Foreword

I will begin by stating that I am a diehard metal fan and that’s the main reason why I’ve
chosen to write and speak on this topic.

Metal is not only the music of the people victimized by prejudicial cliché such as :
satanism , sex , drugs , anarchy etc. Of course metal has its darker aspects but it is not
only dark … on the whole. Metal music and the metalheads have never been
understood , and maybe , that’s a reason why we enjoy it that much.

I like it because of the energy, raw emotion, lyrical meanings, rhythms, technicality,
progression, diversity, loudness, rebelliousness, and how freely expressive it can be.
Metal can kick out every single heartbeat that your heart struggles to pump while you’re
hearing the music. It throws right in your face an oftentimes "epic", exciting approach of
songwriting. I also like how it can vary in its pace.

Some songs can be really fast and technical while other songs can be slow and heavy.
There is really a huge discrepancy in the sub-genres of metal. A ton of different styles to
get into, and even if you're not comfortable with certain styles initially, they might grow
on you. (ex. black metal usually isn't the first genre people get into, since genres like
power metal are more "beginner friendly".)

And that’s what I’ve tried to emphasize in this presentation , the variety of metal genres.
From heavier to softer , from glam to thrash , from shock to black I am going present the
main genres and their biggest names that had built the biggest , roughest , nastiest ,
nicest and most loyal audience and fans army in music industry.

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Heavy metal
1969-1971
Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, vivid rhythms, dense
bass-and-drum sound, and vigorous vocals. Metal genres may have different speed
rhythms, different tunings, different looking styles and different vocal ranges but it all
started in the late ’60s early ’70s.
The typical band lineup consists of a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead
guitarist, and a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist. Keyboard instruments
are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. The electric guitar and the
sonic power that it projects through amplification has historically been the key element
in heavy metal.
The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of high volumes and heavy
distortion. The lead role of the guitar in heavy metal often collides with the traditional
"frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two
"contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry"(Jon Pareles). Heavy metal
"demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band.
The classic uniform of heavy metal fans consists of light colored, ripped frayed or torn
blue jeans, black T-shirts, boots and black leather or jeans jackets.... T-shirts are
generally emblazoned with the logos or other visual representations of favorite metal
bands." Metal fans also "appropriated elements from the S&M community (chains, metal
studs, skulls, leather and crosses)." In the 1980s, a range of sources, from punk and

5

Metal vocals vary widely in style. Eric Adams (Manowar). from the multioctave. Bruce Dickinson (Iron Maiden). King Diamond (Mercyful Fate. King Diamond). to the growling of many death metal performers. Ronnie James Dio (Rainbow. influenced metal fashion.Jorn Lande (Millenium.Black Sabbath). theatrical approach of Judas Priest's Rob Halford and Iron Maiden's Bruce Dickinson. to the gruff style of Motörhead's Lemmy and Metallica's James Hetfield. Many metal performers of the 1970s and 1980s used radically shaped and brightly colored instruments to enhance their stage appearance. and to the harsh screams of black metal. Graham Bonnet (Rainbow).goth music to horror films. Rob Halford (Judas Priest). Ian Gillan (Deep Purple). Michael Kiske (exHelloween) 6 .Jorn Lande).Geoff Tate (Queensryche).

an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton in the early 1980s..to play the intricate patterns" used in metal. The essence of metal drumming is creating a loud. For certain artists and bands. and dexterity. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy".. according to Weinstein. and the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. and precision”. a heavy metal band's "image" is expressed in album sleeve art. Cliff Burton 10Feb. clothing. by the 1980s and 1990s heavy metal hair "symbolised the hate. Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument. power. constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed.1986 . and drummers have to develop "considerable speed. visual imagery plays a large role in heavy metal. Lordi and Gwar have outrageous performance personas and stage shows. Down-the-back long hair. Long hair gave members of the metal community "the power 7 . angst and disenchantment of a generation that seemingly never felt at home.1962/27Sep. an approach popularized by Burton and Motörhead's Lemmy. and music videos. Kiss. In addition to its sound and lyrics. logos. coordination. stage sets." according to journalist Nader Rahman.The prominent role of the bass is also key to the metal sound.original bassist for Metallica Metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance". Some bassists use a distorted bass tone." Originally adopted from the hippie subculture. Some heavy metal acts such as Alice Cooper. is the "most crucial distinguishing feature of metal fashion.

