CHAPTER 2 LOGIC

Classification of terms
Simple apprehension
-is defined as the first act of the intellect by
which it knows the essence or nature of the
thing without affirming or denying about it.
Idea

Univocal
-is term used in an identical sense.
-it expresses only one meaning or sense
when applied to several objects.
A term maybe univocal if it falls under the
following conditions:

-the mental product of apprehension.
-it is the mental or intellectual image or
representation of the object, because it
represents the object or thing in the intellect.
Term
-the external manifestation or sign of an
idea.
-idea exists in the mind, but when it is
expressed or manifested verbally, then it
becomes a term.

The term has no other possible meanings
other than itself.
The term used is defined.
Terms used are taken to signify one
meaning or two instances.
2. Equivocal
-is term that expresses two or more different
unrelated meanings.
-may be externally the same, but different in
sense.
a.Pronunciation
peak-pick
reign-rain
son-sun
b. Spelling

Comprehension-is the sum total of the
attributes or thought elements which
constitute the idea.
it is the meaning, the signification,
the thought-content or connotation of
the idea.

ground-surface of the earth, or
motive, past tense of grind
hunk means a very large person, a
chunk.
trunk of a tree, of a car
c. Both in spelling and pronuciation

Extension -is the sum total of the
individuals, things or beings or groups to
which the idea can be applied.
book(comprehension)
A set of written, printed, or blank pages
fastened along one side and encased
between protective covers.
Basic Handbook in Logic, The Alchemist,
Harry Potter, The Da Vinci Code (extension)

head-head

star-star

3. Analogous -is a term that expresses a
meaning that is partly different and partly
the same, or meanings that are related.
pretty chair, pretty face.
bad days, bad breath

Definition -is a statement which explains
what a thing is.

Predicaments. A four sided polygon is a square. 3. many. Etymological definition-gives the origin of the word Polygamy.) Clearer than the subject being defined 2. -they are the basic manners of being to which all reality can be reduced.refer to the set of fundamental ideas in terms of which all other ideas can be expressed.) Nominal -simply explains the meaning of a term or word. man) is when a woman has more than one wife. father husband leader teacher brother mistress 5. Relation. word (1) Substance -it is that which has its existence not in another but in and for itself. Quantity-the modification of a substance as regards the effect of having extension and divisibility. 3. 2. long 100 pesos 200 sq. e. Rules of definition 1.the manner in which substances refer to each other. -formal determination of a substance which may be a disposition. Quality Polyandry(“andros”.g. . m. Real definition -tells what the thing is.) The definition must not contain the term being defined. a.) Should be affirmative not negative Definition= Definiens (defining term) Kinds of Definition Predicaments and Predicables 1. b.(“poly”.) The definition must be convertible with the term being defined. ostensive definition-indicates the meaning of a term by showing or pointing at the object. Action -production of an effect in another. 50 kgs 25 ft. Accident it refers to everything added to a substance as a further determination.synonym-equivalent term or tree Boo-boo-mistake cordial-friendly Nota bene-note well c.g. -clarifies the question regarding its nature.definiendum(term to defined) square-is a four sided polygon.= invalid 4. e. “gamos” marriage) means many marriages 2.plant dog man ballpen table Contraband-smuggling B.. capacity or the form and figure of a thing. Intelligent hot Red figure of a woman soft 4.

today Now tomorrow Last time next week 3.Running Walking swimming dancing 6. *Water freezes at 32°C. not by natural necessity. Posture -determination of the substance as the disposition of its parts. -answers the question “what is it?” *Man is an animal. Passion -reception of an effect from another. Habit -determination of the substance as to the external appearance or outfit. that part is common with other speciesin the same class. At 8 p. that part which differentiates it from that of other species.e. boils at 100°C. In red gown Clothed in black suit Covered with lace Predicables refer to the kinds of relations which may be obtained between a term and the subject of which it is predicated. *Hammer is a tool. but by contingency. 1. When (time) -situation in time e. *Man is a rational animal.) Property -a universal idea that expresses an attribute that belongs to the thing by natural necessity.)Genus.a universal idea that expresses the complete essence of a thing.g. )Species . 8.Being killed are burned was shot being accepted -answers the question “what differentiates it from that of other species?” *Man is rational. *Hammer is a tool used for pounding nails. *Hammer is used for pounding nails. i. *A pentagon is a polygon.)Specific difference -a universal idea which expresses a part of the essence of a thing. *Man is capable of learning grammar.m. Where (place) -position or localization of the substance in space. *A pentagon is five-sided. of thinking. 2.a universal idea which expresses a part of the essence of a thing. e. . *A pentagon is a five-sided polygon. 9. -It is constituted by adding the specific difference to the genus.g. Here in the office at home park Jollibee 4. of morality. Lying standing squatting Sitting stooping slanting *Triangle has angles that add up to 180°. 10. Logical Accident -a universal idea that is not a part of the essence of a thing but something that belongs to the thing. *The bridal gown looks elegant. 5. that something is but need not be *Jose is tall and intelligent. of laughter. 7.