ASSIGNMENT

Journal Review
Computer Viruses as a Threat to Home Users
Subject: Information System Security

Name

: Hendri Susanto

NIM

: 123410010

Class Code

: 141-IS023-N1

Lecturer

: SautPintubiparSaragih, S.Kom.

PUTERA BATAM UNIVERSITY
2014

PREFACE
Thanks to God for helping me and give me chance to finish this Information Computer
Viruses as a Threat to Home Users timely. And I would like to say thank you to
Mr.SautPintubiparSaragih, S.Kom.as the lecturer that always teaches us and give much
knowledge about Information System Security well.
This assignment is the one of Journal Review that composed of summary about Information
Computer Viruses as a Threat to Home Users. I realized this assignment is not perfect. But I
hope it can be useful for all the people who need and read this review. Critics and suggestion
is needed here to make this review better. Hopefully this journal can be a foundation and as
part of education for people that read this journal. Thank you.

Hendri Susanto

123410010

ii

.................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 JOURNAL REVIEW...... 14 2.................... 15 2......................................10 Conclusion ................................................................................................ iii CHAPTER 1....................................................7 To Which Extent Computer Viruses Writers Make Consideration To Ethics?16 2..........................................................................................................................................................................5 Computer Viruses Writers Types...........4...........................................................1 Abstract .................................................................3 What Computer Viruses do? ............6 The motivations of Computer Viruses writers...2 Virus Structure................................................................................................................1 Background .............................................................. 9 2......9 How Can Home Users Eliminate the Threat of Computer Viruses? ......... 7 2.. 3 1....................... 3 1.............................................................. 3 INTRODUCTION. 7 2.................. 5 2....... 12 2.. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................... 4 1..................................................4........................... 8 2..........................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ..................................... v ORIGINAL JOURNAL .............................................................2. 18 REFERENCE.......................................................2 Types of Computer Viruses.......................................................................................................... 5 2..........................................................................2 Introduction ..4 Virus Lifecycle ........................................................................3............................................................... 5 2.................. 4 CHAPTER II.............................................................................................................................................3 Benefitts Discussion of Problems..........................3.........................................................................................1 2...................................................................... 7 2.......................................................................................2 The Purpose of the Discussion . 6 Computer Virsues ........................................................................... iv CHAPTER III ............1 What Is Meant By Computer Viruses ......................................................1 Computer Viruses History and Development... 17 2....... vi iii ...................

Examples of cyber crime in which a computer as a tool is spamming and crimes against copyright and intellectual property. so users no longer feel worried in the use of the internet.1 Background Today the very rapid development of information technology. malware and DoS attacks. While examples of traditional crimes with computer as a tool is child pornography and online gambling. it also needs to be developed anyway cybercrime prevention system or a computer security system in the virtual world or in the use of the Internet in order to use or access the Internet more felt safe and comfortable. Because of these developments. 3 . which is not caused by developments in the field of education and knowledge. and also not misuse by certain parties that allows to perform acts of cybercrime or crime in cyberspace. especially the use of the Internet. Examples of cyber crime in which a computer as a target is illegal access (access control trick). Examples of cyber crime as a place where the computer is identity fraud.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.

identity fraud. farewall and operating system updates. credit card fraud. reduce and cope with problems that can be selected. which is where this paper contains a small portion of the options to prevent. child pornography. etc. 4 . security while browsing. 1.  Therefore. inspection when downloading data.3 Benefitts Discussion of Problems  The discussion paper entitled "Combating Cyber Crime" has the goal to introduce to readers about the negative effects of the misuse of the internet such as online auction fraud. forgery of checks. this paper also discusses the efforts that might be done by the user or agencies that use the internet facility to reduce and also tackling criminal actions in the virtual world.2 The Purpose of the Discussion  Then from a small part of the problem. and also to know how efficient way to respond to these problems. for the user and institutions need to know about the problems problems that may be encountered when using the Internet facilities.1. confidence fraud.  This paper also gives some solutions to address these impacts such as the use of antivirus and antispyware. this paper discusses how much impact they will face cybercrime much going on in the use of the internet.

from simple word-processing to controlling and monitoring the most sensitive organizations like nuclear reactors and performing surgical operations. also virus writers types. some solutions to eliminate the threat of computer viruses is highlighted. Home users can protect their systems based on their understanding of the foregoing. since computer viruses can spread through the universe in a few hours causing distractions to hundreds of thousands of computers around the globe.1 Abstract The Computer virus threat is growing and home users are threatened by them. and the effect of legal penalties on their practice is explained . 2. history and development. Therefore the need to be dependent on computers reliability and functionality is of high concern since any failure in the computer functionality could lead to loss of human lives or costly financially losses. An abbreviated idea about computer viruses nature. There are many 5 . The popularity of internet aggravates the threat and gives the virus writers the ideal environment to distribute their viruses. their point of view towards ethical and legal issues. motivations. especially with the increasing dependence on computers to accomplish the vast verity of tasks in our modern lives.The threat of computer viruses towards home users is proved.2 Introduction Due to the increasing dependence on computers to achieve most of our civilized life tasks. the damage caused by some well known viruses and the different types of computer viruses is explained.CHAPTER II JOURNAL REVIEW 2.

In order to accomplish the foregoing this paper is structured as follows: Firstly the definition of computer viruses.1 What Computer Viruses do? Through the course of using the Internet and your computer. you may have come in to contact with computer viruses. motivations and their perspective to legal and ethical issues is highlighted. Many computer viruses are stopped before they can start. and computer viruses is the most commune one. A computer virus might corrupt or delete data on your computer. That is why it is essential that you never open email attachments unless you know who it's from and you are expecting it. Computer viruses are often spread by attachments in email messages or instant messaging messages. but there is still an ever growing concern as to what do computer viruses do and the list of common computer virus symptoms. and their different types is discussed.threats to computer functionality and reliability. Finally the research occlusions is illustrated. their history and development. use your email program to spread itself to other computers. Secondly the threat of computer viruses to home users is proved. ways to eliminate the threat of computer viruses is discussed. The relation between increasing the awareness and understanding of the nature of computer viruses. home users and how they can eliminate the threat of computer viruses and protect their systems is of concern. Thirdly computer virus writers nature. and government. The threat of computer viruses are addressed to all computer operators in homes.2. and home users ability to protect their systems will be tested. 2. their nature. or even erase everything on your hard disk. 6 . business. Fourthly.