Performances often included costumes and masks. With a career spanning the ‘70s to today." Joey Jordison(Slipknot) – Winner of the “Loudwire” Greatest metal drummer vote poll-2012 Shock Rock 1971-1978 Shock rock is an umbrella term for artists who combine rock music or metal with elements of theatrical shock value in live performances. with expensive. American band leader Alice Cooper refined shock rock. Cooper's 8 . Shock rock also included elements of horror. such as feigning decapitation with the use of elaborate special effects. graphic stunts. upscale illusionary.they needed to rebel against nothing in general.In the early 1970s.

P. It arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States.A. and Marilyn Manson of the 1990s Kiss Alice Cooper-The Godfather of Shock Rock Twisted Sister W. Mötley Crüe and slade. while borrowing from the aesthetic of 1970s glam rock. pioneered by bands such as Ratt.. adding catchy looks and guitar riffs. – We Are Sexual Prophets Glam metal 1973-1987 Glam metal (also known as hair metal and often used synonymously with pop metal) is a subgenre of hard rock and heavy metal. and King Diamond of the 1980s. Gwar. complete with sardonic and inevitably controversial lyrics. particularly on the Los Angeles Sunset Strip music scene.S.A.unique blend of heavy metal and the folk blues. It combines elements of these genres with psoft rock and pop music.P. proved a powerful inspiration for many future genre artists such as KISS of the mid 1970s. It was popular throughout the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s.S. bringing to 9 . W.

use of make-up. and headbands). slow. emotional songs that gradually build to a strong finale. which were widely covered in the tabloid press. concerns inherited from blues music. with songs often directed at a particular woman.prominence bands including Poison. Mr. Wihte Lion and Withsnake.Glam metal performers became infamous for their debauched lifestyles of late-night parties. gaudy clothing and accessories (chiefly consisting of tight denim or leather jeans. particularly in the characteristic power ballads. Warrant . Cinderella . Poison – one of the biggest names of glam metal metal band on MTV Lizzy Borden-first glam Motley Crue – Most famous glam band Like other heavy metal songs of the 1980s. whose establishment coincided with the rise of the genre.Big . spandex .latex. These were among the most commercially successful singles in the genre and opened it up to a wider audience that would not have been attracted to traditional heavy metal.The visual aspects of glam metal appealed to music television producers. Aesthetically glam metal draws heavily on the glam rock or glitter rock of the 1970s. Lyrical themes often deal with love and lust. often with very long backcombed hair. particularly MTV. they often feature shred guitar solos.They also include extensive use of harmonies. Heaven . 10 .

folk and science fiction themes.Power metal 1976-1987 Power metal is a subgenre of heavy metal combining characteristics of traditional metal with speed metal. Power metal bands usually have anthem-like songs with fantasy-based subject matter and strong choruses. concentrated around medieval.It is mentioned that songs "Stargazer" and "Kill the King". dramatic and emotionally "powerful" sound. directly influenced modern power metal bands. from the 1976 album Rising and 1978 Long Live Rock 'n' Roll respectively. in contrast to the heaviness and dissonance prevalent in styles such as doom metal and death metal. Anthropologist Sam Dunn traced the origins of power metal back to the late 1970s. Generally. thus creating a theatrical. renaissance. 11 . often within symphonic context. when the groundwork for power metal lyrical style was laid down by Ronnie James Dio. power metal is characterized by a more uplifting sound. might be among the earliest examples of power metal. The fantasy oriented lyrics he wrote for Rainbow.

devil horns sign and the best metal vocalist 12 .Helloween – pioneers of power metal inventer of the Dio – father of power metal .

war and death. are almost guaranteed. power metal vocals are often in a high register. personal struggles and emotions. with a harmonic tempo of once per measure or slower. Fast and demanding guitar solos. however. Power metal guitarists and bassists generally play rapid streams of notes. 13 . Power metal is highly focused on the vocalist. and the singers vocal range is usually wide. often focus on fantasy and mythology. Michael Kiske. but change chords comparatively slowly. with "clean" vocals being much more prevalent than the growling vocals often associated with extreme metal. camaraderie and hope. Power metal's lyrical themes. with his accurate and fast neoclassical style.The emergence of the early German power metal scene in particular was made possible by Scorpions and Accept. which was further incorporated into the genre. Inspired by Ronnie James Dio. Swedish guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen made a significant impact on many future power metal guitarists. American band Manowar's mythological sword and sorcery lyrics influenced a number of power metal bands. His bandmate Jens Johansson modernized the keyboard sound of Deep Purple's Jon Lord. Rob Halford. though as varied as metal itself. Geoff Tate and other heavy metal vocalists. or combinations of the listed themes.

