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Kanakakkunnu Palace, Thiruvananthapuram
December 21-30, 2012

NBC 2012


Dr. Oommen V. Oommen

Dr. K.P. Laladhas

(Chairman, KSBB)

(Member Secretary, KSBB)

Dr. N. Omanakumari

Dr. K.G. Sreekumar

Dr. K. Mohanakurup

(Member, KSBB)

(Member, KSBB)

(Member, KSBB)

Dr. Achuthsankar S. Nair

Dr. A.K. Sherief

G. Rajeev

Dr. V.S. Jayakumar

(Member, KSBB)

(Member, KSBB)

(Addl Secretary, Dep. of Envt)



Kanakakkunnu Palace, Thiruvananthapuram, December 21-30, 2012

NBC Logo release by Honble Chief Minister Shri. Oommen Chandy in the presence
of Chairman, NBA, Dr. Balakrishna Pisupati and Pricipal Secretary, Environment
(Kerala) Shri. James Varghese.



he biodiversity we have inherited today is the result of generations of evolution,

shaped by nature's gentle touch. Biodiversity provides incredible ecosystem

services that sustain our lives and the loss of biodiversity will threaten our very existence.
The vast array of domesticated plants and animals is shrinking rapidly as modern intensive
commercial agriculture focuses on few crop varieties. Farmers' traditional knowledge is
central to both sustaining biodiversity and ensuring global food security. This knowledge
is rapidly being eroded, undermining the important contributions that the real custodians
of biodiversity can make.
The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 calls for effective and urgent action to halt
the loss of biodiversity in order to ensure that by 2020, ecosystems are resilient and
continue to provide essential services, thereby securing the planet's variety of life. The
clock towards 2020 is ticking and urgent measures are needed right from grass root level
to meet the targets and to halt the loss of biological diversity. Kerala State Biodiversity
Board has taken the initiative in hosting the first National Biodiversity Congress (NBC
2012) at the quaint capital city of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram. NBC 2012 conducted in
the wake of CoP11 will continue as a national annual event and the next NBC 2013 is
planned to be organised at Kolkata from October 3-5, 2013 with the focal theme Leading
from behind.
NBC-2012 hosted by Kerala State Biodiversity Board under the auspices of National
Biodiversity Authority and supported by all State Biodiversity Boards is a national level
colloquium of scientists, conservationists, environmentalists, farmers, youth and all other
grass root level conservationists who are interested in leaving a positive footprint in
conserving our rich heritage. The major objective of the congress was to showcase the
richness of biological, cultural and ecological heritage of our country, create public
awareness of the need for conservation of biodiversity and the ecological services it
provides through exhibitions, pre conference workshops, road shows, photography
contest, children's ecological congress etc. National Biodiversity conference was
organised with the express purpose of development of a strategic plan for the conservation
of biodiversity and to chalk out conservation initiatives for meeting the Aichi biodiversity
Venue: Kanakakkunnu Palace,
December 21-30, 2012

targets and mainstreaming conservation in policy making and to identify key issues in the


NBC 2012

Dates and Venue

The National Biodiversity Congress was conducted at the picturesque settings of
Kananakkunnu palace grounds and the various programmes held in conjunction includes
National Biodiversity Expo 2012
Capacity Building workshops
Biodiversity popularization programme
National Biodiversity Conference
Children's ecological congress


21- 30 December 2012

22, 26 December 2012
15-30 December 2012
27- 30 December 2012
29-30 December 2012

National Biodiversity Expo -2012

xpo 2012 was held at Kanakakkunnu Palace

National Biodiversity Expo -2012, jointly organized by

Grounds, Thiruvananthapuram from December

National Biodiversity Authority and Kerala State

21, 2012 to December 30, 2012. The exhibition held in

Biodiversity Board, was inaugurated on December 21st

conjunction with NBC 2012 is a unique exhibition

by Honble Minister for Home Shri. Thiruvanchoor

focusing on the beauty and variety of life on our planet

RadhaKrishnan. Sustainable development is the best

and allowed the visitor to explore Earth's incredible

form of development and it can be achieved only if

variety of wildlife, habitats, and cultures. The event

development and environment protection go hand in

generated a lot of curiosity among the general public and

hand, Home Minister Thiruvanchoor Radhakrishnan

helped in creating awareness regarding Biodiversity

has said.

conservation at grass root level. The exhibition was

chaired the meeting. He said that the Government of

successful in enhancing public awareness of the

Kerala will give thrust to Eco-friendly development.

importance of conserving biodiversity, of the threats and

Shri.V.S. Sivakumar released the newsletter Green

factors leading to biodiversity loss, the multiple aspects

Life and the book Invasive Plants of Kerala published

of biodiversity contributing to human well-being, as is

by Kerala State Biodiversity Board. Kerala State

evident from the huge turnout of curious public from all

Biodiversity Board Chairman Dr. Oommen V. Oommen,

walks of life. About 40,000 people visited the Expo. The

Member Secretary Dr. KP. Laladhas and Dr. K.G. Sree

expo was highly appreciated by visitors as well as media

kumar, Board Member addressed the gathering. About

for being very informative and attractive.

300 persons attended the inaugural function.

Minister for Health Shri.V.S. Sivakumar


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Inauguration of National Biodiversity Congress Expo 2012 by Hon. Minister for Home Shri. Thiruvanchoor Radhakrishnan
in the presence of Minister Shri. V.S. Sivakumar and other eminent members of Kerala State Biodiversity Board

Releasing of Newsletter Green Life by Minister

Shri. V.S. Sivakumar.

Shri. Thiruvanchoor Radhakrishnan lighting the lamp.

Releasing of the book Invasive Plants of Kerala

by Minister Shri. V.S. Sivakumar.

Many dignitaries including Hon'ble Chief Minister Mr. Oommen Chandy who visited the Expo remarked that the Expo
is very informative and excellent. Among the 150 stalls in the Expo, 100 were set up by Government Departments,
Boards, Research Stations and NGO's. About 80 organizations participated in the ten- day event. The stalls took the
audience through the myriad biodiversity of India, biogeographical zones, critically endangered flora and fauna,
biodiversity heritage sites, domesticated biodiversity, conservation measures, success stories, traditional varieties and
breeds. The picture gallery is a celebration of pristine nature, a gateway to stunning diversity of flora and fauna.
The major attraction of the Expo was the display on Western Ghats put up by the Central Ministry of Environment and
Forests through the National Museum of Natural History. It showcased a series of panels, each devoted to a particular
aspect of the multifarious biodiversity that cloaks the Western Ghats. The stunning photographs were accompanied by
informative text that stresses on issues such as population encroachment that threatens the ecological treasures of the
Western Ghats.