2002.23-24): 7 . spamming their contacts.2. It may contain a damaged routine or payload. 2. when executed. replicates by inserting copies of itself (possibly modified) into other computer programs.3. while he performed academic experiments on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX systems. the affected areas are then said to be "infected". data files. displaying political or humorous messages on the user's screen. “The term „computer virus‟ was formally defined by Fred Cohen in 1983. which activates when triggered ” So computer viruses are codes written by some people to cause serious damage to computers. this includes private. 2.2 Virus Structure Computer viruses could have two parts at least (search and copy routines) or more depending on how sophisticated it might be. business and government computers. not all viruses carry a destructive payload or attempt to hide themselves—the defining characteristic of viruses is that they are selfreplicating computer programs which install themselves without the user's consent. Viruses often perform some type of harmful activity on infected hosts. when this replication succeeds. the additional parts will give it a unique characteristic(Ludwing. Computer viruses are similar to the biological ones in their ability to replicate themselves. accessing private information.1 What Is Meant By Computer Viruses “A virus is potentially a destructive program code that attaches itself to a host (either a file or program) and then copies itself and spreads to other hosts. such as stealing hard disk space or CPU time. or the boot sector of the hard drive.3. or logging their keystrokes. However. p. infecting a large number of victims and having a lifecycle.3 Computer Virsues A computer virus is a malware program that. corrupting data.

it could be a specific date. the mission of this routine is to avoid detection either by the user or the anti-virus programs. Release: in this stage the virus writer sends it out to the wild (the cyberspace. Unfortunately. or anything else depending on the writer‟s choice. the virus must copy itself to the target and this is the copy routine responsibility. Copy routine: to be able to infect the target which was found by search routine. detecting the virus in the early stages makes it easer to remove it with out causing any damage. Payload routine this routine vary depending on it‟s porous. Anti-detection routine: this could be part of the search or copy routines or it could be a stand alone routine. 2. a certain task. The virus writer usually determines the trigger. it could be a joke. Trigger: in this stage the virus becomes alive when the trigger is reached. the virtual computer world). Activation: in this stage the virus has the ability to run its destructive routine.Search routine: this routine responsibility is to find a stabile target for infection. 8 . real life viruses are usually discovered after they have caused havoc and damage. Birth: bringing the computer virus to life.4 Virus Lifecycle Computer virus and biology one has a similar lifecycle. The effect of this could vary from erasing the hard disk content to making limited damage. destructive or perform a useful task. virus writer (the person who wrote the virus) designs the virus and then creates it using a programming language. Detection: this could happen at any stage of the virus lifecycle. Proliferation: the virus target in this stage is to replicate and infect as many victims as possible without drawing any attention. which consists of the International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences.

.1) Richerd Skrenta was in the 7th Grade when he got his first PC for Christmas an Apple II. p. 2. I realized that self-propagating programs could be written. “I had been playing jokes on schoolmates by altering copies of pirated games to self-destruct after a number of plays. and also depends on the available tools. deleting the virus) or complicated and expensive ( e.g. The solution could be simple and inexpensive(e.(Paquette. I coded up Elk Cloner and gave it a good start in life by infecting everyone‟s disks I could get my hands on” 9 . he has to think of away to bass his “booby trap” to their disks without putting his hands on them physically. but then the game would stop working with a snickering comment from me on the screen “ (9th grade humor at work here)” When they noticed what was going on they prevented him from being near their disks. So. if they didn‟t do a clean reboot with their own disk. I‟d give out a new game.4. reformatting and restoring the hard disk or buying a new one). Modification: in this stage the virus lifecycle may be repeated with an improved version.2000.1 Computer Viruses History and Development Most of computer users whom have had hard times because of computer viruses want believe it‟s all started in 1982 as a joke by a teenager to tease his schoolmates.g. this could be done by the original virus writer or some one else. but rather than blowing up quickly. could then be touched by the code I left behind. He started to make use of this tool by doing something different and unexpected. “I hit on the idea to leave a residue in the operating system of the school‟s Apple II.Elimination: the ability to eliminate the effect of virus varies from one type to the another. to the extent that it laid low it could spread beyond the first person to others as well. they‟d get hooked.. The next user who cams by.

2000. such as Zero Bug.2002. Dark Avenger.13). Pakistan.2).co.(Paquette. In the same year Michelangelo was discovered in New Zealand (Dwan.bbc. “ The first reported macro virus „Concept‟.2000. It‟s an e-mail message containing an infected word document in the form of an attachment addressed as an important message from a friend or college (News.2002. They decided to create a virus in order to inhabit the American software piracy to protect their business. also in the same year stealth viruses ( which have the ability to avoid detection by employing various techniques).While Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farooq Alvi seemed to have a totally different motive to write their virus.uk. p. p.uk.1997. A set of five macros designed only to replicate. while in March 1999 Melissa was able to infect approximately a million computers and caused $80m in damage(News.2). and started to improve their malicious codes to avoid detection. finally in December the Hebrew University at Jerusalem were attacked by the Friday the 13th virus (Highland .2) Basit and Amjad used to run a computer store in Lahore. and they called it (C) Brain virus. 2000.Laroux‟ to life. So it started to get more serious and virus writers accepted the undeclared challenge.000 computers in Turkey and South Korea. In 1995 a new technique was found to cope with the communication revelation and internet popularity. In 1990 the virus writers released a virus called Whale. was seen in the wild by AV researcher Sarah Gordon in summertime of 1995. and Frodo were found in the wild for the first time (Dwan.COM virus were found at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania. A month later Chernobyl strain CIH hits around 540. 1996 brought Dubbed „XM. the mission of this virus was to steal Novell NetWare passwords. after one month the Lehigh or COMMAND. In October 1987 (C) Brain virus appeared in the University of Delaware.While in 1989 the 1260 was found on the wild as a result of variable encryption techniques. Since then a new age was started and macro viruses were getting popular every year. so they started to think of a way to protect their effort from being lost. Concept‟s payload displays the virus author‟s ominous message: „That‟s enough to prove my point‟ ”. which was a self-modifying virus and in 1991 GPI virus was found.bbc. p. p. the purpose of it‟s 10 .416). It seems that this war would never end. p. Software piracy was the software developer nightmare.13).co.