punk rock bands eschewed perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. stripped-down instrumentation. to describe garage bands and their devotees. The term "punk" was first used in relation to rock music by some American critics in the 1970s. The Clash and The Damned in London and Television and the Ramones in New York City were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. hard-edged music. expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies. Rooted in garage rock. United States. 14 . giving rise to post-punk and the alternative rock movement. By late 1976.Punk 1976-1987 Punk rock is a rock/metal music genre that developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United Kingdom. The following year saw punk rock and metal spreading around the world. bands such as the Sex Pistols. faster. more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! had become the predominant mode of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued a broad range of other variations. typically with short songs. and Australia.horror punk The Exploited By the beginning of the 1980s. antiestablishment lyrics.They had their unique trashy look combined with strange messy haircuts. An associated punk subculture emerged. and often political.metal and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music. The Ramones The Clash Misfits. For the most part. punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. Punk bands created fast. and it became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom.

Punk speaks about rebellion and anarchy. including both participants of the left-wing alternative scene and neo-Nazi skinheads..'against the system'. Before turning in a mainstream direction in the 1980s.The first wave of punk rock aimed to be aggressively modern. These opposing factions were mutually attracted by a view of punk rock as "politically as well as musically. distancing itself from the bombast and sentimentality of early 1970s rock. punk attracted a politically conscious and diverse audience.. 15 .

or NWOBHM /n ˈwɒbm/. or more correctly NWBHM was a heavy metal movement that started in the late 1970s. After Sounds editor Alan Lewis coined the term. and achieved international attention by the early 1980s. journalist Geoff Barton first used it in the May 1979 issue of Sounds magazine as a way of describing a second wave of 16 . in Britain.Propaganda sign promoted by punk kids Sid Vicios wearing a nazi swastika t- shirt The oficial punk anarchy sign New wave of bitish heavy metal 1977-1983 The New Wave of British Heavy Metal.

Thrash metal 1983-1990 17 . taking a harder approach to its music.NWOBHM bands toned down the blues influences of earlier acts. incorporated elements of punk. acts such as the American metal band Metallica cite NWOBHM bands like Iron Maiden. The movement developed as a reaction in part to the decline of early heavy metal bands such as Led Zeppelin.heavy metal bands that emerged in the late 1970s during the period of punk rock's decline and the dominance of New Wave music. increased the tempo. Deep Purple and Black Sabbath. Saxon. and adopted a "tougher" sound. It was an era directed almost exclusively at heavy metal fans and is considered to be a major foundation stone for the extreme metal genres. Motörhead and Diamond Head as a major influence on their musical style.

thrash metal songs often deal with social issues and reproach for The Establishment. Lyrical themes in thrash metal include isolation. and Anthrax due to their status as pioneers of the genre in the 1980s. Thrash lead guitarists are often influenced by the New Wave of British Heavy Metal movement. typical of most rock music. alienation. Some common characteristics of thrash metal are fast guitar riffs with aggressive picking styles and fast guitar solos.Thrash metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal that is characterized most typically by its fast tempo and aggression. are Metallica. or a double-bass pedal. low-register. suicide. complex guitar riffs. the four bands widely regarded as the genre's most successful and influential acts. particularly pessimism or dissatisfaction towards politics. Megadeth. and extensive use of two bass drums as opposed to the conventional use of only one. speed metal. murder. The origins of thrash metal are generally traced to the late 1970s and early 1980s. when a number of predominantly American bands began fusing elements of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal with the speed and aggression of hardcore punk. a less aggressive. and is thought to have emerged at least in part as a reaction to the more conventional and widely acceptable sounds and themes of glam metal. in order to create a relentless. Thrash metal songs typically use fast percussive beats and fast. pacing and time-changes also define thrash metal. Slayer. Thrash tends to have an accelerating feel which may be due in large part to its aggressive drumming style. thrash drummers often use two bass drums.Thrash metal rhythm guitar parts are often palm-muted to create a tighter and more precise sound. Thrash metal's "Big Four". highregister guitar solos and double bass drumming. Thrash metal is more aggressive compared to its relative. injustice. 18 . overlaid with shredding-style lead work. an approach which partially overlaps with the hardcore genre. Speed. In addition. pop music-infused heavy metal sub-genre which emerged simultaneously. often using direct and denunciatory language.Lyrically. warfare. politics. addiction. is a common theme among thrash metal bands. Thrash metal generally features fast tempos. and other maladies that afflict the individual and society. corruption. driving beat. low-register guitar riffs. For example.