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Hon. Chief Minister of Kerala Shri. Oommen Chandy vising the NBC 2012 Expo pavilions
Panels and photographs in NBA stall revealed the rich biodiversity of the country and KSBB arranged stalls on the
theme-Kerala - the Biodiversity Paradise.
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute exhibited a 'conservative mariculture' mechanism. Series of posters set up
by the Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History highlighted the history of ornithology in India. MSSRF
showcased the rich biodiversity of food crops in Wayanad. KUFOS presented models of native fish catching
equipments used in Kerala and the rich biodiversity of the state. The Xylarium of rare trees exhibited by S.B.College,
Changanassery caught a lot of attention.
Other participants in the Expo are WWF- India, Tea Board, Coffee Board, Rubber Board, KELPALM, CPCRI, CTCRI,
KFRI, JNTBGRI, Kerala Forest Development Corporation, KIRTADS, Horticorp, Matsyafed, KSCSTE, KSRSEC,
Land Use Board, KLDB, Animal Husbandry Department, Dairy Development Department, Forest Department, State
Medicinal Plant Board, C-Sted, ATREE, Koonpura, State Institute of Languages, Publications Division Govt. of India,
Venom Informatics Centre, Pollution Control Board, KVASU, ANERT, Handicraft Development Corporation, Soil
Survey Department, Farm Information Bureau, Cashew Promotion Council, Women's Straw Craft, Sahyadri Natural
History Society, Sangamythri, Cut Flower Society, Prakrithi Bhavan, Agri-Horticultural Society, Mathrubhumi Seed,
Federation of Indigenous Apiculturists, Grama, Swadishta Mushrooms, Kudubasree, Janasree, Kerala Book Mark,
Gandhi Smaraka Nidhi, Encyclopaedia Publications, Santhigram, Sasthravedi, Bodhana, Santhigiri, Khadigram,
Navara Ecofarm, Biotech and Association of British Scholars. Tribal Healer's Camp and Ethnic Food Stalls were added
attractions of the Expo.
Closing ceremony of expo was held on 30th December. The award for the best pavilion was given by Dr. Balakrishna
Pisupati, Chairman, NBA to KMFRI, MSSRF, KUFOS, Soil Survey and Conservation Dept., Bio informatics Centre,
ATREE, Mr. Ravindran etc. Special award of excellence was given to National Museum of Natural History, Mysore.

Some of the attractions of NBC Expo 2012



s part of the National Biodiversity Congress 2012 and National Biodiversity Expo, programmes showing the rich
cultural diversity of Kerala were organized at Kanakakunnu Nishagandhi and Sooryakanthi open air auditoriums

named as Kalasandhya. Visitors to the Expo as well as conference delegates from various parts of the country and
abroad witnessed these programmes which were arranged by the Department of Tourism, Govt of Kerala and Kerala
Folklore academy. The programme timing was evening 6.30 onwards. The programmes included Theyyam,

NBC 2012

Cultural Programmes

Oattan thullal, Villadichan Pattu, Thayampaka, Nadan Pattu, Karnatic Music, Kathakali, Ganamela and Padayani.

On 21 December, Teyyam was performed by Shri. Sivadasan and group from Kannur.
On 22 December, Program was sponsored by Sensemusics Ganamela, Thiruvananthapuram, singing varied film
& album songs. Release of a new music album Ponkinakal was done by KSBB Chairman
Prof. Oommen V. Oommen to Member Secretary Dr. K.P. Laladhas.
On 23 December, Smt. Vanaja Sankar, Govt. Music College Principal, performed Carnatic Music Kacheri,
which was sponsored by KSBB.
On 24 December, Nadanpattu was performed by a folk group from varkala arranged by Folklore academy.
On 25 December, Kathakali was performed at Sooryakanthi by Mr. Vasudevan Namboodiri and group, which was
sponsored by KSBB.
On 26 December, Chavittunadakam was played by Kripasana Pauranika Kalakendra.
On 27 December, Two Cultural programs were conducted; Tayambaka by Margi Krishnas and Vilpattu by
Shri. Thalayil Kesavan Nair and group.
On 28 December, Oattanthullal was performed by Kalamandalam Mahadevan and group.
On 29 December, Padayani was performed by Devi Vilasom Padayani Sangam from Pattanamthitta.
Visitors including tourists gathered to see the programs & took photographs. These cultural programs revealed the
tradition and cultural heritage of Kerala.

Cultural diversity of Kerala



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Photography competition

photography competition, with 'Biodiversity

of Kerala' as the theme was organised in

connection with National Biodiversity Congress

2012. The response to the contest was tremendous
and 279 entries were received. The Judging
committee included wildlife photographers
Mr. Balan Madhavan, Mr. Suresh Elamon and news
photographer Mr. B.S. Prasannan. The prizes were
awarded to the winners by Honble Home Minister,
Shri. Thiruvanchoor Radhakrishnan at the inaugural
ceremony of NBC 2012 at Kanakakkunnu Palace .

Photo: Ullas G. Kalappura

Mr. Ullas G. Kalappura of Kattappana South,

Kunthalampara, Idukki, bagged the first prize of
Rs. 15001 along with a certificate and memento.
The second prize went to Mr. Jobymon C.P. of
Areepparambu, Kottayam and Benny Ajantha of
Vilivinal, Pathanamthitta won the third prize. The
cash awards for the second and third positions were
Rs. 10001 and Rs. 5001 respectively.

Photo: Jobymon C.P

The consolation prize was won by Mr. B.S. Biju,

Kadavoor, Kollam; Mr Rajan Kuttur, Kuttur, Thrissur;
Mr. Salim Pichan, Kalpetta, Wayanad; Mr. Babu
Thomas, Rajakkad, Idukki; Ms. D. Karthika,
Pulayanarkotta, Thiruvananthapuram; Mr. Prakash
Thachakkudy, Vanchiyoor, Thiruvananthapuram;
Mr. M.D. Bijulal, Kanjiramkulam, Thiruvananthapuram;Mr. Devdas, Ulloor, Thiruvananthapuram;
Mr. T. Anilkumar, Edappally, Kochi and
Mr. P. Karunakaran, Golf Links Road, Thiruvananthapuram.