11 . In 2002 the top of the virus chart was Klez virus. p. p. The increasing dependency on the companies networks or the internet to exchange documents using e-mails on a daily basis gave the macro virus a stabile spreading environment and made them the best example of convoying each age requirements. p. business. The “I LOVEYOU” virus caused havoc and damage to private.2000.1). Europe to North America (Ruppe.1). at least 350.000 systems were infected in nine hours due to the “Code Red” worm. The Asian Dow Jones‟s computers crashed and the Asian Wall Street Journal were struck.1). p. finally in the U. In 2001 Pentagon and the White House were forced to halt the public access to their Web sites for a limited period and 250.payload was to reformat the hard drive and zap a key chip on the computer motherboard (Dwan.2000.S. 2000.2000. Virus writers were determined to prove their capability to threaten the world by releasing new viruses. p2-3). When Software developers started to notice the need for developing programs to protect computers from viruses. regardless of the virus writers motivations or intentions to write these viruses.2001.com.000 files were found hit (Ruppe. around 30% of British and 80% of Swedish companies e-mail systems were affected.14). In the year 2000 a new Millennium had just started and its seemed that the virus writers quiver is still full of surprises. Australia. p. All the user had to do in order to infect his system and automatically send copies of the virus to everyone on his e-mail address book was to open the attachment (Ruppe.2002. It was an irresistible attractive message containing a love letter “Love Bug”. which was able to infiltrate hundreds of thousands of computers shortly after its first identification on July 19th (Stenger. which was able to have more then five million copies (advisor. and government computers throughout the globe starting from Asia.1). Nevertheless we can say that the malware(short form of malicious ware) was started by releasing viruses in the wild.

2 Types of Computer Viruses Every year computers technology developers surprise the world with their new inventions. they spread and infect files by taking advantage of vulnerabilities in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. opening e-mails or accessing Web pages which includes tainted scripts will activate the virus. . As soon as the virus becomes residence it will be able to infect each inserted disk to that computer. So as we can see virus writers took advantage of a new invention and developed a stabile viruses for each age. and its hard to eradicate them. File-infecting virus: this virus technique is to attach itself to the executable files. These types of viruses are categorized as dangerous ones.4. This type of viruses has the ability to change its signature each time the virus is reproduced in order to remain undetected by antivirus software. or moving and replacing the text randomly.exe. The virus should remain undetected until trigger is reached and this depends on the virus writer choices. Boot sector virus: this virus loads itself to the boot sector of the floppy disk or master record of hard disk in order to be loaded to the memory before the operating system is loaded. This virus depends on the macro language in order to infect the data files by attaching themselves to the global template and spreads when the data files is opened. spread easily.com.2. As a result of this competition each year hundreds of new viruses are found in the wild. saving files as templates instead of saving them as documents. the virus replicates itself in order to be attached to that application. Script virus: this type of virus is written using script languages. and these are the main program files and drivers.all. If any of them is infected the virus code will be executed during the run first by loading itself to the memory and deceive the user by allowing the program to execute normally. 12 . because they are easy to write.drv . When the user runs any other applications. . which are the files ending with . adding password protection to files. and . therefore virus writers need to create new generations of viruses to cope with the latest computing techniques. The macro viruses effect could be an annoying massage. Macro viruses: the macro language technology was invented by software companies in order to automat repetitive tasks.

any failure in the computer functionality can result in serious effects. “ By 1988. each time antivirus software and software developers come up with a new technology to prevent computer viruses infection. virus writers find their way to surprise the world with a new threat by releasing the suitable virus for each age. computer viruses have an ideal environment to rise. it has a distractive effect. another example is Satan Bug.Natas which specialized in attacking the antivirus software. Computers have been used to perform a vast variety of operations.Polymorphic virus: this virus has the ability to change each time it replicates using different encryption routines through its additional unique mutation engine. the IBM high integrity research laboratory 13 . from simple word processing to sophisticated industrialization. Home users represent a large portion of computer users today and since the families members are from different ages. One Half is an example of this virus. Computer viruses are one of the most common threats which threaten the computers functionality and reliability. As a result of these capabilities computers are a vital constituent of a modern home – nowadays computers have the same importance as TV and telephones in order to have an ideal modern home – since all of the family members need it to accomplish different tasks depending on their needs. we can easily realize the growing threat of computer viruses towards home users. In most cases the whole family shares the same computer. in early 1990.  ARE COMPUTER VIRUSES A THREAT TO HOME USERS? By the end of the 2nd Millennium computers have become an essential tool to every individual regardless of age or position. As a result of this strong interference of technology in peoples life. Whenever computer users vary in their computing knowledge the possibility of keeping this computer from being damaged for any reason is significant. By comparing the increasing number of home users with the increasing number of computer viruses each year. positions. there were about 20 will known and widely spread computer viruses. As a result of this invented combination the virus is very difficult to detect. its target is to encrypt the hard disk and make it unreadable. Virus writers are so keen to cope with the technology development. and computing back rounds.

The Adult/Professionally Employed: they could be post-college or adults.1). In 2002 more than 237 new viruses were found on the wild and this figure is nominated to rise throughout 2003 (advisor. 14 . should have released at least one computer virus to the wild. The College Student: their age is between 18 and 24 . 2. the computer viruses threat is growing each year and needs more preparations from the operators and developers to face its harmful effects.1991cited Cohen.com. The previous categorizations depend on the age and education level. they have to prove that they have not written or continued to write viruses for the last 6 months.5 Computer Viruses Writers Types The Adolescent: their age is between 13 and 17 . professionally employed.Considering the foregoing figures. The Ex-Virus Writer they should have written and released one or more computer viruses. should have release at least one computer virus to the wild. they should have written one computer virus at least.2002. Their viruses should have been found in the wild. between 200 and 600 unique real-world viruses were known in the research community(Brunnstein. p. To classify virus writers in different groups in order to understand them and know more about their motivations to write and distribute computer viruses in to the wild. 1991). 1991)”. should have released at least one computer virus to the wild. they should have written one computer virus at least.reported over 125 unique viruses detected in the environment (White. They should be students at university or studying classes at university level.1990 cited Cohen. they should have written one computer virus at least. and by March of 1991.