Thrash was the birthplace of the true mosh pits. During the 80’s in the thrash underground movement “Death to posers” and “No latex allowed” sign could be found everywhere this inspired Metallicato name their debut album “Kill’em all”.The genre himself appeared as areaction to glam scene. The original Metallica-pioneers Slayer-the heaviest band ever Hardcore 1987-1993 19 .This agression led to the invention of moshing.circle pits and wall of death “dancing”.Thrash has maybe the most loyal fans.Thrash fans are apossed to glam posers and scenes kids.

and "30 Years of northwest punk. invaded the stage. The early 1980s hardcore punk scene developed slam dancing and stage diving. including John Belushi and members of a few hardcore punk bands.Hardcore punk (usually referred to simply as hardcore) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. Hardcore was heavily involved with the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980sIt has influenced a number of music genres which have experienced mainstream success. thrash metal. post-hardcore. and hip-hop. metalcore. heavier. alternative metal. The Decline of Western Civilization. Hardcore historian Steven Blush says that the term "hardcore" is also a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existin Blush also states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk."One definition of the genre is "a form of exceptionally harsh punk rock. and more abrasive than regular punk rock. American Hardcore. and its associated submovements. Other early examples of American hardcore dancing can be seen in the documentaries Another State of Mind. hardline and youth crew. Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movements. Urban Struggle. damaged studio equipment and used profanity.The origin of the term "hardcore punk" is uncertain. tobacco. First wave of black metal 1984-1990 20 . grunge. and other recreational drugs. Those band members included John Joseph of Cro-Mags and Ian Mackaye of Minor Threat. Hardcore music is generally faster."g punk and new wave music. such as alternative rock. whose adherents refrain from using alcohol. A performance by Fear on the 1981 Halloween episode of Saturday Night Live was cut short when slam dancers.

paganism or Satanism. many artists have begun to focus more on topics like winter. misanthropy. Other oftexplored themes are depression. There is also a small neo-Nazi movement within black metal.death and other dark topics. the most common lyrical theme is opposition to Christianity and other organized religions. nature. As part of this. mythology. black metal is often met with hostility from mainstream culture. Many artists express extreme anti-Christian and misanthropic views. Hellhammer and Celtic Frost. Black metal was originally used as a term for extreme metal bands with Satanic and anti-Christian lyrics.During the 1980s. and several of the genre's "second wave" pioneers have been convicted for church burnings and murder. antitheism. The anti-Christianity of secular or pagan artists is often linked to the Christianization of their countries. over time. However. folklore. several thrash metal and death metal bands formed a prototype for black metal. Death metal 1985-1995 21 .Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. nihilism. shrieked vocals. Initially a synonym for "Satanic metal". highly distorted guitars played.This so-called "first wave" included bands such as Venom. blast beat drumming. raw recording and unconventional song structures. Bathory. Common traits include fast tempos. today. philosophy and fantasy. although most fans and prominent artists shun Nazism and oppose its influence on black metal. many artists write lyrics that could be seen to promote atheism.

being heard in songs by Death. It typically employs heavily distorted guitars. Death metal vocals are referred to as death growls.Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. Grunge 1988-1993 22 . Dying Fetus. Although often criticized. death metal gained more media attention as popular genre niche record labels like Combat. Carcass. and while growling can be performed this way by experienced vocalists who use the fry screaming technique. Possessed and Death. spawning a variety of subgenres.Celtic Frost. deep growling vocals. Cannibal Corpse. and Deicide.Metal bands such as Slayer. Sepultura. Death growling is mistakenly thought to be a form of screaming using the lowest vocal register known as vocal fry. Earache and Roadrunner began to sign death metal bands at a rapid rate. death growls serve the aesthetic purpose of matching death metal's aggressive lyrical content. Building from the musical structure of thrash metal and early black metal. however vocal fry is actually a form of overtone screaming. "true" death growling is in fact created by an altogether different technique. hoarse roars/snarls.High-pitched screaming is occasionally utilized in death metal. Exhumed. Kreator. double kick and/or blast beat drumming. death metal emerged during the mid-1980s. Cannibal Corpse and Morbid Angel are often considered pioneers of the genre. along with bands such as Obituary.and Venom were very important influences to the crafting of the genre.Since then. and multiple tempo changes.In the late 1980s and early 1990s. minor keys or atonality. Deicide. death metal has diversified.