Photo: Benny Ajantha


Haritha Sangamam (22. 12. 2012)

n conjunction with NBC 2012, a Haritha sangam was organised involving more than 150 farmers and conservationists.
Farmers have an increasing role as guardians of traditional as well as neglected and underutilized crops, vegetables and

tree species. Many of the local land races preserved by farmers/ user groups, have evolved through natural selection and
this has enabled India to be recognised as one of the eight Vavilovian centres of origin and diversity of crop plants. The
main objective of Haritha sangam was to enable these grassroot level conservationists to present their painstaking efforts

NBC 2012

Preconference workshops

in conserving biodiversity of crop plants/ medicinal plants/ traditional breeds and share their experiences, success stories
and stumbling blocks encountered.. Dr. K.P. Laladhas, Member Secretary, KSBB welcomed the gathering and
Dr. Oommen V. Oommen, Chairman, KSBB gave the introductory speech. Farmers are the greatest conservationists and
no other community has contributed so much to the cause of conservation as farmers, Dr. K.P. Laladhas commented in his
welcome address. Conservation of both our plant and animal diversity is the only means of sustaining biodiversity in the
country today Dr. Oommen V. Oommen, Chairman, KSBB said in his touching address to the farmer community.

Interactive sessions during Harithasangamam

The workshop was inaugurated by Dr.P. Pushpangadhan, Former Director NBRI. Technical session was presided by
Dr. Sudhodhanan, Deputy Director, Animal Husbandary, Palakkad. Conserving efforts should be properly incentivised;
mere advocating will not serve the purpose. Care should be taken to properly market the benefits of traditional cattle
varieties advocated Dr. Shudhodhanan.
The key resource persons who shared their experience were Chandran Master, Abrahim Mathew, Rajan Babu, Narenedran
Karunagapally, Purushottaman Kammath, Narendranath, Narayanan Unni, S.A. John, Raveendran, Cheruvayal Raman,
Avaneendranathan, M. Babu, Anilkumar M.R., Sebastian Vaidyar, Jochi (tribe) of Karimbannan tribe from Wayanad,
Shri. R. Hali, Retd. Agri. Director was the moderator. The workshop was primarily an interactive one and involved sharing
of experiences and expertise in organic eco-friendly farming and was made more lively by rendering of short poems and
anecdotes by the participants. Each blade of grass is a wealth. There are no varieties of plants that are a waste according to
Chandran master. Everything in nature is interlinked and one helps the other to grow. While scientific methods and
facilities such as seed banks are coming up conservation of the natural habitat is the best method as pointed out by
Dr. K.P. Laladhas, Member Secretary, KSBB. All the traditional agriculturist spoke unanimously against the use of
chemicals and advocated natural farming.



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BMC & NGO Meet (26. 12. 2012)

he programme was inaugurated by Dr. M.K. Muneer, Honble Minister for Panchayat and social welfare. In his

inaugural session he commended KSBB saying that the state leads in biodiversity thanks to active participation of

local bodies and that Kerala should be proud of the fact that Human development index of Kerala is next to that of Norway
and the role of conservation is imperative in maintaining this. The programme was attended by more than 200 BMC
members and various NGO associations. Dr. R.V. Varma , Former Chairman, KSBB gave keynote address on the Role of
BMC in biodiversity conservation.

Inauguration of BMC-NGO Meet by Dr.M.K. Muneer. Minister for Panchayats and Social Welfare.

Minister addressing the audience

Participants of BMC-NGO Meet.

Edappal open forum, Malapuram; Centre for health and Envt. studies ( CHEST), Kollam; Kasrgode dwarf conservation
society; Help foundation, Kollam; Save Idukki campaign; Pampa Pariraksana Samiti; Munnar Envt. and wild life society;
Friends of Nature, Calicut; Santhigram, Thiruvananthapuram; Green community, Kottayam; Rajiv Gandhi Centre,
Venganur, Thiruvananthapuram; Society for Rural Development; Kuttanad Nature society; Neythal Kasargode are some
of the major players who participated actively in a constructive discussion on the local issues faced by them in conserving
biological resources.




ational Biodiversity conference 2012, organized

Dr. Shashi Tharoor in his inaugural address called for

by the Kerala State Biodiversity Board involved

coordinated efforts to preserve the countries biodiversity

four days of scientific, policy and legal deliberations to

and reiterated the need for maintaining a healthy

make India a leader in translating the potential of

ecosystem to help ourselves. He observed that

biodiversity for sustainable national development and

Conservation of biodiversity was the best means to deal

securing livelihoods of local communities.

with problems of climate change and adaptation.

The Congress witnessed a range of presentations on

During his Key Note Address to the Congress, Dr. R

various issues of national interest in biodiversity,

Chidambaram, Principal Science Advisor to

Organic farming, behavioural ecology, Western Ghats

Government of India, confirmed the establishment of a

biodiversity, agrobiodiversity conservation, nematode

National Biodiversity Grid to facilitate and support the

biodiversity, people's participation in conservation,

work of NBA in collating, analyzing and synthesising

animal biodiversity, new advances in bioinformatics,

nation-wide biodiversity data and information for

biotechnology and others. The scientific sessions

conservation and sustainable management of

reiterated the need for conservation and sustainable

biodiversity of the country and also to assist appropriate

management of biological resources, associated

policy making. The Grid, that will be established as a part

traditional knowledge besides ensuring appropriate

of the National Knowledge Network (NKN) with

capacity building at individual and institutional levels

assistance from Centre for Development of Advanced

and raising the awareness of a range of stakeholders.

Computing (C-DAC) will provide a unique technology

Dr. Oommen.V. Oommen, Chairman, KSBB welcomed

based platform for linking biodiversity based data and

the elite gathering and the conference was inaugurated

information across the country. He proposed a

by Dr. Shashi Tharoor, Minister of State for Human

Biodiversity foresight analysis to predict critical

Resources Development, Government of India.

components of biodiversity that should be preserved.

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Dr. Shashi Tharoor, Hon'ble Minister of State for H.R.D inaugurating National Bioodiversity Conference.


Joining the Congress through a video link at the inaugural

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session Dr. Sam Pitroda, Chairman, Prime Minister's

Innovation Council announced a proposal to establish a
National Innovation Council on Biodiversity. He said the
National Innovation Council on Biodiversity will
develop decade long strategies to ensure biodiversity of
the country is sustainably managed, benefits of
biodiversity shared with communities and appropriate
national policy and strategic frameworks relevant to
biodiversity linked and mainstreamed so that investments
on biodiversity become multi-pronged and multisectoral. Pitroda said that country needed to create
more wealth by innovations in food processing and
medicines. Conservation history of India is being
rewritten by cumulative conservation efforts in all areas

Presidential address by Dr. Balakrishna Pisupati, Chairman,

National Biodiversity Authority

and we hope to bring about a situation wherein

Stockholm conventions, which perhaps for the first time

development and conservation go together than against

gave a political force to conservation efforts. India as the

each other.