Viruses can spread around the universe in a few hours causing destructive damage to millions of computers among homes. I want a good job. In addition computer viruses is a very effective tool for accomplishing their goals especially with the communication revelation.E writer aimed. and governments. p. Their revenge could take many forms. bearing in mind the stars lives usually seen on movies or on TV programs which show the luxury of rich and famous people or simply seeing them on the streets driving expensive cars and wearing brand names clothes. “Virus writers‟ motivations are generally located in the field of social resentment. writing and releasing computer viruses is one of them.6 The motivations of Computer Viruses writers With the industry revelation people become materialistic and most of the human morality disappeared. fear of rejection. and carrying our letters and messages (Skoudis. we can imagine the effect of any failure in computers functionality. businesses. Most of our universes population suffer due to poverty and are unable to cover their basic needs. The main target of most people is to achieve the dream of the luxurious life. To conclude virus writers could be motivated by the need to express their dissatisfaction with their social level. getting attention and revenge or identifying with a certain group” With a quick review of the tasks preformed by computers in our modern lives and how much we do rely on them to store our sensitive information like medical and social security. The logical result of this situation is to have some social resentment. Obviously the real world is so different. In some parts of the world millions of peoples live under the poverty line without getting any help from their governments or society. guiding transportations facilities from trans to aircrafts on their domestic and internationals journeys.2). To achieve their revenge. I must support my parents. it‟s clearly stated in his message which was as follows “I‟m sorry to do so. which leads to secrete individuals whom looking forward to get their revenge from the unfair world in which they live. monitoring and running factories. but it‟s helpless to say sorry.2. accomplishing almost all the financial transactions. drawing attention. Now you have 15 . being famous and well known. or to prove their technical skills as klez. The effect of computer viruses could be very costly financially and some times incurable when it comes to human lives.2002.

While adult virus writers seem to be under the norm for their age group of the ethical development model.1994) in which she has examined the ethics of virus writers using Kohlberg‟s ethical model.15). The adolescent and college virus writers are within the norms of their age group of the ethical development model. the reason for their behavior in writing and releasing viruses were unclear according to the collected information.seen my technical capabilities. another reason could be their dissatisfaction with the society. How much is my year-salary now? No more than $5.This recommendation provided a minimum list of computer crime laws.It seems that virus writers desire to accomplish their goal conceals their vision from viewing the ethical issues. Can you help me?” 2. perspective of their society. p. and they want revenge against every thing in their society including the ethics. and „The Enemy‟ seem to be “Society” (Gordon.1994.1994. economical level. and have different preferences. p15).  What Is The Impact Of Legal Penalties On The Practice Of Computer Viruses Writers? As with any new crime the society and authority take some time to perceive computer crimes or cyber crimes and start to create suitable legal codes for them. “The Council of Europe addressed the issue of computer crime in its recommendation R (89) 9. since the ethics belong to it. I have no hostility. manner of communication. All of the foregoing will lead to different modes of thinking and different motivations behind their behavior. and „The Enemy‟ seems to be virtual one (Gordon. What do you think of this fact? Don‟t call me names. the observation shows that the virus writers are not a homogenous group. education level.500. background. which all countries should enact” 16 .7 To Which Extent Computer Viruses Writers Make Consideration To Ethics? According to the study of (Gordon. since they vary in age.

Symantic. p.gov.com). firewalls.Most countries around the world have established legal codes for computer crimes and some of the will known viruses writers get caught and some of them are spending their sentences. getting answers from security sites (e.g. 17 . He also pleaded guilty in Superior Court in Freehold and is facing the sentence of ten years in prison and $150.000 fine (computer crime. since they are from different ages. “Computer users and systems managers must ensure that their computer systems are secured and that basic IT security principles are followed. so the legal penalties aren‟t deterring virus writes. and computing experiences. All family members should practice save computing in order to eliminate the threat of computer viruses.gov. and finally take all the security cautions to protect their systems. To accomplish this goal home users have to know their enemy by increasing their knowledge about computer viruses. securityfocus.2). 2. practice save computing. this is the case in almost all homes. Should a computer system operator receive any sympathy if his system is damaged when it is wide open to intruders with no computer security in place.2).2001. Should a home owner who leaves his front door wide open receive much sympathy if his house is burgled? Most would say no.. p.000 fine(computer crime. The difficulties encourage the writers to accept the challenge of writing and releasing a virus to cause the maximum destruction and get away or cause serious damage and be famous after being caught.com. David Smith the creator of Melissa virus pleaded guilty in Federal Court and must spend five year in prison and pay $250. After Melissa virus hundreds of new viruses were found in the wild. education levels.9 How Can Home Users Eliminate the Threat of Computer Viruses? Home users are not a homogeneous group. but it seems to be the other way around. antivirus software. Unfortunately this non homogenous group usually shares the same computer.2001. backgrounds.

The legal penalties are not deterring virus writers. their motivations could be the need to express their dissatisfaction with their social level. virus writers reaction was creating polymorphic viruses (Cronkhite and McCullough.10 Conclusion The number of computer viruses found in the world is increasing each year. or to prove their technical ability. Another reason could be their dissatisfaction with their society. to achieve their revenge. 2001. The increasing awareness of computer viruses and basic IT security principles will help home users to eliminate the threat of computer viruses. The antivirus developer‟s reaction to this challenge is to develop their programs to detect the pattern in the decryption of the virus. 2001. So the malwar will go on between software and antivirus software developers and virus writers. and they want revenge for everything in their society including the ethics and legal codes.23). It seems that the virus writers desire to accomplish their goal conceals their vision from viewing the ethical and legal issues. we can easily realize the growing threat of computer viruses towards home users. 18 . computer virus writers thrilled the world with their ability to go around the new technology and develop the right virus for each age. By comparing the increasing number of home users with the increasing number of computer viruses each year. Script viruses were another prove. Every time software and antivirus software developers invent new technology to prevent virus infection. Computer virus writers are not a homogenous group.2.22-23). draw attention. Macro viruses were their ideal proof of their intention to accept the challenge and cope with the new technology developments. p. since the ethics and legal codes belongs to it. become famous and well known. they have the ability to encrypt each time its reproduced to have a different signature in order to deceive the antivirus and remain undetected (Cronkhite and McCullough. p. but seems to encourage the writers to accept the challenge of writing and releasing a virus to cause the maximum destruction and get away with it or cause serious damage and become famous.