Nirvana's Kurt Cobain.Grunge is generally characterized by a sludgy guitar sound that uses a high level of distortion. Norwegian black metal 1990-1998 23 . it also involves much slower tempos. The grunge aesthetic is strippeddown compared with other forms of rock music. due mainly to the release of Nirvana's Nevermind and Pearl Jam's Ten. their influence continues to affect modern rock music. and alternative rock.Grunge (sometimes referred to as the Seattle sound) is a subgenre of alternative rock/metal that emerged during the late-1980s in the American state of Washington. However. dissonant harmonies. Grunge fuses elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal. Inspired by hardcore punk. A number of factors contributed to grunge's decline in prominence. The music shares with punk a raw sound and similar lyrical concerns. particularly in the Seattle area. Lyrics are typically angst-filled. apathy. often addressing themes such as social alienation. fuzz and feedback effects. and more complex instrumentation—which is reminiscent of heavy metal. During the mid-1990s many grunge bands broke up or became less visible. Grunge became commercially successful in the first half of the 1990s. appeared "unusually tortured by success" and struggled with an addiction to heroin before he committed suicide at the age of 27 in 1994. contrasting song dynamics and apathetic or angst-filled lyrics.Grunge bands had made inroads to the musical mainstream in the late 1980s. The early grunge movement coalesced around Seattle independent record label Sub Pop in the late 1980s. heavy metal. and many grunge musicians were noted for their unkempt appearances and rejection of theatrics. The success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of heavy metal music at the time. confinement. Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s. grunge is generally characterized by heavily distorted electric guitars. and a desire for freedom.

Varg Vikernes-Mayhem/Burzum Immortal 24 . many of whom gathered at the record shop Helvete ("Hell") in Oslo. in which guitarists played full chords using all the strings of the guitar in place of power chords using only two or three strings.The Norwegian black metal scene was a music scene and subculture in Norway during the early 1990s. who often exaggerated the claims surrounding its members. For example. The scene was the focus of controversy due to the strong anti-Christian beliefs of its members and the crimes they committed. He described it as being "derived from Bathory" and noted that "those kinds of riffs became the new order for a lot of bands in the '90s". which became a way for black metal artists to distinguish themselves from other metal bands of the time. and other allegedly "Satanically-motivated" crimes. based around black metal. Visually. The Norwegian bands developed the style of their 1980s forebears as a distinct genre of heavy metal music.Gylve 'Fenriz' Nagell of Darkthrone has credited them with this innovation in a number of interviews. the dark themes of their music was complemented with corpsepaint. There were two cases of murder. The scene drew the gaze of the Norwegian and international media. one Norwegian TV channel aired an interview with a woman who claimed that "Satanists" had sacrificed her child and killed her dog. This was partly thanks to a new style of guitar playing developed by Øystein 'Euronymous' Aarseth of Mayhem. Identified by some as a cult – "The Black Circle" or "Black Metal Inner Circle" – it consisted of youths ranging from late teens to mid-twenties. over twodozen cases of arson.

[8][9] Fellow musicians described Dead as odd.On 8 April 1991. One of these photographs was later used as the cover of a bootleg live album: Dawn of the Black Hearts. I think it was Dead's suicide that really changed the scene". by Mayhem guitarist Euronymous. 25 . The band later denied the former rumor. introverted and depressed. Mayhem bassist Jørn 'Necrobutcher' Stubberud noted that "people became more aware of the [black metal] scene after Dead had shot himself . Euronymous used Dead's suicide to foster Mayhem's 'evil' image and claimed Dead had killed himself because extreme metal had become 'trendy' and commercialized.Before calling the police. Euronymous allegedly went to a nearby shop and bought a disposable camera with which he photographed the body. rumors spread that Euronymous had made a stew with bits of Dead's brain and had made necklaces with bits of his skull. but confirmed that the latter was true. In time.. after re-arranging some items. Dead's suicide note apologized for firing the weapon indoors and ended: "Excuse all the blood". the black metal scene began its obsession with all things satanic and evil". a slit throat and a shotgun wound to the head.. Mayhem vocalist Per Yngve Ohlin (who called himself 'Dead') committed suicide while alone in a house shared by the band. He was found with slit wrists. under Euronymous's direction. Before going onstage he went to great lengths to make himself look like a corpse and would cut his arms while singing.Emperor drummer Bård 'Faust' Eithun believes that Dead's suicide "marked the point at which.