President of COP to the convention on biodiversity could

take the initiative by reaching out to other countries and
regions to exchange expertise and offer aid in conservation.
This was followed by the release of the book of abstracts
published by KSBB, by Dr.R. Chidambaram.
Dr. B. Venugopal, Director, National Museum of Natural
History New Delhi, Dr. K.S. Krishnan, National Centre for
Biological Sciences, Bangalore; Dr. C.V. Jayamani,
Professor, School of Management Studies; CUSAT, Kochi;
Dr. Anil Kumar, Director, M.S. Swaminathan Research
Foundation, Wayanad; Dr. Renee M. Borges, Professor &
Chairperson, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian

Dr. Sam Pitroda, Chairman, Prime Ministers Innovation

Council addressing the gathering through a video

Institute of Science, Bangalore; Dr. Sreejith Aravindakshan

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK;
Dr. K. Rajmohan, Head of Dept. of Plant Biotechnology,

Dr. Balakrishna Pisupati, Chairman, NBA in his

College of Agriculture, Thrissur; Dr. E.V. Ramaswamy,

presidential address said, India becomes, perhaps, the

Director, School of Environmental Sciences, M.G.

first country in the World to have established such an

University, Kottayam; Dr. C. Mohankumar, Director,

innovation council for biodiversity that will be supported

SCMS Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology Research

by the best intellectuals and talent in the country. This

and Development, Cochin; Dr. C.R. Elsy, Professor & Head,

Council will add a significant feather in the cap of India's

Dept. of Plant Breeding and Genetics & Co-ordinator,

Presidency for the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Intellectual Property Rights Cell, Kerala Agricultural

This Council, I hope, will bring a sea-change in the way

University, Thrissur; Dr. M. A. Akbarsha, Director, MGDC,

we deal with biodiversity and ecosystems in the

Tiruchirappalli, Prof. V.C. Malarmannan, Global green

country. He said that conference assumed more

growth, Dr. Rajasekharan, Former Addl. Director,


significance as it falls on the 40 anniversary of the


JNTBGRI, Thiruvananthapuram delivered invited lectures.



Dr. P.R Sudhakaran,


Director of Biotechnology Bangalore; Dr. M.M. Aruldhas, , Madras University;

MSSR; Dr. S. Edison, Former Director, CTCRI; Dr. A.K. N., KSBB; Dr. Vidya Ramasamy, Chairperson, INCITE
Sherief, College of Agriculture, Vellayani; Dr. P.G. Latha, chaired the various sessions. A special session of Hortus
Ditrector, JNTBGRI; Dr. E.V. Ramasamy, Director, School malabaricus drove attention to this important treatise on
of Environmental sciences, M G University; Dr. Sreejith medicinal properties of flora of Kerala. Oral and poster
Aravindakshan, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of presentations were made during the Congress by
Copenhagen; Dr. S. Rajasekharan, JNTBGRI; Dr. K.S. scientists and research scholars from various parts of the
Krishnan, National Centre for Biological Sciences,

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commission, KSCSTE; Dr. N. AnilKumar, Director, Ranjan Mathew Varghese, Director, WWF; Dr. Preetha

country on the following main themes

Releasing of the Book of Abstract of National Biodiversity Conference, by Dr. R. Chidambaram, Principal
Scientific Advisor to Govt. of India

Focal Theme
Biodiversity for food security

Food security: Through organic farming:
Role of science and technology in access and benefit sharing of bio resources in India
People's participation in biodiversity conservation,
sustainable utilization and management of
traditional knowledge

Traditional and indigenous seeds and breeds for future

Marine ecosystem and influence of climate change on biodiversity
Special session:
Western Ghats heritage status- Challenges and opportunities



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NBC- Parallel Sessions

he Conference also bought together twenty state

biodiversity boards (SBBs) across the country to

discuss issues of implementation of the Biological

Diversity Act and Rules with specific focus on
preparation of Peoples' Biodiversity Registers (PBRs)
and strengthening the Biodiversity Management
Committees (BMCs). The sessions included
Presentations and experience sharing by various
Biodiversity boards as Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh.
The discussions during the sessions of SBBs elaborated
the state level opportunities and challenges to preparing
the PBRs. Complementing the pro-active approaches

Our elite audience

used by the Kerala State Biodiversity Board, the SBBs

committed to completing the PBRs in timely manner to
ensure biodiversity related information and knowledge
are appropriately registered and future benefits shared
with respective communities. Dr. Balakrishna Pisupati,
Chairman, NBA said that the progressive support being
provided by the Government of Kerala to the SBB is
commendable and stands as a National model. He

Dr. Balakrishna Pisupati, Chairman, NBA commented that

the proposed National Innovation council on biodiversity
could help maximise the use of biodiversity related
information at community level and provide economic
incentives for conservation efforts. NBA will work closely
with National Innovation council for creation of NIC. NIC

specifically thanked the Chief Minister of Kerala, Shri.

will look at ways to minimise the conflict between

Oommen Chandy, for his unstinted support to the State

conservation and economic development. The council would

Biodiversity Board and the support being provided by

also come up with models for enterprise development in

the Department of Local Self Governance to the BMCs in

energy efficiency technologies. The National Biodiversity

effectively implementing the Biological Diversity Act.

grid a technology platform that will ensure free and open

Kerala State Biodiversity Board intends to translate the

access to data on biodiversity and ecosystems will become

wisdom and thoughts it has gained in the last few years

operational in a few months. A prototype of the grid

into action a plan from lab to field. We intend to

developed by CDAC is undergoing tests. The NBG project

demonstrate a few action plans like restoration of

was mooted in the draft National Biodiversity Information

biodiversity of abandoned quarries, restoration of urban

outlook released during CoP11 as a joint effort by MoEF and

pond system, restoration of River Pamba and

conservation of the lost seeds and breeds of State
promised Dr. Oommen V. Oommen, Chairman, Kerala
State Biodiversity Board. We are happy to showcase the
Kerala model of biodiversity conservation. The Decentralized, LSG Government and Biodiversity
Management Committees initiated biodiversity

NBA to address the conservation challenges in India and

contribute to economic growth ecological sustainability and
social well being. Efforts are on to involve agencies such as
Indian space research organisation and Indian Institute of
Remote Sensing. Biodiversity related information is
available in India in various forms such as databases, remote

conservation said Dr.K.P. Laladhas, Member Secretary,

sensing, GIS Maps, specimens, herbaria more than 100

Kerala State Biodiversity Board.