http://news. L.research.ac.at/~maillists/focus-virus/msg01309.shtml Accessed 4th May 2003.maclx-rz.ibm.uk/1/hi/word/americas/1966371. “A History of Viruses” iv . (2000). http://www.htm Accessed 27th Apr 2003.ibm.research.bbc. Opera.html Accessed 4th May 2003. “The Klez Fever” http://www. (2002).co.com/antivirus/SciPapers/VB2000SG. J.com/antivirus/SciPapers/Gordon/Generic Virus Writer.REFERENCE http://www.uibk. Paquette. Accessed 28th Apr 2003.stm.

some solutions to eliminate the threat of computer viruses is highlighted. VIRUS Anti-Detection Routines Search Copy Payload Fig. Fourthly. motivations. Copy routine: to be able to infect the target which was found by search routine. Computer viruses are similar to the biological ones in their ability to replicate themselves. destructive or perform a useful task.2002. their nature. infecting a large number of victims and having a lifecycle. p.1. and home users ability to protect their systems will be tested. 1. ways to eliminate the threat of computer viruses is discussed. p. also virus writers types. There are many threats to computer functionality and reliability. the damage caused by some well known viruses and the different types of computer viruses is explained. while he performed academic experiments on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX systems” ( Dwan.1. COMPUT ER VIRUSES 2. business. the virus must copy itself to the target and this is the copy routine responsibility. It may contain a damaged routine or payload. the additional parts will give it a unique characteristic(Ludwing. and computer viruses is the most commune one. which consists of the following stages (Cronkhite and McCullough. The threat of computer viruses are addressed to all computer operators in homes.edu.19) So computer viruses are codes written by some people to cause serious damage to computers. history and development. 2. their history and development.2 Virus Lifecycle Computer virus and biology one has a similar lifecycle.org Abstract-. Therefore the need to be dependent on computers reliability and functionality is of high concern since any failure in the computer functionality could lead to loss of human lives or costly financially losses.13) 2. 2000. Payload routine this routine vary depending on it‟s porous. 2001. p. which activates when triggered ” (Cronkhite and McCullough. Secondly the threat of computer viruses to home users is proved. and their different types is discussed. the mission of this routine is to avoid detection either by the user or the anti-virus programs.sa . this includes private. from simple word-processing to controlling and monitoring the most sensitive organizations like nuclear reactors and performing surgical operatio ns. Virus Structure (Ludwing. “The term „computer virus‟ was formally defined by Fred Cohen in 1983. especially with the increasing dependence on computers to accomplish the vast verity of tasks in our modern lives. The relation between increasing the awareness and understanding of the nature of computer viruses.1 Virus Structure Computer viruses could have two parts at least (search and copy routines) or more depending on how sophisticated it might be. Anti-detection routine: this could be part of the search or copy routines or it could be a stand alone routine. In order to accomplish the foregoing this paper is structured as follows: Firstly the definition of computer viruses. 2.23-24): Search routine: this routine responsibility is to find a stabile target for infection. their point of view towards ethical and legal issues.2002.1.International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 29 Computer Viruses as a Threat to Home Users Dr. Finally the research occlusions is illustrated. Waqar Ahmad Deaprtment of industrial Engineering King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah 21589 Saudi Arabia Wahmed@kaau. wahmed@ieee. Home users can protect their systems based on their understanding of the foregoing. it could be a joke. and government.1 What Is Meant By Computer Viruses? “A virus is potentially a destructive program code that attaches itself to a host (either a file or program) and then copies itself and spreads to other hosts. The popularity of internet aggravates the threat and gives the virus writers the ideal environment to distribute their viruses. Thirdly computer virus writers nature. home users and how they can eliminate the threat of computer viruses and protect their systems is of concern. INT RODUCT ION Due to the increasing dependence on computers to achieve most of our civilized life tasks. p.23) 2. and the effect of legal penalties on their practice is explained . p. 2001.19-20) : 100403-5959 IJECS-IJENS © June 2010 IJENS IJE NS . since computer viruses can spread through the universe in a few hours causing distractions to hundreds of thousands of computers around the globe.The threat of computer viruses towards home users is proved. business and government computers.The Computer virus threat is growing and home users are threatened by them. An abbreviated idea about computer viruses nature . motivations and their perspective to legal and ethical issues is highlighted.

(Paquette. Unfortunately.g. I‟d give out a new game. I coded up Elk Cloner and gave it a good start in life by infecting everyone‟s disks I could get my hands on” (Paquette. and they called it (C) Brain virus.While in 1989 the 1260 was found on the wild as a result of variable encryption techniques.13).1) Richerd Skrenta was in the 7th Grade when he got his first PC for Christmas an Apple II. so they started to think of a way to protect their effort from being lost. Software piracy was the software developer nightmare. but rather than blowing up quickly. p. Modification: in this stage the virus lifecycle may be repeated with an improved version. to the extent that it laid low it could spread beyond the first person to others as well. reformatting and restoring the hard disk or buying a new one). and Frodo were found in the wild for the first time (Dwan. p. Release: in this stage the virus writer sends it out to the wild (the cyberspace. Modification 30 Detection: this could happen at any stage of the virus lifecycle.2.416). Dark Avenger. So. this could be done by the original virus writer or some one else.20) 2. p. p.1997. 2001. Birth Release Elimination Proliferation MAR 6 Detection Activation Trigger T riggerFig. In October 1987 (C) Brain virus appeared in the University of Delaware. after one month the Lehigh or COMMAND. Proliferation: the virus target in this stage is to replicate and infect as many victims as possible without drawing any attention.(Paquette.2000.. virus writer (the person who wrote the virus) designs the virus and then creates it using a programming language.2) While Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farooq Alvi seemed to have a totally different motive to write their virus. The solution could be simple and inexpensive(e. They decided to create a virus in order to inhabit the American software piracy to protect their business. finally in December the Hebrew University at Jerusalem were attacked by the Friday the 13th virus (Highland . 2000. “I hit on the idea to leave a residue in the operating system of the school‟s Apple II. or anything else depending on the writer‟s choice.2) Basit and Amjad used to run a computer store in Lahore. deleting the virus) or complicated and expensive ( e. if they didn‟t do a clean reboot with their own disk. but then the game would stop working with a snickering comment from me on the screen “ (9th grade humor at work here)” (Paquette. he has to think of away to bass his “booby trap” to their disks without putting his hands on them physically.. The effect of this could vary from erasing the hard disk content to making limited damage.COM virus were found at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania. He started to make use of this tool by doing something different and unexpected. it could be a specific date. I realized that self-propagating programs could be written.2 Computer Viruses History and Development Most of computer users whom have had hard times because of computer viruses want believe it‟s all started in 1982 as a joke by a teenager to tease his schoolmates.2000. also in the same year stealth viruses ( which have the ability to avoid detection by employing various techniques). the virtual computer world). Virus Lifecycle (Cronkhite and McCullough. a certain task. Pakistan. p. could then be touched by the code I left behind.2000. such as Zero Bug. real life viruses are usually discovered after they have caused havoc and damage.1-2) When they noticed what was going on they prevented him from being near their disks. 2. they‟d get hooked.g. “I had been playing jokes on schoolmates by altering copies of pirated games to self-destruct after a number of plays. 100403-5959 IJECS-IJENS © June 2010 IJENS IJE NS ..2000. The next user who cams by. Elimination: the ability to eliminate the effect of virus varies from one type to the another. Trigger: in this stage the virus becomes alive when the trigger is reached. p. The virus writer usually determines the trigger. detecting the virus in the early stages makes it easer to remove it with out caus ing any damage.International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 Birth: bringing the computer virus to life. Activation: in this stage the virus has the ability to run its destructive routine. and also depends on the available tools.