Watain . In the early 1990s. the first Swedish bands were rooted in punk rock. Newer bands playing in the "old school" Swedish style include Marduk . thus giving Swedish metal a different sound from other variations of death or black metal. who would subsequently become a primary influence for the black metal scene.Sweidish death/black metal 1990-1998 Swedish death and black metal represent a huge music scene developed in Sweden. Gothenburg in Sweden has a large melodic scene. According to Stewart Mason of Allmusic. the "increasingly melodic" style of Swedish death metal combines the post-hardcore aggression and guttural vocals of black metal with melodic and technically proficient guitar lines. especially the D-beat hardcore punk scene. Unlike American groups. Unlike American groups. Dark Tranquility and Dissection. the Swedish metal scene's earliest originators were influenced by punk rock. Bathory. Although Norway is known for its quantity of black metal. while Stockholm is known for its more raw death metal scene. Many Swedish death and black metal bands are associated with the melodic death movement. two death metal scenes emerged in Gothenburg and Stockholm. 26 . were a pivotal group in Swedish extreme metal.

In the 21st century. Pioneers of gothic metal (although the band itself never claim the title of gothic-metal) are Anathema. romantic. passionate and intense. The music of gothic metal is diverse with bands known to adopt the gothic approach to different styles of heavy metal music. The music of gothic metal is generally characterised by its dark atmospheres. Cradle of Filth brought the gothic approach to black metal. During the mid-1990s.Gothic/goth metal 1990-1997 Gothic metal (or goth metal) is a subgenre of heavy metal that combines the heaviness of doom metal with the dark atmospheres of gothic rock. Lyrics are generally dark and introspective with inspiration from gothic fiction as well as personal experiences.Gothic 27 . from the north of England. only a few bands such as HIM and Cradle of Filth have found commercial success. gothic metal has moved towards the mainstream in Europe. a fusion of death metal and doom metal. however. In the US. The genre originated during the early 1990s in Europe originally as an outgrowth of death-doom. particularly in Finland where groups such as HIM have released hit singles or chart-topping albums.The adjective "dark" is commonly used to describe gothic music in general while other terms that are less frequently used include deep.

In general. using repeating metal guitar riffs. white noise. serial killers and the occult. sampling. etc. from "slow and crushing variations" to "orchestral and bombastic".metal has also sometimes been viewed as "a combination of the darkness and melancholy of goth rock with heavy metal". The first industrial artists experimented with noise and aesthetically controversial topics. synthesizers.Founding industrial metal acts include Ministry. "initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments (tape music. where it would eventually sell close to 35 million units. The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by the band Throbbing Gristle. musically and visually. the style is harsh and challenging. particularly in North America. musique concrète. Industrial metal blossomed in the early 1990s. Allmusic defines industrial as the "most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music". Industrial metal 1990-2000 Industrial music is a style of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes. thrash metal and hardcore punk. Gothic metal is a varied genre with bands pursuing many different directions. and distorted vocals. sequencers.) and punk provocation". It first became a commercial force in 1992 when Nine Inch Nails' Broken and Ministry's Psalm 69 went platinum in America. if not more so". synthesizer or sequencer lines. such as fascism. icy atmospherics of goth rock with the loud guitars and aggression of heavy metal" and further notes that "true goth metal is always directly influenced by goth rock — ethereal synths and spooky textures are just as important as guitar riffs. Industrial metal is a musical genre that draws from industrial dance music. though 28 . and the creation of the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". Allmusic defines the genre as a fusion of "the bleak.