databases and networks are available. CDAC is developing a

platform that can facilitate the linking and ensuring access to
information in one particular mode. PBR would also be
integrated in the grid for controlled access to information.
The data can be accessed through a simple registration
process. The sessions included presentations on the
following main focus areas



Garuda: The Pan Indian e-Infrastructure for collaboration and innovation by

Dr. Subrata Chattopadhyay, CDAC , Bangalore

Chair Professor Center for Earth & Space Sciences, Hyderabad Central University
Peoples Biodiversity Registers (PBRs) by Ravishankar Thupalli, Project Manager,
UNDP, National Biodiversity Authority, Chennai
Report & Guidelines for Biodiversity Management Committee (BMC), National Biodiversity
Authority, Chennai

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Biodiversity Information and Data Management Future Road Map by Dr. P.S. Roy, Geospatial

Managing Biodiversity: Information, data and policy by Dr. Balakrishna Pisupati ,

National Biodiversity Authority
Green Economics Its Impact on Environment and Biodiversity to Implement the Biological
Diversity Act by Prof. C.V. Jayamani , School of Management Studies, CUSAT, Kochi
Constituting and Strengthening of BMC- The Kerala experience by
Dr. Oommen V. Oommen, Chairman, KSBB
Economic valuation for Financing biodiversity by
Prakash Nelliyat, National Biodiversity Authority, Chennai

Closing ceremony
Dr. Oommen V. Oommen proposed the vote of thanks. In his concluding speech, Dr. Balakrishna Pisupati,
Chairman, NBA mentioned the decision taken by the Authority to organize such sessions on a yearly basis
and that it will be expanded gradually to include special interactive sessions with private sector and others.
He stressed on the need for conserving biodiversity and gave an inspiring speech intermingled with
folklores for the benefit of the young generation. Awards were given away to the best stalls and the winners
in the Children's ecological congress. The programme concluded with a touching speech by Dr. Vidya
Ramasamy and a short prayer in memory of the girl who lost her life under tragic circumstances. This was
followed by a press conference highlighting the suggestions and recommendations evolved during the
three days of active discussions.



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Childrens Ecological Congress (29-30, Dec 2012)

he loss of biological diversity is taking place at an unprecedented level and will be an irreplaceable loss to the

youth and children whose lives will be directly affected by environmental problems. The congress is conceived

keeping this in view and is oriented towards the leaders of tomorrow who should function as catalysts for change to a
sustainable mode of development. The congress was intended to promote the importance of biodiversity in our lives and
encourages children and youth to be active crusaders in the struggle to protect the world they have inherited.

A solemn moment - Inauguration of 5th Childrens Ecological Congress by Prof. Nedumudi Harikumar,
Director, Kerala State Balasahitya Institute

The fifth children's ecological congress was held as a part of National Biodiversity congress from 29- 30 December
2012. Member secretary of KSBB, Dr. K.P. Laladhas welcomed the budding conservationists and the programme was
inaugurated by Director of Kerala State Balasahitya Institute, Prof. Nedumudi HariKumar, Mr. Nedumudi Harikumar
while inaugurating the congress told that The earth is for the future generation. Children should question the ill

treatment to the environment . Dr. Oommen V. Oommen, Chairman, KSBB presided over the function. More than 30
schools represented by 170 students from various parts of the state participated in the event. Dr. R.V. Varma, Former
chairman, KSBB and Dr. K. Mohanakurup, Board member proposed the felicitation. Dr. Annie Mathai, Programme
coordinator proposed the vote of thanks. The inaugural session was followed by various programmes to create an
awareness to the varied agrodiversity specific to Kerala and to provide an opportunity for the children to bring the
colours of nature and the essence of life onto canvas.

An interactive session of CEC


A glimpse of CEC audience

A view of childrens drawing competition



Project presentation: Project presentations were conducted in three categories with the following main themes- House
hold medicinal plants (Upper primary), Biodiversity of my village (High school) and Local rice varieties and their
traditional knowledge (Higher secondary).
Co-ordinators: Dr. George Thomas, Asst. professor, University College, Thriuvananthapurma, Dr. Bijukumar, Asst.
Professor, Department of Zoology, N S S College, Dr. Sreekala K. S., Asst. Professor, College of Agriculture, Vellayani.
The other competitions included Painting competition, Poster making, Cartoon drawing and our eminent judges

NBC 2012

Childrens Ecological Congress

included Shri. Kattoor Narayana Pillai, Vice Chairman, Kerala Lalithakala Academy; Shri K.C. Chithrabhanu,
Director, Raja Ravi Varma Centre for Visual Arts; Shri. Sujith, Cartoonist, Kerala Kaumudi, Thiruvananthapuram.
Elocution competition on the Themes Biodiversity, What? For why?, Waste management, My green Kerala were
conducted under the expertise of Dr. Radhika C Nair, Kerala State Institute of Children's Literature, Sanskrit college ,
Dr. Ajayan, Associate Professor, Govt women's college, Dr. Dominic. J K, Associate Professor, University College,
Thiruvananthapuram. A quiz programme was conducted by Shri SivaKumar, Education officer, WWF. The quiz
programme of UP and HSS was conducted by Dr. Suni G Benjamin, Assoc. Professor, All Saints college and Prof
Mohana Kumar, Dept of Zoology, Govt Women's college. A review chart was distributed to the participants to express
their opinion about the programme, they were given the opportunity to express their opinions and clarifications were
given by the co coordinator. The overall trophy was presented to C.K.N.S GUSS, Pilicode, Kasargode. A trophy with a
certificate of merit was given to the winners of the various competitions in the closing session.

NBA Chairman Dr. Balakrishna Pisupati along with Dr. Oommen V, Ommen, Chairman and Dr. Laladhas, Member
Secretary, KSBB presenting the overall trophy to the jubilant winner of 5th CEC.




NBC 2012

Suggestions And Recommendations

Suggestions and Recommendations

Development of a National Biodiversity Grid

Establishment of a National Biodiversity Grid to facilitate and support the work of NBA in collating, analyzing and
synthesising Nation-wide Biodiversity data and information for conservation and sustainable management of
biodiversity of the country and also to assist appropriate policy making is one of the major outcomes announced during
NBC 2012. National grid computing initiative will bring together academic, scientific and research communities for
developing their data and compute intensive applications. NBG would ensure free and open access to data on
biodiversity and ecosystems. It will address the conservation challenges in India and contribute to economic growth and
ecological sustainability and social well being. The Grid will be used to assist NBA in creating a National Biodiversity
Information Facility. Biodiversity related information is available in various databases and there are more than 100
databases in the country, but none of them are connected. The Grid will enable facilitating a link between them and
ensure access to information in one particular mode. PBR will be also be integrated in the grid for controlled access to
information, and appropriate guidelines will be worked out.