In this paragraph five different types will be discussed depending on (Cronkhite and McCullough. 2. In 1995 a new technique was found to cope with the communication revelation and internet popularity. p.2002. Virus writers were determined to prove their capability to threaten the world by releasing new viruses.co. As a result of this competition each year hundreds of new viruses are found in the wild.1). or moving and replacing the text randomly.1). In 1990 the virus writers released a virus called Whale.2002.3 Types Of Computer Viruses Every year computers technology developers surprise the world with their new inventions. All the user had to do in order to infect his system and automatically send copies of the virus to everyone on his e-mail address book was to open the attachment (Ruppe. therefore virus writers need to create new generations of viruses to cope with the latest computing techniques. .com.2002. the virus replicates itself in order to be attached to that application. . These types of viruses are categorized as dangerous ones. 2000. and its hard to eradicate them. As soon as the virus becomes residence it will be able to infect each inserted disk to that computer.1). p.International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 So it started to get more serious and virus writers accepted the undeclared challenge. Nevertheless we can say that the malware(short form o f malicious ware) was started by releasing viruses in the wild. p. p2-3).2). adding password protection to files. Macro viruses: the macro language technology was invented by software companies in order to automat repetitive tasks.2).com. 1996 brought Dubbed „XM. the mission of this virus was to steal Novell NetWare passwords. If any of them is infected the virus code will be executed during the run firs t by loading itself to the memory and deceive the user by allowing the program to execute normally. In 2001 Pentagon and the White House were forced to halt the public access to their Web sites for a limited period and 250. It‟s an e-mail message containing an infected word document in the form of an attachment addressed as an important message from a friend or college (News. When software developers started to notice the need for developing programs to protect computers from viruses. because they are easy to write. which are the files ending with .3) Since then a new age was started and macro viruses were getting popular every year. which was a self-modifying virus and in 1991 GPI virus was found. finally in the U. and government computers throughout the globe starting from Asia. Australia.13). This virus depends on the macro language in order to infect the data files by attaching themselves to the global template and spreads when the data files is opened.co. It was an irresistible attractive message containing a love letter “Love Bug”. p.uk.14). The “I LOVEYOU” virus caused havoc and damage to private.2000. around 30% of British and 80% of Swedish companies e-mail systems were affected. 2000. and started to improve their malicious codes to avoid detection.2001. at least 350. Boot sector virus: this virus loads itself to the boot sector of the floppy disk or master record of hard disk in order to be loaded to the memory before the operating system is loaded. p. The Asian Dow Jones‟s computers crashed and the Asian Wall Street Journal were struck. opening e-mails or accessing Web pages which includes tainted scripts will activate the virus. the malwar started between the virus writers and the antivirus companies. “ The first reported macro virus „Concept‟. A set of five macros designed only to replicate. The virus should remain undetected until trigger is reached and this depends on the virus writer choices.S.2000. A month later Chernobyl strain CIH hits around 540.uk. Europe to North America (Ruppe. saving files as templates instead of saving them as documents.all. So as we can see virus writers took advantage of a new invention and developed a stabile viruses for each age. regardless of the virus writers motivations or intentions to write these viruses. while in March 1999 Melissa was able to infect approximately a million computers and caused $80m in damage(News.000 files were found hit (Ruppe.000 computers in Turkey and South Korea. It seems that this war would never end. In the same year Michelangelo was discovered in New Zealand (Dwan. the purpose of it‟s payload was to reformat the hard drive and zap a key chip on the computer motherboard (Dwan.exe. Script virus: this type of virus is written using script languages. they spread and infect files by taking advantage of vulnerabilities in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. When the user runs any other applications. p.1).Laroux‟ to life. was seen in the wild by AV researcher Sarah Gordon in summertime of 1995. (Paquette. p. The macro viruses effect could be an annoying massage. and these are the main program files and drivers. In 2002 the top of the virus chart was Klez virus.bbc. and .000 systems were infected in nine hours due to the “Code Red” worm.drv . p. p. business. 2001. 31 which was able to have more then five million copies (advisor. p. The increasing dependency on the companies networks or the internet to exchange documents using e-mails on a daily basis gave the macro virus a stabile spreading environment and made them the best example of convoying each age requirements. which was able to infiltrate hundreds of thousands of computers shortly after its first identification on July 19th (Stenger. This type of viruses has the ability to change its signature each time the virus is reproduced in order to remain undetected by antivirus 100403-5959 IJECS-IJENS © June 2010 IJENS IJE NS .2000.bbc. spread easily.21-23) categorizations: File-infecting virus: this virus technique is to attach itself to the executable files. Concept‟s payload displays the virus author‟s ominous message: „That‟s enough to prove my point‟ ”. In the year 2000 a new Millennium had just started and its seemed that the virus writers quiver is still full of surprises.2000.