came to prominence. The group's live performance and its transgressive appeal was often more commented on than their music. funk metal. New Wave music. sometimes using multiple of these styles within one song. jazz. industrial metal. Following Nine Inch Nails' success. Sepultura. Ministry Marilyn Manson Nu metal 1995-2000 Nu metal (also known as nü-metal or new metal) is a subgenre of alternative metal and alternative rock. Disturbed. Nu metal also derives influences from multiple sub-genres of heavy metal including rap metal. Metallica and Anthrax have also been cited as influential to nu metal. glam metal. It is a fusion genre which combines sounds.] Anthrax pioneered the rap metal sound by fusing hip hop with metal on their EP I'm the Man. It is classed as part of alternative metal. gothic rock. funk.the latter took three years to reach that status. Bands associated with nu metal have derived influence from a variety of diverse styles. screaming and death growling. Linkin Park. Deftones. Limp Bizkit. Nu metal vocal styles range between singing. including electronic music. its top-selling artists sold around 17. hip hop.Industrial metal reached its commercial zenith in the latter half of the 1990s – according to the RIAA databases. Notable nu metal bands include Korn. Groove metal and thrash metal bands of the same era such as Pantera. alternative metal and thrash metal. symphonic rock and synthpop. Many nu metal bands use seven-string guitars (which are sometimes downtuned to increase heaviness) over traditional six29 . and Slipknot. hardcore punk. Marilyn Manson. rapping. The lyrics of many nu metal bands focus on pain and personal alienation. post-punk. influences and characteristics of punk and metal with genres such as hip hop and grunge.5 million units combined.

turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. but often with 'clean' or 'sung' vocals as ear candy.string guitars. In the book New Wave of American Heavy Metal. but often just briefly. tending towards groove metal in rhythm. but play a type of acrobatic. these bands huddle around Pantera-derived roar. Another contrast with other metal genres is its emphasis on rhythm. DJs are also sometimes used for additional rhythmic instrumentation such as music sampling. Nu metal bassists and drummers often draw influence from funk and hip hop break beats. respectively. technical thrash/death metal synthesis regularly touched by the melody of traditional metal. Vocally. New wave of american metal 2000 The New Wave of American Heavy Metal (NWOAHM) is a heavy metal music movement that originated in the United States during the early to mid-1990s and has expanded most in the recent 2000s." Producers behind the 2005 documentary Metal: A Headbanger's Journey write of the NWOAHM: "In essence. Garry Sharpe-Young helps classify the NWOAHM as a "marriage of European-style riffing and throaty vocals". helping add to the rhythmic nature of the genre. Nu metal music is largely syncopated and based on guitar riffs.This results in bass guitarists using five-string and six string instruments. Several of the bands within the NWOAHM are credited with bringing heavy metal back into the mainstream. thrash metal and punk. sometimes from a member of the band who is not the front man. precise. leaning toward a death metal bark. The New Wave of American Heavy Metal movement has its origins in a group of post-grunge acts from the 1990s that brought heavy metal "back to its core brutality and drawing not from the traditional blues formula but from NY. rather than complexity or mood." The producers also reference Machine Head and Lamb of God as "leaders of the pack" 30 . in which guitar solos play a major role.Mid-song bridges and a general lack of guitar solos contrasts it with other genres that part of heavy metal. NWOAHM can embody the seething aggression of the 'hardcore' hormone.

org/wiki/Shock_rock http://en.Directed by John Heyn and Jeff Krulik (1986) http://en.htm http://en.Biblography Metal Evolution (2011) -TV Series -Documentary | Reality-TV by anthropologist Sam Dunn A Headbanger’s Journey (2005) – Documentary directed by anthropologist Sam Dunn Global Metal (2008 .Follow up to A Headbangers Journey) Get Thrashed: The Story of Thrash Metal (2006) directed by Rick Ernst Until the Light Takes Us (2008) (about the ideology of black metal) directed by Aaron Aites.org/wiki/Punk_subculture http://newwaveofbritishheavymetal.org/wiki/Heavy_metal_music http://en.ro/ 31 . Audrey Ewell ‘Heavy Metal Parking Lot’ .blogspot.about.wikipedia.wikipedia.wikipedia.wikipedia.com/od/heavymetal101/p/powermetal.org/wiki/Glam_metal http://heavymetal.

com/genre/Nu+Metal/ New Wave of American Heavy Metal (book) By: Garry Sharpe–Young 32 .wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_metal http://rateyourmusic.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardcore_punk http://en.org/wiki/Grunge http://en.org/wiki/Gothic_metal http://en.wikipedia.http://rateyourmusic.org/wiki/Early_Norwegian_black_metal_scene http://en.wikipedia.wikipedia.com/list/skunkspritz/first_wave_of_black_metal_timeline_and_bands/ http://en.org/wiki/Death_metal http://en.