Establishment of a National Innovation Council on Biodiversity

Another pathbreaking recommendation of NBC 2012 is the setting up of a National Innovation Council on Biodiversity
which will help to develop decade long strategies to ensure biodiversity of the country is sustainably managed, benefits
of biodiversity shared with communities and appropriate national policy and strategic frameworks relevant to
biodiversity - linked and mainstreamed so that investments on biodiversity will become multi-sectoral. The innovation
council for biodiversity will be supported by the best intellectuals and talent in the country. The council would also be
responsible for developing a national policy and strategic expertise on biodiversity. Business investments in
biodiversity and ecosystem goods and services are minimal in India, and hence there is a need to create a platform of
innovation and promote partnership and collaboration so that Ecosystem services can contribute to biodiversity
conservation and economic growth and the Innovation council will facilitate this.

Development of a National Biodiversity Data and Information Policy

Biodiversity Information and Knowledge, is available but they are highly scattered and there is huge duplication of
work and the information rarely gets translated into practical knowledge. India has several institutions focusing on
generating, compiling and using the data but the data are not readily available for analysis, or policy making. Many
institutions have information documented in the form of databases which are in heterogeneous formats and exist
independently. There is no framework to link the scattered data so as to facilitate exchange of data among different
databases. There is no meta-data and the gap between data managers and data producers is widening. Hence NBA is
considering a National Biodiversity Data and Information Policy to address these problems.

Biodiversity Information and Data Management- Future Road Map

This will serve to provide a single window for the Biodiversity information of the country. The creation of such a road
map will facilitate the Creation of Interoperable environment with national standard; Encourage independent growth of
data sets; Encourage co-evolution and complementation among datasets; Add value to independent datasets through
synergy; and enable the Conventions of data to knowledge which can be put to use for the benefit of community.



Some of the key elements for Biodiversity information and data management suggested are listed. The information

information on Traditional Knowledge (ITK); Biological details, cultivation; Processing and prospecting; Endangered
species conservation; Landscape and Ecosystem level characteristics and key environmental data, Development of
Landscape Level Information is identified as critical as it will help in Developing & implementing conservation
strategies; Identification of areas under regulatory regimes; Habitats under constant process of change: and major
drivers of biodiversity loss, as forest fire, illegal logging, invasive species, human-induced degradation (mining, over
exploitation, grazing and deforestation etc.) & most importantly climate change (precipitation, temperature and soil

NBC 2012

system should include: Bio-resource data, Specimen data, Species inventory data with distribution; Economic value and

moisture). Monitoring of Management impacts and establishment of National Programme for Decadal Monitoring;
Setting up Long Term Ecological Research sites (LTER sites) along altitude gradients, climate gradients & disturbance
gradients for up scaling to Landscape level & Species Niche Modeling are some of the other proposals put forth.

Need for Bio resources valuation and financing biodiversity

Financing biodiversity is vital for its conservation and management and mobilizing adequate finance is acknowledged as a
huge challenge during the ensuing discussions. Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) is an emerging internal financial option.
Most of the biodiversity values are implicit rather than explicit. In Natural Resources case Supply, demand, price
mechanism and market may vary. Property rights of biodiversity are not clearly defined and Over-extraction of bioresources may lead to unsustainable levels of extraction. In ABS perspective, measuring the value of bioresources/products used for manufacturing different production process, is urgently needed. The existing price for bioresources at forest gate or any other collection point is not the true value. Proper valuation of ecosystem services is
necessary. Overlapping the circles of services creates conflicts in resource use. Valuation is an important policy tool for
fixing the benefit sharing criteria and signing ABS agreements and will function as an internal financial source and
incentive mechanism for preserving biodiversity. NBA is in the process of working out models for bio-resources valuation.

Development of market for ecosystem services

Markets for products and services derived from biodiversity are growing, which offer opportunities for generating
alternative sources of income and for production based on sustainable use of biodiversity. While there is high potential
for creating a (niche) market for biodiversity products, it is an untapped area of opportunity. Markets have the potential
to stimulate conservation and cultivation of little known crops/ orphan species.

Necessity of a shift towards Green economy

In order to maintain environmental quality and ecological balance, the environmental policies and programmes should
be linked to economic growth and social needs. The rural ecosystem is the right starting point of green economics. There
is a need to know the impacts of human actions on environment and the measures to minimize and mitigate them. The
engineers and executives in the top should be groomed to design plan and implement programmes with an
environmental responsibility. Their actions should address the environmental issues along with the economic viability
and technical feasibility.

Mainstreaming biodiversity into developmental polices

National innovation council can help to mainstream biodiversity and bring it into developmental
priorities. Local communities should be brought into the mainstream of conservation. The council could
provide a platform for scientists, academicians, industry and local communities to work together. It is
important for the health and livelihood of local communities to ensure that diversity is maintained. All
ministries need to have conservation as a mainstream agenda and this has been identified as the vital
strategy for mainstreaming biodiversity into developmental polices


NBC 2012

Strategies for Strengthening of BMC chalked out

Mainstreaming of BD issues-linking PBR to planning process of Local bodies is an important
prerequisite to strengthening the institutional capacity of BMC and for good local governance. Each
BMC shall prepare an Action Plan, drawing information validated in the People's Biodiversity Register
with the guidance of TSG. Promotion of good governance at local level through BMC for a) Sustainable
use of bioresources b) Community - based conservation Initiatives, c) Starting at the local level, learning
from experience and then scaling-up is significant. Strengthening of BMC can be done by linking
biodiversity conservation with locally relevant project utilizing biodiversity funds. Micro plan for the
sustainable utilisation of local biodiversity including medicinal plants and associated TK are to be
developed. The issues related to collection fee, benefit sharing and management of heritage sites, sacred
groves, water bodies etc.,to be done in consultation with the technical support of the SBB. Development
of a community level micro plan and district level macro plan of conservation management is necessary.
Panchayat may prepare a community level micro plan of conservation management for the area linking
conservation and sustainable resource use so as to provide an incentive for local user groups to conserve
biodiversity sustainably. BMC/ LSG's to be entrusted with the task of ensuring public participation from
different user groups at all levels of planning, implementation and monitoring phase of the project.
Community-led conservation at panchayat level should be integrated to develop a master plan for district
by linking together the respective BMC's. Development of a district wise management and
implementation strategy incorporating issues, solutions, activities, resources, responsibilities and time
frame to implement conservation programmes is necessary at a larger perspective.
Issues in preparation of People Biodiversity Register
A need for focussing the PBR preparation on documentation of biodiversity and associated knowledge, geographical
coverage, dealing with ways to accrue benefits to the community with an emphasis on sustainable management of
resources, quantification of the resources, and serving as an impact assessment tool for developmental activities have
been acknowledged as the need of the day during the various sessions. Awareness on Biological Diversity Act and the
rights & obligations by the local communities, Role of local bodies/Panchayats/BMCs in managing PBRs and the
process of preparation and validation of PBRs are to be provided.
a. Constitution of TSG to facilitate the PBR