getting attention and revenge or identifying with a certain group” (Opera. should have released at least one computer virus to the wild. the IBM high integrity research laboratory reported over 125 unique viruses detected in the environment (White. A RE COMPUT ER VIRUSES A THREAT TO HOME USERS? By the end of the 2nd Millennium computers have become an essential tool to every individual regardless of age or position. there were about 20 will known and widely spread computer viruses. In most cases the whole family shares the same computer. Polymorphic virus: this virus has the ability to change each time it replicates using different encryption routines through its additional unique mutation engine. we can easily realize the growing threat of computer viruses towards home users. Most of our universes population suffer due to poverty and are unable to cover their basic needs. they should have written one computer virus at least. Viruses can spread around the universe in a few hours causing destructive damage to millions of computers among homes. any failure in the computer functionality can result in serious effects. its target is to encrypt the hard disk and make it unreadable.Considering the foregoing figures. They should be students at university or studying classes at university level.1994. By comparing the increasing number of home users with the increasing number of computer viruses each year. another example is Satan Bug. from simple word processing to sophisticated industrialization. 1991)”.2002.1). they have to prove that they have not written or continued to write viruses for the last 6 months.9) categorizations : The Adolescent: their age is between 13 and 17 . they should have written one computer virus at least.2) 100403-5959 IJECS-IJENS © June 2010 IJENS IJE NS . it has a distractive effect. To classify virus writers in different groups in order to understand them and know more about their motivations to write and distribute computer viruses in to the wild. and computing back rounds.2 The motivations of Computer Viruses writers With the industry revelation people become materialistic and most of the human morality disappeared. should have released at least one computer virus to the wild. Obviously the real world is so different. writing and releasing computer viruses is one of them.1) In 2002 more than 237 new viruses were found on the wild and this figure is nominated to rise throughout 2003 (advisor. bearing in mind the stars lives usually seen on movies or on TV programs which show the luxury of rich and famous people or simply seeing them on the streets driving expensive cars and wearing brand names clothes. computer viruses have an ideal environment to rise.Natas which specialized in attacking the antivirus software.1990 cited Cohen. p. which leads to secrete individuals whom looking forward to get their revenge from the unfair world in which they live.1 Computer Viruses Writers Types There are four different types of virus writers according to(Gordon. Whenever computer users vary in their computing knowledge the possibility of keeping this computer from being damaged for any reason is significant. One Half is an example of this virus. and by March of 1991. businesses. Computers have been used to perform a vast variety of operations. Virus writers are so keen to cope with the technology development. Computer viruses are one of the most common threats which threaten the computers functionality and reliability. As a result of these capabilities computers are a vital constituent of a modern home – nowadays computers have the same importance as TV and telephones in order to have an ideal modern home – since all of the family members need it to accomplish different tasks depending on their needs. the 32 computer viruses threat is growing each year and needs more preparations from the operators and developers to face its harmful effects. 1991). Home users represent a large portion of computer users today and since the families members are from different ages. p. between 200 and 600 unique realworld viruses were known in the research community(Brunnstein. “Virus writers‟ motivations are generally located in the field of social resentment.com. As a result of this invented combination the virus is very difficult to detect. virus writers find their way to surprise the world with a new threat by releasing the suitable virus for each age. in early 1990. and governments. The previous categorizations depend on the age and education level. 4. 4. The Adult/Professionally Employed: they could be postcollege or adults. In some parts of the world millions of peoples live under the poverty line without getting any help from their governments or society. The logical result of this situation is to have some social resentment. The Ex-Virus Writer they should have written and released one or more computer viruses. each time antivirus software and software developers come up with a new technology to prevent computer viruses infection. p. fear of rejection.1991cited Cohen. Their viruses should have been found in the wild. In addition computer viruses is a very effective tool for accomplishing their goals especially with the communication revelation. COMPUT ER VIRUSES W RIT ERS 4. p. should have release at least one computer virus to the wild. professionally employed. The College Student: their age is between 18 and 24 . Their revenge could take many forms.International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 software. The main target of most people is to achieve the dream of the luxurious life. As a result of this strong interference of technology in peoples life. “ By 1988. positions. they should have written one computer virus at least. (Cohen.2002.1991. 3.

