saddle River.000) + 2000 2(j15. Inc.03◦ (1 + j4)(−15 + j4) H(j2ωo ) = vg (t) = 16–51 1 = 0.000) + 4 × 10 Vdc = 100 V Vg1 = 800 ◦ /0 V n2 Vg3 = 800 ◦ /0 V 9π 2 © 2010 Pearson Education.97◦ ) + 0.000) = 4 × 106 √ = 0. s2 + 2s + 1 where ωc = 1 rad/s Now frequency scale using kf = 2000 to get ωc = 2 krad/s: H(s) = 4 × 106 √ s2 + 2000 2s + 4 × 106 H(j0) = 1 H(j5000) = 4 × 106 √ = 0.64◦ ) − · · · V P 16. or transmission in any form or by any means. Pearson Education. We get vg (t) = 100 + ∞ 800 1 cos nωo t 2 π n=1. storage in a retrieval system. n2 The transfer function of the prototype second-order low pass Butterworth ﬁlter is H(s) = 1 √ .33 sin(400t + 118. Inc.07 cos(800t − 75. recording.18 we can derive the Fourier series for vg (t).

Upper Saddle River. electronic..5π) cos 5000t − = 5 − (10/3) cos 5000t − · · · V π π 4−1 H(j0) = 1 H(j5000) = 106 √ = 0. NJ. For information regarding permission(s).55 vg = 2(2. Inc.5π) 4(2. . then the node-voltage equations are Va − Vg Va + + Va sC2 + (Va − Vo )sC1 = 0 R1 R2 (0 − Va )sC2 + 0 − Vo =0 R3 Solving for Vo in terms of Vg yields Vo = H(s) = Vg s2 + 1 R3  −1 s R1 C1  1 + C12 s C1 + R1 +R2 R1 R2 R3C1 C2 It follows that R1 + R2 ωo2 = R1 R2R3 C1 C2 β= 1 R3 Ko =  R3 R1 1 1 + C1 C2  C2 C1 + C2 Note that H(s) =  3 −R R1 s2 +    C2 1 C +C R  1 2 3 1 1 + C12 s R3 C1  1 C1 +  1 s C2   R1 +R2 R1R2 R3 C1 C2 + © 2010 Pearson Education.0178/ − 169.13◦ V 2 9π vo (t) = 100 + 12.58◦ (106 − 25 × 106 ) + j5 2 × 106 . or likewise.04/ − 163.81 cos(5000t − 146.04◦ ) = 12. mechanical. Fourier Series Vodc = 100(1) = 100 V Vo1 = 800 (0.16 cos(15.000t − 169.16–52 CHAPTER 16. or transmission in any form or by any means.04◦ V π2 Vo3 = 800 (0. storage in a retrieval system. Pearson Education.13◦ ) = 0. NJ 07458.81/ − 146.·.1332 cos(5000t − 163. Inc. vo (t) = 5 − 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. photocopying.56 [a] Let Va represent the node voltage across R2 . recording.04◦ ) + 0.13◦ ) + · · · V P 16.58◦ ) − · · · V P 16.16/ − 169.. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.1580/ − 146.

25π 2 ) 1 cos nωo t 2 2 π n=1. NJ. Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.006 cos(5ωo t + 90. NJ 07458. electronic. photocopying. R3 Ko = R1 1 β= R3 ωo2 =   C2 C1 + C2 1 1 + C1 C2  = 400 313  = 2000 rad/s R1 + R2 = 16 × 108 R1 R2R3 C1 C2 © 2010 Pearson Education. recording. R2 .57 [a] Using the equations derived in Problem 16. C1 .48◦ −600 + j5 vo = −18 cos ωo t + 0. mechanical. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. n vg = = 18 cos ωo t + 1 1 cos 3ωo t + cos 5ωo t + · · · mV 9 25 = [18 cos ωo t + 2 cos 3ωo t + 0.2π H(jk104 ) = −400jk104 −jk = 8 2 8 4 10 − k 10 + j400k10 25(1 − k 2) + jk H1 = −1 = 1/180◦ H3 = −j3 = 0.03 cos(3ωo t + 90.. Q = 10. or likewise. Upper Saddle River.5.000/400 = 25.86◦ −200 + j3 H5 = −j5 = 0.48◦ ) + · · · mV [c] The fundamental frequency component dominates the output. We expect the output voltage to be dominated by the fundamental frequency component since the bandpass ﬁlter is tuned to this frequency! P 16. . Therefore.015/90. so we expect the quality factor Q to be quite high.Problems 16–53 [b] For the given values of R1 .0083/90. storage in a retrieval system.86◦ ) + 0. R3. Inc. and C2 we have H(s) = −400s s2 + 400s + 108 ∞ (8)(2. Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s).. [d] ωo = 104 rad/s and β = 400 rad/s. Inc. All rights reserved. or transmission in any form or by any means.56(a).72 cos 5ωo t + · · ·] mV ωo = 2π × 103 = 104 rad/s 0.3.

5. Pearson Education. electronic. Upper Saddle River.50 cos(3ωo t + 91. NJ 07458..87 cos 3ωo t + 12.0240/91. or transmission in any form or by any means. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. mechanical.07◦ −8 + j0. recording. NJ. All rights reserved..60 cos ωo t − 20.15 H(j5ωo ) = −j(100/313) = 0.17 cos(5ωo t + 90. Fourier Series −(400/313)(2000)jnωo 16 × 108 − n2 ωo2 + j2000nωo [b] H(jnωo ) = −j(20/313)n (1 − n2 ) + j0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.28 j(0. Upper Saddle River. storage in a retrieval system..52 cos 5ωo t − · · · vo (t) = −80 cos ωo t − 0.050) 313 H(j3ωo ) = −j(20/313)(3) = 0. Inc.65π V vg (t) = 62.16–54 CHAPTER 16.0133/90. For information regarding permission(s). photocopying.07◦ ) + 0. . n A = 15.3.60◦ ) − · · · V © 2010 Pearson Education..60◦ −24 + j0.. or likewise. Inc.25 vg (t) = ∞ 4A 1 sin(nπ/2) cos nωo t π n=1.05n = H(jωo ) = 400 −j(20/313) =− = −1.