preparation should be undertaken taking into consideration the

availability of Resource Persons to form TSG. Networking of resource persons is also of profound importance.
The SBB shall formulate District level technical support groups comprising of officials/ institutions /people of
excellence and expertise in the biodiversity issues at local level, which should guide the BMC in its operation.
The People's Biodiversity Registers shall be maintained, authenticated and validated by the Biodiversity
Management Committees with the assistance/guidance of the local Technical Support Committee,
b. Capacity building at the levels of policy, execution, supervision and implementation of PBR process is
necessary. This should include Technical Support for documentation, training on data entry and PBR form,
development of manuals and modules, development of database and networking, uploading data, drafting PBR,
Specific Training Programmes towards skill development at state, district and village levels and orientation
programme for BMCs.
c. Proper linkages to be given for Income Generating Groups which will facilitate ABS mechanism. It should
attempt linkages through appropriate mechanism such as management plans of BMCs, local user group and
should work in tune with the available legal and policy mechanisms such as plant variety protection and
farmers' rights and geographical indications. It should be linked to development agenda of the panchayat and
focus on immediate benefits that can be shared with community.



Issues of IPR, TK and Development & ABS in PBR

acknowledgement of use and sustainable harvesting practices. Relevant formats for bioresources and TK to be
incorporated in PBR.
Verify with BMC the information they would like to share for PBR and inform local communities the threats envisaged
with the documentation and possible protection mechanism. Make free prior informed consent of local communities
mandatory for PBR access
Appoint a technical group to scrutinize the confidential components in PBR document and evolve guidelines to protect

NBC 2012

PBR should address concerns regarding: protection of TK and resource use as well as management, ensure proper

knowledge & information locally, nationally and internationally. Questions of ownership of biodiversity and related
legal entitlements for determining access to its components and determines benefit sharing terms are to be worked out.
Explore copy right and sui generis related issues to protect IPR over crop germplasm and Incorporate TK of user groups,
traditional healers into PBR and develop appropriate knowledge exchange programmes. Include Bio-cultural protocol
needs as an integral part of PBR documentation.

Protection of PBR data and information

BMC shall ensure the protection of the knowledge recorded in the People's Biodiversity Register principally in the
matters of regulation of access to agencies and individuals outside the village limits. Access to registers need to be
recorded in writing and maintained in consultation with SBB/ Technical Support group and Locking away' data and
information should be avoided . Efforts to be made by NBA and SBBs in identifying suitable ways and means to
maintain the confidentiality of information and data contained in a PBR. Providing parts of information of a PBR on-line
that has limited opportunities to be misappropriated should be explored. Such protection can be through encryption,
controlled access, non-provision of information/date on-line and the others.

Networking efforts
A peer-to-peer learning and experience sharing network relevant to PBR process should be established among the SBBs
themselves with co ordination by NBA to facilitate functioning of this network. Capacities of SBBs and BMCs should
be augmented based on consideration of good practice and models.

Need for CEPA (Communication, Education and Public Awareness)

An important milestone in the Biodiversity movement of the Country is the inscription of Western Ghats as a World
Heritage Site (Natural Heritage). However, the recommendations of the Gadgil Committee on Western Ghats have been
objected to by a majority of elected representatives. In this scenario, there is an urgent need to have CEPA
(Communication, Education and Public Awareness) on Biodiversity as envisaged in Target 1 of the CBD Strategic Plan
for Biodiversity 2011-2020 which calls for people to be aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to
conserve and use it sustainably. This is also reflected in India's National Biodiversity Action Plan (2008) that includes
the need to increase public education, awareness and participation in decision making, management and sustainable
use of biological resources. In order to follow up the gains of the CoP11 and linked to the National Biodiversity
Museum, it is proposed to have a national level Museum on Western Ghats Biodiversity Heritage (MWGBDH) to be
located in Kerala in which the Kerala State Biodiversity Board may take a lead. The museums would include in their
education and exhibition programmes contents that enables visitors to improve their awareness of biodiversity and will
sensitize local people about biodiversity and the need for conserving.

Strengthening and supporting community agro-biodiversity management efforts

The community management efforts of Genetic resources encompassing wild and domesticated diversity need to be
seen as a continuum spread across the dimensions of conservation, cultivation, consumption, and commerce.
Continuous involvement of local men and women across the continuum is of utmost importance for ensuring



NBC 2012

sustainability of efforts. Strengthening and supporting such community agro-biodiversity management efforts across
India is essential. To achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets 12, 13, 14 and 15, crops and other major socio-economically
valuable plant species such as medicinal plants and wild food plants are to be conserved and managed in-situ and on farm
methods and combined efforts taken in the management of community-conserved agricultural landscapes and
Revival of traditional land use practices
Farmers have, depended on their own seeds for raising a new crop and they relied on traditional knowledge for control of
pests and to improve the soil health for generations. Traditional land use practices have been proved to be ecologically
sustainable and should be promoted is one of the salient recommendations of NBC 2012.
Food Security & Nutritional security enhancement
Revitalization efforts regarding the dietary and food biodiversity including the use of neglected species, underutilized
crops and traditional varieties and breeds are important for food security. In the traditional food consumption pattern, the
intake of micro-nutrients is often ensured because of the use of a wide range of plants and animals obtained from the local
environment. The potential for hill area agriculture to go for eco-agriculture was explored since such regions are
conducive to maintaining the ecosystem services provided by agricultural landscapes without reducing productivity.
These practices increase habitat value by restoring wild vegetation, while at the same time contributing for carbon
Institutional Mechanisms To Address Pesticides Safety In India
From the chemical input-intensive yield-enhancement practices of the Green Revolution era, agricultural research is
being shifted to establishing the notion of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) in fruits and vegetable sector, due to global
consumer demand for safe food. The dominant problems affecting fruits and vegetables in terms of safety have been
identified as pesticide residues. Food quality and safety decline resulting from inappropriate chemicals and pesticide
use during crop production is pinpointed as one of the root causes of the health issues. A proper institutional mechanism
is needed for improving environmental and economic performance of vegetable production in India.
Ensuring pesticide safety for high value chains
The pesticide

translocation effects nearby plots, water resources or soil and drive pests to fields of other

farmers, or cause the pests to develop localized resistance to pesticides. Similarly, if farmers use pesticides that
destroy target pests but also their natural enemies, then neighbouring farmers who introduce or encourage the
presence of predators may find the predator populations below viable size. Thus translocation effect of
pesticides from non-organic farms could damage the positive effects by organic farming and secondarily, there
is the issue of non-uniformity in package of practices between organic farms leading to invariability in
management across farms and the following key safety measures are proposed.
Characterisation of public and private pesticides safety requirements of vegetables in national and international

high value chains.