Now you have seen my technical capabilities. backgrounds. guiding transportations facilities from trans to aircrafts on their domestic and internationals journeys. “Computer users and systems managers must ensure that their computer systems are secured and that basic IT security principles are followed. While adult virus writers seem to be under the norm for their age group of the ethical development model. the observation shows that the virus writers are not a homogenous group. p.14) 6. How much is my year-salary now? No more than $5. economical level.1994. firewalls.1995. getting answers from security sites (e.gov. but it‟s helpless to say sorry.2002. monitoring and running factories. manner of communication.com). I have no hostility. and „The Enemy‟ seems to be virtual one (Gordon. What do you think of this fact? Don‟t call me names. which all countries should enact” (Hannaford. p.000 fine(computer crime. education level.10) Most countries around the world have established legal codes for computer crimes and some of the will known viruses writers get caught and some of them are spending their sentences. since they vary in age. All of the foregoing will lead to different modes of thinking and different motivations behind their behavior. 5. HOW CAN HOME USERS ELIMINAT E THE THREAT OF COMPUT ER VIRUSES? Home users are not a homogeneous group. 4.1995. and they want revenge against every thing in their society including the ethics.3 To Which Extent Computer Viruses Writers Make Consideration To Ethics? According to the study of (Gordon. and carrying our letters and messages (Skoudis.1994. I want a good job. another reason could be their dissatisfaction with the society. To conclude virus writers could be motivated by the need to express their dissatisfaction with their social level. p15).It seems that virus writers desire to accomplish their goal conceals their vision from viewing the ethical issues. p. it‟s clearly stated in his message which was as follows “I‟m sorry to do so.4 What Is The Impact Of Legal Penalties On The Practice Of Computer Viruses Writers? As with any new crime the society and authority take some time to perceive computer crimes or cyber crimes and start to create suitable legal codes for them. or to prove their technical skills as klez. p. David Smith the creator of Melissa virus pleaded guilty in Federal Court and must spend five year in prison and pay $250. practice save computing. Script virus es were another prove. so the legal penalties aren‟t deterring virus writes. The adolescent and college virus writers are within the norms of their age group of the ethical development model.2001. p. After Melissa virus hundreds of new viruses were found in the wild. All family members should practice save computing in order to eliminate the threat of computer viruses. Macro viruses were their ideal proof of their intention to accept the challenge and cope with the new technology developments. Every time software and antivirus software developers invent new technology to prevent virus infection.2002. Should a home owner who leaves his front door wide open receive much sympathy if his house is burgled? Most would say no.This recommendation provided a minimum list of computer crime laws. education levels.com. securityfocus. perspective of their society. but it seems to be the other way around. Symantic. The effect of computer viruses could be very costly financially and some times incurable when it comes to human lives.2). being famous and well known. “The Council of Europe addressed the issue of computer crime in its recommendation 33 R (89) 9. we can imagine the effect of any failure in computers functionality. computer virus writers thrilled the world with their ability to go around the new technology and develop the right virus for each age.2). CONCLUSIONS The number of computer viruses found in the world is increasing each year. Can you help me?” (Opera. and finally take all the security cautions to protect their systems.g. He also pleaded guilty in Superior Court in Freehold and is facing the sentence of ten years in prison and $150. background.3) 4.22- 100403-5959 IJECS-IJENS © June 2010 IJENS IJE NS .2). and have different preferences. and „The Enemy‟ seem to be “Society” (Gordon.500. antivirus software..2001. I must support my parents. Unfortunately this non homogenous group usu ally shares the same computer. p. 2001. this is the case in almost all homes. To accomplish this goal home users have to know their enemy by increasing their knowledge about computer viruses .000 fine (computer crime.15). Should a computer system operator receive any sympathy if his system is damaged when it is wide open to intruders with no computer security in place?” (Hannaford.International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 With a quick review of the tasks preformed by computers in our modern lives and how much we do rely on them to store our sensitive information like medical and social security.1994) in which she has examined the ethics of virus writers using Kohlberg‟s ethical model. p. The difficulties encourage the writers to accept the challenge of writing and releasing a virus to cause the maximum destruction and get away or cause serious damage and be famous after being caught.gov.E writer aimed. since they are from different ages. they have the ability to encrypt each time its reproduced to have a different signature in order to deceive the antivirus and remain undetected (Cronkhite and McCullough. the reason for their behavior in writing and releasing viruses were unclear according to the collected information. p. drawing attention. To achieve their revenge. accomplishing almost all the financial transactions. since the ethics belong to it. and computing experiences.

( 1997) “A History Of Computer Viruses –– T he Famous `T rio' ”.com/antivirus/SciPapers/Gordon/Generic Virus Writer.co. (2002) The Little Black Book of Email Viruses . C. The antivirus developer‟s reaction to this challenge is to develop their programs to detect the pattern in the decryption of the virus. Managerial Auditing Journal.securityfoucus. Cronkhite. (1994).ibm.html Accessed 26 th Apr 2003 computer crime. (2001). Paquette.gov/criminal/cypercrime/melissaSent. “Virus Writer: T he End of T he Innocence” http://www.com/1/sections/world/Daily News/Lovebug000503_world.uk.23). Computers & Security. “Net braces for stronger „Code Red‟ attack” [24] http://www. F. since the ethics and legal codes belongs to it. to achieve their revenge. but seems to encourage the writers to accept the challenge of writing and releasing a virus to cause the maximum destruction and get away with it or cause serious damage and become famous. M. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] REFERENCES advisor.ebusinessadvisor. S. (2000). (2000). It seems that the virus writers desire to accomplish their goal conceals their vision from viewing the ethical and legal issues. Ltd.nsf/dp/29DD4BBF288F4FD488256 C7C00610777 Accessed 28 th Apr 2003. 10. “T he Generic Virus Writer” http://www. S. [21] Ruppe. (5). L.B.uk/1/hi/word/americas/1966371. (2002).(2000) “The Computer Virus –– From There to Here.research. Another reason could be their dissatisfaction with their society. and they want revenge for everything in their society including the ethics and legal codes.co.all.(2002) http://www. become famous and well known. Osborne: McGraw-Hill. C. [23] Stenger. 13-16 Gordon.maclx-rz. J. B. and McCullough.International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 23). pp.html. (2002). “ „Love Bug‟ T ravels the Globe” [22] http://abcnews.: An Historical Perspective” Computer Fraud & Security.htm Accessed 5 th May 2003. The legal penalties are not deterring virus writers.stm. “A History of Viruses” 100403-5959 IJECS-IJENS © June 2010 IJENS IJE NS . “T rends In Computer Virus Research” http://www. S. p.( 1995) “Can computer security really make a difference? ”.com/infocus/1286.shtml Accessed 4 th May 2003.at/~maillists/focusvirus/msg01309.D. By comparing the increasing number of home users with the increasing number of computer viruses each year.pp. Panama City: Lexington & Concord Partners. 10-15 Highland. E. News. 34 [20] http://www. Accessed 13 th Apr 2003. Computer virus writers are not a homogenous group. (5). Cohen. New Jersey: PrenticeHall PT R.com. 16. 416-429 Ludwing. “T he Klez Fever” http://www. So the malwar will go on between software and antivirus software developers and virus writers.net/books/integ/japan. Hannaford. Gordon.bbc.go.usdoj.J. 2001. (1991).A.red/ Accessed 28 th Apr 2003 [25] Skoudis.html Accessed 4 th May 2003.gov(2001) http://www. Accessed 28 th Apr 2003. H. The increasing awareness of computer viruses and basic IT security principles will help home users to eliminate the threat of computer viruses. R.ac..com/2001/T ECH/internet/07/30/code.uibk. Accessed 28 th Apr 2003. Dwan.research. virus writers reaction was creating polymorphic viruses (Cronkhite and McCullough.com/antivirus/SciPapers/VB2000SG. (2002). we can easily realize the growing threat of computer viruses towards home users. pp.htm Accessed 27 th Apr 2003. Opera.com/Articles.ibm. or to prove their technical ability. “Melissa virus creator jailed” http://news. (2001) Access Denied :The Complete Guide to Protecting Your Business Online. draw attention.bbc. (2002) COUNTER HACK A step-by-Step Guide to Computer Attacks and Effective Defenses. J. 2000(12).cnn. their motivations could be the need to express their dissatisfaction with their social level.