Assessing the economic impact of pesticides safety standards of vegetables on small holders in India.

the impact of Indian vegetable producing small holders' collective action on institutional and

economic performance linked to pesticides safety.


the pesticides safety performance among organic/GAP certified and noncertified vegetable

growers of India are some of the measures suggested.



Generation of awareness of ABS at all levels

The 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity aimed at ensuring that nations must be compensated fair share from their
Bio-resources and traditional knowledge in response to their efforts in safeguarding and allowing access to these
resources. There is a need to generate awareness of ABS at all levels so as to develop and execute effective ABS regimes
in the state. This will strengthen the implementation of Biological Diversity Act and Rules framed for the purpose and

NBC 2012

Traditional Knowledge and ABS mechanism

evolve practices which will help in sustainable management of bio-resources.

Prior informed consent for documentation of Traditional Knowledge
TK is a community based functional knowledge system developed, preserved and refined by generations of people
through continuous interactions, observations and experimentation with the surrounding environment. It is a dynamic
system ever changing, adapting and adjusting to the local and religious practices of communities. The Nagoya Protocol
addresses TK associated with genetic resources with provisions on access, benefit sharing and compliance. NBC 2012
stressed the need of capacity building programme to support key aspects of implementation with a view to develop ABS
legislation, awareness raising, technology transfer and targeted financial support. The need for systematic
documentation of TK using prior informed consent, legal protection of TK, scientific validation, database inventory
(defensive protection), exclusive rights of the beneficiaries, complementary protective measures and protection by
signing contractual agreement with knowledge holders/providers and future strategies and action plan to be
implemented through the people's management of biodiversity are imperative for Proper implementation of Access and
Benefit sharing mechanism
Protection Of Traditional Varieties And Traditional Knowledge
Traditional varieties and the related indigenous knowledge nurtured by farmers are the key components of agrobiodiversity. India has implemented legal mechanisms to protect the rights of the farmers over traditional crop varieties,
biological diversity and traditional goods. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights (PPV & FR) Act, 2001
ensures Breeders' Rights, Farmers' Rights and Researchers' Rights over crop varieties. Farmers and farming
communities can protect and register traditional varieties evolved and cultivated by them in like manner as a breeder of a
variety. They can also register new varieties developed by them. There is a need to generate awareness of IPR acts at all
levels so as to effectively implement ABS regimes. This will strengthen implementation of Biological diversity act and
evolve practises for sustainable management of bio resources. The implementation of these two complementary acts
would provide the farmers a right to get adequate compensation from those who develop new varieties using the
traditional ones.
Call for conservation of native breeds of cattle of Kerala
The indigenous cattle breed of Kerala, Vechur has gained wide public attention since the breed is facing the line of
extinction as per the list of FAO. Massive cross breeding programme introduced by the government agencies as per the
livestock act have suppressed the survival of the native breeds especially vechur cow irrespective of its good qualities
for domestication. The extreme small size, less fodder intake, easy domestication, maximum milk production compared
with the body mass and high disease resistance are the beneficial features of vechur cows. The conservation of the
vechur breed as an indigenous wealth of Kerala and the utilitisation of a potential gene of vechur cow milk for exploiting
its therapeutic properties in biotech industry is recommended.




NBC 2012

Call for a ban on using animals covered under the Wild Life (Protection) Act for dissections and incorporation of
change in nomenclature in Wild Life (Protection) Act
Amphibians, which survived all the four mass extinctions since their origin have been projected to be facing extinction
at the global scale, due to man-made causes. Many species of amphibians have been declared in the Wildlife
(Protection) Act 1972 as protected, and included in the different Schedules reflecting different levels of threat. Frogs
belonging to the genus Rana are included in Schedule IV, which means that these frogs shall not be removed from the
natural habitats without permission from Competent Authorities. But, use of frogs as tools to understand basic concepts
in Biology and Pharmacology has been going unabated, in spite of the warnings from MoEF and UGC. There is an
urgent need to sensitize these teachers against this practice and thus help conservation of the frog species, by
approaching the issue from curricular, pedagogical, ecological, legal and ethical perspectives, and encourage use of
digital / simulation alternatives for the understanding of the respective academics. UGC, in the recent Guidelines to
phase out animal dissections from Zoology / Life Science curriculum, has put a blanket ban on using animals covered
under the Wild Life (Protection) Act for dissections and experiments by the intervention of MGDC in Bharatidasan
University, Thiruchirapally as it has developed technology for this. Thus, frogs under the genus Rana, already
threatened and included in the IUCN Red List, can not at all be used in dissections and experiments unless with
permission from Competent Authorities When freshwater frogs were brought under the purview of


(Protection) Act, many species have been removed from fam: Ranidae and so their names are different now- for
example Rana hexadactyla , the green frog- the staple recipe and the most preferred model animal for dissections and
experiments, is now Euphlyctis hexadactylu; It is important that these changes in the nomenclature and taxonomic
status of these important frog species are adopted in the Wildlife (Protection) Act and the Guidelines / circulars that are
brought up from time to time.
Development of Light pollution policies
There is an urgent need for light pollution policies that go beyond energy efficiency to include human well being and the
structure and functions of ecosystems. Knowledge is needed on suitable sustainable lighting technologies which are
ecologically, economically and socially sustainable.
Coastal eco development committees
Beach erosion caused by sand mining and coastal afforestation has been identified as major threats to marine turtle
nesting sites in Kerala. It is recommended that building awareness on marine turtle conservation, enforcing regulations
against illegal sale and consumption of turtle meat and eggs, initiate coastal eco development committees, shoreline
protection using geo textiles, curbing pollution, better vigilance for beach sand mining and illegal trawling is needed to
conserve marine biodiversity. KSBB is also planning to declare the turtle nesting ground at Padanakadu as a community
reserve and fund the turtle conservation programme. Further KSBB intends to produce a PBR for some of the Kerala
Coast, the first of its kind in marine biodiversity inventory.